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Assessing the Early Post-Operative Analgesic Effects of Intra-Operative Lidocaine-Bupivacaine Use at the Incision Line and/or Around the Ovary in Ovariohysterectomy Operations of Dogs on Pain Mediators

Assessing the Early Post-Operative Analgesic Effects of Intra-Operative Lidocaine-Bupivacaine Use at the Incision Line and/or Around the Ovary in Ovariohysterectomy Operations of Dogs on Pain Mediators

Gökhan Ulukan1*, Zeynep Pekcan2, Zülfükar Kadir Sarıtas3, Ilker Etikan4, Serkan Sayıner5, Feride Zabitler6 and Fatma Eser Özgencil1

1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Near East University, Nicosia, Turkish Republic of North Cyprus
2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kırıkkale University, Kırıkkale, Turkey
3Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyon, Turkey
4Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Near East University, Nicosia, Turkish Republic of North Cyprus
5Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Near East University, Nicosia, Turkish Republic of North Cyprus
6Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Near East University, Nicosia, Turkish Republic of North Cyprus
 
*      Corresponding author: gokhan.ulukan@neu.edu.tr

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effectiveness of intra-operative bupivacaine–lidocaine (BLK) combination administration concurrently with meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale Short Form (GCPS-SF) scores and pain mediators in the early post-operative ovariohysterectomy (OHE) period in 30 female dogs of different breeds and ages divided into three equal groups. OHE is reportedly associated with moderate pain. BLK was administered inside the ovarian bursa 10 min before ovary removal in Groups (G) 1 and G2 and linear to the incision line 10 min before entering the abdomen in G1. G3 was the control group. The intergroup comparison of pain mediators and GCPS-SF scores showed no significant difference between the GCPS-SF scores at postop0, postop2, postop4, postop8 and postop24 h and the cortisol, TNF-α, IL1-β and NO levels determined at the same timepoints. TNF-α at postop24 h showed a significant positive correlation with the postop0 h GCPS-SF score. NO at postop8 h showed a significant negative correlation with the postop4 h GCPS-SF score. However, since these results were not simultaneous, they were disregarded. Although there was no statistically significant difference in post-operative pain and stress among the three groups, surgical stress was higher in G3, as indicated by high post-operative cortisol levels, which suggested the other two protocols involving BLK to be remarkable. Hence, using G1 and G2 protocols appeared feasible considering the post-operative cortisol stress hormone values. Nevertheless, further studies with larger samples are warranted to confirm these inferences.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

August

Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 4, pp. 1501-2000

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