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Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals, Even in Low Quantities, is the Main Causative Agent of Male Human Infertility in D. I. Khan Division

Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals, Even in Low Quantities, is the Main Causative Agent of Male Human Infertility in D. I. Khan Division

Aamer Abbas1, Jabbar Khan1*, Mir Abid Hassan2, Asif Qayyum3 and Hamed Shafiq4

1Department of Biological Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
2Kidney Centre Hayatabad, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
3Department of Electronics, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan
4Cream Lab, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

*      Corresponding author:


Metals can adversely affect the size of testis, the normal process of spermatogenesis and quality of semen. Moreover, metals can lead to decreased or no production of prostaglandin, seminal fluid and endocrinology of reproductive process and thus results in male infertility. It was also here attempted to characterize the drastic effects of heavy metals on male infertility, the hormone analysis and genetic determination of SRY gene as some of infertile human had smaller sized testis. Blood and semen samples were collected from clinically diagnosed 130 oligozoospermic males throughout D. I. Khan. The patients included had been married for 3 to 19 years, their wives had normal reproductive capabilities; the couples were living together for more than 3 years but fertilization had not occurred. Separation of sperm samples from semen plasma, sperm counting and DNA extraction for assessment of clinical and molecular attributes was done using standard protocols. Healthy women were used as negative controls. This study revealed significant concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu. Except Zn and Pb, the other 3 metals were found below the permissible limit set by WHO. Interestingly, the infertile males having maximum age limit of above 47 years and highest marriage ages during the present study showed comparatively higher concentrations of all the heavy metals. Zinc was found with highest means values while cadmium was recorded with lowest concentrations. On comparing severe oligozoospermia with mild/moderate oligozoospermic patients with respect to semen analysis, it was observed that head, mid-piece and tail defects were comparatively much higher in severe oligozoospermic individuals than mild/moderate individuals. Similarly, the movement of sperms, either lateral or forward movement was observed much lesser in severe forms of oligozoospermia than mild/moderate oligozoospermia. The same observed for the total number of sperms as the sperm counts were comparatively much smaller in severe oligozoospermic than mild/moderate oligozoospermic individuals. No mutation/deletion was found, neither in oligozoospermic individuals nor in normal males in SRY gene, located on Y chromosome. Hence, the presence of heavy metals, even in small quantities in the bodies of oligozoospermia males can be one of the main causative agents of male infertility.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 3, pp. 1001-1500


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