OUTDOOR BREEDING OF MOSQUITO SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
Gul Zamin Khan*, Imtiaz Ali Khan**, Inamullah Khan* and Mian Inayatullah**
Entomological surveillance study was conducted in four selected sites; Peshawar, Nowshera, Mardan and Charsadda of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 2012-13 for development of ultimate control strategies of mosquito breeding in outdoor habitats. Larvae were collected from various mosquito breeding habitats such as irrigation channels, irrigation water leakages, pots, vase, tyres, temporary containers stagnant flood waters, etc. Ovitraps were used as monitoring tools in urban areas of the selected sites. Results showed that mosquitoes are active throughout the year with their most active season during May, September and October. The mean relative abundance of Culex species in different districts were: Peshawar (32.3), Nowshera (18.8), Mardan (20.3) and Charsadda (21.0). Higher numbers of Aedes mosquitoes were observed in Nowshera (19.3), Peshawar (16.4), Charsadda (13.1), and Mardan (9.8), respectively. Mean monthly positive ovitraps of species was high in May and October collected from Peshawar (32.5, 31.5), Nowshera (25.3, 26.8), Mardan (22.2, 16.8) and Charsadda (27, 26.9), respectively. The overall abundance of Culex species was high as compared with Aedes and Anopheles species collected from various outdoor breeding habitats. The Culex species was abundant in turbid water with foul smell while the Aedes and Anopheles were higher in comparatively fresh and clear water with low turbidity. The study recommends consideration on removal of artificial containers, monitoring of irrigation water and channels and ultimate control of breeding of dengue vectors in the target sites.