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Prevalence of Nematode Infection Among School Children of District Malakand, Pakistan

Prevalence of Nematode Infection Among School Children of District Malakand, Pakistan

Yousef Abdal Jalil Fadladdin1, Ateeq Ullah2*, Raheela Nawaz3, Yagoob Garedaghi4, Abbas M.A. Al-Azab5 and Mashael Abdullah Aldamigh6

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Zoology, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan; 3Department of Zoology, University of Malakand, Pakistan; 4Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tabriz Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Iran. 5Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, Sana’a University, Yemen; 6Department of Biology, College of Science in Zulfi, Al-Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia.

*Correspondence | Ateeq Ullah, Department of Zoology, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan; Email:


Present study was aimed to determine the association of socio-demographic and socio-economic profiles to the prevalence roundworm and hookworm infections among school children in district Malakand, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study, involving 200 school children was conducted between October 2018 to September 2019. The risk factor was identified by using the Interviews, observation, and anthropometric indices assessment. The stool samples were collected and preserved in 10% formalin solution and safely transported to Parasitology Laboratory, University of Malakand for parasite examination. Each of the samples was processed in direct smear methods and examined under microscope first under low power objectives and then higher power Lense. Evidence of infection was noted by the presence of helminth eggs. Out of 200 samples 65% (n=130) were found to be infected with 2 species of soil transmitted helminths including 27% (n=54) A. lumbricoides and 35.5% (n=71) A. duodenale. Regarding ages, 11-12 years were highly infected. Females were observed to be infected more than male students. Children of unemployed mother and father were more infected than employed parents. Children living in cemented house were more infected than non-cemented. Children defecating in latrine were highly infected than children having defecation in open environment. Children with pet animals were highly infected than all others. Regarding drinking water sources, the children use well water were more infected than tape waters as a drinking source. Further studies are required on the same area to understand the prevalence and intensity of infection. Health programs should be suggested on personal and environmental hygiene practices. 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 3, pp. 1001-1500


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