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Azo and Phthalocyanine Dyes Degradation by Bacteria Isolated from Textile Industrial Waste

Azo and Phthalocyanine Dyes Degradation by Bacteria Isolated from Textile Industrial Waste

Khuzeema Tanveer1, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood1,*, Muhammad Ashraf1 and Ahrar Khan2

1Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF), Pakistan.
2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF), Pakistan.
 
* Corresponding author: shahiduaf@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The textile industry poses serious threat to the environment. Huge amount of untreated dyes is being discharged in the industrial effluents. Azo dyes are of major concern due to their extensive use and carcinogenic properties. Here we have studied the microbial degradation of four textile azo (C.I reactive black 5, yellow 145, and red 195) and phthalocyanine dyes (C.I reactive blue 21). Thirty-five bacteria and one yeast isolated from textile industry wastewater were tested for their tolerance to and degradation of the four dyes. Most of the bacteria showed maximum dye tolerance at 1000 ppm. Dye degradation monitored by measuring the absorbance of dye solutions at their λ max (592 nm for black dye, 614 nm for blue dye, 423 nm for yellow dye and 523 nm for red dye) before and after bacterial treatment for 5 days and showed 83% removal of black 5, 49% removal of blue 21, 84% removal of yellow 145 and 85% removal of red 195 by Jeotagalicoccus huakuii. Comamonas aquatica could degrade 79% of black 5, 42% of blue 21, 83% of yellow 145 and 87% of red 195. Bacillus subtilis degraded 84%, 41%, 82%, 85%; Moraxella sp. degraded 82%, 28%, 81%, 77% and Aeromonas veronii degraded 73%, 30%, 80%, 76% black, blue yellow and red dyes, respectively. To determine the toxicity of degraded dye products a hemolytic assay was performed which showed a variable decrease or increase in red blood cells cytotoxicity caused by bacterial treated or untreated dye solutions. The current study suggests that some of the bacteria have the potential to degrade a number of textile industry dyes and could be exploited for xenobiotic removal.

 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 54, Iss. 5, Pages 2003-2500

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