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The Effects of Plant Age on Phytochemical and Geographical Distribution of Euphorbia helioscopia, (Sun Spurge or Madwoman’s Milk) Euphorbiaceae from Arrang District Bajaur

The Effects of Plant Age on Phytochemical and Geographical Distribution of Euphorbia helioscopia, (Sun Spurge or Madwoman’s Milk) Euphorbiaceae from Arrang District Bajaur

Shakir Ullah1* and Lubna Shakir

1State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany (LSEB), Institute of Botany Chines Academy of Science China; 2Department of Botany, Govt Degree College Timergara, Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

 
*Correspondence | Shakir Ullah, State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany (LSEB), Institute of Botany Chines Academy of Science China; Email: Shakirawkum321@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Plant age and geographical location are among the internal and external factors respectively that influence the phytochemical composition of medicinal plants. Euphorbia helioscopia, (sun spurge or madwoman’s milk) (Euphorbiaceae) is a wild medicinal plant that grows nearly in all phytogeographical zones of Bajaur. The plant location, age, and their interactions had a significant influence on the phytochemical composition of E. helioscopia. The plant location had the highest effect on the marginal means of compounds (81.517) while the age influenced a variation by a marginal effect mean of 3.863. Some conjugated and non-conjugated compounds were common in all plant parts and ages whereas others either developed or diminished at certain ages. The conjugated compound (UV+, with blue fluorescence) was present at > 2.0 months in the Arrang and Bajaur regions. while it was present in Ghargu samples at even < 2 months. The phasing out by red fluorescing compounds in stems (SG5) and leaves (SG7) as the plant age increased was attributed to the loss of chlorophyll (green pigments) as a plant part matures. The results indicated that the relationship between phytochemical yield and age of harvesting is not linear. Harvesting at a lower age of < 2 months gives fewer phytochemicals than at 3-4.5 months, which seems to be optimal. It was also found that E. helioscopia, (sun spurge or madwoman’s milk) from Arrang District Bajaur contains the highest phytoconstituents of all studied sites. Additional research is needed to identify the individual phytochemical components fully. Bioassay-guided approaches are recommended, as they provide an analytical method for determining the potency and effect of these phytochemicals on living plants, cells, or tissues.

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Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research

September

Vol. 24, Iss. 3, Pages 187-201

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