Submit or Track your Manuscript LOG-IN

Avian Diversity and its Associated Threats in Gharo Creek, District Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan

Avian Diversity and its Associated Threats in Gharo Creek, District Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan

Rahmat Ullah Khan*1, Karim Gabol1, Abbas Khan1, Asif Sadam2, Waheed Ali Panhwar3, Hamid Ullah5, Muhsin Ali4, Gul Bacha Khan4 and Habib Ul Hassan1

1Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan
2College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, 571158, China
3Department of Zoology, Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan
4Department of Zoology, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan, 21300
5Department of Zoology, Bahawalnager Campus, The Islamia University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan 
*      Corresponding author:


The current study was carried out on avian diversity and main ecological factors occurring at Gharo Creek, district Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan, from April 2020 to March 2021. Data were collected both early in the morning (7:00-10:00 am) and in the evening (3:00 to 6:00 pm) by using the point count method in three main selected habitat types. A total of 112 bird species belonging to 15 orders, 40 families, and 71 genera occurring in the study area. Among the three habitat types, the more diverse and abundant habitat of birds was Creek (51%) followed by scrubland (27%) and Bhambore fort (21%) with Shannon diversity index (3.701). The more diverse and abundant bird species were the winter visitors followed by resident species. The common birds with higher numbers were Indian black-winged stilt (375) followed by great egret (180), western reef egret (75), house sparrow (72), little egret (60), house crow (55), common myna (43), white eared bulbul (40) and greater sand plover (40). In the Gharo Creek area significantly (P<0.05) higher diversity was recorded as compared to the Scrubland forest area and Bhambor (Terrestrial) Fort area. However, threats responsible for the decline of biodiversity and density of avifauna include destruction of habitats, soil erosion, human interaction, drought, illegal killing, predation, water pollution, scarcity of food, and unfavorable environmental conditions. The study area is rich in bird diversity however, awareness campaigns and enforcement of legislation are required on a priority basis to conserve the avian diversity, distribution, and address the threats.

To share on other social networks, click on any share button. What are these?

Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 1, pp. 01-501


Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits

Subscribe Unsubscribe