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Wildlife as a Source of SARS-CoV-2 Evolution- A Review

Wildlife as a Source of SARS-CoV-2 Evolution- A Review

Muhammad Altaf1* Arshad Mahmood Abbasi2, Muhammad Shoaib Amjad3, Sadia Naseer1 and Muhammad Umair4

1Department of Zoology, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Bagh, Pakistan 
2Department of Environment Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, Pakistan 
3Department of Botany, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Bagh, Pakistan
4School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
* Corresponding author:


Coronavirus consists of single-stranded, enveloped and RNA virus, largest genome among all RNA viruses and has 4 proteins i.e. envelope, spike, nucleocapsid and membrane. Coronaviruses are classified into 4 genera: Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. Betacoronavirus most probably originated from bats and the virus may have jumped to avian species and evolved as Deltacoronavirus group. The avian coronaviruses jumped among other avian species, giving rise to Gammacoronavirus from Deltacoronavirus, while Betacoronavirus may have given rise to Alphacoronavirus. It is known that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Betacoronavirus. This most similar virus is verified in bat and Malayan Pangolin. Analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 most probably originated by recombination of both bat and pangolin viruses. Viral protein seroconversion and viral specific nucleotide positive documented in all COVID-19 patients tested provides confirmation of a link between the presence of this virus and the disease.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 3, pp. 1001-1500


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