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Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

 

Life Sciences International Journal Issue 7 Volume 1
...g tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similarity was determined between the representative strains. Furthermore, these strains have shown homol...

Victor J. Stenger

Science, Religion and Culture
...ublic that is becoming increasingly disenchanted with organized religion and its negative influence on society. The new approach takes a harder line in criticizing religion than was previously the case amongst secularists. The new atheists question whether faith, which is belief despite the absence of evidence or even in the presence of contrary evidence, has any moral or intellectual authority. New Atheism recognizes religion for what it is—a set of unf...

Sehrish Kanwal, Ali Saeed, Muhammad Munir, Memoona Arshad

 

British Journal of Virology
...g tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similarity was determined between the representative strains. Furthermore, these strains have shown homol...

Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
...gence is promoted also increase the risks of vector-borne diseases, and the mosquito-borne Dengue virus is one of the pathogens benefitting from this. The related virus Japanese encephalitis virus is the most important cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in the world, and is maintained in avian reservoirs and amplified by pigs. The occasional spill-over of the virus into humans results in more than 60 000 clinical cases of Japanese encephalitis annually, with...

Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

British Journal of Virology
...g tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similarity was determined between the representative strains. Furthermore, these strains have shown homol...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...nce to amantadine have increased dramatically. In this mini-review, we discuss recent findings on the H5N1 viruses endemic in poultry and humans in Egypt, and suggest possible options to control the infection.

...

Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
...t to moment initially co-create and then sustain the One not as a higher-order individual entity but as their conjoint energy-source and ongoing field of activity. The One can then be readily integrated into a hierarchical ordered system of fields within fields at all levels of existence and activity within nature. In the final part of the article, I indicate how this new field-oriented understanding of the relation between the One and the Many may help to sol...

Reviewed by Rick Repetti, Kingsborough Community College, CUNY; Email: Rick.Repetti@kbcc.cuny.edu

Science, Religion and Culture

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

...eptor binding site has increased, which indicates that the H9N2 virus has the increasing potential to infection and cause human epidemics. The threat to the poultry industry and public health should not be ignored. In this review, we summarised the findings of recent studies on H9N2 AIVs epidemics and strategies for their prevention in poultry in China.

...

Khalid Usman, Aziz-Ur-Rehman

...llowing cotton did not decrease stand or yield compared to conventional tillage and wheat grain yield and N agronomic efficiency increased with application of 150 kg N ha-1 in three equal splits viz. at sowing, first irrigation, and second irrigation.

...

Muhammad Arif1, Fazal Jalal1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Dost Muhammad2

... improve soil quality, increase crop production and sequester C in agricul- tural systems. Two years field experiments were conducted on corn crop at the research farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2011-2013. Wheat-maize-wheat cropping pattern was followed with the adjustment of legumes in summer gap (land available after wheat harvest till maize sowing). Legumes i.e. mungbean, cowpea and sesbania with a fallow were adjusted in the summer g...

Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

... the most potential to increase yield and quality of spinach. Our results also suggest of taking integrating approach by applying organic wastes with readily available source of chemical fertilizer to minimize the risk of reduced plant growth due to immobilization and with EM to enhance mineralization of organic nutrients, therefore warrant testing under field conditions.

...

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

...e average farmer could increase wheat yield by 30 per cent. Similarly the most technically inefficient farmer could enhance wheat yield by 61 per cent. Results further showed that one percent increase in value of land under wheat crop, labour, chemical fertilizer and tractor plough would raise the wheat yield by 0.052, 0.566, 0.130 and 0.438 percent, respectively and were found statistically significant. Farmers’ educa...

Farhad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ashfaq

...with one oC increase in temperature the average wheat yield increased by 56.64 kg per hectare in the study area. It was deduced from the economic variable that the level of input used was less than optimum. The negative coefficient of the location variables revealed that increasing the area virtually decreased the yield. It was concluded from ...

Raja Waqar Ahmed Azad, Tahir Sarwar

...ffect of Plain Cement Concrete (PCC) lined watercourses on conveyance losses/efficiency in district Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kash- mir. Three watercourses namely, Sarai, Derkot and Mera Dadu were selected randomly on aging basis. Watercourses Sarai, Derkot and Mera Dadu were constructed in 2000, 2006-07 and 2011, respectively. Conveyance losses in the selected watercourses were determined by inflow-outflow method, wherein the flow velocity was measured usi...

Massimo Pigliucci, K.D.

...from what I feel is an increasingly rare point of view: that of a moderate liberal atheist.

...

Paulo Eduardo Brandao

...PTGS) has witnessed an increasing interest from those concerned with a cure for rabies, inspired on the success obtained for other viral diseases. This review is intended to present the current situation of RNAi against rabies, as well as insights into the future on the field.

...

Muhammad Mushtaq

E-mail | mushtaq@uaar.edu.pk

...n controlling the Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica, during 2006-07. Indian crested porcupine is a severe forest and agricultural pest throughout southern Asia and the Middle East, including Pakistan. The results suggested that in case of pre-baiting trial, a 25% reduction in burrow activity was achieved in case of groundnut – maize (1:1) grain bait loaded with 2% strychnine alkaloid and supplemented with 5% sac...

Nayle Maria Oliveira da Silva1*, Ricardo do Carmo Zanella2

 

...dialysis units have an increased risk for contracting HCV, and high prevalence rates have been found in hemodialysis units around the world. HCV induces chronic liver disease, which is characterized by a persistent hepatic parenchyma inflammatory process that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Viral clearance occurs in a minority of patients with viral hepatitis C, whereas chronic infection is established in 60 to 80% of all cases, 20 to 40% of whi...

Suresh V Kuchipudi* and Kin-Chow Chang

 

...virus pathogenesis are increasingly recognized. Recent evidence strongly indicated that skeletal muscle cells fully support productive replication of influenza A virus (IAV) and could play an important role in disease outcome. We are of the opinion that skeletal muscle could be a key innate immune tissue/organ in the pathogenesis of influenza and other systemic viral infections which warrants further in-depth investigations.

 

...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

...age were significantly increased with increase nitrogen levels (200, 240, and 280 kg N ha-1). However, highest benefit-cost ratio was estimated when 240 kg N ha-1 was applied which was found best compromise between forage yield and quality for maize cultivar Kissan under the agro-climatic conditions of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The study also indicates that crude protein and mineral content in fodder maize can be improved ...

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2

 

...r stress treatments were created by withholding the irrigation for specified time at critical growth stages viz. tillering, booting, anthesis and milking (grain filling), whereas a well-watered treatment was also included during whole plant growth and development period. The results showed that water stress significantly reduced plant height, number of total tillers per plant, number of fertile tillers per plant, number of nodes per plant, spikelet per spike, ...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

...er the last few decades, credit needs of the farmers have increased rapidly. Credit is considered an important factor for raising the productivity and income of the farmers. The current study attempts to analyse the impact of credit on wheat productivity in district Jhang. Furthermore, study explores the purpose of farmers for acquiring loan and major sources of cr...

Josef D. Jarhult1, 2

...ximately 24 hours, and increases nausea and vomiting by 3-5%. Whether oseltamivir treatment has an effect on the frequency of influenza complications or not remains controversial. Oseltamivir is still standard as prophylaxis, treatment of severely ill patients and patients with risk factors for severe influenza disease as well as an important part of pandemic preparedness plans. Resistance development is a potential problem both in treated humans and in the en...

Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho1*, Isreal Ogunlade1, Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde2

... enlightened in order to create awareness as to their rights as clientele in the extension process. 

...

Muhammad Shah Zaman1, Ghulam Muhammad Ali2, Aish Muhammad1, Khalid Farooq2, Iqbal Hussain1*

...iarid regions. In vitro screening of eight potato varieties (Asterix, Cardinal, Challenger, Desiree, Hermis, Kroda, Sh-5 and Sante) was investigated for salt tolerance at 0.0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mM NaCl supplemented with MS medium. Kroda emerged as the most salt tolerant variety with the highest plant height (6.5 cm), number of nodes (8.8), fresh shoot weight plant-1 (0.166 g), number of roots (4.6) and root length (2.5 cm) at 60 mM NaCl followed by Sh-5...

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

...chickpea significantly increased with the collective application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures. It is concluded that the application of half of recommended dose of NKP (18-36-10 kg ha-1) in combination with poultry manure or farmyard manure at the rate of 20 t ha-1 was found best combination for higher chickpea crop yields in compare to other levels of fertilizers.

...

Thomas J. Coleman III1*, Ralph W. Hood Jr.1 and John R. Shook2

...ism in particular, has increased significantly. Moreover, these phenomena have been researched, studied and documented by multiple disciplines ranging from cognitive science to religious studies, and from anthropology to sociology. The study of atheism and secularity is of high interest to not only scholars, but also the public in general. In this special issue of Science, Religion & Culture, Guest Edited by John R. Shook, Ralph W. Hood Jr., and Thomas J. ...

Ethan G. Quillen

... approaches, such as the creation and use of umbrella terms such as ‘non-religion,’ or the precarious notion of a division between ‘positive’ and/or ‘negative ‘Atheism. This article will attempt to assuage this issue by mapping out the discursive shifts presented within the discourse on defining the term, as well as promote a more discursive approach, linking the study of Atheism with the study of religion, and thereby the ...

Rabbi Paul Shrell-Fox

...eds rather than cultural creed, the rabbis still feel comfortable functioning in communities, school settings and informal educational roles. We therefore may expect little existential angst; this was found to be only partially true. Some have found other expressions of their talents, while others anxiously await the opportunity to find alternate means of financial support. Specific issues of Jewish dietary practice, Sabbath observance and daily prayer are add...

Liz Goodnick

...d being2 would allow his creatures to suffer: “Epicurus’s old questions are yet unanswered. Is he willing to prevent evil, but not able? then is he impotent. Is he able, but not willing? then is he malevolent. Is he both able and willing? whence then is evil?” (Hume 1993, 100).

...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa and Muhammad Arshad Khan

.... Zinc and Cu contents decreased significantly (p<0.01). The highest N, P and K were found in mulberry variety PFI-1, M. latifolia and Karyansuban, respectively. The highest Cu and Mn were found in Kanmasi. The highest Zn and Fe were found in Husang and Karyansuban, respectively. A significant variation in uptake and retention of macro- and micro nutrients was found in the mulberry varieties after fertilizer application. The highest N was taken up by Kanmas...

Rabnawaz1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Tahir Sarwar2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3

...bre demand of the ever increasing population is a big challenge. Increase in crop water productivity (CWP) is one of the most important options for sustainable use of water resources in semi-arid environment. A field study was conducted during Rabi 2010-11 and Kharif 2011 crop seasons to compare the CWP of main crops (wheat, sugarcane, maize and tomato) under public and civil canal irrigation systems in P...

Ali Muhammad*, Muhammad Ayub

... simple sugar and decreased during treatment process. Lye solution penetrates inside the msesocarp and than endocarp during four weeks of treatment process. The lye treated olive fruits were treated afterwards into brine solution for the next week and so on which gradually remove the bitter taste of lye solution and got salted taste during four week of treatment process. The residual water of treated olive fruits were changed on weekly...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...reduction of weeds and increased seedcotton yield as compared to weedy check. The combined application of sorghum @ 15 L ha-1+ Dual Gold @ 1.25 L ha-1 resulted in weeds mortality upto 66.6%, produced seedcotton yield of 3961.4 kg ha-1 and gave net benefit of Rs. 2,20,029. Sunflower applied @ 15 L ha-1 in integration with Dual Gold @ 1.25 L ha-1 showed weeds mortality of 65.5 %, resulted in seedcotton yield of 3949.7 kg ha-1 and net monetary...

Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

...ad on a microscale, creating a unique opportunity for the application of phylogeography at the intra-host level, which has until recently been limited by dataset quality and the lack of a rigorous statistical framework. As recently described in studies using the SIV-macaque model of neuroAIDS, the incorporation of
spatial, temporal, and demographic inference into intra-host evolutionary analysis using Bayesian phylogeography allows f...

Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde1*, Kayode Ayinde2, Tofunmi Emmanuel Ilori1, Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde1

E-mail | opeyemi@unilorin.edu.ng

...showed that agricultural credit guarantee scheme funds (ACGSF), agricultural policies during structural adjustment period (SAP) and post-structural adjustment period (PSAP) were statistically significant while the agricultural input subsidy scheme was statistically insignificant in their impact on the prices of major staple crops. The study recommended painstaking formulation and implementation of agricultural policies and re-structuring of...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...ned and their sera were screened for antibodies to HEV using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Samples were collected over a period of 4 months (September – December, 2014). The mean age and mean CD4+ count of the subjects were 40.14±0.47 years and 387.28±18.91 cells/mm3 respectively. Out of 275 subjects tested, 15(5.45%; 95% confidence interval) were positive for anti-HEV IgM. Anti- HEV IgM was highest among the age group 11-20 (9.09%), f...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...ts were effective with increasing the contact time more than 15 minutes except with Virkon®S which was effective even at a short contact time, 5 minutes. In conclusion, this study reported that chlorine and non-chlorine oxidizing agents are effective against H5N1 HPAI at the farm level that would be helpful in implementing bio-security measures at farms/hatcheries levels in the wake of avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak.

...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

...is necessary to either decrease the amount of host nucleic acids or increase the amount of pathogen nucleic acids, to allow for detection via metagenomic NGS. This minireview is revising our developed TUViD-VM protocol and selected other approaches regarding their suitability in metagenomics. We provide an overview on the difficulties, challenges and opportunities that developed alongside metagenomic virus discovery. The fie...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...SOD, APX and GR showed increasing trend in a dose-dependent manner, attaining maximum at 40 g.a.i ha-1 of Imidacloprid treatment at day 7 after treatment (DAT) followed by 3 and 15 DAT, respectively. On the contrary, the CAT activity was increased at lower concentrations of Imida- cloprid but showed a dose dependence decline at higher concentrations of the insecticide at all the observed growth stages, with maximum de

Ummara Waheed Khan, Raza Ahmed, Irum Shahzadi and Mohmmad Maroof Shah

Email | mmshah@ciit.net.pk

...ure by itself has increased the crop improvement potential to develop new cultivars with desirable traits through somaclonal and gametoclonal selection. While successful tissue culture is critical for genetic transformation, it has been facing greater impediments in wheat and related crop species. Its success depends largely upon the average effect of several important factors including explant tissue, culture medium, plant genotypes, ...

Muhammad Imran1*, Muhammad Mobashar2, Muhammad Irfan3, Shazia Hanif4, Sumaira Hanif5 and Muhammad Abubakar6

... NDF was significantly increased (P<0.05) in treatment MLM4. When compared among treatments, the value of crude protein (CP) digestibility coefficient was high (P<0.05) in treatment MLM4 as compared to MLM1. Similar trend was also observed in case NDF among treatments. Daily milk yield and 4 % FCM has increased (P<0.05) in buffaloes fed treatment MLM3 and MLM4 as compared to other treatments. While there was no sign...

Rick Repetti

...;s goodness that justify creating minimally satisfactory beings/worlds – originate with Robert Merrihew Adams (1972, 1979). Adams (1972) argued that in creating imperfect beings God was graceful in giving the undeserved gift of life. There have been many objections to Adams’s argument; e.g., Jerome A. Weinstock (1975) objected that God still would have been graceful in granting undeserved life to superior beings,...

Mohammad Taghi Karimi

...have been developed to decrease the curve of kyphosis, most of them did not test on more number of subjects. It seems that Milwaukee orthosis carry higher effciency to reduce the curve of kyphosis. There are not enough evidences regarding effects of orthosis on kyphotic curve. However, based on the available literature effects of orthoses on kyphotic curve is significantly than that of scoliosis. There appear that there are no major differences between full ti...

Monireh Ahmadi Bani1*, Mostafa Kamali2, Iman Borji3, Soheyla Aslani3, Francis Fatoye4

...rameters significantly decreased in five minutes standing (p<0.001). Moreover, patients were unstable in standing during the fourth and fifth minute. Taken together, diagnosis based on five minute standing using the Romberg test appear to be sensitive and accurate than one minute.

...

Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi

...is review article is to screen for the available information on knee implant system and to propose a suitable remedy for effective management of such ailments. Out of the available and applied implants, none of them was evaluated by motion analysis system. It has been shown that severity of pain and overall function of knee joint were improved following the use of this implant. Although it has been mentioned that KineSpring knee implant is ...

Seyed Mohsen Mirbod

...sion of the knee joint decreased while walking with the knee orthosis in contrast to normal walking. Moreover, the mediolateral moment applied on the knee joint decreased significantly. This new design of the orthosis improves the performance of the subjects during walking. It carried same performance as that of the knee cage, and additionally is more cosmesis, ease in use and is economical.

...

Rongfei Lu1, 2, Zhiyang Liu1, Peng Fang1, Guangyi Chen1, Feng Sun1, Yongjian Fan1, Yijun Zhou1, Tong Zhou1*

...s several algorithms to screen reference genes to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Additionally, several possible improvements in the selection of reference genes are discussed.

...

Maurice A. Finocchiaro

... on the controversy over creationism and evolutionism; they stress such attitudes as impartiality, judiciousness, and even-handedness.

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Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

...ng cropping system may increase crop productivity and net profitability through improving soil physico-chemical properties and fertility. Two years field experiments were conducted at the Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar- Pakistan (semiarid conditions) to investigate the effect of two green manuring crop species (guar and millet), their incorporation age (40, 70 and 100 days after sowing, DAS) and parts (whole plants incorporation and stubbles i...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...igeria is experiencing decrease in yield over the years. This study evaluates the productive capacity of some selected rice farms in Kwara State, Nigeria, with a view to identify farm management practices that enhance sustainable production of rice in the study area. Primary data were obtained through the use interview schedule. Eighty copies of structured interview were purposively employed to obtain individual response of the farmers whose plots fall within ...

Moorthy S. Muthuswamy

...ew, but it also offers a credible alternative. However, beginning in the 1970s, thanks to Saudi Arabia’s backing, religious leaders began growing in power due to the popularization of a self-serving theme that sharia is all-encompassing divine law and an essential guide to life. A new analysis of the 2013 Pew data shows us that religious leaders’ political and religious influences correlate with sharia’s popularity, and in turn, can correlate...

Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

..., including efficiently screening the antivirals against CSFV and viral receptors, conveniently tracking the viral proteins in live cells as well as improving diagnostic methods and vaccines for classical swine fever.

...

John G. Bruno1*, Chien-Chung Chao2,3, Zhiwen Zhang3, Wei-Mei Ching2,3, Taylor Phillips1, Allison Edge1, Jeffery C. Sivils1

...n ELISA-like microplate-screening assay (ELASA). Top three candidate aptamers were then paired in a matrix of all possible capture and reporter aptamer combinations and tested in a fluorescent peroxidase-linked Amplex® UltraRed (AUR; a resazurin-like substrate) version of a rapid (< 1 h) aptamer magnetic bead sandwich assay. The optimal sandwich aptamer combination utilized the same aptamer sequence (designated Rt-18R) for both capture and reporter func...

Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

...utbreak in Pakistan is increased quite significantly near Eid-ul-Adha. Haemorrhages are the major signs of this fatal disease. No treatment of CCHF is available currently but Ribavirin antiviral drug is used to cure this disease. There is currently no commercially available vaccine for this disease. It is recommended that the disease can be controlled by adopting preventive measures such as avoiding of tick bites and contact with blood of the suspected animal....

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...dy levels even when the screening extends over a couple of weeks. For the long term consistency, a significantly higher mean ADV antibody level was recorded in February compared to in October. Therefore, if the VP2 ELISA should be used as a tool for selection of breeding females in a control program for AD, the optimal sampling time at which the ADV antibody levels best can predict the breeding performance of the female needs to be further evaluated.

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

...y-sowing response with increasing N-rate on crop productivity at Agronomy Research Farm, University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan. Sunflower (cv. Hysun-33) was planted on different dates i.e. Jul. 1, 11 and 21 treated with different N-rates starting from 40 kg ha-1 with a 40 kg increment to the maximum of 160 (kg ha-1) including a control treatment in a randomized complete block (RCB) design in four ...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...rming and industry has increased global concern for the disease. Currently, 3 serotypes of FMD virus (O, A and SAT-2) and 06 lineage are circulating in the North Africa, of which serotype O is responsible for most of the outbreaks. However, the rapid spread of SAT2 and other exotic FMDV lineages in Libya and Egypt demonstrated the need for a robust surveillance system to detect and respond effectively to exotic infectio...

Murtaza Ali*, Yasser Durrani and Muhammad Ayub

... Statistically minimum decrease was observed in water activity, pH, moisture content and organoleptic characters. While, stable increase was noted in percent acidity and ash content during storage. It was concluded and recommended on the basis of mentioned facts that mulberry fruit dehydrated by using solar drier and portable solar drier are best drying technique for mulberry fruits. 

...

Nadeem Khan1*, Arshad Ali Khan1, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Nouman2 and Badshah Islam1

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...ination programme. The decreased number of outbreaks in recent years as well as changes in the disease severity patterns and distribution might be due to the effectiveness of vaccine, timely vaccination, circulation of a single lineage virus and most importantly effective planning and implementation of the vaccination programme. Sharing the experiences on the PPR control strategies adopted by some of the states in India may motivate other Indian states or othe...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

... occurrence of PPR and increasing global humans and animals movements,the virus has continued to be reported in previously PPR-free countries and thereby considered as an emerging pathogen.. However, the increased detection of the virus in the light of rinderpest eradication and the lack of awareness of the disease in areas where the virus has been detected for the first time in recent years given the educational status of f...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

...milk loss, loss due to increased inter-lambing/kidding period, loss due to increased abortion, cost of high feeding and rearing inputs in young and adult sheep/goats etc. The results revealed that at the annual 10% incidence level, the estimated total loss due to PPR in sheep and goats was INR 5041.5 million (77% was mortality loss and 23% was morbidity loss) and INR 11074.6 million (73% mortality loss and 27% morbidity loss...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

...non-existent, but that increased efforts to draw lessons from the social sciences and to increase the degree of participation in PE could increase its potential as an important tool in disease impact assessment and control. Particular attention is paid here to the potential role of PE in future research on the epidemiology and control of PPR. 

...

Keyvan Sharifmoradi1*, Nader Farahpour2

...here was a significant decrease in walking speed and stride length in both sides of PD patients compared to normal subjects. Patients with PD showed a significant decrease in progression force and the second peak of vertical force. These subjects have to decrease their walking speed and increase their double limb support percentage to improve dynamic sta...

Muhammad Siddiq1* and Hamid Ullah Shah2

 

...re. Storage conditions increased PV from 218 to 27.82, FFA from 0.88 to 1.47, AV from 1.02 to 1.56, while decreased IV from 63.38 to 58.05, CI from 0.392 to 0.337 and BC from 27.87 to 3.46. It was concluded that olive:palm oils mixed at a level of 10:90% and 20:80% ratios have the best quality stricture, which are more acceptable and better than other blends when mixed together that will achieve better strength as well as fi...

 Ishfaq Ahmed, Ihsan Mabood Qazi and Suraiya Jamal

...nificant (P < 0.05) increase, while fat content (1.41-1.17%) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease by blending WF with BRF. Similarly, water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI) and swelling power (SP) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease as the concentration of wheat flour in the blends increases. The values for WAI, WSI and ...

 Zar Muhammad and Mohammad Tariq Jan

...e performance linearly increased with increase in FYM (25 to 75%). Compost application with or without fert-N, enhanced maize productivity, in a more productive and sustainable way. FYM as composting material is superior over legume and cereal residue.

...

 Mohammad Fayaz, Abbas-ullah Jan, Dawood Jan, Ghaffar Ali and Yousaf Hayat

... of quality elasticity increases for rice & rice flour (0.2019 to 0.2639) while decreases for wheat & wheat flour (0.0160 to -0.0012) as household move from poorest to richest quintile indicating an increased responsiveness of the high-income households to rice quality compared to wheat. 

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 Shahab e Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah, Khalid Khan Khattak

...; access to agricultural credit market has been prioritized in agriculture finance policies of Pakistan. The main objectives of this study are to explore farmers’ access to different formal and informal credit sources, and to investigate their credit adequacy and the role of important socio-economic factors in access to credit. The data were collec...

 Farmanullah Khan, Samad Khan, Wiqar Ahmad and Imran Khan

... reduced bulk density, increased WHC, saturation percentage, organic matter content, plant available N, P and K significantly (p<0.05) both at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. Effect of fertilizer sources either alone or in integrated form was non-significant on Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn concentration. Economic analysis showed that NPK75FYM20 rewarded the maximum net income of Rs. 43108 ha-1, indicating its superiority for profitable wheat yield under rain-fed conditions....

 Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Rajwali Khan, Syed Muhammad Sohail, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib and Asim Ijaz

...d 40 butchers were also screen out. Overall sero-prevalence in cattle was 15.36% on SPAT, 14.39% by i-ELISA and 14.14% through PCR. Higher prevalence was recorded in abattoir shops (31.01%) followed by private farms (11%) and animal selling points (9.25%). Significant difference was recorded in different breeds i.e. achai, local non-descript and crossbred (non-descript x jersey) cattle. Higher prevalence in female cattle (15.14%) was recorded as compared to ma...

 Umed Ali Laghari, Ahmed Naqi Shah, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Zia-ul-Hassan, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro and Khalid Hussain Talpur

... nutrition is known to increase crop yields, including legumes. However, very little is known about the K requirements of crops in Pakistan, especially grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). We evaluated K requirements of five elite grass pea genotypes in a field experiment. The experiment was organized in factorial block design with three replications. The study involved five commonly grown grass pea genotypes (Sel-B 111, Sel-449, Sel-190, Sel-1785 and Sel-945) and...

 Arif Khan, Abdur Rahman, Shoail Akhtar, Siraj Uddin, Zahid Ullah and Nazir Ahmad

 
...ificant at P 0.05. WHC increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increase in age of the buffaloes however Nili Ravi had slightly higher mean WHC relationship to Kundi, however, breed effects were not significant (P > 0.05). Tenderness in the buffalo beef samples were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by animal age and their breed X age interaction. However the breed had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on tendernes...

 Abdul Qahar and Bashir Ahmad

...sue were substantially increased with application of both the nutrients. However, sulfur content in plant tissue did not vary with increasing N from 250 to 350 kg ha-1, but was considerably improved with respect to control. It is concluded that R-2210 produced maximum yield, BCR value and N content in tissue with 350 kg N ha-1, however S content in soil and in tissue was more with 40 kg S ha-1. Hence, it is recommended that ...

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...stantial (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in germination and seedling growth of C. arvensis and C. rotundus as compared to control. Integrated application of eucalyptus powder at 30 g kg-1 soil+eucalyptus water extract at 30 ml kg-1 of soil and eucalyptus powder at 20 g kg-1 soil+eucalyptus water extract at 20 ml kg-1 soil showed highest inhibitory effect. In both aforesaid treatments, lowest and statistically similar values of germination, root/ shoot length and fresh/...

Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Waqar Ahmad1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Noor Islam1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1 and Zain Ul Abiden2 

...etermine the effects of screen bottom board trays on reducing ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman (Acari:Varroidae) populations in honeybee Apis mellifera linguistica (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in the winter, spring and summer season (2013-14). Four honeybee colonies were exposed to oxalic acid (3.2%), thymol (0.5 g) and formic acid (65%) on screen bottom boards in winter, spring and summer seasons....

Yingbin Wang*, Ting Ye, Xiaogang Wang and Congyu Zhou

...atus fishery, i.e. the decrease of fishing effort of trawls in recent years resulted in the decrease of the catch of P. trituberculatus. But these catches were small compared with those of main catch fishing vessels. Thus, the total catches of P. trituberculatus become large. The catch of P. trituberculatus increased with the increase of SST. RELE can im...

Mian Shamas Murtaza1, Aysha Sameen1, Nuzhat Huma1 and Fatma Hussain2

...ficantly (p < 0.05) increased the moisture and protein content. The addition of gums further augmented the moisture level owing to owing to their water retention properties. The melt-ability, flow-ability and yield of cheese decreased significantly (p < 0.05) on reducing the fat level, as anticipated. However, the addition of gums gradually improved these aspects with higher values for cheese containing guar gum as com...

Sayeda Sarah and Muhammad Ibrar

...ol (RP0) plants, which decreases progressively with increasing fertility level. Less number of spores and percent root colonization was found at high RP level (RP100) in all hybrids. Higher P doses declined the sporulation and colonization. There was total seven AMF species that were observed and recorded. The dominant genus was Acaulospora which was followed by Glomus, Sclerocystis and Gigaspora. The average AMF spore densi...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

...-cotton farms could be increased by 30 and 10 percent, respectively by adopting the technology with an appropriate approach. The results of the inefficiency model reveal that the factors like education, experience and distance from the main market, are the most influential determinants of the technical efficiency in both NonBT and BT- cotton farms. Extension of cotton production required the development of cottonseed that will be suitable for environmental con...

Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Khalilluah Panhwar, Rabail Gandahi, Muhammad Saleem Sarki and Mahmooda Buriro

...PK (120-0-0 kg N ha-1) increased number of red leaves. In case of micronutrients, Zn @ 4 kg and B @ 1.5 kg ha-1 were highly effective to control reddening of leaves, respectively. Interactive effect of NP @ 120-70 kg ha-1 × Zn @ 4 kg ha-1 resulted in maximum reduction of red leaves. Regardless the application of N, P or K and their control, reddening of leaves was linearly affected by Zn and B. It is concluded that there was no direct effect of N, P, K, ...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

... pastures. This led to decrease herding venues 43.7% mobility routs 37.5% and herd size by 60.4% for both groups respectively. Analysis of gender-based family labor distribution during past 30 years shows that herding labor (male and female) of age 14 to 60 significantly (P<0.01) reduced during past 30 years and partly shifted to cropping. The male herding labour reduced 40.2% in semi-nomadic pastoralists and 8% in nomadic pastoralists. Similarly the female...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...ecanicillium muscarium decreased nematode population significantly (P=0.05 and caused reductions in final numbers of cysts per 250 g of soil, eggs and juveniles per cyst. Nematicides effects were not quite significant among each other but had tremendous effects in reducing nematode population compared to that of untreated control. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in numbers of eggs per cyst warrants that nematicides were able to penetrate into cysts. Reproduct...

Felwa A. Thagfan1, Mohamed A. Dkhil1,2* and Saleh Al-Quraishy1

...tion, the root extract decreased the number of parasitic stages and the number of goblet cells in the jejunal villi in the infected mice. Moreover, the expression of the goblet cell mucin gene, muc2 was upregulated after treatment with the root extract. Based on our results, it could be concluded that, S. persica root extracts acts as anticoccidial agent.

...

Wan-Long Zhu* and Gao Wenrong 

...nder cold condition by increasing thermogenesis and food intake. The present results suggest that the observed physiological regulation from the organismal, hormonal levels to the cellular levels of this alpine small mammal were important and allowed A. chevrieri to overcome the physiological challenges of an change to cold environment in winter successfully with the seasonal variations. Cold can induce an increase in...

Sungil Kim1, Muhammad Riaz2, Amjad Farooq3 and Sungkwon Park4*

...upplementation of DDGS increased (p<0.05) the level of conjugated linoleic acid, which has been reported to reduce body fat accumulation, when compared with control group. Taken together, these data indicate that DDGS can be utilized as a feed additive and has beneficial effects on unsaturated fatty acid formation in pork without deleterious effect on growth performance.

...

Muhammad Aslam

...s, improved agricultural credit and support price policies. Recommendations include improving agricultural research and extension systems, accelerating diffusion and adoption of latest agriculture technologies and inputs, enhancing good quality seed production, improving irrigation water management and improving reclamation and drainage.

...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

...e arteries canal which increase the risk factors associated with heart attack. Atherosclerosis is also associated with development of diabetes, high blood pressure and kidney failure. Hypercholesterolemia is mainly caused by high fat diet, obesity and diabetes.Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect of water based infusion of Withania somnifera was investigated in broiler chicks. One hundred and twenty (120) day-old broiler’s chicks were alienated into fou...

Tarun Kumar Sharma, John G. Bruno and William C. Cho

... continuously growing to create space in research and diagnostics markets. However, translation of aptamer in several applied disciplines is still lagging behind as compared to antibodies. In this article, we discuss the translational aspects of aptamers, current potential of aptamers and strategies to create the “bench-to-bedside” translation of aptamer technology.

...

Ghani Akbar, Muhammad Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Hassan, Qurban Hussain3 and Greg Hamilton

...y by 7%, 6% and 5% and increased hydraulic conductivity by 90%, 106% and 72% for WB, MB and NB respectively, when compared with FB. The irrigation water saving was 36%, 40% on WB, 34%, 31% on MB and 7%, 8% on NB, for wheat and maize crops respectively, when compared with FB. The crop yields were higher by 14%, 25% on WB, 12%, 10% on MB and 3%, 13% on NB, respectively, compared with FB. Consequently, the water productivity was also incr...

Laila M. Fadda1, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed1, Iman H. Hasan1, Hanaa M. Ali2,3*, Nawal M. Al-Rasheed1,4, Musaed Al-Fayez5, Aly M. Ahmed5, Nada Almutlaq1, Nehal Qasem1 and Reem Khalaf1

...easured parameters and decreased GSH, SOD, and total protein levels. Liver sections of H&E demonstrated liver injury characterized by centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis, CD68, and Bax expressions were also increased. Treatment with all the aforementioned antioxidants downregulated most of the elevated parameters compared to the APAP-treated group. Treatment with the combination of CUR and THQ was the most effective th...

Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Himayatullah Khan

...m holding size (up to 1 acre), they operated. Similarly the small farm households (Owners, Owner-cum-tenants and tenants) of developed villages (i.e. Dawood Zai and Rajjar) perform more off-farm employment than the small farm households (Owners, Owner-cum-tenants and tenants) of underdeveloped villages (i.e. Garhi Baghbanan and Mufti Abad). This could be associated to the developed means of transport and communications, better education facilities, market faci...

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

...ith an alarming annual increase in heroin addicts. The study was designed to identify the socio-demographic risk factors contributing to increasing susceptibility to heroin addiction in Pakistani populations. In this epidemiological study subjects were interviewed through a comprehensive questionnaire consisting of open and closed-ended questions. Data regarding key factors such as age and ethnicity, communal domain, educati...

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

...t suppression markedly increased the ghost ant foraging activity both on plants and the ground. Ant diversity in fire ant-infested plots was significantly reduced compared with in fire ant-free plots. Compared with in the no-ant plots, the colony growth rate of mealybug significantly increased, and the parasitism of mealybug was obviously decreased, both in fire ant-infested plots and in f...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

... indicate that with an increase in the age, household consume more of meat, fruit, wheat and wheat flour, pulses, tea and coffee, backed products and other food in urban region and milk, meat, fruits, vegetables, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats, tea and coffee, backed products and other food in rural region. A significant increase in the consumption of meat, fruits, vegetables, rice, beverages, other cereals and ba...

Zaheer Ahmad Qureshi and Khuram Nawaz Sadozai

... expected statistical discrepancies between income and expenditure approach. The results were further elaborated through deciles under both income and expenditure approaches. The lower poorest category estimated through deciles contributes 2.78% to the overall rural region’s income. However, the upper richest category shares 30.06% to the aforementioned income. The deciles measured through expenditure approach revealed that the lower poorest category and...

Robina Karim and Dawood Jan

... of sub-period 2000-05 decreased throughout post-WTO period, which suggests Pakistan exports got smoothened after WTO’s implementation in the world arena, perhaps due to less restrictions on trade after WTO’s arrival, relative to pre-WTO period. Compared to exports, Pakistan imports’ coefficient of variation does not show significant declines; rather it appears largely static, suggesting Pakistan imports trade could not be benefited much by r...

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

...ts are the major yield decreasing factors in our agro-ecosystem. Among many pest management approaches, biological control is considered as the main strategy to address these issues including sucking pests. Different biocontrol agents are being used for the management of these sucking insect pests. Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been proved as an efficient acarine predator of sucking insect pests of different crops. This predator has also been re...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

... environment. With the increasing incidences of antimicrobial contamination, especially in food, dairy products, agriculture and environment, their regular monitoring is on prime interest. Aptamers are synthetic short sequences of single stranded (ss) oligonucleotides (ss-RNA or DNA), which are developed by an in-vitro selection process known as “Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX)” technique. Among the receptors avail...

Ayanda Opeyemi Isaac,1,* Oniye Sonnie Joshua2 and Auta Jehu2

 

...e more pronounced with increasing concentrations of the herbicides. Mortality was also observed to be concentration dependent. After 96 h of exposure, the 96hr LC50 for paraquat was found to be 0.07mg/L while that of glyphosate was found to be 0.530mg/L. The result revealed that glyphosate and paraquat have the ability to induce unusual behaviours in fish and can therefore serve as reliable indicators of toxicity in environmental impact assessment program...

Ambreena Hafiz1, Tanzeela Riaz2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*

...s and free amino acids increased, whereas glycogen and lipid contents were reduced in all deltamethrin-resistant populations as compared to deltamethrin-susceptible population. Soluble Proteins were significantly elevated (79, 100 and 37%) in 4th and 6th instar larvae and adult beetles of Gujranwala, (14, 24 and 14%) in Okara and (14, 13 and 2%) in D.G Khan populations, respectively compared to susceptible population. Free amino acids content of Gujranwala (22...

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

...mpoasca spp, suggested increased in temperature also increased their population. In conclusion, B. tabaci, Empoasca spp and N. inconspicuous are major pests of sunflower which should be controlled by exploiting of spiders and lady beetles.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...l nematode population) decreased proportionately with the increased initial fungal conidial Pi. Foliage growth was directly related to fungal Pi and inversely to nematode Pi. Our results showed that the higher Pi of L. muscarium was associated with the lower Pf of M. incognita. Foliage growth increased with increased fungus inoculum.

...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

... is a key regulator of secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), whereas GnRH is a crucial neurohormone regulating the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) at puberty. The deficiency in release or action of GnRH leads to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) characterized by low FSH, LH and testosterone (T) and absent or impaired sexual development at puberty. Amongst others, mu...

Afzaal Ahmad Naseem1*, Maleeha Akram1, Sarwat Jahan2, Kiran Afshan2, Zubaria Iqbal1, Faheem Tahir3, Mazhar Qayyum1 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1

..., manifested as higher secretion of growth hormone (GH) and testosterone (T). GH and T affect linear growth velocity (LGV) directly through stimulation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Furthermore, T promotes LGV through augmentation of GH secretion. Nevertheless, age and developmental stage dependent changes in GH and T and LGV and their associations require further investigation. This study examined relationships between G...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...J. The emergence of IJ decreased significantly at the dose of 200 IJ and then increased with 400 IJ dose. The minimum number of juveniles emerged at the dose of 200 IJ. The relationship between inoculation dose and emergence of IJ by using both methods was non-significant. Similarly, with an increase in inoculum dose and time, invasion of host was significantly inc...

Adedeji A.J, Sati N.M, Pewan S.B, Ogbu K.I, Adole J.A, Lazarus D.D, Ijiwo S.J, Okpanachi A, Nwagbo I.O, Joannis, T.M and Abdu P.A

...art of investigation to screen for co-infection of CIA and IBD in the flock, the BF was also screened for the presence of chicken anemia virus (CAV) using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IBDV antigen was detected by AGID while CAV by PCR. This confirms the diagnosis of concurrent infection of CIA and IBD in the affected flock. This is the first case report of a concurrent and natural field outbreak of CIA and I...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

...embryonic development, decreased during subsequent developmental stages then increased gradually from the stage of midgastrula onward. This study provides some basic evidence that SS1 may play a role in growth, development and metabolism in C. nasus, and provides a basis for further study of SS neuropeptide family in C. nasus.

...

Shakeel Ahmed* and Sarwat Jahan

..., leptin and resistin) secretion in 48-h fasting and normal fed adult male Rhesus monkeys. After NMS administration plasma adipokines levels were determined in fed and fasting monkeys. Four intact adult male monkeys were used in this study. 50 nmol of NMS was injected intravenously. Blood samples were collected individually 60 min before and 120 min after NMS administration at 15 min intervals. The plasma adipokines concentrations were determined by using spec...

Sabri Unal1, ASır Er2, Erol Akkuzu1* and Lubomir Salek3

... C. septempunctata was increased with the progress of the larval instars up to the fourth which was the most voracious.

...

Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud1,2, Fathy A. Abdel-Ghaffar2, Azza El-Amir2, Gamal Badr3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy1*

...as accompanied with an increase in spleen weight in comparison to either the control or the gamma irradiated P. chabaudi infected group. Differential count of WBCs has revealed an increase in lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes count in plasma samples of the live P. chabaudi infected group in comparison to either the control or the gamma irradiated P. chabaudi infected group. Additionally, live P. chabaudi infection has ...

Dallin D. Oaks and Cynthia L. Hallen

... are incorporated into sacred texts. This would seem to be the case not only for Judaism, Islam, and mainline Christianity, but also for Mormonism, a distinctive branch of Christianity. Officially known as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), Mormonism shares some root metaphors with other Christians but differs in important ways in its development and use of these metaphors. In this paper we discuss the journey, battle, and container metapho...

Faiqah Ramzan*1 and Muhammad Haris Ramzan2

...cid is synthesized and secreted by the prostate gland. Its synthesis is regulated by androgens. As, dose dependent degeneration of prostate gland has been described following intraperitoneal kisspeptin treatment. However, effects of kisspeptin administration on the levels of prostatic citric acid remain elusive till date. The present study, therefore, addresses the effects of 12 day administration of kisspeptin on prostatic citric acid levels in male mice. Kis...

Abdul Sattar Baloch1*, Abdul Rasheed1,2, Rahmatullah Rind1, Jam Kashif Sahito1, Rehana Buriro1, Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1 and Parkash Dewani1

... (c-ELISA) were used as screening tests, and overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be as 21%, 21% and 13% by RBPT, SAT and c-ELISA tests, respectively. Seroprevalence was higher in females (26%) than in males (16%) by RBPT and SAT tests, and also in camels less than 9 years of age (13.33%). Milk samples were collected to detect the antibodies against the disease, however, none of the sample was found to be positive for brucellosis. It was conclude...

Muhammad Raheel1,*, Nazir Javed2, Sajid Aleem Khan2, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3 and Sohail Ahmed4

...tive potential of EPNs increased with increasing temperature and was found to be the best at 25oC. No EPNs species could reproduce at 5oC. S. feltiae started reproduction at 10oC, while all remaining species reproduced at 15oC or higher temperatures. Maximum numbers of IJs were recovered from H. bacteriophora. Time taken for first emergence of IJs from the host was shortest at 25oC i.e. 7-8 days in case of S. asiaticum and S...

John G. Bruno

...aptamers from the ELASA screening were then attached to streptavidin-coated magnetic beads (SAv-MBs) and used to capture their cognate and related E. coli serovars. Capture was assessed by fluorescence microplate assessment following acridine orange staining. While there was significant cross-reactivity between the various captured serotypes, each of the anti-LPS aptamer candidates showed a preference for its cognate E. coli serotype. Results suggest that thes...

Zafar Waheed, Khalid Usman, Iftikhar Ali

...lation. All parameters decreased with increasing density of Rumex dentatus except loss in grain yield which increased (1.3 to 69.8%) with increasing density of Rumex dentatus (from 5 to 30 plants m-2). The threshold level of Rumex dentatus was observed in T5 and became worse with further increase in population density ...

Muhammad Shafiq and Tahir Maqsood

...wheat straw and grains increased with B application but there was no effect of fertilizer B on NPK concentration of straw and grains. These results are very heartening; signifying that for any soil, B adsorption isotherm need to be worked out for location precise fertilizer B use.

...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole, Oloke Julius Kola and Awoyelu Hilda Elukunbi

...fected individuals were screened for EBV antibodies over a period of four months (August to November, 2014). The sera of individuals were subjected to serological assay for IgM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean age of subjects was 39.5±0.48 years and the mean CD4+ was 384.27 ±17.77 cells/µl. Out of 278 subjects tested, 11 (4%) were positive for anti-EBV IgM. Anti-EBV IgM was highest in the age group 41-50 years, 5 (5.81%); f...

Dilawar Hussain* and Abdul Mateen

...nificantly (p<0.05) decreased specific growth rate (SGR), net weight gain (NWG), average daily gain (ADG), survival, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PRE), irrespective the addition of the 4TX in the diets. Among different dietary groups of the fish, % survival was not affected significantly (p<0.05). T1 showed maximum NWG (45.49±3.85), FER (0.739±0.02) and PER (36.36±1.83) when compared to other...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

... of the fish such as a decrease in Hb when compared to the control; reduction of MCV, MCH and MCHC to all exposed concentration of aluminium phosphide, significant increase in neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil and monocytes throughout the duration of exposure and decrease in the lymphocytes . The results on gill and liver tissues sampled showed concentration and time dependent significant i...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...ted animals as well as increased mortality in calves and kids. In this study proportionate prevalence of FMD in cattle was estimated and the distribution of FMD according to different factors was evaluated. Both retrospective and prospective FMD clinical cases were included considering clinical signs and drugs used for treatment during 13 January to 15 March 2015. A total of 131 cattle was investigated and 16.8% cattle cattle were recorded as FMD. The proporti...

Fukuan Du1,2, Yan Li2, Zhixin Wen1, Ruguo Chen1 and Pao Xu2*

... libraries from hepatopancreas samples in E. sinensis. After removing low-quality reads, short reads and reads belonging to mitochondria, a total of 278,260,960 clean reads corresponding to mRNAs were obtained, these reads covered a total of 34,780,598,273 bases. A total of 48,657 SSR loci were recognized, of which 10,310 unigene sequences contain more than one SSR. These genetic markers are ideal molecular markers for the following investigating genetic diver...

Bahattin Cak1, Orhan Yilmaz1, Siddik Keskin2, Tahir Bayril3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4*

...) in < 150 days may increase productivity and efficiency of the goat farming system.

...

Shazia Irfan1*, Asima Rani1, Muhammad Arshad2 and Razia Bashir1

...s of metals and minerals creates oxidative stress may play some role in progression and pathogenesis of RA. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene polymorphism [rs2070424 (–251A/G)] in RA and to compare the levels of metals and minerals among its various genotypes in RA patients. A total of 400 individuals including age and gender matched healthy individuals (control group) and RA patients were genot...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...th worldwide. With the increased use of antibiotics in food industry, the problem of bacterial resistance is emerging, hence leading to serious health issues. Among 24 strains isolated from Shaukat Banaspati Ghee industry (Grw) and Shezan foods (pvt) Ltd, Lahore, Pakistan food industry, 10 highly antibiotic resistant strains were subjected to morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization. 16SrRNA sequencing was performed to identify three highl...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...antibody titre has been screened in female and male, respectively. So, based on the sero-prevalence, the evaluation of intrinsic (age groups and sex) and extrinsic factors (season fluctuation) clearly indicated the occurrence of previous outbreaks of PPR virus due to persistency of virus in endemic regions.

...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

... prevalence of PPR was increasing from 27.9% in 2011 to 77.3% in 2016. Seropositivity was higher in wet seasons (60.9 to 61.4%) to 56.7% in dry hot season. Species, year and location appeared to be having significant effect (p<0.01) on the frequency of circulating antibodies in the study. The results highlight that PPR in Hail is alarming and warrants mass vaccination along with appropriate control measures.

...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

...icroorganisms (EM) are increasingly being applied to stimulate nutrient cycling and plant growth. However, information regarding its co-application with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on enhancing spinach yield is scarce. A pot experiment was conducted at Gomal University D.I. Khan, Pakistan, during 2009-10 to study the changes in soil fertility and spinach growth after the application of EM with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers. The six treatm...

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

...s than 1, indicating a decreasing return to scale in milk production. These results suggest that small sized dairy farms are more productive and profitable; however, farmers need to utilize each input at its allocatively efficient level in order to get maximum profit.

...

Qamar Ali, Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan

...ension services.

...

Nusrat Habib, Safeena Inam and Abdul Hayee Qureshi

...tan for the purpose to increase oil production. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa it was adopted from many years but due to some reasons its production and acreage decreased both in Pakistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. During 1997 area of sunflower was 6763 hectares with decreasing trend it reached at 503 hectares during 2011-12 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This study was con...

Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

... sugarcane growers can increase his yield up to 14% and most technical inefficient grower can increase his per acre yield up to 52% in order to achieve technical efficiency level (98%) of efficient fellow grower in study area. Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE) of technical efficiency describes that in study area one percent increase in land under sugarca...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

... dam will irrigate 5000 acre of land in four mouza’s of district Charsadda. Present study is an attempt to determine the impact of Palai dam on the land use and cropping pattern, crop production and revenue of mouza Qilla, Tehsil Tangi, district Charsadda in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Secondary data was collected from revenue office Tangi, and was geospatially analyzed in ARC GIS 10.1. Geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based s...

Sheraz Ahmad Khan and Ghulam Hassan

... breeding programs for increasing yield.

...

Aqila Shaheen and Nadia Sabir

...ilizers). Deep tillage increased wheat yield by 60%, 37% and 29% over ST, STR and DTR, respectively. F2 and F3 increased grain and straw yield compare to F1. In the case of maize, DT increased grain yield by 53%, 20% and 15%, over ST, STR and DTR, respectively. Deep tillage showed statistically higher water use efficiency (WUE) of 4.56 kg ha-1 mm-1 and&nb...

Naushad Khan1*, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Munir Khan1, Shaista Naz2, Javeria Tanveer1 and Muhammad Kaleem3

...mined the effect of ZTBL credit program on maize productivity in district Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. For this, a sample of 226 farmers was selected by employing multi stage sampling technique. At first stage, all the three tehsils (i.e.; Mardan, Takht Bhai and Katlang) of the district were selected. At second stage, two villages from each tehsil were randomly selected. In third stage, all the beneficiaries of ZTBL cre

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

... with the aim to assist screening of various fungal species for antimicrobial natural products. During this study five different fungi, including Alternaria alternata, Acremonium sp., Alternaria brassicicola, Pythium sp. and Aspergillus flavus were screened against Wilt causing pathogens using the dual culture assay. Among them, Aspergillus flavus was found active fungus against the select...

Zaffar Malik, Moazzam Jamil, Ghulam Hassan Abassi, Muhammmad Nafees, Muhammad Rafey and Muhammad Kamran

...ncy limit, however, PI decreased for all the amendments applied and LL showed correlation with φ and TS. Significant reduction (p≤ 0.05) in the coefficient of linear extensibility (COLE) was found for all amendments and the effect of WSB and FA was more pronounced. The values of TS decreased for all amendments while a reduction of 37%, 43.99% and 61.32% was observed at 2, 4 and 6% of applied SB amendment. The C values...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...s (WT). No significant decrease was recorded in the chlorophyll content of overexpression lines whereas significant decrease was recorded in the chlorophyll content of WT plants following heat stress. Similarly, no significant reduction in the water content of the leaves of overexpression lines was recorded compared to 33.87% reduction in leaf water content of WT plants as a result of heat stress. Furthermore, overexpression...

Zeeshan Haider, Inayatullah Jan and Waqar Akram 

...kets which resulted in increased cost of production and decreased farm productivity of tomato. This further resulted in decreased net income of farmers from tomato crop. The study concludes that poverty in these areas can be alleviated if the government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play their role in promoting social cohesion and management of any conflict in future.

...

Muhammad Afzal1 and Murad Khan2*

...cation was proposed to decrease losses due to high mortality particularly in large firms.

...
Wan-Long Zhu1 and Guang Yang2,*
...and body fat mass, and increased food intake. But serum leptin levels showed no significant differences between short photoperiod group and long photoperiod group, and serum leptin levels showed a positive correlation with body fat mass. Hypothalamic neuropeptide NPY, AgRP, POMC and CART expressions had no significant differences between two groups. Leptin was negatively correlated with NPY expression, but not correlated with CART, POMC and AgRP expressions. A...
Naime Zülâl Elekcioğlu*
...plusmn;1 in 2.5ºC increments in the laboratory. Developmental periods of immature stages ranged from 34.98 days at 15ºC to 9.15 days at 35ºC. The lower developmental threshold for C. phyllocnistoides estimated was 8.93°C. Mortality rate of immature stages decreased as the temperature increased, ranged from 27% at 15ºC to 8% at 35°C. Longevity of both sexe...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Zhong-Yuan Zhang1, Yan-Guo Han1, Wei-Wei Ni1, Ming-Xing Chu2, Yue-Hui Ma2, Jian-Ning He3, Huai-Zhi Jiang4, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Yan Zeng1, Ri-Su Na1, Gao-Fu Wang5, Hang-Xing Ren5 and Yong-Fu Huang1*
...icrosatellites did not increase during the reproduction of those six breeds. Therefore, these five fecundity related microsatellites are not appropriate biomarkers for goat breeding.

 

...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...y obtained from animal secretions or plant exudates which include honeydew, fruit juices and both floral and extra-floral nectar. A direct behavioral assay was conducted to investigate the dietary preference and effects of different diets on the fecundity, sex ratio and longevity of B. hebetor. Three different diets [Honey syrup, sugar syrup, date syrup and a control (water)] were used with different solution percentage (25, 50, 75 and 90%). It was obse...
Sidra Ilyas1, Abdul Rehman1* and Qasim Ilyas2
...ys showed a remarkable increase in glutathione (GSH) level after As and Pb treatment in contrast to Cd, Cr and Cu exposure. GSH: GSSG ratio declined after As, Pb and Cr treatment, whereas non-protein thiol levels were higher after Cd and As treatment followed by those of Pb, Cr and Cu treatment. Candida sp. PS33 was able to remove 78% (Cd), 70% (As), 82% (Cu), 65% (Cr) and 87% (Pb) from the medium after 8 days of incubation. This multi-resistant yeast c...
Pinar Oztopcu-Vatan1, Gokhan Kus2, Emine Inan3, Melek Gunindi Korkut3, Selda Kabadere4,* and Ruhi Uyar4
...micro;M 5-Fluorouracil decreased the cell survival by only 40 % after 48 h, but licofelone treatment with the same dose and time duration decreased the number of surviving cells by 87 %. Treatments with 150, 200 and 250 µM licofelone caused early apoptotic cell rates of 4, 15 and 24 % for 24 h and 6, 13 and 24 % for 48 h, respectively. In addition, 150, 200 and 250 µM of 5-Fluorouracil resulted early apoptotic ce...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...ted were significantly increased in all field collected phosphine-tolerant populations when compared with phosphine-susceptible population. Among developmental stages, the 4th instar larvae possessed higher esterase activities than 6th instar larvae and adult beetles in all populations of T. granarium. The increased level of esterases in phosphine tolerant populations as compared to susceptible p...
Muhammad Luqman Sohail1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor2, Omer Naseer1 and Muhammad Usman Saleem3
...lts showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and platelets while total leucocytes count (TLC), neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were increased significantly (P < 0.05) which indicated hemolytic anemia. While, ser...
Abida Butt,* Imtiaz Alam and Rabia Naz
...at stablimenta did not increase prey interception efficiency of the web. However, web design of A.trifasciata showed plasticity that can be explained on the basis of studied body measures.
...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...y.The milk samples were screened with surf field mastitis test and furthered to biochemical analysis. Pearson’ Chi-square test at nighty five percent confidence interval was used to analyze the collected data. Antibiotic sensitivity was checked with twenty four antibiotics by disc diffusion method. Over all mastitis was found 52.5% (63/120) with leading subclinical (41.67%, 50/120) form of mastitis on overall milk collected data. Pathogen type was crowne...
Rashid Mahmood1,*, Waqar Ahmad1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Anjum Shahzad2
...50 flowers in 2013 but decreased in year 2014 by 7.82 to 7.88 per 250 flowers and Non-Apis bees was recorded as 6.15 to 7.59 per 250 flowers in 2013 which also decreased and recorded as 5.35 to 5.70 per 250 flowers in year 2014. The results showed the trends of increase in population of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana between 8.22 to 11.5 per 250 flowers in 2013 as compared to...
Jun Cui, Xiaoxu Zhou, Zhicheng Wang, Derong Kong, Xuemei Qiu, Hongdi Wang and Xiuli Wang*
...tress, suggesting that increase in Wap65 gene may be related to high water temperature stress and play important roles in high water temperature environment of crucian carp.
...
Faiz Muhammad,1, 2,*, Zhang Zhi-Feng,1, Shao Ming-Yu1 and Muhammad Shafi3
...phoid organ and hepatopancrease. 
...
Fazal Said1,Mian Inayatullah2 and Hussain Ali3*
...eir influence on yield increase as well as on oil contents of sunflower seed. Frequent visitations of A. mellifera observed at 1200 noon, where 29 individuals of bee visitors were found on sunflower blossoms. The next high (25 honeybee/3 m2) visitation rate of bee was recorded at 1400 h. Individuals of A. florea showed two peaks of visitation between 1400 to 1600 h. First peak (15 honeybee/3 m2) was recorded at 1600 h, where...
Shazia Ali, Hizb Ullah and Sarwat Jahan*
...in reduced Hemoglobin, decreased RBC production and anemia. Total 300 individuals were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender i.e ≤13 years females, >13 years females, ≤13 years and >13 years males. Height in centimeter, weight in kilogram was measured to calculate BMIKg/m2. Serum ferritin (ng/mL) and hemoglobin (gm/dl) alongwith hormonal assay of GH (ng/mL), T3 (ng/mL), T4 (µg/dL),
Mürşide Dartay*, Tuncay Atessahin and Erdal Duman
...ings clearly show that increasing and/or higher temperatures supported higher CPUE values. In contrast increasing depths gave rise to a decrease in CPUE values.
...
Andrea Rezic1, Ivica Boskovic2, Piera Lubinu3, Marina Piria1, Tihomir Florijancic2, Massimo Scandura3 and Nikica Sprem1*
...dies are required with increased sample size and number of landmarks so as to obtain a more accurate expression of form and better differentiation between the sexes.
...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...to exhibit a many fold increase detection sensitivity and reproducibility hence, can be adopted for routine detection of ToLCNDV from plant extracts.
...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

... blood, fat, flesh and excreta. In developing countries like Nigeria where access to portable water is lacking, it is not uncommon to “reuse” rinse water for processing several batches of poultry carcass.Several samples were collected from three poultry slaughterhouses within Jos metropolis at intervals for a period of 6 months to check for presence of Salmonella during various stages of processing. Salmonella was isolated from at least one of the ...
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
...il;-30‰ with 5% increment) on breeding of red tilapia. Brood fish were stocked in hapa nets suspended in cemented rectangular tanks (11×7×4 feet) . Three females (mean weight 145 g) and one male (140 g) were kept per tank with 2 replications. They were fed with commercial floating pellets having 35% crude protein at 2% body weight twice a day for 60 days and eggs were collected weekly. Results showed that fertilized eggs were found to be gre...
Mirza Imran Shahzad1,*, Anna Iqbal2, Farrah Ali1, Nuzhat Sial3, Muhammad Ashfaq4, Abul Hasanat5 and Azra Khanum6
...imicrobial agents were secretory in nature. Sonicated fractions were on second order to produce antimicrobial activities. The freeze thaw method was least effective in secreting active antimicrobial agents from tested bacteria. From the present study it is concluded that microbes are natural reservoir of antimicrobial compounds.
...

Mohammad Raoofi and Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim

... weed non-interference increased the levels of superior morphological traits of alfalfa, such as fresh and dry yield, plant height, and number of leaves per plant, number of main-stem nodes, leaf area and percentage of vegetation cover as well as increased the nutritional value of alfalfa in terms of nutrient elements, proteins and factors such as ADF, Ash, CF, NDF.

...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...e family have implicit increasing importance as pests of green forest in addition to shade trees, shrubs, and pink wood products as well as vectors of tree ailments. The alien species related to hardwood packing substances have been remarkable tree destroyers in the urban and semi-urban areas of China. In forests flora and fauna inhabitant species take action against disturbances, for instance fires in addition to windstorms, and start the bio-worsening of woo...
Shahzad Ali1,*, Heinrich Neubauer2, Falk Melzer2, Iahtasham Khan1, Shamim Akhter3,Tariq Jamil2 and Sajid Umar3
...igenous cattle. Routine screening and strict biosecurity measures are recommended for prevention of infection in animals. Humans must consume milk after pasteurization. 
...
Wali Khan*, Ghazal Mumtaz, Saima Bibi and Salma Afzal
... vegetable samples were screened for parasitic contamination. The results showed that 10.7% of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with one or more than one species of parasites. Intestinal parasites Ascaris lumbricoides 26.7%, Trichuris trichura 19.6%, Taenia saginata 25 % and Entamoeba histolytica cyst 28.5% were detected. The highest prevalence was recorded for Entamoeba histolytica while Trichuris trichura was detected as the least parasitic infec...
Tausif Ahmad1, Iahtasham Khan2, Saddaf Razzaq1, Saeed-ul-Hassan Khan1,* and Raheela Akhtar3
... samples were initially screened by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). RBPT positive samples were subjected to a B. abortus specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). Serum samples that were confirmed to be positive for B. abortus through serology were subjected to an rPCR in order to test its efficacy in detecting Brucella in blood of infected animals. Initially a Brucella genus-specific bcsp31 genomic region ba...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

... profiles, however, an increase in the mean titer of antibodies was recorded from 17 and onwards. Furthermore, on day 39 of age, the birds of all groups including control were challenged with field strain of IBD virus collected from bursa of clinically infected chicks, No morbidity and mortality were observed. During present study, some milder infection with field strain of IBDV almost a week ago recorded were also found in the control group when challenged wi...
Salman Khalid1,*, Abdul Rehman2, Mohammad Yasin Amir1, Abdul Rehman1, Imran Sarfaraz1 and Muhammad Asif1
...showed the significant decrease (p<0.001) in tick’s count in both the groups (A and B) as compared to group C. The efficacy of Ivermectin and Fipronil, on 28th day was 93.93% and 77.83%, respectively. Hence, the results proved Ivermectin to be more effective than Fipronil. The 40 birds (n=20 tick infested birds, n=20 healthy birds) were selected for haematological study. The results showed a significant decre...
Abdul Aziz Khan1,*, Shahid Munir2 and Irfan Ahmed2
...he consumption of bait increased asymptotically and attained peak on the 7th night. The bait in-take, external and internal pathological symptoms were similar as has been described for warfarin and brodifacoum. The bleeding period ranged from 8.06 to 12.94 nights with 13% variation in time. Based upon the total consumption of coumatetralyl bait, 400-450 wild boars were estimated as killed during the operation. The results of the study showed that co...
Uzma Farid Durrani1,*,Sagar Mal Goyal2, Asim Khalid Mahmood1,Cathleen Hanlon3, Susan Moore3, Muhammad Waqas1 and Raheela Akhtar4
...esponsible factors for increasing incidence of rabies in humans and dogs living in Lahore, Pakistan.
...

Habib Ullah Khan1*, Saleem Ullah1, Hamid Ullah Shah1, Muhammad Arif2

...CFNSP treated soil. An increase in soil pH was noted where treatments variation ranged from 8.10 to 8.32 in CFP and CNS respectively. The effect of treatments on soil minerals in mg/kg indicated greatest variation in Fe from 2.759 to 5.358, Mn from 0.324 to 0.73, Na from.9 to 11.9 and K from 8.60 to 15.30 while other minerals like Cu, Zn, P, Pb and Ni showed moderate variability. It was concluded that acid base treatment of the wood coal resulted in pH, EC and...

Muhammad Waqas1*, Anwar Ali Shad1, Omaira Bashir2 and Mohsin Iqbal3

...ghetti cooking becomes decrease by increase of carotenoids level in spaghetti when compared with control. Organoleptic evaluation of spaghetti prepared from lycopene revealed maximum score of smell, taste, odors, color texture and overall acceptability when compared with other tested sample and control. 

...

John G. Bruno

...r sorbent assay (ELASA) screening were shown to specifically bind their cognate antibodies when captured by their Fc tails on the surface of Protein A-conjugated magnetic beads. While no clear similarities in the partial or complete primary DNA sequences or secondary stem-loop structures of these aptamers were observed, 3-dimensional computer models of these top ten anti-idiotypic aptamer candidates showed some topological similarities which suggest common bin...

Waqar Islam

...t crops are reportedly increasing every day particularly in the countries embedding tropical and subtropical conditions. Integrated management approaches involving utilization of virus resistant crops and efficient management of insect vectors can reduce this disastrous problem. However, in developing countries such strategies are rarely applied due to lack of farmer’s knowledge about plant virus diseases. Therefore, here we reviewed about this issue by ...
Syed Ishfaq Ali Shah1,*, Tassawar Hussain Malik2, Imran Rafi Khan1 and Zahid Hussain
...t to the disease. After screening, the most resistant accessions of USDA were USG-14-2464 and USG-14-2478. However, USG-14-2481 and USG-14-2484 were recorded as partially resistant to CLCuV disease. Among the local germplasms, all accessions screened were found extremely susceptible. Disease index increased with day after planting (DAP) and high infestation level of whiteflies as it was po...
Adel Eid Mohamed Mahmoud*
...recorded insignificant increase in growth rate by 9 g daily with improvement in feeding cost by 10%.Bakery waste can replace corn grains and wheat bran in concentrate feed mixtures up to 60 % in growing lambs rations without any adverse effects on animal’s performance with increasing growth rate.
...
YaQiu Liu and ZhiJian Wang*
... intestines where many secretory cells were present. Highly developed junction complex were seen in anterior intestine. Cytoplasm contained abundant mitochondria and pinocytotic vesicles. Epithelium of posterior intestine was thin, translucent and squamous with dense blood capillary network underground, while there were no folds on mucous membrane surface. Distance between blood capillary network and intestinal cavity was 1.95±0.34 μm. Respira...
Urooj Fatima1, Arslan Mehboob2, Muhammad Abid3, Muti-ur-rehman Khan4 and Tahir Yaqub4*

 

...e country. Samples were screened for positivity and verified for CPV using PCR. From a 30% positive samples for hemagglutination, nineteen (38.4%) samples were positive in PCR. Sequence analysis of the selected positive samples revealed that both CPV-2 and new CPV-2a strains are circulating in the domestic dog poputlation in Pakistan. This pioneer research on the molecular characterization of CPVs in dogs would establish foundations to carry out effective cont...

Sanaullah Jalil*, Asim Hayat, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas, Muhammad Noman, Muhammad Imran Kasana and Muhammad Mazhar Hussain

...rameters significantly increased by the treatments consisting of RP (100 kg) with FYM (5 t ha-1) and EM @ 50 l ha-1, which also enhanced the nutrient uptake of the crop. It can be concluded that accurate use of cheaper rock phosphate, farm yard manure and effective microbes proved as an alternative of costly fertilizers and sustaining the agricultural productivity. Residual effect of rock phosphate with additional use of farmyard manure with effective microorg...

Neelum Andaleeb, Munir Khan and Syed Attaullah Shah

...ousehold head, access to credit, livestock income, tenural status and distance to city significantly affect women’s involvement in livestock farming. Based on these findings the study recommends that significance of women participation to livestock sector must be recognized in government planes and policies. The provision of credit and livestock training facilities to rural women could encourage their participation in ...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
...ible oils. In order to increase the oil production there is dire need to grow more sunflower by using the economical and environment friendly techniques. Present study was proposed to evaluate theresponse of spring and autumn sunflower to chemical and bio-fertilizers for yield and quality traits during 2014 at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The treatments comprised on the combination of chemical fertilizers (No chemical fertilizer, half recom...

Wazha Mugabe1,2, Lawrence Akanyang1, Mackenzie Nsinamwa1, Batanani Moatswi1, Naledi Matthews1, Kealeboga Dipheko1, Imtiaz Ahmed Ujjan3 and Assar Ali Shah2*

...e spacing interval was increased by 100m. The botanical composition (P<0.05) of fodder trees along grazing gradients was composed of 20 and 12 species for fenced and unfenced areas, respectively. The grazing gradient in fenced area recorded the highest mean density (P<0.05) of tree species (1928 units ha−1) as compared to the unfenced area (968.3 units/ha−1). Individual tree species exhibited random patterns of distribution along grazing...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

..."text-align: justify;">Increment in atmospheric CO2, variations in temperature and precipitation are helping tools to forecast scenarios for the climate in an area. Changes in these tools from the past due to any unavoidable circumstances for today and in the future is refers to climate change (CC). Besides other living being, crops are either benefited or adversely affected by these changes in the climate of an area. Maize is one of the widely grown crops in ...

Zain-ul-Aabdin Abro1*, Naheed Baloch1, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2, Waseem Akbar Qazi2, Noor Abid Saeed3

...re carried out at two discrete localities, Jeay Shah and Dehli Farm, in three different crops i.e., bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula) using cue-lure baited traps. The male lure baited traps were arrayed at three meter height and replenished on fortnightly basis in experimentation sites. Results revealed that significantly highest (124.86) population was recorded on L. acutangula and lowest...
Mustafa Cengiz1*, Jama Hussein Ali2, H. Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Adnan Ayhanci3
...er tissue, significant decreased in the number of activated Bcl-2, while increased in the number of Bax and caspase-3-positive hepatocytes, a significantly increase in levels of the activities of biochemistry markers (serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)). In contrast, in the groups given D-GaIN and EA, a dec...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...ticultural commodities increase. The potential effects of climate change have further aggravated the movement of viruses and their vectors, transforming the diagnostic landscape. Geminiviruses are a group of plant viruses characterized by circular, single-stranded (ss) DNA genomes (~2.7 kb size) and twined icosahedral virions (18 x 30 nm). Based on genome organization, host range and insect-vector, geminiviruses are divided into four genera:Mastrevirus, Curtov...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...da leaves tremendously increased germination and reduced damping-off, seed rot, seedling blight and tip over of vegetables (egg-plant, tomato, chilli) in the nursery and leaf blight, anthracnose, fruit rot, root knot and leaf curl/mosaic of tomato and carrot in the field. Aqueous solution of garlic and allamanda tablet sprayed at 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 conc. increased seed germination by 45-60%, completely eliminated d...

 Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Evaluation of shelf life of some value added organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum
... with oil cakes c.f.u. increased up to 60 days and then gradually declined. Among the four organic media, vermicompost retained 21.3 x 10 c.f.u./g at 120 days where as leaf mold,FYMand rice bran retained 20.1 x 10 c.f.u./g, 17.3 x 10 c.f.u./g and 15.1 x 10 c.f.u. /g of substrate respectively at 120 days of incubation. When oilcake was amended with organic material, vermicompost + mustard cake produced high population of the antagonist upto 60 days.

...

Honnur Basha, Vinaya Hemannavar, B.Ramanujam, R. Rangeshwaran and S.Sriram 

Screening of chilli microflora and other biocontrol agents for their antagonistic effects on Colletotrichum spp. infecting chillies
...elonged to Aspergillus, Acremonium, Chaetomella,Cunninghamella, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Monodictys, Mucor, Myrothecium, Penicillium, Periconia and Pithomyces. One-hundred and thirteen isolates of chilli microflora and 49 isolates of Trichoderma, 19 isolates of Bacillus sp., 34 isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens and 29 isolates of yeasts from NBAII germplasm collection of biocontrol agents were tested for their antagonistic effect on Colletotrichum gloeospori...

K.N. Ahmed, S.H.A. Pramanik, M. Khatun A. Nargis M. R. Hasan

Efficacy of plant extracts in the suppression of insect pests and their effect on the yield of sunflower crop under different climatic conditions
...0.8 and 12.0 maunds per acre in the crop fields of Lalmonirhat and Rajshahi Oilseed cultivation Centres, respectively.

...

Sitansu Pan, Surojit Khalko and Amrita Das

Effect of some fungicides on seed mycoflora, germination, viability and their persistence in treated seeds
...lazole 40EC. There was increase in the plumule length of mungbean seeds with prochloraz 45EC and difenoconazole 25EC over untreated control, whereas sharp reduction in plumule length was recorded in rice seeds irrespective of fungicide treatments. The seeds treated with prochloraz 45EC and flusilazole 40EC maintained their viability up to 360 days. Irrespective of nature of inoculum, the seeds treated with prochloraz 45EC persisted longer than that of other fu...

M.K. Pandit,P. K. Pal and B. K. Das

Effect of date of sowing on flowering and incidence and damage of melon fruit fly in snap melon Cucumis melo var.momordica genotypes
...ng crop, tends to bear increasing number of female flowers with time; days to first female flower gradually lessened from the first to the third sowing, which signify longer fruiting period from the first to the third sowing. The infestation level of fruit fly has been found to be higher in March sowing than the other two sowing dates, irrespective of the genotypes, and BCSM-4 was affected the least when sown in January or March by fruit fly. Considering earli...

1N. Johnson Singh, 2Amitava Konar and 3Palash Mondal

Incidence of aphids in different traps on potato in Gangetic plains of West Bengal
...ion of pests gradually increased to reach the peak in second week of February in the first year of study (2006-07) while in second year of study (2007-08) the aphid population appeared in second week of December and attained its peak by the end of February. The abiotic factors viz., temperature (maximum & minimum), relative humidity% (maximum & minimum) and bright sunshine hour had significant effect on aphid population. The same abiotic factors were q...

1S. A. Khan and 2S. Jha

Effect of dates of sowing, moisture regimes, varieties and weather factors on incidences of aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in rape and mustard
...avourable influence to increase aphid population. Weather based regression models, which had coefficients of determination (R2) being significant at 1 % level of significance, were able to account for 59 to 69 % of total variation in aphid population. It is concluded that weather thresholds as identified and regression models developed, along with medium range weather forecasts of 5 days available from India Meteorological Department (IMD), could be useful to ...

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
...l evergreen shade loving creeper belonging to the family Piperaceae. In India, it is commercially cultivated over an area of 50,000 ha as an important and potential cash crop. In spite of the tremendous potentially of the crop, cultivation of betelvine is highly risky and returns are uncertain because of its susceptibility to several pests and diseases, aggravated by the nature of the plantation. A good number of hemipteran insect pests occur in betelvine ecos...

Bushra Afreen, Geetesh Baghel, Akil A. Khan and Q.A. Naqvi

Virus- vector relationship of yellow vein disease of calendula and the whitefly
...not have any effect in increasing transmission of CYVV. As post acquisition access feeding period increased, the transmission of CYVV was gradually decreased. Keywords: Whitefly, Calendula, Yellow vein disease, Transmission

...

Debjani Chowdhury, P. C. Paul and B. Dasgupta

Management of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola
...t spot of Sarpagandha, increased the yield (both fresh weight and dry weight of the plant per sq.M) and increased the fresh weight and dry weight of plants.

...

Amitava Konar, Kiran A. More and Pradip Mondal

Efficacy of some insecticides against cutworm and molecricket of potato in West Bengal
...ound most effective in decreasing the incidence of cutworm and molecricket followed by soil treatment at planting with phorate 10 G @15kg ha-1 with addition drenching the ridges with imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 0.004% (2ml/10L of water) on the occurrence of the pest (T6 ) than other treatments as well as control. Both the treatments (T5 and T6) were more or less equally effective to decrease the incidence of cutworm and molecrick...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
... latex supply and area increase in papaya cultivation.


...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...technique, whereas 15% increased seed germination and 26% reduced disease incidence is recoded when compared to untreated control. In pot experiments, there is an increase in height and weight of the plants by 22% and 44% respectively in seeds treated with C. aromaticus when compared to chemical fungicide Bavistin and also 13% reduction in disease incidence is observed when compared to untreated control. From the results it ...

S.K. Sahoo

Incidence and management of mustard aphid (Lipaphis ery-simi Kaltenbach) in West Bengal
... to 1310.3 kg seed/ha. Incremental cost benefit ratio indicated that most favourable return was obtained under Dimethoate 30EC (1:20.8 & 1:13.3) followed by Oxydemeton-methyl 25EC (1:16.8 & 1:9.1), while poor incremental cost-benefit ratio was observed in Fipronil 5SC (1:5.8 & 1:2.1) and Acephate 75 SP (1:7.1& 1:4.3) during the year 2010-11 and 2011-12, respectively.

Goutam Samui and Shantanu Jha

Branch gall of mango (Oligotrophus mangiferae Keiffer) its bioecology and management
.... Initially the pupa was creamy white in colour which gradually turned light yellow and finally blackish. Adults were grey in colour and 2-3mm in length. A single species of parasite (Tetrastichus spp.) was found to emerge from the gall. Pruning at 30 cm had been found to be most effective in managing the pest. Spraying of thiamethoxam @ 0.008%, imidacloprid @ 0.006% and monocrotophos @ 0.005% gave effective control of the pest.

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...th and vigour. Maximum increase in germination by 13.64% (chilli), shoot length by 59.69% (tomato), root length by 84.51% (cauliflower) and biomass by 46.55% (cauliflower) were obtained by the isolate B16 followed by B14 and B13. However, the isolate, B18 showed negative result with maximum reduction in germination by 25.56% (cauliflower), shoot length by 67.06% (cauliflower), root length by 88.50% (cauliflower) and biomass by 34.91% (chilli). Whereas, in the ...

Dipak Mandal, Paramita Bhowmik and M.L. Chatterjee

Evaluation of new and conventional insecticides for the management of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rapeseed (Brassica juncea L.)
...eated plot (1: 10.27). Incremental cost benefit ratio indicated that highest return was obtained from imidacloprid (1:16.12) followed by lambda-cyhalothrin (1: 15.68) treated plot.
 

 

...

M.A. Pendse, P.P. Karwande and M.N. Limaye

Past, present and future of nematophagous fungi as bio-agent to control plant parasitic nematodes
...rdinated research to i) screen different strains of NF that are tolerant to antagonism by other fungi, and ii) develop a bioagent based on nematophagous fungi which will show consistent success for the controlling of phytonematodes are also suggested.

...

A.A. Oyerinde, P.Z. Chuwang, P.Z. and G.T. Oyerinde

Evaluation of the effects of climate change on increased in-cidence of cowpea pests in Nigeria
...nge (IPCC) predicts an increment in mean atmospheric temperature from 1.1 to 6.4°C toward the year 2100 with equally increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Such climatic changes could profoundly affect insect’s population on essential crops. This study was conducted during the 2010 and 2011 cropping season at the University of Abuja Teaching and Research Farm (Nigeria) in order to determine the impacts of cli...

D.K. Hazra, Megha Pant, S.K. Raza and P. K. Patanjali

 

Formulation technology: key parameters for food safety with respect to agrochemicals use in crop protection
...squo; because of their increased in dose rate or repeated applications to get desired bioefficacy which lead to accumulation of pesticide residues in food commodities along with environmental pollution. Conventional formulations, because of their characteristics i.e. dustiness and use of volatile organic solvents in their preparation maximize several problems like health haz-ards and environmental pollution etc. With the incre

Dharmishthabahen R. Shah and Abhishek Shukla

Reaction of gerbera cultivars to spider mite, Tetranychus urti-cae Koch (Tetranychidae: Acari) under polyhouse conditions
... gerbera cultivars were screened for their reaction against spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch under the polyhouse conditions. Results showed that the gerbera cultivar Cherany was highly tolerant with lowest mite popu-lation (1.62mites/plant) whereas Venezia and Fana were tolerant to spider mite with 7.72 and 9.67 mites per plant, respectively. The gerbera cultivar C. F. Gold (13.31 mites/plant) and Stanza (15.56 mites/plant) were medium tol-erant under pol...

Dinesh Kachhawa and Sahidur Rahman

Factors influencing incidence of red spider mite of tea, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) in Assam
...n, there was a gradual increasing trend in egg number to reach the peak population in the month of April. From April to June overall higher population of eggs/leaf was noticed. Afterwards sharp decline in number of eggs was noticed during July and August. Again population of eggs was increased during September and October. Very minimum population of eggs was observed from Novem-ber to January. Population of eggs was started ...

Amitava Konar and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of aphids on various potato germplasms in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal
...ona-2 and Atlantic were screened against aphids. Potato seed tuber was planted by end of November following all standard agronomic practices except insecticide application. The aphid species viz. Myzus persicae (Sulzur) and Aphis gossypi Glover were recorded first during third week of December and crossed the threshold limit (20 aphids/100 compound leaves) during first to second week of January in Kufri Chandramukhi whereas in Kufri Jyoti and Kufri Joawhar, th...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...rming (PF), production increased by 40 to 60 percent farmers’ margins of the produce and reduction of the commission charged by the middlemen to 7-10 percent. Further, bargaining power, capacity building, optimal crop protection and produce quality were improved and the cost of cultivation has reduced at Agaram Village, Dharamapuri, Tamil Nadu of Adhiyaman Precision Farmers Association (Ramasamy 2007). Their “PA” is a fine example of communit...

K. K. Hegde and B. S. Nandihalli 

Bioefficacy of some indigenous products in the management of okra fruit borers
...87 q.ha-1. The highest incremental benefit: cost ratio was noticed in endosulfan treatment (15.00) followed by treatment involving NSKE alternated with cow urine 10% (13.00), repeated sprays of GCKE (10) and NSKE alternated with cow dung 10% (7.90).
 

 

...
Bao-Ming Ge* Dai-Zhen Zhang, Qiu-Ning Liu, Sen-Hao Jiang, Jun Cui, Chun-Lin Zhou and Bo-Ping Tang
...ording to the dike age increasing should be considered as the main factor explaining such variation.
...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
...al damage. We detected increased symptoms of arthritis and gastrointestinal tract involvement in gluten containing diet group compared with standard diet disease control group. ANA autoantibodies, C3c and renal damage between gluten and standard diet group was non-significant. The remission of SLE manifestations was observed in prednisone treated group except renal damage. From the study it was concluded that gluten intake could worsen the clinical manifestati...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
...hey constitute in milk secretions of animals and humandisplays a variety of antimicrobial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory as well as a number of other biological functions. Its potential can be exploited in several food applications. Keeping in view the increased demand of natural antimicrobial agents to control prevalence of food borne pathogens in final packaged food products as well as for food preservation/ biocontrol,...
Sadia Munir1a, Asif Nadeem1a*, Maryam Javed1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3 and Sidra Manzoor1 
...y, Pit1 gene was screened for polymorphic sites in Sahiwal cattle. Samples from Sahiwal cattle breeds were sequenced using six set of primers. A total 15 polymorphisms; 12 in intronic and 3 in exonic region, were identified. The sequences of the amplified Pit1 gene fragments were aligned with the help of BLAST for SNPs identification. This is a first report toward genetic screening of this gene at molecular lev...
Hai-Ji Zhang1, Di Zhang2, Dong-Min Hou1 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
... that food deprivation decreased body mass and body fat mass. After refeeding, body mass can not be returned to the control value on refeeding 12 h, and it returned to control level on refeeding 7 days, but body fat mass can not be restored to the control level on refeeding 7 days. RMR and mass of liver decreased significantly in fasting groups, which can return to the control level after refeeding. Fasting for 12 h de
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
...feeds and signifcantly decrease the grain yield in wheat crop. Field experiment was conducted at NIAB, Faisalabad to evaluate the use of the planting time and the insecticide sprays for managing aphids to avoid losses to grain yield. During the crop season in year 2015-16, wheat variety (Millat 2011) was sown on three planting dates: mid Nov (crop 1), end Nov (crop 2), and mid Dec (crop 3). Trial was laid out in split plot design having three replications. Pla...
Burhan Azam1, Muhammad Naeem Tahir2,*, Faisal Shahzad2, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Abbas4, Madiha Gohar5 and Saima1
...nt linear (P<0.001) increase in the intakes of DM, CP and NDF by the animals with increasing level of enzyme in the diet. The milk yield increased until an enzyme supplementation of 15 g/day (T3) and then dropped. The yield of milk protein, fat, solids not fat and lactose were not affected (P>0.05). Milk fat, solids not fat and lactose concentrations differed (P<0.001) among the t...
Ayesha Zahid,Ammara Muazzam, Sidra Mustafa, Saba Irshad*,Malik Siddique Mahmood and Rehman Shahzad

 

...104G>C) (pE368Q) was screened by PCR-SSCP in exon 2 of GJA8 and this tansversion altered exceedingly conserved glutamic acid to glutamine at site which was involved in coding of ASF1 like histone chaperone. Further presumption based on structural and functional analysis of mutated protein was anticipated by bioinformatics tools, which manifest mild changes in overall charge but altered post translational modifications in a way which might have a deleterious...
Madeeha Arshad1, Naveed Ahmad2,*, Muhammad Khalid3, Asmatullah1, Mohammad Tahir2, Khadija Naveed1 and Asia Iqbal4
...dy weights parallel to increase in dose concentration, as compared to control and vehicle control. Morphometric studies showed significant differences in nervous, integumentary and skeletal systems against control. Exencephaly, Omphalocoel, hygroma and limb abnormalities were recorded. It is shown that Cr VI causes teratogenic effects in mice embryos.
...
Jia-xiang Wang1,2,* and Peng Li1,2
...for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been identified in the pancreas of many vertebrates. While ghrelin has been found in the cerebellum and gastrointestinal tract of African ostrich chicks, little is known about its distribution in the pancreas ofthe African ostrich. In the present study, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in th...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...ty (32.8-43.6%), yield increase (20.9% - 26.8%) and benefit-cost ratio. Integrated approach was the best approach followed by prophylactic and curative soil disinfestations. Thus, for the present micro-level situation vascular bacterial wilt malady can be addressed by prophylactic application of lime at 500 kg/ha and bleaching powder 20 kg/ha in the soil four weeks before transplanting followed by seed dressing with 20g bioinoculant formulation per kg seed, pr...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...ent infestation (92%), increase in germination percentage (36.04%), 88% increase in the quantity of viable seed after storage and benefit-cost ratio. Therefore, seed dressing with neem or mustard oil at 2ml/kg seed can be finally recommended from the present findings for safe storage of black gram for the purpose of food and seed under homestead conditions of Purulia district of West Bengal.
...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

...MDA for H5N1 gradually decreased from 5.1 to 0.4 log2 and disappeared with in a month. While MDA for NDV remained 2.1 log2 until 28th day of age, the Geometric mean titers (GMT) for H5 were increased from the 7th day of age using both antigens (RE-5 antigen) and (S75/Egy/2015 antigen). Generally, GMT post-challenge was increased as the chicks overcome the infections. In conclusion, our res...
Mehmet Avci1, Recep Aydin1,* and Jale Metin Kiyici2
...concentrate feed did not created any significant differences in live weights, daily weight gains, feed conversion ratios and behavioral characteristics of the calves.
...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Sultan Ayaz2, Sajid Umar4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Muhammad Shafee6, Ikramullah Khan7, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Azmat Ullah Khan8Naimat Ullah Malik1 and Abdul Razzaq9
...hree districts and were screened through microscopy. Results yielded an overall prevalence of 11.11%, with significant difference (P<0.05) among different study areas. Prevalence was highest in district Bannu (11.66%), followed by district Lakki Marwat and Kohat with 10% in each district. Statistical analysis revealed significant difference (P<0.05) among children of different age groups with highest disease prevalence in children of less than 5 years of...
Rafi Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan1,*, Abdul Hafeez1, Asad Sultan1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2, Naila Chand1 and Naseer Ahmad1 
...gradually decline with increasing dietary level of SCM inclusion levels (P < 0.05), indicating higher economic benefit. However, the gross return per bird and profit per kg meat were higher for diet D4 (P < 0.05). It was revealed that replacement of soyabean meal with silkworm meal did not affect broiler performance and carcass quality; therefore silkworm meal may effectively be used as a low-cost protein constituent in the broiler finisher ration.
...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Moez Ayadi1 and Shabana Naz2
...ignificant (P<0.05) increase of calcium (Ca), Zn, Co and Se levels in blood of ewes treated with bolus with a significant increase in phosphorous (P), Co and Se in the blood of their newborn lambs. Furthermore, a significantly higher (P<0.05) inorganic matter percentage in colostrum was found in treated group compared to the control. The body weight of lambs in treated group at 30 and 60 days was significantly (P<0....
Wenqiao Hui1, Jishun Tang1, Dejian Zhu1, Qian Ban2* and Sheng Chen1*
...d that probably leptin secreted in the adipose tissue via its receptor leptin receptor through the JAK2/STA3 signal pathways, promote the upregulation of KISS1, which activates TRPC5, and, inhibit the release of NPY, thereby promoting the release of GnRH, thus hastening the onset of puberty in goat. During this process, leptin, LEPR and its signal pathways may act as a link between the adipose and puberty onset in goat. However, further more studies need to be...
Nasar Khan1,2, Fahad Ali3,7, Sulaiman Bahadar5,*, Khalil ur Rahman3, Abdul Aziz3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Daud6, Azam Hayat5 and Mujaddad ur Rehman5
...y to October, 2013 were screened for HBV by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Out of 659, 522 (79.21%) were found positive for HBV, of which 318 (over all 4.4%) were male, while 341 (over all 3.55%) were female. The HBV PCR positivity rate was 80.18% (n=255) in males and 78.30% (n=267) in females patients. Among different age groups HBV PCR positivity was highest (n=181, 83.41%) in the age group of 31 to 40 years. HBV genome was detected in 79.21% of HBsAg ...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1*,Ibrahim Alhidary1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Rifat U. Khan3, Abdel Raouf S. Bello4, Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2 and Ramzi A. Amran1
..., while propionic acid decreased significantly in T1. Valeric acid and butyric acid decreased significantly in T1 and T2 while isovolaric acid and the ratio of acetic acid and propionic acid and glucose increased significantly in T1. In conclusion, feeding TMR with alfalfa hay, regardless of the supplementary protocol, causes a significant change in rumen fermentation patterns as a result ...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2,*, Tanveer Hussain2, Rashid Saif2, Sadaf Rashid3, Hanan Sarfraz4, Abbas Ali Shah3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
... and control group were screened and found as negative for this polymorphism. In-silico analysis through mutation taster, exon splicing enhancer and polyphin2 software predicted this polymorphism as a site broken and possibly damaging. These findings suggest that BDNF polymorphism Val66Met has some possible role in OCD development in Punjabi patients.
...
Sidra Manzoor1,Asif Nadeem1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Wasim Shehzad1, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Muhammad Imran1, Tanveer Hussain2, Abdul Wajid1 and Maryam Javed1
...e in mRNA. However, to increase the selection efficacy of dairy animals, the effects of candidate polymorphism should further be screened in different environments and genetic backgrounds.
...
Mehwish Faheem1,*, Saba Khaliq2 and Khalid Parvez Lone2
... BPA, vtg level decreased compared to 100µg/l exposed fish. These results showed that BPA has estrogenic action and cause endocrine disruption in juvenile C. catla at environmentally relevant concentration. Moreover, these results also depict the non-monotonic, biphasic dose response to BPA. 
...
Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
...ith prey as a host. An increased numbers of C. septempunctata was observed when host plants were added with aphids. But was no significant difference in most of the combinations except wheat with aphids (3.8889±0.4554). The fresh leaves of rose, citrus, brassica and wheat (1.2±0.2006, 1.3556±0.1416, 1.5778±0.1829, 2.1444±0.2027, respectively) attracted significantly more numbers of C. septempunctata as compared ...

Shahid Iqbal Khattak1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Khalid Naveed2 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan1

...ost ratio and relative increase in income as compared to soil applied method. However, maximum grain protein content was recorded in soil applied method in comparison to foliar N application. In conclusion, higher results for all the quantitative parameters were observed at 120 kg N ha-1.

...

Umer Wahid1, Shahid Ali2* and Nihal Ahmad Hadi3

...the study area need to increase the number of seedling for the purpose to increase the productivity. It is further recommended that government should provide training facilities to the farmers to improve their skills, as a results of which the productivity will be increased

...

Naveed Muhammad, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Ibrahim and Salman Khan

...ion of short-term formal credit and subsidies on seed, chemical spray, fertilizers and other underutilized inputs/ capitals. 

...

Furukh Faiz1,2, Muhammad Issa Khan2, Masood Sadiq2 and Haq Nawaz3

...eed of the broiler was increased, its feed intake and the body weight decreased but the citrus waste has non-significant effect on the feed conversion ratio of the broiler birds. The results also showed that citrus waste in the feed have positive effect on the antioxidant status of the broiler birds. The activity of the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the broiler blood was in
Oaj Khurshid1*, Naureen Aurangzeb1, Ayaz Khan1, Alia Naz1, Abdullah khan1, Sobia Nisa2 and Sehrish Sajawal3
...be supportive not only increase moisture holding capacity but also help to sustain soil conditioning. Composting through MSW could be introduced country wise as solid waste management option for the recycling and reuse of the organic remains.
...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...landholdings up to five acres and majority (77%) respondents were involved on full time basis in agriculture whereas 80% of the respondents reported agriculture as their major source of income. FSC was the major source of agricultural information followed by agriculture extension department. More than half of the respondents (i.e. 60%) reported that FSC arranged trainings for them regarding their capacity building. Fertilizer application was the major skill st...
Hazrat Ali1,*, Wajid Ali1, Karim Ullah1, Fazle Akbar1, Sher Ahrar1, Irfan Ullah1, Irum Ahmad1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Ikram Ilahi2 and Muhammad Anwar Sajad3 
...ons showed significant increase down the stream. Similarly, a comparison of metal concentrations in muscles of the two species generally did not show significant differences between the two species. Zn concentrations in fish muscles were higher than Cu concentrations in all cases. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values for Cu were in the order of kidneys > muscles > liver > gills > skin while for Zn the order was skin > kidneys > liver > gill...
Aneela Qureshi1, Ammara Ainee1*, Muhammad Nadeem1, Masooma Munir1,2*, Tahir Mahmood Qureshi1, Saqib Jabbar2
...low in volume and with increased hardness. Treatment (T3) containing 5.6g grapefruit albedo powder shows significantly (p<0.05) higher sensory scores in term of color (8.02±0.50), flavor (8.04±0.29), taste (8.18±0.37), mouth feel (8.03±0.41) and overall acceptability (7.84±0.28) during 30 days of storage. It is concluded that grapefruit albedo fiber could be utilized as a source of fiber to further enhance the n...
Huseyin Sasi1* and Gulcin G. Ozay2
...983) for males. Weight increased negatively allometrical with the fork length for both sex. The average condition factor for females was calculated as 1.37 while 1.32 for males. The sexual maturity age of females and males was determined to be II age group and first sexual maturity. The total length was found as 11.33 cm for female and 10.89 cm for male. According to the trends of GSI values, it was assumed that their season of reproductivity was between March...
Wu Yi-qun* and Xu Xiu
...rom 13:30 to 14:00 and increase from 14:00. Lying behavior reaches a maximum proportion from 13:30 to 14:00. Correlation analysis on the wintering behaviors shows that there is a significant positive correlation (P < 0.05) between feeding and walking, air movement and chasing behavior, and the positive correlation between lying and preening behavior is also significant. The results also showed that weather conditions has obvious influence on wintering behav...
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
...growers and yield mound/acre of citrus had relative significant impact of the adoption of different recommended practices.
...

Dilshad Ahmad*, Muhammad Irfan Chani and Asad Afzal Humayon

...trition requisites for increasing population unfeasible without sustainable agriculture growth. Forecasting plays an imperative role in adjusting the vision and applicability regarding aspirations. The study attempted to forecast major crops area, production, yield and per capita food availability using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Sixty-seven years annual time series data from 1947-48 to 2013-14 was obtained to forecast major crops ...

Aftab Wajid1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Awais2, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman3*, M. Aown Sammar Raza2, Usman Bashir2, Muhammad Naveed Arshad1, Sana Ullah4, Muhammad Irfan5 and Umair Gull1
 

...different nitrogen (N) increments (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha-1) for efficient and effective resource (nitrogen) utilization. The study was conducted in Multan during cotton growing season in 2014. Cultivars as well as nitrogen increments significantly contributed to the related traits of cotton growth, seed cotton yield and yield attributes. Increasing N incre
A. Hamid1,*, M. Ilyas2 and S. Kalsoom3
...rides levels were also decreased accordingly while a higher ratio of HDL was recorded in rats fed on BGF and SGF compared to the other feeds. The results suggest that BGF and SGF containing the soluble ß-glucan extract can reduce TPC, VLDL, LDL, and triglycerides and higher HDL.
...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

... might be minimized by increasing their educational level and providing training opportunities especially in supervision and administration to deal effectively with all the stakeholders of the farming community.

...
Shuangye Wang1, Yunlin Zhao1, Zhenggang Xu1,2,*, Li Li3, Liang Wu1, Choucang Duan1 and Jiao Peng1

 

...ting, feeding, moving, excreting, parental behaviour, embellishing, rutting, vigilance and social behaviour. This study analyzed the time-allotment and behavioural rhythms for resting, feeding, moving, and excreting categories. The result showed that before 9:00 and after 18:00 hours, the Miluwere almost always resting. Resting behaviour was exhibited and maintained at a high frequency in other periods as well. Fluctuations ...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
...nts were carried out to screen resistance of chili cultivars against Meloidogyne incognita and Sclerotium rolfsii and their integrated management by using derosol, cadusafos and Trichoderma harzianum in the green house at 25 ± 4ºC. Primarily, 15 chilies cultivars viz., 28-2010, C-72, Sanam, C-73, Gola Peshawari, 27-2010, Tata Puri, C-302, C-33, C-19, 5-2010, C-68, 11-2010, 18-2010 and 15-2010 were evaluated agains...

Muhammad Ibrahim and Ahmad Khan*

... maturity delayed with increasing urea N proportion in residue or plastic mulching. The days’ differences for silking across the years were apparent in residue mulching than plastic mulching. Plastic mulching had improved emergence m-2, the application of 50% FYM had increased plant at harvest (2%) over control (no-fertilized) plots. In conclusion, the plastic mulching had increased ...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Tasneem Hameed1, Muhammad Afzal2, Arshad Javid3, Nosheen Aslam4, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah6, Majid Hussain5, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1 and Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1
...was also significantly increased (p<0.05) by 1000 FTU kg-1 level of phytase supplementation. Digestibility coefficients for sunflower meal based diet increased 15.76%, 17.70% and 12.70% for crude protein, crude fat and apparent gross energy as compared to the reference diet, respectively at 1000 FTU kg-1 level. It was concluded that the phytase supplementation to sunflower meal based diet at 1000 FTU...

Attaullah Khan1, Muhammad Shafi1*, Jehan Bakht2 and Shazma Anwar1

... results revealed that incremental increase of salinity stresses had decreasing effect on growth parameters compared with control. Highest germination (85.42% and 84.31%) was recorded from wheat varieties (Lalma-2013 and Pirsabak-2005). Minimum germination (64.40% and 73.89%), tillers plant-1(2.83 and 3.49), leaves plant-1(11.44 and 12.79), leaf area (21.47cm2 and 25.20cm2) and more days t...

Sania Shaheen1*, Hina Fatima2 and Muhammad Azeem Khan3

...ficantly contribute to increase the rice output. Moreover, this study estimated the sources of inefficiency. Data collected from 300 sample rice farmers into the Kharif cycle (2013-14) at five main rice growing districts of Punjab namely: Hafizabad, Sheikhupura, Jhang, Vehari, and Gujranwala. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) was applied to find the results of a study. Study results reveal that direct seeding method is more profitable for dry rice farmers in ...
Netti Aryani1, Azrita2, Ainul Mardiah3 and Hafrijal Syandri2*
...s showed a significant increase (p<0.05) after 120 days of the experiment. Based on growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass composition, a 6% feeding rate showed the best result for the growth of giant gourami in Maninjau Lake.
...
Mehran Kausar1,2, Naveed Ashraf3, Farzana Hayat4, Asraf Hussain Hashmi1, Saima Siddiqi1,* and Mariam Anees2
...ding to short stature, increased bone density, recurrent fractures, stubby hands and feet with dystrophic nails, unossified fontanels, and an obtuse mandibular. The present study was conducted to determine the underlying genetic cause of Pycnodysostosis in a family from Azad Kashmir, Pakistan presenting with symptoms of multiple recurrent fractures, short stature, increased bone density and stubby hands. We performed direct ...
Ayşe Gül Harlıoğlu*
...ignificant (P<0.05) decreases were observed in C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3, C20:1n-9, C20:2n-6, C20:3n-6 between fertilized eggs and absorbed yolk-sac larvae. Moreover, a significant (P<0.05) decrease was observed in n-6 value between the fertilized eggs and the absorbed yolk-sac larvae. It reduced from 17.45% at the fertilized eggs to 10.19% at absorbed yolk-sac larvae. It is considered that the redu...
Tiansen Li1, Meiling Huang2, Zhen Wang1,Fei Guo3,Hui Zhang1,* and Chuangfu Chen1,*
...rent strain 2308. With decrease in the spleen/body weight ratios of mice infected with omp10 mutants were noted, inhibition of phagosome-Lysosome fusion was dramaticly impaired, and profound increase of apoptosis rate after exposure of RAW264.7 to omp10 mutants at 12 h, 24 h and 48 h compared to RAW264.7 exposed to 2308. Results indicate that Δomp10 mutant would affect its survival and pathogenicit...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

...f little less than 5000 acres in the southern, central and northern zones located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. Yellow rust occurrence was distributed over an area of 463 acres in all three wheat production zones. Maximum yellow rust impact values (estimated by Field Impact Factor (FIF) of 121, 201 and 328 were recorded in Bannu (Southeren Zone), Nowshara (Central Zone) and Mansehra (Northeren Zone), respectively...
Usman Waheed1,*, Humayoon Shafique Satti2, Muhammad Arshad3, Ahmed Farooq3, Abdul Rauf4 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer1,5
...nd syphilis is rapidly increasing among high risk groups (HRGs) in Pakistan leading it away from achieving the 6th millennium development goal of halting and reversing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Syphilis increases the risk of HIV transmission by two to five times, and this co-infection is common among HRGs. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis among selected HRGs. During a...
Kadir Karakuş1, Bahat Comba2, Abuzer Taş3, Tunahan Sancak3, Arzu Comba2, Devrim Saripinar Aksu4, Hasan Koyun5 and Mohammad Masood Tariq6,*
...-old sheep revealed an increase in the body weight which was similar to that in the control group.
...

Kamran A. Awan1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal3

...>Rains are expected to decrease and temperature has to rise for wheat growth in Pakistan. Wheat crop is planted on more than 52% area as rainfed crop in the providence Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa (KP). The study, therefore, aims to plant wheat in season from early to late i.e. November 15 to December 25 with about 10 days intervals. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar in winter season 2015-16. Experiment was...
Naila Chand1,*, Shabana Naz2, Hamza Maris1, Rifat Ullhah Khan1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi1
..., weight gain, FCR and increased immunity were under heat stress condition.
...
Hameeda Kalhoro1, Abdul Malik2,Ghulam Abbas2,*, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Sajjad Ali Shah4and Haleema Kalhoro3
...arious feeds on growth increment, body constituents and survival rate of snakehead (Channa marulius) cultured in plastic tanks (42.5 liters water carrying capacity each). Fish juveniles (length: 10.63 ±0.980 cm, weight: 9.030±1.40g) were stocked after acclimatization. A total of 3 treatments were tested following 2 replications i.e. first treatment (T1, Squid feed), second treatment (T2, Tubifex feed) and third treatm...
Tanveer Ahmad1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Azeem Khan2 and Shahid Zia3
...d of natural fibres is increasing in the world for industrial uses to make high value products. An enormous potential of sisal fibre is present in Pakistan for making ropes, twines, paper, carpets, cloth and handicrafts, which has not been exploited so far. The aim of this study was to design and develop a small-scale portable sisal decorticator for extracting fibre from sisal leaves. A prototype of sisal decorticator was designed and fabricated at Agricultura...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*, Shah Saud Ahmad and Asif Nawaz 

...y services in order to increase per acre yield. This study was conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in the year 2016. The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Farm Services Centers (FSCs) in district Charsadda regarding provision of agricultural services to its member farmers. About 57% respondents were registered with FSC since last 4-6 years period. Also 57% of the respondents mentioned that the extension...
Mohammad Umar Farooq1*, Sarfaraz Ahmad2, Ghulam Nabi1, Ijaz Ali1 and Imtiaz Ahmad1
...(%) MgCha-1 decreased depth wise as well as in total carbon MgCha-1. In grazed site, the carbon decreased due to their shallow roots habit and also least portion of phytomass was left behind on the soil surface. Therefore, maximum carbon was leached down into soil. Similarly in un-grazed site, as their above portion of grass was not so grazed, but the carbon was leached into soil due to their shallow ro...
Saleem Khan1, Amir Hamza2, Farhadullah Khan3, M. Subhan4, Aziz Khan1, Irfan Ali Shah1, Shakirullah Khan Shakir3*
...gamma rays treatments. Increased level of radiation posed adverse effect on number of branches plant-1. However, in case of Bt -121, branches were enhanced in treated as compared to control. Similarly, rise in the number of bolls in the seedlings of Gomal-93, Bt-131 and Bt -121 were observed which seeds were exposed to 20 KR dose of radiation. The findings of the present investigations revealed that irradiation of seeds with rays can improve the gro...
Wanchao Zhu1, Qinguo Wei1, Shuyu Xue1, Huanxin Zhang2, Tianshu Lv1 and Honghai Zhang1,
... to the high value and increasing demand of their fur. In order to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure for the conservation and management of sables (Martes zibellina), we developed six microsatellite markers using a method of fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) from them in this study. The primers designed by Primer Premier 5.0 based on conservative regions were tested on 22 individuals. Our results demon...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...ng and disease causing. Screening of case and control group data showed no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with p-value 0.879 and 0.32, respectively. There was no significant difference in age (p-value 0.081), employment status (p-value 0.34) and matrimonial status (p-value 0.28) but there was a significant difference in their education (p-value 0.0002). The prevalence of C allele was 13.5% in disease, 5.83% in cont...
Muhammad Fiaz1, Khadija Munawar2, Muhammad Mushtaq2,*, Mukhtar Ahmad3, Mushtaq Ahmad Chaudhry3, Muhammad Aslam3, Tanveer Ahmad1 and Nasrullah4
Mushtaq Ahmad1,*, Mehboob Ahmed1,2 and Nasim Ahmad1
... Intensity of staining increased (P<0.05) due to washing and heating during incubation in tampon solution. However, single and double washing and type of buffer did not affect the staining intensity. Higher concentration (1000µg/mL) stained the fragmented DNA better than lower (P<0.05) concentrations. However, double stranded DNA was stained with lower concentration of dye in staining solution. In conclusion, the buffalo sperm should be stained wit...

Abdur Rab1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Naveed Ahmad1, Khalid Nawab2, Syed Ghias Ali3

...tions. Salinity stress increased leaf Na+ and Na+/ K+, fruit firmness and blossom end rot (BER) incidence but significantly decreased the leaf K+ and Ca content of the fruit and yield. The foliar calcium application decreased the Na+ accumulation, Na+/ K+ ratio and BER incidence as well as increased the leaf K+ and Ca content of tomato fruit, yield and f...
Umair Talib1*, Ijaz Ashraf1, Khalid Mahmood Chaudhary1, Riaz Ahmad2
... regarding their help in credit acquisition and dealing with them. Performance of private sector is very poor in provision of information about innovative technologies to farmers. Analysis of satisfaction of farmers with public and private sectors show that farmers are not completely satisfied with extension package of either sector. Therefore, the new strategy proposes changes in working order of both sectors in order to enhance the extension work in the Punj...

Qudsia Khalid, Safdar Hussain Shah*, Faiza Zaeem and Saad Hussain Shah 

...va. L. cv. Swat-1 were incrementally adapted to ionic stress (25 mM LiCl) to asses some of the adaptation mechanism(s). Adapted calli line was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2 mg/l) and kinetin (0.25 mg/l). For regeneration MS medium with 1.0mg/l NAA and BAP + 30g/l D-Sorbitol was used. LiCl adapted line showed significantly higher indices of tolerance than unadapted line at 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM NaCl stress. Adaptation resulted in enhanced ...
Fang Wang, Yong-Fang Jia, Po Wang, Qi-Yan Du and Zhong-Jie Chang*

 

...p19B show a pattern of increase in short time and low concentration, but decline in long time and high concentration. Arα has a trend of increases, ERα shows downwards trend. Dax and Foxl2 are female-biased genes, their expression profiles show similar trends to Cyp19A in ovary, but downwards trend in testis. Dmrt1 is male-biased genes, it shows a trend of in
Alaeldein M. Abudabos1,*, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Elsayeid O. Swilam1 and Mu’ath Q. Al-Ghadi3
...sion score and oocysts secretion increased significantly in the challenged birds, however, Elancoban had no significant difference with the natural products. It was concluded from the present study that natural products could be effective in comparison with anticoccidial drug to control coccidiosis in broiler chicken. 
...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
...ections are constantly increasing worldwide particularly in sub-continent including Pakistan. These bacteria show resistance to wide range of broad spectrum antibiotics leaving the treatment options limited. Manuka honey is traditionally used for medical purposes including remedy of bacterial infection. However, scientific evidences for its antimicrobial effects particularly against NDM-1 producing bacteria are lacking. In addition to antibiotic profiling, the...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Arshad1, Mubasshir Sohail1,2 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa3,4
...e mortality percentage increases. Overall, eucalyptus oil at 5ml dose rate gave best result and can be recommended to manage the varroa mite in apiculture.
...

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

...avian species, causing decreased growth performance and mortality. In this study, 59 pools of intestinal content of layers, broilers, and breeders were investigated from different Brazilian regions for the presence of rotavirus (RVA, RVD, and RVF), avian coronavirus (ACoV), and avian astrovirus (AAstV), using PCR reactions followed by nucleotide sequencing and analysis. Twenty-nine pools (29/59; 49%) appeared positive for AAstV, 6 pools (6/59; 10%) were positi...

Muhammad Sohail1, Muhammad Nauman-ul-Islam1, Hayazuddin2*, Imtiaz Ali Shah1, Abdur Raziq1, Subhan Ullah3 and Arsalan Ali Shah1

...ield and milk fat were increased by supplementation of MSC in the dairy cattle ration. The proportion of MSC up to 12% in the ration has shown the best efficiency of production as compare to other rations. 

...
Aqsa Qayyum1*, Masooma Munir1, Saeeda Raza1, Mussarat Gillani1, Saima Kanwal1, Nouman Rashid1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Zarmina Gillani2
...and dry gluten content decreased from 22.16 ± 1.58 % (T0) to 16.43 ± 1.32 % (T3) and 7.46 ± 0.47 % (T0) to 5.03 ± 0.38 % (T3) respectively. With increasing percent of pea flour in biscuits, moisture, carbohydrates and caloric value decreased from (1.84% - 1.33%), (62.87% - 54.57%), (525.64 Kcal /100 g to 502.84 Kcal /1...
Asim Gulzar1,*, Ather Maqsood1, Munir Ahmed1, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Ali2 and Rahmatullah Qureshi3
.../i> colocynthis increased larval and pupal duration as compared with control. The percent pupation, adult emergence and pupal weight decreased in treated populations as compared with control populations. The results of this study can be used in integrated pest management program for the management of H. armigera.
...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...>
...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...lication significantly increased plant fresh and dry weight, leaf area, proline and decreased root length, number of roots and water use efficiency. SA treatment therefore decreased adverse effect of stress on strawberry plants. Thus the result suggests that SA at a concentration of 3mML-1 concentration could be used commercially to improve yield of strawberry.
...

Rabia Tahir1*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muti-u-Rehman Khan2, Farah Khan1, Hassan Bin Aslam1 and Arslan Mehboob

...ns to elucidate these discrepancies.

...
Aqsa Mehboob1, Noor Khan1,*, Usman Atiq1, Khalid Javed Iqbal2, Rafia Tayyab1, Syeda Suhaira Batool1, Hafiza Saleha Batool1, Sana Amjad1 and Mehwish Tanveer1 
...n (5.07±0.72g), increase in total length (24.25±4.31 mm) was observed in T2. Better feed conversion ratio (FCR) 1.8 and specific growth rate 1.4 were observed in T1. Proximate analysis revealed significant differences (P≤0.05) among treatments and control for crude protein while rest of the parameters remained same. Apparent digestibility of crude protein and fat was found non-significantly different among treatments. It ...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Wasiullah1 and Wiqar Ahmad

...ficantly (p < 0.05) increased the availability of major plant nutrients and SOM under the saline soil conditions. Among the strains, Gloeobacter MMF-4 significantly increased the soil organic matter (SOM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and plant dry weight. Results showed that soil organic matter content improved from 1 to 5.2 g kg-1, NO3-N from 1.96 to 3.53 mg kg-1, P from 1.87...

Zahid Mehmood*, Alam Zeb and Muhammad Ayub 

.... The results revealed decrease (P<0.05) in pH, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity while increase in acidity, total soluble solids during six months storage. Decrease in score of organoleptic attributes was recorded during the storage. The results revealed that (P<0.05) the treatment Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.033% Sodium benzoate + 0.033% Potassium sorbate + 0....

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

...ate that net-return per acre from wheat crop is highest in the Central zone because of conducive agro-climatic conditions. The estimated Cross-sectional Ricardian Model reveals that temperature and rainfall have non-linear relationships with net-return per acre. The relationship between growers’ net-return and atmospheric temperature, represented with a temperature response curve, is inverted U shaped having a yield ma...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali

...nsformation efficiency decreased at 22 days after pollination. Enhanced transient beta glucuronidase (GUS) expression with average frequency of 40.56% was noticed with three days of co-cultivation period while two days of co-cultivation period resulted 24.07% transient GUS expression. Addition of 100 mgL-1 L-cysteine in co-cultivation medium increased the transient transformation by 33.9% compared to control treatment. It ha...

Ghani Akbar1, Steven Raine2, Allen David McHugh3, Greg Hamilton4 and Qurban Hussain5 

...modified machinery, or increased labour. 

...
Asmatullah Kaka2, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff 1, Nurhusien Yimer1,  A.M Khumran1, Akeel Ahmed Memon2, Kazhal Sarsaifi1 andMahdi Ebrahimi3
...crosome integrity were decreased in treated groups. DHA concentration was increased in all supplemented groups. Whereas ALA decreased in all groups except at 5ng/ml DHA was increased linearly by increasing supplementation of fatty acids. In conclusion, combination of ALA and DHA did not improve frozen-thawed bull sperm...
Habibun Nabi1, Saher Islam2, Amna Arshad Bajwa2, Imran Rashid1,*, Haroon Akbar1, Wasim Shehzad2, Kamran Ashraf1, Nisar Ahmad1 and Aneela Durrani3
...(Lahore, Pakistan) were screened for coccidian parasites through microscopy examination. DNA was extracted from positive fecal samples for coccidian parasites and a T. gondii PCR was performed. Five sets of primers were designed using PrimerSelect tool for PCR to amplify SAG2 gene 5’ and 3’ regions. Sequences of 5 fragments of SAG2 were annotated and analyzed using DNASTAR Lasergene. After phylogenetic analysis with 3 clonal types and atypic...
Rehmat Ullah1*, Kalim Ullah2, Inam Ullah3, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Asif Nawaz1 
...cial support should be increased which are working with same interests, to have a better Extension Service in place, functional, operational, adequate and with enough availability of staff. Furthermore funding must be improved, for proper infrastructure and latest communication technologies so that extension workers may have far reaching approach to disseminate the improved technologies and give benefit to the farmers. 
...
Naheed Bano* and Muhammad Afzal
...hytase and citric acid increased the digestibility of calcium and phosphorus with improvement in body dry matter, protein, fat, energy and ash contents of L. rohita. Acidification and phytase supplementation showed significant (P < 0.05) interaction on body composition and mineral utilization in rohu. Citric acid and phytase supplementation improves the diet by increasing the availability of minerals and quality of...

Akerele Dare*, Ashaolu Olumuyiwa Fowowe, Sanusi Rahman Akintayo and Egbetade Adedolapo 

...ly at 10% level. While increases in the amount of the fund in a given year may substantially raise crop and fish production in that same year, it may take up to 2 years to experience a significant output expansion in livestock. Although results suggest that expansion of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund holds substantial positive signals for agricultural growth, especially in the crop and livestock subsector, the somewhat weak effect of the fund on fis...

Trinh Thi Viet Ha1, Pham Duy Liem2 and Li Shuang1* 

...er, complementarity is increasing, through the calculation, Sino-Vietnam trade complementarity index showed an upward trend, which indicates Sino-Vietnam have a potential trade cooperation 

...

Abbas Ullah Jan1, Muhammad Fayaz1*, Yousaf Hayat2, Dawood Jan3 and Ghaffar Ali3 

...and mango and tends to increase in all fruits, apple, banana and citrus with increase in household income for urban households. For rural households with increase in household income, quantity elasticity of all the fruits tends increase with the exception of grapes where it decreases and remains constant in dates. The ...
Mehmet Guvenc1,*, Ayşe Nilay Guvenc3, Ökkeş Yılmaz2 and Mehmet Tuzcu2
...ructose administration increased the hepatic omega-6/omega-3 and 16:1 n7 / 16:0 ratios (p<0.001, p<0.001), but decreased the retinol and alfa tocoferol levels (p<0.01) compared with control group. Resveratrol administration to fructose treated rats decreased the retinol and cholesterol levels (p<0.01, p<0.05), and increased alfa tocoferol ...

Shahab e Saqib1*, Himayatullah Khan2, Sanaullah Panezai3, Ubaid Ali4 and Mazhar Ali5 

...In developing countries, credit fungibility is a crucial issue in agricultural credit market, and Pakistan is no exception. The aim of this study is to explore the credit fungibility and credit margin of investment among different farmers’ group in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The data were collected from 87 subsistence farmers in Mardan sub-district. Mult...
Jiandong Wu, Miao Ye and Zaigui Wang*
...holesterol (LDL-C) and increasing the concentration of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C).
...
Nehafta Bibi1, Muhammad Shafiq2, Munawar Saleem Ahmad3 and Haitao Wang1,4,*
... in social context and increase food intake. Present study showed that flocking in the Eurasian siskin and other gathering birds may influence individual fitness.
...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
...t study is an effort to screen different wheat varieties/lines against aphids under field conditions. Wheat varieties, Galaxy-13, Millat-11, Lasani-08, Faisalabad-08, and two wheat lines NW-1-8183-8 and NW-3-3341-7 were sown at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad during the crop season 2015-2016. The aphid infestation started in mid-January on all wheat varieties at stem elongation stage and incre

Inayatullah Jan*, Sajid Khan, Noor Paio Khan and Muhammad Ashfaq 

...KBL) is one of the micro-credit organizations in Pakistan which are extending micro-credit services to small farmers with the aim to increase agricultural productivity and income of farmers. This study was conducted with the aim to assess the effects of micro-credit programme of KBL on agricultural productivity in district Mardan in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pr...
Zhenyu Chang1, Hui Zhang1, Khalid Mehmood1,2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman1, Xiaodan Yuan1, Zhaoyang Li1, Fazul Nabi1, Xiaoxing Wu1, Xinxin Tian1, Xueting Liu1, Jingen Xu3 and Donghai Zhou1,*
...F3 mRNA expression was decreased by rhTFF3 treatment. These findings indicate that TFF3 attenuates LPS-induced cell damage, and TFF3 mRNA expression is influenced by LPS and rhTFF3 in intestinal mucous epithelial cells in piglets.
...
Boran Karataş, Muhammed Arabaci and Şükrü Önalan*
...ers, who would like to increase the growth rate of the trout, G66K34 polyculture group would be more useful when compared to brown trout monoculture.
...
Tahira Perveen1,*, Shaista Emad1, Saara Ahmad2, Zehra Batool1, Sarwat Yousuf1, Sheeza Sheikh1, Sara Qadeer1 and Saida Haider1
...d group. A significant increased cholesterol levels were observed in fluoxetine treated rats which was not observed in fennel oil treated rats. Therefore, repeated administration of fennel oil may exert antidepressive- and anxiolytic-like behaviors. These effects were found to be comparable to that of the clinically used synthetic drug, fluoxetine.
...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Madeeha Khalid1, Rehman Shehzad1, Sana Mughal1 and A.R. Shakoori2 
...pregnancy accounts for increased mammogenesis. Bubaline placenta was obtained and processed for extraction of extracellular proteins at pH 9.5 using Tris-Glycine buffer. Placental lactogen was purified by gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex-G100 and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE- Sepharose, employing a linear salt gradient. SDS-PAGE was used to monitor the purification steps, and protein band was located by immunoblotting technique. Bubaline pla...
Saba Khalid*, Muhammad Saddique Awan, Riaz Aziz Minhas, Nasra Ashraf, Khawaja Basharat Ahmed, Nuzhat Shafi and Sajid Abassi
...nd disturbances by the increasing human population were major threats to the avian fauna of Rawalakot.
...
Toshina Mushtaq, Muhammad Javed and Sidra Abbas*
...nd to be significantly increased both in liver and kidney after ZnCl2 treatments. Statistically significant increase in the liver and kidney peroxidase activity of 96-h LC50 exposed fish were found as 0.621±0.004UmL-1 and 0.219±0.002UmL-1, respectively as compared to the control fish liver (0.123±0.002UmL-1) and kidney (0.056±0.004UmL-1

Muhammad Anas1, Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar2*, Raza Ullah1, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Sohail Latif5 

..."text-align: justify;">Increasing population and decreasing on farm resources are threating the future food security. In this scenario, the cropping systems which can meet the increasing demand of food, feed and forage are needed. Intercropping is an eco-friendly option for sustaining and increasing the productivity of farmlands. Therefore, a field study...
Jing Xin Mao1,2, Guo Wei Wang2, Yuan She Huang3, Rui Wang2, Guo Ze Wang4, Bing Zeng1 and Fu Yuan Zuo1,*
...expression of BPI gene increased with its increasing age in different growth stages. Ages and tissues are the main factors that influence the gene expression significantly.
...
LX Ye1,2, JX Wang1,2,*, P Li1,2 and XT Zhang1,2 
...nous ligand for the GH-secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), has been found in the testes of many vertebrates, and in the cerebellum and gastrointestinal tract of African ostrich, but there is little known about its distribution in the testes of the African ostrich. In the present study, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the testes of African ostrich were investigated using immunohistochemistry. The tes...

Haidar Ali* and Malik Muhammad Shafi 

...re sector is likely to increase with the decrease in the size of holdings. To generate off-farm employment opportunities agro based industries seems to potential area. Simultaneously there is need for initiating skill development programs. 

...

Imran Ali Rajput1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Imran Khatri1 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi2 

...itive application have increased the input cost of local farmer and similarly aroused the serious problem of pest resistance. The introduction of transgenic cotton since last decades has played a significant role in suppressing the pest population of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund) which is the main pest of cotton in all over the world. Nevertheless, the indigenous botanical extracts have been used effectively against various sucking pests of cotton...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
... programs.
...
Fahad Tanveer1, Adnan Afzal2, Muhammad Adeel3*, Sana Shahid4 and Maham Masood5
...idence of neck pain is increasing day by day due to changed, sedentary, non-ergonomic environment and life style. This becomes the reason of an increased load of human resource and cost. To shed this load of resources and cost, it’s essential to sort out means which give real relief to this increasingly significant problem. To compare outcomes of sustained natural apophyseal glides (...

Bibi Haleema1*, Abdur Rab1 and Syed Asghar Hussain2 

...um application at 0.6% increased plant height (88.04 cm), number of primary (2.63) and secondary (7.15) branches, leaves plant-1 (182), leaf area (65.52 cm2), and fruit per plant (66.15). In case of B levels, more plant height (88.14 cm), number of primary (2.61) and secondary (7.44) branches, number of leaves plant-1 (177), number fruits plant-1 (67.78) were recorded with foliar spray of B at 0.25%, while maximum leaf area was found at 0.5% B. Comparing the m...
Temel Gokturk1, Elif Tozlu2,* and Recep Kotan2
...nst pests and with the increasing awareness on environmental issues, alternative methods were sought in the past; and in this context, studies were conducted to find new methods in which fungi and bacteria were used in the biological control against pests. Totally 10 bacterial strains including 2 strains of Brevibacillus brevis (CP-1, FD-1), 1 strain of Bacillus thuringiensis (FDP-1), 2 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kenyae
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
Quang Minh Dinh
...ep gill nets should be increased and avoiding catch fish during the recruitment period for sustainable fishery management.
...
Shumaila Ashfaq1, Liaqat Ali2*, Muhammad Ashraf Zia2, Rizwan Ahmad Khan2 and Mehtash Butt3
...atient.To compare mean decrease in Visual Analogue Scalepain score in patients who developed PDPH after elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia who were given conventional treatment versus conventional treatment plus hydrocortisone.Double blind randomized control trial. Study conducted in department of anaesthesia and obstetrics of Allama Iqbal Medical College, Jinnah hospital (tertiary care) conducted from13th June 2014to 13th

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Munir3 and Muhammad Sohail Khan

...s for these parameters decreased when pollination was carried out after spathe opening. Late pollination after 12 days of spathe opening reduced fruit set and yield but improved the overall fruit physico-chemical quality characteristics with maximum fruit length (4.15, 4.22 cm), fruit weight (14.23, 14.44 g), pulp weight (13.45, 13.33 g), reducing sugars (21.25, 21.18% ) and total sugars (29.36, 28.85 %). This study proved that pollination at spath opening da...
Aqsa Imtiaz and Abdul Rehman*
...°C and at pH 8. An increase in keratinase activity of B. subtilis BML5 was determined in the presence of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ while keratinase activity was inhibited by added copper ions. A 130-kDa protein was detected from feather-treated bacterial cells, suggesting its role in degrading feather. B. subtilis BML5 can be used to overcome the poultry wastes based environmental pollution and kerati...
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Muhammad Shahzad2, Xiaokang Wu3, Chaofeng Ma4 and Jiru Xu1,*
...s showed a significant decrease in Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Clostridium leptum sub group (*P<0.05) and non-significant decrease and increase in Bacteroides vulgatus and Peptostreptococcus productus, respectively. Summarizing all, in asthma patients, there is a significant change in the molecular characterization of gut microbiota.
...
Muhammad Saqlain1, Humaira Kalsoom1, Muhammad Fiaz1,2, Abid Mahmood1, Rizwan Aziz Qazi4 ,Waseem Safdar5, Pakeeza Arzoo Shaiq1,Bernard M.Y. Cheung3 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1,*
...llele carriers were at increased risk of MetS (OR=3.93, CI=2.09-7.39, p<0.0001) and obesity (for each SD change in BMI, OR=2.00, CI=1.73-2.32, p<.0001). Our genetic study in a population at risk of MetS highlights the strong association of FABP2 54Thr allele with disease and provides further evidence for the involvement of intestinal fatty acid binding protein in the pathogenesis of MetS.
...

Rafiullah*, Muhammad Jamal Khan and Dost Muhammad 

...ing were significantly increased with each increment of foliar P suggesting effective absorption through leaf stomata and translocation to other parts of the plant body. The plant height, shoot and root dry biomass yield increased by 55, 40 and 35%, respectively, at 144 mM KH2PO4 solution over control. The shoot and root [P] as well as its total uptake by wheat seedlings also showed severa...
Hayat Badshah1, Farman Ullah1, Paul-André Calatayud2, Hidayat Ullah3 and Bashir Ahmad1
...% parasitism generally decreased drastically when the time of exposure on mealybug hosts increased. In addition, the host plants species influenced significantly the female fitness of the parasitoid expressed in term of hind tibia length and body weight. The female parasitoids coming from mealybugs fed on hibiscus exhibited a significantly longer tibia and body weight than the parasitoids coming from the mealybugs reared on ...
Serap Gelibolu1,*, Yasemen Yanar2, M. Ayce Genc3 and Ercument Genc4
...ed shown a significant increase in live weight and protein efficiency rates when were directly compared with mock-treated fish control. However, there was no statistically supported level of significance was observed for growth rates and feed conversion rates among groups. Improved live weight and protein efficiency rates reflected positively on the survival rate in MOS-fed fish. Interestingly, the whole body and fillet fatty acid composition shown no-correlat...
Rana Hanan1*, Muhammad Waqar Shafi1, Sumair Anwar2 and Numrah Nawaz1
...ge was 21.6 years with increased frequency of pre hypertensive and hypertensive individuals in the first, second and final year class. A total of 64% pre-obese subjects were pre-hypertensive or hypertensive and 75% obese were also pre hypertensive or hypertensive. Frequency of intake of fast/junk food was higher among pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individual than normotensive and same among both genders. Median value of average sleep (hours) among pre-hype...
Xiaoting Zhang1,2, Jiaxiang Wang1,2,*, Peng Li1,2,* and Lixun Ye1,2
...for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been identified in the lung of many vertebrates. While ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells have been found in the cerebellum, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus), little is known about its distribution in the lung of the African ostrich. To provide the morphological basis of ghrelin function in the African ostrich lung...
Wen-Feng Li, Xiao-Yan Wang, Ying-Kun Huang*, Rong-Yue Zhang, Jiong Yin, Zhi-Ming Luoand Hong-Li Shan
... sugarcane juice yield decreased by 1.73% - 3.28%; the sucrose content reduced by 0.33% - 5.63%; sugarcane brix dropped by 0.70-6.36 BX; the fibre and reducing sugar increased by 0.22% - 0.98% and 0.11%-1.58%, respectively. It was confirmed that in majority of sugarcane fields in Yunnan, China, T. schistaceana and C. sacchariphagus cause severe reduction of sugarcane and sugar yield.
...
Lihong Qin1, Guoliang Zhang1, Chaojie Zhu1, Jian Wu1, Zhihui Zhao2,* and Yumin Zhao1,*
...expression levels were decreased (p<0.01). Furthermore, the luciferase in miR-122/449a co-transfected with pmiR-RB-REPORT-DUSP4-WT or pmiR-RB-REPORT-PDK4/FKBP1B-WT group was significantly lower than pmiR-RB-REPORT-DUSP4-mut or PDK4/FKBP1B-mut and negative control groups. Meanwhile, PDK4, DUSP4 and FKBP1B expression levels were down-regulated due to miR-122 and miR-449a overexpression (p<0.01). Moreover, ce...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2,* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...nts were significantly increased in all field collected phosphine-tolerant populations with reference to phosphine-susceptible population. Among developmental stages, the 4th instar larvae possessed higher microsomal enzyme activities than 6th instar larvae and adult beetles in all populations. The increased level of microsomal enzymes in phosphine-tolerant populations as compared to susceptible populat...

SHARIF UDDIN, MD. HASIBUL HASAN, MOHAMMED MAHBUB IQBAL, MOHAMMAD AMZAD HOSSAIN

...cate that with the increase of body and gonad weight, fecundity was also increased. Microscopic observation of matured female ovary during June to July revealed group asynchronous development. Microscopic observation on matured testes found spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa stages during the month of June and July.
Tariq Mahmood*1, Syed Wasif Ahmed Shah1, Muhammad Rais1, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...ecorded; common myna Acredotheris tristis, house crow Corvus splendens, Indian robin Saxicoloides fulicatus and black drongo Dicrurus macrocerus preferred Kikar Acacia nilotica and Eucalyptus camaldulensis for nesting purpose while black kite Milvus migrans utilized semal tree Bombax ceiba. The weaver bird Ploceus philippinus also utilized only Acacia nilotica for nesting. The common crow, c...

Irfan1* , Arshad Javid2 , Muhammad Altaf3 , Muhammad Shahbaz3 , and Khalid Javed Iqbal4 

...ochemical profile with increase in age were analyzed in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Genderwise variations and effect of rearing systems i.e. free range, semi-intensive and confinements were also assessed from 1st to 6th month of age. Total sixty (n = 60) experimental birds were divided in to three groups i.e., poults having age 4-8 weeks (10

Manzoor Hussaina,b

... perpetrator. With the increase in post-coital interval, the possibility to get the autosomal DNA STR profile of the perpetrator diminishes rapidly from an alive victim. This becomes more serious problem especially when victims of rape cases provide vaginal swabs after several days of the incidence. The study was designed to find the time interval at which autosomal STR system fails to generate the DNA profile the semen donor in the post-coital vaginal swabs. ...

Naeem Iftikhar1, Qamar Zaman Qamar2, Usman Ali3, Muhammad Siddique Awan4, Syeda Shaista Bibi4, Riaz Aziz Minhas4*

...Chinasi range area. An increasing trend in population was observed due to improvement in watch and ward, law enforcement and other conservation measures. Habitat deteriorating, agricultural activities, livestock grazing and seasonal grass cutting, fire and hunting were identified as major threats to the survival of this species in AJK. This study recommended the immediate formulation and implementation of Cheer pheasant conservation action plan along with decl...

 Maryum Fakhar, Iqra Jabbar, Anjum Nasim Sabri*

...ion of two strains are increased. This biofilm forming ability can be employed in
urification of waste waters and treating contaminated soils.

...

 Asma Akhtar, Abdul Rehman

...e (G6PDH) activity was increased to 279% (1f) and 150% (2b) when ompared to the respective control indicating the ability to tolerate tellurite tress. Differential pattern of bacterial proteins in tellurite stress was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Both bacterial strains can be utilized to convert toxic tellurite into its elemental form from the contaminated sites.

...

 Bushra Mazhar1, Nusrat Jahan1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa andleeb2, Shaukat Ali2*

...ice bran oil. After the screening of different bacterial isolates, a novel strain Enterobacter hormaechei showed significant production of vanillin when inoculated in waste residues of rice bran based media. E. hormaechei produced 5.2 g/l of vanillin in culture media containing ferulic acid as a substrate. Optimum pH for E. hormaechei was 7 and the temperature was 30°C. Using optimum growth conditions and suitable fermentation medium, E. hormaechei can be ...
Telat Yanik1,* and Irfan Aslan2
...ure, sustainability of increasing food security and to maintain the ecosystem of the planet.
...
Rabia Qurashi, Qurat ul Ane Gillani* and Furhan Iqbal*
 
...ice showed significant increase compared to the control mice. All other studied parameters remained unaffected indicating that CGP55845 can be injected intraperitonially for the treatment of neurological ailments.
...
Qingying Jia1, Hui Wang1, Tianhong Wang1, Na Dong1, Shuguang Ren1,2, Xiaolong Yang1, Jingze Liu1,* and Zhijun Yu1,3,*
... H. longicornis decreased the hatchment rate of their eggs. These findings suggest that the tick H. longicornis could adapt a wide range of climate conditions and showed high tolerance to cold and low tolerance to heat.
...
Rimsha Nawaz1, Muhammad Javed1, Sidra Abbas1* and Safina Kousar2
...eroxidase activity was increased significantly in both kidney and liver after exposure to iron chloride in all the treatments as compared to the control group. It was found that enzyme peroxidase had activity of 0.364±0.004 and 0.588±0.004 UmL-1 in the metal stressed fish kidney and liver, respectively while in control fish, the same for both the organs were observed as 0.085±0.002 and 0.112±0.002 UmL-1, respec...
Faiza Hassan1, Mubshara Saadia1,*, Muhammad Sher1, Mian Anjum Murtaza2, Muhammad Arshad3,Asam Riaz4 and Mahmood Ahmad Khan5
...gnificant (p<0.001) increase (48%) in body weight of diabetic rats, but found less active in regulating other biochemical parameters. However, significant role of garlic extracts; especially the ether extract (EGE) was noted in normalizing the biochemical attributes. On the basis of findings, it is recommended that the garlic ether extract should be applied in herb-drug combinations commonly used as antidiabetic.
...

Niamat Ullah Khan1*, Abdul Aziz Khakwani2, Sami Ullah2, Najeeb Ullah2, Abdur Rauf3 and Inam Ullah2

... cultivation costs and increases cotton yield and quality on sustainable basis. Field trial was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to study the effect of tillage systems [ridge tillage (RT) and flat tillage (FT)] and 5 nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kgN.ha-1) on cotton lint yields, quality and earliness. Experiment was laid out in a RCB design with split plot arrangements replicated thri...

Soraya Khosravian Dehordi*, Abdolnaser Mohebbi and Kahin Shahanipour

...tion of oxidative stress creates by the common mechanism their carcinogenicity and toxicity. The present study was planned to determine whether an oral administration of nano-selenium (nano-Se) influencing on biomarkers of oxidative status in the rats spleen exposed to the cadmium (Cd) metal. For this purpose, thirty male rats equally divided into six groups, group I received nano-Se (0.1mg/kg) alone as dose, group II selenite odium (0.1mg Se/kg) alone, group ...

Farah Rauf Shakoori, Momina Shokat, Faiza Saleem and Tanzeela Riaz

...as aimed to isolate and screen xylanase producing bacteria and to optimize cultural conditions for maximum production of enzyme from locally isolated bacteria and to optimize the assay conditions under which enzyme possessed maximum activity. Two bacterial isolates XPB-GS02 and XPB-CW01 with maximum activity ratio showed 18.3 and 12.2 U/ml xylanase activity, respectively. Maximum xylanase was produced in medium M1 containing xylan after 48 hours of incubation....

 Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal*, Mehedi Hasan Kanon, Mohammad Amzad Hossain, Abul Hossain, Shamima Nasren, Md. Jahidul Islam, Md. Arifur Rahman

...haor area covers 104.50 acres of land containing 6 small to large beels. In the monsoon haor remains under water. A total of 37 fish species belong to 7 orders including prawns were found. Among the 37 species 5 were vulnerable, 7 endangered, 1 critically endangered, 3 exotic, 20 not threatened and 1 not evaluated according to IUCN, Bangladesh, 2000. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found highest (3.12) in June and lowest (2.9) in January. Margalef richn...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4 and Lorenzo Gallus
...permil; with 5‰ increment) on growth, feed efficiency and meat quality of red tilapia, Oreochromis sp. (mean body weight 5±0.07g) were investigated. Juveniles of red tilapia were randomly distributed into seawater tanks (60 cm × 30 cm × 45 cm each). Ten fish were stocked in each tank with 2 replications. Fish were fed with commercial floating pellet (35% protein) at 3% body weight per day for 40 days. Results showed that fish g...
Muhammad Usman Saleem1, Saima Masood1,*, Hafsa Zaneb1, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Asim Aslam3, Kamran Ashraf4, Habib-ur-Rehman5, Muti-ur-Rehman3 and Muhammad Shabir Shaheen6
...and total goblet cells increased significantly (p < 0.05) in birds that were fed MOS and OAB alone and in combination whereas crypt depth decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the selected supplementation in all small intestinal segments compared to control group. Level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was increased significantly (p < 0.05) by the dietary treatments under s...
Saara Ahmad1,*, Iftikhar Ahmed2, Saida Haider3, Zehra Batool3, Fatima Ahmed4, Saiqa Tabassum3,6, Syeda Madiha3, Tahira Perveen3 and Saad Bilal Ahmed5
...urrent days due to its incredible taste and low cost. However, to meet the increasing demand the chickens are reared commercially through feeds and battery cages allowing maximum weight gain and growth in considerably less time. The constituents that are fed to chickens concentrate in the flesh and bring deleterious health outcomes on the consumers. The ill effects account for hyper-lipidemias and imbalance in the steroidal ...
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 
...e the risk factors for increased frequency of acute exacerbations in local chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in a cross sectional analytical study design. For this purpose 137 patients were included in the study after obtaining necessary permissions from the ethical board of the hospital. COPD was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms and a post bronchodilator values of FEV1/FVC<0.70 on spirometry. Frequent exacerbator’s were...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Ather Javed Khan2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Ahmad Kamran Khan4 

...upon its yield. Our per acre cotton yield is still far behind than the developed countries. Integrated pest management project was launched in Punjab and run by agriculture extension department. Farmer Field Schools were formed at each village level. Present study was designed to evaluate the role of integrated pest management for cotton production technologies by the registered growers of Hasilpur, Punjab. In order to collect this information an interview sch...
Tania A. Shakoori1,*, Soumble Zulfiqar2, Khadija Irfan Khawaja3 and Faisal Masud4
... Oral NaB group showed decreased genetic expression of AMPK (0.04 fold, p<0.001), mTOR (0.30 fold, p=0.04), Akt (0.29 fold, p=0.67) and Sirt1 (0.83 fold, p=0.18). In the I/P group AMPK (2.26 fold, p=0.33), Akt (1.3 fold, p=0.59) and Sirt1 (1.69, p=0.45) were increased while mTOR was unchanged (0.99 fold, p=0.81). Our study for the first time reports on change in genetic expression of Sirt1/AMPK and Akt/mTOR axes in adipos...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

...ting date and yield per acre of different crops, pests and crops diseases, flowering time of fruits trees, biodiversity and livestock’s. Respondents were selected randomly but priority was given to elders and those possess land and practice agriculture. The study reveals that majority of the respondents are well aware of climate change and its effects on cropping calendar, crop variety, crop yield, crop diseases as well as an earlier blossoming of fruit ...

Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Khawar Hussain1, Zilakat Khan Malik2 and Noor Jehan1 

...on of 2898 kilogram per acre. The per acre average values of land preparation, NPK fertilizer, labor, seedling, farm yard manure and pesticides were recorded 6.00 hrs, 248 kgs, 143 man days, 24413 seedling, 1.48 trollies and 1.21 litres respectively. The results also showed that strawberry producers were having 81% of mean technical efficiency with minimum to maximum technical efficiency limits of 0.42% to 0.98% respectively...

Waqas Liaqat1, Mohammad Akmal1* and Jawad Ali 

...by sowing dates, which decreases both biomass and grain yield. Varieties did differ in phenology (i.e. emergence, silking, tasseling, maturity) and morphology (i.e. height, leaf area, ear height, cobs per plant and its weight) that showed differences in biomass and grain yields. The study suggested that a delay in sowing of maize crop from June in the region after Wheat or Berseem harvesting has a significant decrease (p<...
Ann Milliken Pederson
...on of hope and action to create a sustainable and wholesome view for the future. 
...
Nancy R. Howell
...to reflect on the God of creation and redemption. In critique, I ask two questions: (1) What does Peters’ Cosmic History contribute to addressing the issue of particularity? (2) In what ways does Peters lead us to deeper thinking about the nature of God? Surely, reflection on these two questions will show that Peters has generated a fruitful method for and approach to Cosmic History.
...
George L. Murphy
...c one. It is God who created the cosmos so that flesh would evolve for the Word to become flesh, and to unite all things in that incarnate Word.
...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4, Lorenzo Gallus4 and Syed Sajjad A. Shah2,3
...-15% and significantly decreased on 20‰ and 25‰. The eggs per gram body weight were also recorded in all treatments and highest eggs were obtained i.e. 4.0-4.3 per female on 0‰-15‰. Water temperature (28.02±0.12°C), dissolved oxygen (6.4±0.02 mg/L), pH (7.47±0.04) and ammonia (less than 0.022±0.001 mg/L) were monitored throughout the study period. Water quality parameters remained within the re...
Jo Ik-Hwan1, Choi Kwang-Won1 and Muhammad Fiaz2,*
... rye-vetch mixture had increased (P<0.05) crude protein (CP) yield and carrying capacity for Hanwoo heifers than that of rye monoculture. DM and TDN yield under 100 kg manure was higher (P<0.05) than control and 50 kg N/ha levels but not different (P>0.05) with that of 150 kg N/ha. Manure levels did not affect (P>0.05) protein yield. The carrying capacity for Hanwoo heifers was not different among zero, 50 and 100 kg manure levels, whereas it was h...
Tasleem Akhtar*, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Sheraz Ahmedand Imran Bodlah
...llifera started to increase from the third week of blooming (20th Jan, 2015) and reached to maximum in the sixth week (10thFeb, 2015). Among the abiotic environmental factors, temperature had a strong, significant and positive correlation with the foraging activity of A. mellifera on B. napus (r= 0.766; P= 0.0037 **), whereas relative humidity and rainfall had significantly negative correlation (r= -0.759; P= 0.0041 **, ...

Muhammad Luqman1,3, Raheel Saqib2*, Xu Shiwei3 and Yu Wen3 

...information services and credit facilities. This is due to the existing social, cultural and religious norms in the society of Pakistan. The results of the t-test statistics showed that there is highly significant difference in opinion of male family heads and their spouses (female respondents) regarding barriers to gender equality in agricultural extension in Pakistan 

...

Imran Khan*, Zahir Shah, Wiqar Ahmad, Farmanullah Khan and Muhammad Sharif 

...<0.01) by 7-12% and increased the porosity by 9-14%, saturation water by 9-20% and available water by 19-29%. However the INM5:75,10:50, 15:25, closely followed the FYM5,10,15,20 with reduction in BD by 9-11% and increased in porosity by 11-13%, saturation water by 14-17% and available water by 25-30%. All interactions remained non-significant. These results concluded that integrated nutrient management improved the soil ...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Dastagir4, Sara Ferrando5, Lorenzo Gallus5, Asad Ali Muhammad1,6, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khalil-ur-Rehman2 
...showed that the growth increment reared on 10‰ - 20‰ salinity were significantly highest in term of weight gain, WG % of initial weight, daily weight gain, specific growth rate, condition factor and survival rate than those reared on 25‰ and 30‰. Feed conversion ratio was found similar in all levels which is not significantly different (P> 0.05). Whole body composition i.e. protein (53.16% – 53.26%), moisture ...

Saima Akhtar Qureshi1 and Asim Anwar2*, Ather Maqsood Ahmed

...cost of production and increases the farmers’ profit. However, concerns about production may hinder widespread adoption of this technology by farmers. The aim of the study is to evaluate economic feasibility of IPM method in Punjab. The study consisted of 326 farmers (161 IPM producer and 165 NON-IPM producers) and compared input and output outcomes of IPM and NON-IPM farms and provided a detailed evidence of overall production of both farms. The results...

Muhammad Ijaz Khan* and Amanullah Jan 

...psum had significantly increased all parameters as compared with no gypsum application. It is concluded that farmyard manure (10000 kg ha-1) and gypsum (1000 kg ha-1) with five irrigations at the known critical stages (at emergence, 4 leaves, 8 leaves and tassel visible and blister) performed better as compared with other treatments applied for obtaining good return from maize crop in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Province, Pakistan. 

...

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

...s is efficient tool for screening diversity of rust genes in wheat germplasm and can facilitate the integration of multiple genes into wheat by pyramiding and transformation. This review discusses information regarding rust disease and resistance in wheat to tackle the disease through resistance breeding. 

...

Wang Jian1, Abdur Rehman2*, Noor Khan3, Wang Zhengjia4, Ji Peng-fei5, Xie Cong6, Muhammad Niamatullah Khan Babar7 and Raheel Saqib8 

...s consumption have the increasing trend except the Engel coefficient shows the declining trend from 39.508% to 29.355%.The study of regression analysis, MPC (marginal propensity to consume) and APC (Average propensity to consume) clearly shows that in the study area with the rise of rural households income, their consumption demand also increases. The relative co relational analysis shows, that the food consumption ranks fir...

Aneeza Jamshed1* and Syed Amir Gillani2 

...sterilized syringes and screened blood transfusion 86.5%) and management (88.7%). This study showed that it may be an important school health based intervention to educate students about the transmission, prevention and management of hepatitis C, which may help in declining the disease burden. Hepatitis C, Unsterilized syringes, Hepatitis C Awareness, Prevention of Hepatitis C. 

...

Zehra Mohsin1*, Sarah Shahed2 and Talat Sohail

... of social support can increase their compassion satisfaction. 

...

Attia Anwar1, Sajida Malik2*, Zobia Usman1 and Sadia Chiragh3 

...id, blood urea and serum creatinine. All the numerical data were expressed as mean± SD. The values in two groups were analyzed with help of unpaired t-test. A p-value ˂ 0.05 was considered significant. After 24 weeks of treatment with berberine hydrochloride, no significant differences were observed in Hb%, platelet count, liver enzymes and RFTs between two groups. There was a significant increase in RBC count an...
Michael Almeida
...div>Nelson Pike is often credited with offering the most compelling formulation of an ancient argument against human freedom.1 According to Pike, God’s foreknowledge that we will perform some action is inconsistent with our freedom to do otherwise. If freedom requires the freedom to do otherwise, then God’s foreknowledge undermines our freedom. Divine foreknowledge that we will perform some action makes alternative actions unavailable to...

Bashir Ahmad1*, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Hayad Zada2, Shahid Sattar1, Toheed Iqbal3, Saddam Hussain1 and Muhammad Saeed4 

.... xylostella gradually increased from mid of July where the population was 2.1 and 2.0 larvae and pupae per plant in the year 2012 and 2013 respectively. The population increased in September to highest number of larvae and pupae per plant (8.25 and 8.4) were recorded in the years 2012 and 2013 respectively. Then population declined from September to November 3.5 and 3.1 larvae and pupae was recorded per plant in both years ...

Shahid Iqbal1*, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon3 and Intikhab Alam3 

...ne and fodder had also decreased to some extent. Similarly, the use of chemical fertilizers and farm yard manure was also decreased due to decrease in the income of the households after the floods-2010 while an increase, though non-significant, was reported with respect to use of agricultural chemicals. The floods-2010 has also had adverse effects on cro...
Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1,Farzana Abbas2,Ghulam Abbas3,*, Arshad Javid4, Ali Hussain4, Syedah Andleeb5,Khalid Javed Iqbal6 and Muhammad Akmal1

 

...hough there was slight increase in lipid and protein composition but statistically remained non-significant. Our studies suggest that C. marulius did respond to higher protein levels in growth and egg quality though with marginal improvements.
...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...opulation of camel were screened for subclinical mastitis using California mastitis test using convenient sampling technique. Biochemical examination was performed to isolate S. aureus that further were tested Penicillin, Glycopeptide, and Cephalosporin classes of antibiotics for confirmation of MDR isolates using disk diffusion method. MDR were tested in vitro for response against various antibiotics. A questionnaire was filled for estimation of...
Samra Imran1,* and Afifa Tanweer2
...rticipants reported an increased consumption of junk food whereas, non-compliant patients, consumed significantly higher intakes of meat and fat. Regular intake of carbonated beverages, packaged juices and tea by the participants was associated with poor anthropometric measurements. Contrary to the study hypothesis, increased compliance to GFD and other demographic and dietary factors were not found to be associated with imp...
Alim-un-Nisa1*, Sajila Hina1, Sania Mazhar1, Imran Kalim1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Naseem Zahra1, Shahid Masood1, Muhammad Khalid Saeed1, Qurat-ul-Ain Syed1 and Maida Asif2
...hen applied on candies increased the attractiveness. The spectrophotometric analysis at 474nm of extracted color both in crude form and in candies was found to be stable at 4oC and showed decay in mean lutein concentration at higher temperatures i.e. 25oC and 45oC. The microbiological study of the extracted color and candies prepared in laboratory and dyed with T. erecta extract color showed that the color extracted from...
Muhammad Naeem1, Bushra Sadia1,2,*, Faisal Saeed Awan1and Muhammad Anjum Zia3
...blood clot lysis led to screening of mutants UV 2, UV 6, UV 7, UV 9, UV 11, UV 12, UV 15 and EB 3, EB 4, EB 11, EB 13 with hyperactivity as compared to wild bacterial strain. Out of the total 15 isolates of EtBr-treated strains, EB4 gave the maximum enzyme activity (7.3 ± 0.005 U ml-1) with a zone diameter of 6 mm. While UV6 was found to be the best UV-induced mutant with an enzyme activity of 20.333 ± 0.006A U ml-1

Sadaf Ghulam Rasul1*, Uzma Yaqub2, Maida Manzoor1 and Hafsa Mubasshar

...ed to compare the mean decrease in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score with Danazol versus Letrozole for the pain management of endometriosis in females. A total of 140 females fulfilling inclusion criteria were registered and an non-probability purposive technique of sampling was used. Diagnostic laparoscopy was conducted to make a diagnosis of endometriosis. Females were divided into two groups. Females in group A received treatment with Letrozole tablets...

Nukhbat-Ullah Awan1*, Muhammad Sohail2, Zeeshan Sarwar3, Muhammad Mustahsen Bashir4, Muhammad Abbas Khokhar5 and Asad Aizaz Chatha

...ith early recovery and decreased hospital stay with minimal morbidity. 

...

Ayesha Saeed*, Mobina Naqvi and Ahsan Javed 

...omen had a 5.439 times increased risk of delivering a low birth weight neonate (RR=5.439, CI=1.710-17.296, p=0.002). Regression analysis indicated a significant association (AOR 16.076, CI=2.381-108.564, p=0.004).Based on these studies, it was concluded that food insecurity in pregnancy is associated with low birth weight in neonates. Antenatal screening of food insecurity and timely provision food supplements through social...

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid 

...siological changes and increasing demand causes fall in hemoglobin level leading to anemia and adverse pregnancy outcome especially in young girls. Anemia is a major public health problem. Around 58.27 million women worldwide are anemic during pregnancy 95% of whom live in countries that are developing. To know the frequency of anemia, and obstetric outcome in terms of preterm delivery, low birth weight and rate of caesarean section in young Primigravida. It w...

S. M. I. Hossain*, S. U. K. Eusufzai and M. A. Rahman**

...o two live irrigations increased sugarcane yield from 15% to 46%. Irrigation at 21 days interval showed higher establishment, tiller, millable cane and yield of cane over irrigation at 28, 35 or 42 days interval. Varieties Isd 34, Isd 31, Isd 32 and Isd 33 showed better performance and produced significantly higher yield among the selected varieties. Hence sugarcane varieties Isd 31, Isd 32, Isd 33 and Isd 34 may be cultivated with potential yield in clay loam...

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

...ticide application and increases yields; however, these advantages are curbed by the high prices charged for genetically modified illegal cotton seeds in the country. National Biosafety Guidelines of 2005, must be followed to approve all genetically modified crop varieties including cotton. This will encourage the introduction of this advanced technology through legal means with its complete package of benefits. After approval of Bt cotton cultivation by Gover...

Sidra Majeed, Shahid Ahmad*, Asif Ali Bhatti** and Ghazanfar Abbas***

...ion indicated that the increase was largely in the cost of tillage and harvesting due to increase in the price of diesel fuel and renting cost of farm machinery. The average net return from barani wheat using chemical fertilizer is Rs. 1.22 million, on an average the benefit and cost ratio was 1.28, which means that 28 % of the total cost is realized back in the form of net returns. Out of ten years, the barani wheat product...

Khalid Mahmood Aujla, Sajida Taj*, Khalid Mahmood** and Nadeem Akmal*

.... Timely availability of credit to the resource poor farmers would also enhance the wheat yield in Punjab.

...

 Mohammad Siddique Munawar, Shazia Raja, Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure* and Muhammad Barkat**

...ies got recovered with increased bee population while the control colonies collapsed. It is therefore concluded that shook swarm method should be incorporated for prevention as well as curing of AFB.

...

 Naheed Akhtar, Muhammad Ashfaque, Waseem Ahmad Gillani*, Ata-ul-Mohsin**, Afzala Tashfeen and Irshad Begum*

...(Normal) (2003-04) were screened against Rhopalosiphum padi L., bird cherry oat aphid at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Twenty National Uniform Wheat Yield Trials (NUWYT), Normal and 12 (NUWYT) rainfed varieties/ lines were evaluated for seedling bulk test to know the resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible wheat varieties/ lines. These results revealed that varieties Diamond and Margalla-99 and lines V-99022, 99B2278 and 7-03 were p...

Hassnain Shah, Hina Riaz, Nadeem Akmal , Muhammad Sharif* and Abdul Majid**

....5 to 2 liters per day increase in milk yield with the use of balance feed. The paired sample ‘T’ test depicts statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in milk yield before and after the use of balance feed. The locally produced balance feed was found cost effective along with better animal productivity over the conventionally used cotton seed cakes. The intervention provided better competitiveness, sustainability, accessibility with incl...

Liaqat Ali Shahid, M. Azhar Saeed and Nadeem Amjad*

...d provincial levels to increase the production of oilseed crops are not fruitful. This crop sector remained neglected for the last two decades due to mainly unfavourable edible oil import policies. Three main institutions/organizations namely Oilseed Programme NARC, Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute (ABEI), NARC and Pakistan Oilseed Development Board (PODB) Islamabad are jointly working at federal level on the development and promotion of oilse...

 Zafar Khokhar*, Imtiaz Hussain**, Badruddin Khokhar* and Muhammad Sohail**

...n tillering period and increased risk of hot weather during grain filling, late planting results in linear reduction in wheat grain yield. A study was undertaken to determine the effects of planting dates on growth and yield of different wheat genotypes in Sindh. The trial was laid out in RCBD with split plot arrangement having four replications during 2000-01 and 2001-02 at Sakrand, Sindh. Four sowing dates i.e. November 1 and 15, December 1 and 15 were in ma...

 Rahmat Ullah Khan, Abdur Rashid*, Mohammad Sohail Khan** and Erdogan Ozturk***

...rtilizer resources for increasing crop production on sustainable basis has become imperative. Two field experiments were conducted to study the potential of humic acid (HA) as a low-cost natural fertilizer and to determine its effect on the yield of rainfed wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Naseer) at the research farm of Arid Zone Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan during two successive winter seasons, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The treatments consisted of HA ...

Aslam Memon, A. M. Khushk* and Umer Farooq**

...in KP are suggested to increase varietal diversity on their farms to avoid any risk of complete crop failure due to any reason. Sugar mills in all three provinces are suggested to take serious note of status of adoption of different sugarcane varieties through a collective action in their respective provinces. Activities like planting demonstration plots of promising varieties on farmers’ fields, launching special sugarcane varietal promotion campaigns f...

 Mazher Abbas*, Muhammad Waqas Akram**, Ikram Saeed*** and Arshed Bashir*

...635.54 and Rs. 39868.80 acre-1 respectively. Average of net income by small, medium and large farmers was Rs. 21194.59, Rs. 20608.26 and Rs. 19956.50 respectively. Benefit cost ratio for small, medium and large farmers was 2.44:1.00, 2.08:1.00 and 2.00:1.00 respectively. The study revealed that canola production in Central Punjab is profitable enterprise. However, the profitability of canola at small farms was higher as compared to other farm size categories. ...

 S. Shahid Shaukat*, Mian Sayed**, Aly Khan, M. Azhar Khan* and Babar Qazi***

...guar was only slightly increased but not significantly.

...

 Sumia Bint Zaman, Sidra Majeed and Shahid Ahmad*

...a. Analysis shows that increase in production of edible oil over the time is negligible against the large increase in requirement resulted in higher production gap being filled through imports. Projections made for edible oils illustrated that production gap is going to be wider, which is currently 1.86 million tonnes (mt) and projected to be 3.4 mt by 2030. Jatropha seed production analysis of water-yield functions revealed...

 Ahmed Aziz Kurd, Amanullah, Saifullah Khan, Basharat Hussain Shah and Munir Ahmed Khetran*

...house and humidity was increased manually by hand sprinkling (four times in a day). Highest rooting percentage (60%) was obtained in the cuttings treated with 3000 ppm. The maximum average number of roots per cutting (4.443) and average root length (5.687 cm) were recorded with 4000 ppm IBA treatment. Percentage of rooted cuttings decreased with increased IBA concentration, whereas, number...

 Shazia Erum, Rashid Anwar and Shahid Masood*

... indicator (GI) of crops create a positive impression of the product quality, the environmental virtue and human skill of the area. In the present study, comparative analysis of total seed proteins of Kasuri methi (GI of Kasur, Pakistan) was evaluated with other Trigonella genotypes by SDS-PAGE. Results showed that at protein level Kasuri methi acquired a unique status as a G.I of Kasur. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) of 28 genotypes including both methi and methray...

 Ashiq Saleem, Habib Iqbal Javed, Rashid Saleem,* Muhammad Ansar** and M. Amir Zia*

...tive relationship with increase in potash levels and increase in its number of split applications. The highest maize grain yield of 8014 kgha-1 was observed in plots where 120 kgha-1 of Potash was used in three splits. While minimum grain yield was recorded in control. In sorghum, maximum grain yield (4356 kgha-1 ) and stalk yield (13422 kgha-1 ) was recorded with the application of 120 kgha-1 of Potash with three splits. Al...

 Zaheeruddin Mirani*and Aslam Memon**

.... Farmers were able to increase the yields of their farm produce. However, the picture says that there is yield gap between the potential yield obtained by research scientists and yield obtained by the farmers. Farmers were of the opinion that both public and private extension should increase their timely visits. Farmers also suggest that they should be encouraged to attend seminars and workshops.

...

 Muhammad Azeem Khan*, Abid Hussain, Irfan Mehmood and Sonila Hassan **

...all and tenant farmers increased in the semi-arid zones of Pakistan due to environmental harshness in general and law of inheritance in particular. Due to increase in mean annual temperatures and irregular rain patterns, area under major crops at Kohat and productivity of major crop at Attock decreased. Bivariate correlations between mean seasonal rainfall, area and production of major cro...

Sana Qanber Abbasi1*, Ejaz Ahmed2 and Rabia Sattar1 

...ve migraineurs but the increase was not equal. 

...

Halima Shoukat1*, Hafiz Sheraz Arshad2, Faiza Sharif1, Arooj Fatima1 and Filza Shoukat

...tness results in pain, decreased range of motion and others pathologies in knee joint. Stretching techniques are used to treat muscle tightness. In clinical settings, different stretch holding times are used to treat hamstring tightness. The purpose of the study was to determine effects of different static stretch holding-times on hamstring muscles flexibility and their impacts on improving range of motion (ROM) of knee extension in adults. This experimental w...

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

... studies have shown an increasing prevalence and importance of CCoV around the world. Fatal CCoV infections have been described, however, there is limited information on the molecular diversity of CCoV in many parts of the world. In this study, canine fecal samples from diverse States of Brazil were screened by PCRs for CCoV and positive samples were subjected to partial sequencing for the membrane (M), spike (S), nucleocaps...
Maryyum Khalil1, Hamda Azmat1,*, Noor Khan1, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Asim Ullah1 and Sumaira Abbas1
...rate was significantly increased in fish fed with enzyme supplemented diets in comparison with control group. The maximum increase in growth rate was recorded in treatment # 2. Highest protein contents 68.18% was observed in treatment # 3 (0.75g kg-1 α-amylase). Specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and condition factor (CF) were higher in all enzyme supplemented groups as compared to contr...
Nay Naing Htoo1, Basit Zeshan1,2,*, Aung Tun Khaing1, Than Kyaw1, Erkihun Aklilu Woldegiorgis1 and Mohd Azam Khan1
...group had free access to creep feed with roughage (CFR), second group had free access to creep feed without roughage (CF) while last group (control) had access to their does’ milk (DM) only. All kids had access to their dam’s milk. The kids were weaned at day 84 and two kids from each treatment group were sacrificed. The results showed that the rumen morphological characteristics, papillary surface area and kerat...
Promy Virk
...he results on serum ALT, creatinine levels and blood urea also showed a comparable ameliorative effect of both the bulk Trigonella seed extract (TBN) and the green nanocomposite (TN), being more efficacious than metformin. Thus, the green synthesis and application of the Au/Ag nanoparticles offer a novel approach in nanomedicine for diabetes management.
...
Nazish Shaukat1, Muhammad Javed1,Faiza Ambreen2* and Fariha Latif1
...y basis. Significantly increased peroxidase activity was observed in gills and liver of Labeo rohita after exposure to PbCl2 due to all doses as compared to the control. All results were statistically significant at p<0.05. Fish liver exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher activity of enzyme than that of gills. The physico-chemical variables viz. pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, total hardness, calcium, magnesium and...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1*, Rehmat Ullah1, Asif Nawaz1 and Ejaz Ashraf2 

...ng experience. A rapid increase in the registration of farmers with Farm Services Centers was found in the last five years. Chi-square results indicated highly significant association (P≤0.05) between the duration of registration with Farm Services centers, fertilizers and farm machinery provided to the respondents. Farm Services Center’s performed their commitment very well with respect to empowerment of farmers in different agrarian practices like d...

Muhammad Amjed Iqbal1*, Azhar Abbas1, Raza Ullah1, Umar Ijaz Ahmed2, Ali Sher3 and Shoaib Akhtar4 

...rm income has slightly increased the income inequality among the selected households of Punjab Province. 

...

Anish Shrestha 

...lized and needed to be increased by 39%, 74% and 34% respectively for the profit maximization. Main production problem found to be high cost and inadequate availability of modern equipment with the index score of 0.81. And, according to the farmers, main role institution that should play is providing training to the farmers. With proper and efficient use of input, beekeeping could be potential and viable commercial enterprise 

...
Hina Safdar1,*, Nazir Javed1, Sajid Aleem Khan1 and Muhammad Arshad2
... instar. Mortality was increased with an increase in exposure time. Nematodes were harvested using White Traps. Multiplication of entomopathogenic nematodes was also recorded in all larval instar. The maximum number of H. bacteriophora was harvested from 5th larval instar which was 25,786 followed by 17,500, 12,642 and 9,652 from 4th, 3rd and 2nd larval instar, respectively....
Saleem Abid1*, Nasir Jamal2, Muhammad Zubair Anwar3 and Saleem Zahid4 
...f potato crop depicted increasing trend. The findings of this study would help the decision makers to make better policies regarding crop production, price structure as well as consumption of potato in the country.
...
Muhammad Kashif Maan1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Muhammad Ijaz2, Hamid Akbar1, Sajid Umar 3 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*
...sia showed significant increase (P<0.05) in serum alanine aminotrasferase, aspartate transaminase and blood urea nitrogen as compared to isoflurane anesthesia; whereas, no statistical difference (P>0.05) was observed for alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and bilirubin between the two groups. Heart rate, blood pressure and saturation of oxygen were decreased in both groups but this dec...

Imtiaz Hussain*, Hassnain Shah, M. Azeem Khan, Waqar Akhtar**, Abdul Majid*** and M. Yaqub Mujahid*

Corresponding author:izhussain@yahoo.com

PRODUCTIVITY IN RICE-WHEAT CROP ROTATION OF PUNJAB: AN APPLICATION OF TYPICAL FARM METHODOLOGY
...f residues that not only create environmental pollution but also affect the productivity of the cropping system. Stagnation in yield of rice and wheat is reported mainly due to uninterrupted sequential rice-wheat cropping which cause low fertility, increased weed problem, more disease and insect invasion leading to yield losses. Berseem is the only crop that breaks this rotation. Farmers are aware of the beneficial effects o...

Akhlaq Ahmad, M. Anwar Arain*, Rahila Nazli**, Syed Anser Rizvi***,
Mubarik Ahmed* and Farzana Ibrahim****

Corresponding author: dr.akhlaqahmad@yahoo.com

COST EFFECTIVENESS OF UNDER-SHEET AND WHOLE GODOWN FUMIGATION OF BAGGED WHEAT
...erage moisture content increased by 3%, grain damage increased by 12% -1 and grain weight decreased by 6 kghl in whole godown fumigations compared to similar treatment carried out under the cover of polyethylene sheet. The cost effectiveness of the treatments was determined, considering the cost of the materials and labour. It was estimated that a single fumigation treatment in under-sheet...

 Nazakat Nawaz, Malik Shah Nawaz*, Nasir M. Cheema** and Mubashir A. Khan*

Corresponding author:nazakat_nawaz@yahoo.com

ZINC AND IRON APPLICATION TO OPTIMIZE SEED YIELD OF MUSTARD
...P) with Zn and Fe. The increase in -1 Zn and Fe fertility from 0-1.5 to 5-1.5 kg ha increased yield of BARD-1. The maximum yield response was recorded when 5 kg ha-1 -1 Zn and 1.5 kg ha Fe were applied. Beyond this level, no further increase in yield was recorded in any mustard traits. A positive correlation was recorded between seed yield -1 -1 and 1000-seed weight with the application of...

 Parvez Khaliq*, Muhammad Azim Malik**, M. Aslam Gill*** and
Nasir M. Cheema*

Corresponding author: parvezkhaliq786@yahoo.com

EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON MAIZE FODDER YIELD UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
...reatment significantly increased the biomass production, however, application of FYM promoted the weed infestation that reduced the green fodder yield of maize, but it improved the overall forage yield as recorded in RF+FYM treatment. The effect of deep tillage on maize fodder yield was non-significant.

...

 Amanullah, Ahmed Aziz Kurd, Saifullah Khan, Munir Ahmed and Jahangir Khan*

 
Corresponding author:aman_azrc@yahoo.com
BIOFERTILIZER- A POSSIBLE SUBSITUTE OF FERTILIZERS IN PRODUCTION OF WHEAT VARIETY ZARDANA IN BALOCHISTAN
...45kgha and P O 30 kgha increased 2 5 fresh yield from11% to 59% and suggested increases in grain yield of 20-46% as compared with control treatment.

...

 Hidayatullah, T. Mahmood, M. Farooq, M. A. Khokhar and S.I. Hussain*

* Corresponding author: hidayatu2003@yahoo.uk.co.uk

PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AFFECTING SEX EXPRESSION OF BOTTLE GOURD (LAGENARIA SICERARIA MOLINA) PLANTS
...cro;mol l GA maximally increased the pistillate flower production as compared to control. Moreover, the treatment produced maximum number of fruits -1 -1 (22.24 plant ) and fruit weight (6.31 kg plant ). However, foliar spray with different combinations of ethrel did not improve yield and yield contributing attributes.

...

  Farhat Ullah Khan, Nowshad Khan and Zaibunnisa Abdullah*

Corresponding author: farhatkhan7@gmail.com (This is part of Ph.D. work of senior author)

IMPACT OFKINNOW (MANDARIN) YIELD LOSSES ON SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE FARMING COMMUNITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...of the country will be increased in future by improving the cultural practices and adopting modern post harvest technologies of kinnow throughout Pakistan.

...

 Javid Iqbal, Asghar Ali Mian, Tanveer Ahmad*, Shamsul Hassan** and Sohail Hassan Khan* 

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT ECONOMIC TRAITS OF FOUR IMPORTED BROILER STRAINS UNDER LOCAL CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
..., A (Hubbard), B (Arbor Acres), C (Ross 308) and D (Hybro PN). The chicks were raised under recommended rearing requirements for 7 weeks and the economic traits measured were body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, antibody titres, dressing percentage and economic evaluation as cost of broiler per kilogram live weight produced. The average body weights gained by the birds were 2264g, 2277g, 2256g and 1942g for A, B, C and D strains, r...

 Shahida N.Khokhar*

CROP INOCULANTS- AN UNDEREXPLORED POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURE
...uction. Pakistan faces increase in degraded lands, water shortage, energy crisis, all contributing to poverty. During last two decades, many efforts were made to address the issue through developing and applying the inoculants. Several research institutions including National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan contributed significantly to these efforts. There are many reports on achieving increase in yi...

 Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Umar Farooq, Nadeem Akmal*, Shahid Munir and Bashir Hussain**

POTENTIAL FOR INVESTMENT IN INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGIES: A CASE OF LOW COST SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION STRUCTURES IN RAINFED POTHWAR, PAKISTAN
...riate technologies for increasing land productivity through soil and water conservation, applied research has been carried out during 2001-07 in the rainfed Pothwar area. Low cost soil and water conservation structures were developed and demonstrated in the area. The investment appraisal based on the cost incurred and benefits realized by the farmers recorded through assessment survey revealed that the technology had a short payback period along with internal ...

 Mazher Abbas*, Tahir Mehmood**, Arshed Bashir*, Muneeb Zafar*** and Aneela Afzal****

ECONOMICS OF LALLEMANTIA ROYLEANA (TUKHAM-EBALANGOO) PRODUCTION IN THE LOW INTENSITY CROPPING ZONE OF THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...483.02 and Rs. 55247.73 acre respectively. Average net income by small, medium and large farmers was Rs. 25281.02, Rs. 28734.98 and Rs. 28763.83, respectively. Benefit cost ratio for small, medium and large farmers was 2.34:1.00, 2.21:1.00 and 2.09:1.00 respectively. Cultivation of L. royleana in Punjab is profitable enterprise. Because of low cost of production the profitability of L. royleana at small farms was higher as compared to other farm size categorie...

 Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Mike Copland**

INFLUENCE OF THREE CONSTANT AND TWO RHYTHMICALLY FLUCTUATING TEMPERATURE REGIMES ON THE LIFE-TABLE PARAMETERS OF BROWN LACEWING SYMPHEROBIUS FALLAX
... The female proportion increased in 24°-32°C regimes. The development could not take place at 16°C and 32°C constant temperatures. But in rhythmically fluctuating temperature regimes development of stages took place.

...

 Habib Iqbal Javed, Ashiq Saleem, Javed Fateh, Mozammil Hussain, Naheed Akhtar and Shamim-ul-Sibtain Shah*

DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANT MAIZE GERMPLASM
...obs (as progenies) were screened during spring 2000 under natural infestation. The borer attack started at a very initial stage of the crop and swept down many of the progenies. Only 88 exotic and 7 indigenous progenies showed some resistance. The survived plants, among these progenies, were advanced by self pollination. During autumn 2000, only 9 progenies out of 95 showed some resistance with 35-66% plants survived under artificial infestation. Under natural...

 Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Muhammad Ansar*, Ashiq Saleem**, Zafar ullah Arif*, H.I. Javed and Rashid Saleem**

IMPROVEMENT OF MASH BEAN PRODUCTION UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS BY RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION AND LOW RATES OF STARTER NITROGEN
...ere also significantly increased by inoculation and nitrogen fertilization but inoculation alone was more effective by giving maximum economic yield. Various treatments exhibited significant differences for harvest index; however, maximum harvest index (22.04 %) was recorded in control plots. N in soil was increased by inoculation in -1 -1 combination with 40 and 50 kg N ha and 50 kg N ha alone, nevertheless, maximum -1 N in...

 Parvez Khaliq*, Azim Malik**, Nasir Mahmood Cheema* and Muhammad Umair***

ECONOMICS OF WHEAT BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
...mous potential to meet incremental food grain needs of the country. However, a significant yield gap in wheat has been reported between yields of substantive and the progressive growers mainly due to poor management of soil, water and fertility issues. A field study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad and the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat (W-F-W) cropping system was evaluated with the improved wheat-maize fodder-wheat (W-M...

 Muhammad Tariq*, Raja Muhammad Omer**, Muhammad Ashraf Mian*, Obaid Ur Rehman***, Amjad Tahir Virk and Kazim Abbass**

PROMOTING CERTIFIED SEED AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON YIELD IN RAINFED AREAS
...esulted in significant increase in grain yield. Other yield contributing parameters including number of spikelet per spike, numbers of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight were at par in both seed sources. It was concluded that healthy and pure seed source gave high seed germination and good crop stand which enabled the plants to withstand abiotic stress especially drought during the crop season. The seed multiplication of crop varieties of rainfed areas can...

 Ashiq Saleem, Muhammad Ashraf Zahid, Habib Iqbal Javed*, M Ansar**, Asghar Ali, Rashid Saleem* and Noor Saleem***

EFFECT OF SEEDING RATE ON LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK) SEED YIELD UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...grain yield kept on -1 increasing up to a seed rate of 43 kgha and remained static thereafter with a non-significant difference for any further increase in seed sown. The -1 existing seed rate of 20 kgha in lentil is seemingly not sufficient to obtain optimum yield. On average, about 2-2.5-fold increase in seed rate of lentil under rainfed conditions can be safely recommended.

...

 Safdar Ali, Sahiba, M. Azim Malik, Fayyaz-ul-Hassan and M. Ansar*

GROWTH OF RAINFED FODDER MAIZE UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
... ha doses. Significant increase in green fodder and dry matter yield was observed with the increased doses of nitrogen and phosphorus. Overall, the -1 nitrogen application @ 180 kg ha increased the green fodder and dry matter yield by 12.33% and 51.50%, respectively. Similarly, with -1 phosphorus application @ 90 kg ha , the 36.80% and 46.26% increase wa...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai, Saeeda Raza* and Shahzad Arshad Saleem**

MICROBIAL COUNT AND SHELF LIFE OF STRAWBERRY JUICE
...ast, mould and pH were increased with the passage of time. Spoilage can be controlled by keeping the juice in refrigerator and using preservatives. Thus with good storage conditions, the shelf life of the strawberry juice can be increased satisfactorily.

...

 Javed Khan, Ehsan-ul-Haq, Naheed Akhtar, Waseem Ahmad Gillani*, Naila Assad**, M.Asif Masood and Irum Raza*

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF IMMATURE STAGES OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON RICE MEAL MOTH, CORCYRA CEPHALONICA EGGS
... temperatures and with increasing temperature the developmental cycle decrease significantly.

...

 Saima Rani and Irum Raza*

COMPARISON OF TREND ANALYSIS AND DOUBLE EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING METHODS FOR PRICE ESTIMATION OF MAJOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...tively in 2015- 16. An increasing trend in the estimated prices will turn down the demand of these pulses and consequently poor class of the economy who do not have enough resources to buy expensive livestock-based protein-rich food will be badly affected.

...

 Arshad Ali, Muhammad Arshadullah, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Imdad Ali Mahmood and Badar-uz-Zaman*

RICE PRODUCTIVITY AND SOIL HEALTH AS AFFECTED BY WHEAT RESIDUE INCORPORATION ALONG WITH NITROGEN STARTER DOSE UNDER SALT-AFFECTED SOIL
...ificantly (P≤ 0.05) increased with different -1 levels of N doses. Maximum tillers plant (27.66), plant height (138.33 cm), -1 spike length (28.33 cm), and grains spike (175), 1000-grain weight (28.66 -1 -1 g) and paddy yield (4.25 t ha ) was harvested with 5 t ha wheat straw -1 incorporation plus 60 kg N ha . The paddy yield was 19% more than control 2+ + treatment. Positive correlations (r= 0.74) and (r=0.73) between Ca and K contents in grain and its yie...

 Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Muhammad Arshadullah, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*

EFFECT OF BORON NUTRITION ON PADDY YIELD UNDER SALINESODIC SOILS
...nificantly (P≤0.05) increased at different levels of B. 1000-grain weight -1 -1 (31.7 g) and grain yield was the maximum (5.0 t ha ) at 2 kg B ha and 22% more than control treatment. Maximum plant height (155.7 cm) and -1 -1 number of grains spike (125) were recorded with B application @ 1 kg ha . B concentration in grain increased with boron application. Positive correlation (r= 0.94) was found between B contents in grai...

 M. Asif Masood, Irum Raza* and Muhammad Yaseen**

ESTIMATION OF OPTIMUM FIELD PLOT SIZE AND SHAPE IN PADDY YIELD TRIAL
...efficient of variation decreased rapidly with an increase in the plot size. Based on the coefficient of variation the optimum plot size for paddy yield trial was estimated to be 6m×12m with rectangle shape for Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Lahore. This estimated plot size is larger than the plot size of 3m×5m generally used for paddy yield in the study area. 

...

 Ayesha Tahir, Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Sharif, Waqar Akhtar and Nadeem Akmal*

AN OVERVIEW OF TOMATO ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
...istani tomato, regional acreage comparison, country's share in tomato export and revealed comparative advantage (RCA) of tomato. Pakistan's share in world tomato exports was negligible in 2000.The results of global and domestic tomato production and export trends depict that the export share in production for the world and Pakistan increased significantly since 2007. At present, Pakistan has no RCA in tomato trade as the val...

 Muhammad Zubair Anwar, M. Azeem Khan, Ikram Saeed, Akhtar Ali*, Shafique Zahid and Abdul Majid**

SMALL FARMERS PERCEPTIONS REGARDING IMPROVED FODDER AND FORAGE VARIETIES: RESULTS OF PARTICIPATORY ON FARM RESEARCH
...on 50% grain yield was increased and 44% said that the increase in dry stalk was about 50%. While in kharif 72% respondents pointed out 55% increase in grain yield and similarly majority of the farmers (68%) pointed out 50% increase in dry stalk yield. Majority of the respondents (83%) appreciated the newly introduced plant species while about 17% have s...

 Wabekwa, J.W., I.A. Sodagni and F.K. Mohammad*

PHYSIOLOGICAL GROWTH AND YIELD EVALUATION IN PMINERALIZED SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L.) UNDER SUDANOSAHELIAN AGRO-ECOLOGY, NIGERIA
...t and plant dry weight increased with -1 increasing P O rates (40-60 kg ha ) at 6, 8 and 10 weeks after sowing (WAS) 2 5 . Crop growth rates similarly increased with increasing P O rates (40-80 kg 2 5 -1 ha ) at 6 WAS in both years and the combined means for the two years, and at 8 WAS in 2011 and the combined analysis. Days to 50% flowering and head dry...

 Sajida Taj*, Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan**, Mazher Abbas and Arshed Bashir***

PRICE SPREAD AND MARKETING MARGINS OF CUT ROSE IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...zed up to 46.86% which increases the marketing efficiency of Channel-II as compared to Channel-I. The study revealed that as the number of marketing intermediaries in the marketing channel increases the producers and consumers are least benefitted. Therefore there is need for more vertical integration in the cut roses market. 

...

 Ayesha Tahir* and Zafar Altaf**

DETERMINANTS OF INCOME FROM VEGETABLES PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NORMAL AND OFF-SEASON VEGETABLES IN ABBOTTABAD
...necessary not only for increasing farmer's income and production diversity concerns, but also for increasing the intake of micronutrients in human diet through increased vegetable consumption. The spectrum of year round availability of vegetables could be further extended. The off-season vegetable production offers a promising opportunity in this direction. The study is based on comparison...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad, and Ijaz Ashraf**

ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL CONTACT METHODS IN DISSEMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES
...e farming community to increase production of crops and thus improve living standard of the people.

...

 Muhammad Arshadullah, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*

CUMULATIVE EFFECT OF SULFUR AND CALCIUM ON WHEAT GROWTH AND YIELD UNDER SALINE-SODIC SOILS
...P≤0.05) enhanced by increasing the rate of gypsum (CaSO ). The maximum 4 -1 number of grains spike (60), 1000-grain weight (47 g) and grain yield -1 -1 (4.01 t ha ) were recorded with CaSO application @ 150 kg ha . Grain 4 yield was 43% more than control treatment. Positive correlations (r= 2+ + 0.96), (r=0.96) and (r=0.91) between Ca , K , S and negative correlation r= + (-0.99) between Na contents in grain and wheat grain yield, respectively. 2+ + It indi...

 Rizwana Sultan*, Javed Khan, Ehsan ul Haq, Tariq Mehmood**, Roshan Zada Khattak***, and Naheed Akhtar**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF TRICHOGRAMMA CHILONIS ISHII (TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) FEEDING ON SITOTROGA CEREALELLA EGGS AT THREE CONSTANT TEMPERATURES