Yanina Panzera1*, Nicolas Sarute1, Lucia Carrau1, Jaime Aldaz2, Ruben Perez1

...stemper”, the most significant infectious disease among carnivores worldwide. Herein, we present the state of the art of CDV dynamics in South America, by means of a detailed analysis of the genetic diversity, evolution, and epidemiology of the virus in several countries. Our study allowed us to establish the presence of four genetic lineages in South America, being the continent with more lineages described to date, underscoring the high genetic diversi...

Gregg D. Caruso

...d the overall account is significantly embellished—for example, Pereboom proposes a new account of rational deliberation consistent with the belief that one’s actions are causally determined (ch.5) and develops a forward-looking theory of moral responsibility consistent with free will skepticism (ch.6). A significant contribution to the field, Free Will, Agency, and Meaning in Life is destined to become a classic...

John Martin Fischer

...ating (thus far) in this significant book, he has convinced me that the view is subtle, very plausible, and even deeply attractive. Whereas there are other forms of moral responsibility skepticism on the market, Pereboom’s is (in my view) the most fully developed and most appealing. Although I am not myself a moral responsibility skeptic, and, in particular, I do not believe that causal determinism is incompatible with the kind of freedom that grounds ...

Muhammad Arif1, Fazal Jalal1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Dost Muhammad2

...uent maize crop. Biochar significantly enhanced plant height and grain yield. The plots previously sown with legumes produced taller plants and high number of grains ear-1. Nitrogen application increased plant height, number of grains ear-1, thousand grains weight, grain and biological yield. It is concluded that integration of biochar and legumes could be a useful strategy for enhancing the overall farm profitability and productivity of cereal-based systems b...

Zaheer Ahmed Deho1, Shamsuddin Tunio2, Qammaruddin Chachar2, Fateh Chand Oad2

...sown crop) sowing showed significantly highest values for boll weight (3.18g), seed cotton yield plant-1 (65.2g), seed cotton yield (2711 kg ha-1), seed index (7.7g), staple length (27.60mm), and seed oil content (20.58%). Taking boll opening (%) into consideration, it was observed that at 50% boll opening most of the traits exhibited values likewise in higher boll weight (3.17g), seed index (7.7g), staple length (27.60mm), seed oil content (20.83%) and seed g...

Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

...th Press mud @ 20 t ha-1 significantly enhanced spinach growth by exhibiting higher average spinach plant height (35 cm), number of leaves (16.4), fresh foliage yields (330 g pot-1), dry foliage yields (32 g pot-1), leaf length (40.5 cm) and leaf area (238.4 mm2) relative to poultry manure, compost or FYM treatments. Similar trend was observed during 2010-11. Over all, press mud with EM was more effective in improving soil quality and enhancing spinach growth ...

Muhammad Irshad1, Abdur Rab1, Javed Rahman2, Muhammad Sajid1, Ilyas Khan2, Sajad Ali1, Muhammad Razaq1, Sallahuddin1

...-1 and plant height were significantly affected by planting dates and soil media. Maximum survival percentage (29.16%), number of root plant-1 (13.31), and plant height (40.42 cm) was recorded for the cuttings planted on 20th Feb. On the other hand minimum days to 50% sprout- ing (28.49) were recorded for cuttings planted on 2nd March. Significant effect of planting media was observed for most of vegetative stages including ...

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

...were found statistically significant. Farmers’ education was found to be major determinant of technical efficiency/inefficiency. The esti- mated coefficient of farmers’ education was negative and statistically significant, implies that techni- cal inefficiency decreases with the increase in farmers’ education. The use of more labour and tractor plough hours would increase wheat production in the country.The...

Farhad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ashfaq

...atic variables was found significantly higher than that of non-climatic variables. The largest impact on wheat yield was of mean maximum average temperature at the time of maturity, ceteris paribus with one oC increase in temperature the average wheat yield increased by 56.64 kg per hectare in the study area. It was deduced from the economic variable that the level of input used was less than optimum. The negative coefficient of the location variabl...

Mohammed Ali Hussain, Zakiya Ahmed Hassan

...f variance showed highly significant differences among maize hybrids for all the traits. The hybrid un44052 x DK took minimum days to tasseling (65.83 days) and silking (68.50 days). Hybrid zp-707 x un 44052 was short statured (155.59 cm) with desirable ear height of 62.93 cm. However, maximum leaf area produced by hybrid DK x Hs in both locations with averages 768.56, 670.26 and 719.42 cm2, respectively, while hybrid sangaria recorded maximum value for 300 gr...

Masood ur Rahman1*, Zahid Mahmood2, Taj Ali2, Muhammad Aziz Irfan Mufti3, Jehangir Khan Seyal4, Munir Ahmad5

E-mail | masoodra@hotmail.com

 

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 31, Iss. 1
...ars under test exhibited significant difference in surface wear among each other. As compared to gear bronze commercial gun metal and gun metal showed surface wear of 245% and 109% respectively. The highest surface wear was observed in commercial gun metal whereas lowest surface wear was observed in gear bronze. It was concluded that gear bronze may be the best material composition for use in the worm gear of the rotary hoe transmission box as compared to the ...

Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

...le East, replicates at a significantly higher level, induces more potent innate antiviral and inflammatory response, and causes more severe damages in lymphoid tissues when compared with virulent viruses of other genotypes. Therefore, severe pathology in immune organs, caused by genotype VIId of NDV, is associated with high levels of virus replication and an intense innate immune response.

...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

... and ash percentage were significantly increased with increase nitrogen levels (200, 240, and 280 kg N ha-1). However, highest benefit-cost ratio was estimated when 240 kg N ha-1 was applied which was found best compromise between forage yield and quality for maize cultivar Kissan under the agro-climatic conditions of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The study also indicates that crude protein and mineral content in fodder maize can be improved through N applicatio...

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2

 

...showed that water stress significantly reduced plant height, number of total tillers per plant, number of fertile tillers per plant, number of nodes per plant, spikelet per spike, number of grains per spike, 100-grain weight and dry matter per plant as compared with control. Wheat genotype Faisal-2008 exhibited comparatively more drought tolerance with less decrease in growth rate (18.70%); total dry matter (26.94%), 100-grain weight (23.45%) and grain yield (...

Ahmed Sultan Jatoi1*, Shahid Mehmood2, Jibran Hussain2, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq2, Yassar Abbas3, Muhammad Akram2

 

..., K, S, and Z showed non-significant differences at week 0 and 1, whereas, a significant effect was found at week 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The average weight gain (g) was found non-significant at week 1 and week 6, however, the statistical analysis revealed significant effect from week 2 to 5, respectively. Times of gain were found sig...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

...uo;s economy as it has a significant contribution to GDP, employment generation, and export earnings in the economy of Pakistan. Due to modernization in agriculture sector over the last few decades, credit needs of the farmers have increased rapidly. Credit is considered an important factor for raising the productivity and income of the farmers. The current study attempts to analyse the impact of credit on wheat productivity in district Jhang. Furthermore, stu...

Muhammad Rizwan Tariq1*, Muhammad Issa Khan1, Aysha Sameen1, Mahr un Nisa2

 

...d in the diet of rabbits significantly enhanced growth performance of rabbits and improved poly unsaturated fatty acids in the meat of rabbits as compared to other groups.

 

...

Huaichang Sun

... infections. Recently, a significant advance in RNAi technology is the use of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) to fight virus infections. However, different strategies are needed to prevent virus variation or mutation escape. This review is intended to present the current situation of antiviral roles of amiRNAs, against variable RNA viruses in particular.

...

Hayat Badshah1*, Farman Ullah1, Abid Farid2, Ahmad-U-Rahman Saljoqi1, Sajjad Ahmad3

...enopsis successfully and significantly (P<0.05) completed its life cycle along with highest body weight gain on China rose followed by potato. Moreover, P. solenopsis had the best survival (34.2 ± 3.8 days) and reproduction (7.8 ± 0.4 nymphs/adult female) when separated and kept without food from their respective host plants. China rose therefore seems to have the potential as suitable host for the rearing of P. solenopsis under laboratory con...

Hina Fatima1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2

... variety is negative and significant also. The parameter of seed rate variable is also negative and statistically significant. A technical inefficiency of 22% is present in the production of wheat crop in the selected district. Majority of the farmers typically utilize the last year’s crop seeds to economize the cost but this comes at another cost of loss of potential yield, which could be obtained through the use of m...

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

...th and yield of chickpea significantly increased with the collective application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures. It is concluded that the application of half of recommended dose of NKP (18-36-10 kg ha-1) in combination with poultry manure or farmyard manure at the rate of 20 t ha-1 was found best combination for higher chickpea crop yields in compare to other levels of fertilizers.

...

Shahid Iqbal Awan1*, Syed Dilnawaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Amjad Ali3, Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed1, Aurangzeb Rao1

... that grain weight had a significant positive relationship with residual transpiration, osmotic adjustment, cell membrane stability, flag leaf weight, specific flag leaf weight, while negatively correlated with specific flag leaf area. These results indicated the importance of physiological traits and their positive influence on grain weight. Multivariate techniques, including factor analysis (FA) and cluster analysis, indicated that the magnitude of variabili...

Thomas J. Coleman III1*, Ralph W. Hood Jr.1 and John R. Shook2

...articular, has increased significantly. Moreover, these phenomena have been researched, studied and documented by multiple disciplines ranging from cognitive science to religious studies, and from anthropology to sociology. The study of atheism and secularity is of high interest to not only scholars, but also the public in general. In this special issue of Science, Religion & Culture, Guest Edited by John R. Shook, Ralph W. Hood Jr., and Thomas J. Coleman ...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa and Muhammad Arshad Khan

...nd Cu contents decreased significantly (p<0.01). The highest N, P and K were found in mulberry variety PFI-1, M. latifolia and Karyansuban, respectively. The highest Cu and Mn were found in Kanmasi. The highest Zn and Fe were found in Husang and Karyansuban, respectively. A significant variation in uptake and retention of macro- and micro nutrients was found in the mulberry varieties after fertilizer application. The high...

Rabnawaz1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Tahir Sarwar2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3

...to crop was found highly significant while in case of wheat it was non-significant. This study concludes that the public system remained more productive with high CWP at farm level for all the major crops. However, there is a great potential for increasing CWP under civil system by rationalizing the water allowance.

...

Ali Muhammad*, Muhammad Ayub

...ive fruits degrades significantly during four weeks of treatment process. Results showed that during brine treatment, fermentation take place which significantly convert the oleourepean into simple sugar and decreased during treatment process. Lye solution penetrates inside the msesocarp and than endocarp during four weeks of treatment process. The lye treated olive fruits were treated afterwards into bri...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...sp;water extracts caused significant reduction of weeds and increased seedcotton yield as compared to weedy check. The combined application of sorghum @ 15 L ha-1+ Dual Gold @ 1.25 L ha-1 resulted in weeds mortality upto 66.6%, produced seedcotton yield of 3961.4 kg ha-1 and gave net benefit of Rs. 2,20,029. Sunflower applied @ 15 L ha-1 in integration with Dual Gold @ 1.25 L ha-1 showed weeds mortality of 65.5 %, resulted in seedcotton yie...

Gultaj Hussain1, Abdur Rahman1*, Tariq Hussain2, Siraj Uddin1, Tariq Ali3

E-mail | abdur_rahman@aup.edu.pk

... During 12 days storage, significant reductions (i.e. P <0.05) were found in both E. coli O157: H7 and S. typhymurium growth when exposed to these treatments. Results revealed that levels of citric and lactic acid concentrations effect were maximum for 5.0%, followed by 3.0% and least for 1.0% on E. coli and Salmonella load on beef surfaces. In addition, citric acid was more effective than lactic acid at all concentrations (1.0, 3.0 and 5.0%) in reducing E....

Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde1*, Kayode Ayinde2, Tofunmi Emmanuel Ilori1, Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde1

E-mail | opeyemi@unilorin.edu.ng

...PSAP) were statistically significant while the agricultural input subsidy scheme was statistically insignificant in their impact on the prices of major staple crops. The study recommended painstaking formulation and implementation of agricultural policies and re-structuring of agricultural of input scheme.

...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...valence shows there is a significant difference between age and CD4+ cell count. The result provides the evidence that Hepatitis E virus is present among HIV individuals in Ogbomoso and they are more susceptible to the virus.

...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...;the poultry farms would significantly reduce and/or limit the chance for its transmission and outbreaks. Many disinfectants have been evaluated for their inactivation ability, but there is still a need for their evaluation under different conditions and in different ways. In the present study, representative disinfectants from chlorine and non-chlorine oxidizing agents have been evaluated for their virucidal ability against two distinct Egyptia...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

...ed that potassium levels significantly influenced all the parameters except the stem diameter. Minimum days to flowering (118.1), maximum plant height (45.83 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (54.1), fresh flower weight (44.29 g) and dry flower weight (5.12 g) was obtained with the application of 200 mg K2O pot-1. In case of maleic hydrazide, the plants grown under control treatment took minimum days (112.9) to flowering, maximum plant height (47.06 cm) and number...

Muhammad Imran1*, Muhammad Mobashar2, Muhammad Irfan3, Shazia Hanif4, Sumaira Hanif5 and Muhammad Abubakar6

...nic matter (OM) were non-significant (P>0.05) whereas digestibility of NDF was significantly increased (P<0.05) in treatment MLM4. When compared among treatments, the value of crude protein (CP) digestibility coefficient was high (P<0.05) in treatment MLM4 as compared to MLM1. Similar trend was also observed in case NDF among treatments. Daily milk yield and 4 % FCM has increased (P<0.05) in buffaloes fed treatme...

Mushtaq Ahmad1*, Habib Akbar1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan Khattak2 and Abdul Bari3

...e carried out to explain significant differences. Seeding depth significantly affected all the studied parameters except sugar sucrose. Sugar beet planted at 2 cm depth showed highest germination process and gave better yield production. Mean maximum leaf area plant-1 (170.49 cm2), leaf area index (6.77), root length (35.50 cm) and root weight plant-1 (0.98 kg-1) were recorded in sugar beet planted at 2 cm depth. Nitrogen ba...

Shahid Ali1, Habib Akbar2, Mohammad Tariq Jan2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3 and Abdul Bari4

...anting sources exhibited significant differences for emergence percentage. The interaction of cane portions and setts placement methods were significant except for emergence percentage. Millable canes showed significant interaction for planting sources and setts placement methods. Maximum cane yield was recorded for top portion and triple setts. Millable canes excelled when top portion fro...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1, Faizah Abood2, Yusof Bin Ibrahim3

...tested concentrations. A significant (p<0.05) 2nd degree correlation between temperature and B. bassiana infectivity was analysed. Beauveria bassiana infection was in range of 27-30ºC. Based on these findings, it is concluded that B. bassiana has promising potential as microbial control agent against A. sciodoxa and should be exploited under field conditions.

...

Mohammad Taghi Karimi

...ses on kyphotic curve is significantly than that of scoliosis. There appear that there are no major differences between full time and part time orthotic use in this deformity.

...

Monireh Ahmadi Bani1*, Mostafa Kamali2, Iman Borji3, Soheyla Aslani3, Francis Fatoye4

...hat stability parameters significantly decreased in five minutes standing (p<0.001). Moreover, patients were unstable in standing during the fourth and fifth minute. Taken together, diagnosis based on five minute standing using the Romberg test appear to be sensitive and accurate than one minute.

...

Seyed Mohsen Mirbod

...the knee joint decreased significantly. This new design of the orthosis improves the performance of the subjects during walking. It carried same performance as that of the knee cage, and additionally is more cosmesis, ease in use and is economical.

...

Rongfei Lu1, 2, Zhiyang Liu1, Peng Fang1, Guangyi Chen1, Feng Sun1, Yongjian Fan1, Yijun Zhou1, Tong Zhou1*

...ted data can be enhanced significantly appropriate measures. As a standard for the relative expression of target genes, the selection of reference genes is crucial. This review describes the history of the RT-qPCR technology, emphasizes the importance of reference genes and enumerates several algorithms to screen reference genes to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Additionally, several possible improvements in the selection of reference genes are discussed.

...

Muhammad Amjad Nadim1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Ejaz Ahmad Khan1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Kashif Waseem2

...ts. The results revealed significant variations in plant growth and yield attributes with recommended doses of NPK fertilizers. This treatment (NPK at recommended levels) resulted in higher leaf area index (0.33 and 0.27 [49 days after sowing-DAS] and 2.03 and 2.77 [98-DAS]), crop growth rate (40.42 and 40.96 g m-2 day-1), relative growth rate (88.94 and 84.14 mg g-1 day-1), net assimilation rate (3.58 and 3.89 mg m-2 day-1) and grain yield (4.40 and 5.29 t ha...

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

...ation of whole plant had significantly increased LAI (4.1), seed yield (2226 kg ha-1) and harvest index (22.1%) of canola crop over stubbles incorporation. Decrease in CGR and grain yield was observed with delaying green manuring (40 > 70 > 100 DAS). Increase in LAI, CGR, grain yield and harvest index was noticed with increasing N rate (0 < 75 < 100 kg ha-1). Increase in canola yield was observed during 2nd year of the experiment. A linear increase...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...ession model established significant relationships between rice yield and farm management methods adopted in this area. Results were presented using charts and tables. The study revealed that; chemical fertilizers, manual weeding and shifting cultivation are essential for rice cultivation in the study area; the regression model established strong influence of farm-size at R-value of 0.64 on the yield of rice in this area; while estimated yields of 101.6tons an...

Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

...istan is increased quite significantly near Eid-ul-Adha. Haemorrhages are the major signs of this fatal disease. No treatment of CCHF is available currently but Ribavirin antiviral drug is used to cure this disease. There is currently no commercially available vaccine for this disease. It is recommended that the disease can be controlled by adopting preventive measures such as avoiding of tick bites and contact with blood of the suspected animal. 

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...long term consistency, a significantly higher mean ADV antibody level was recorded in February compared to in October. Therefore, if the VP2 ELISA should be used as a tool for selection of breeding females in a control program for AD, the optimal sampling time at which the ADV antibody levels best can predict the breeding performance of the female needs to be further evaluated.

...

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

... replications revealed a significant reduction in days to flowering and maturity by delay SD. However, positive responses were observed by increase in N-rate. Early planting showed maximum biomass and yield at 120 kg N ha-1 which was due to reflecting higher leaf area, plant height and stem diameter (cm). Traits e.g. the head diameter, grain head-1 and grains weight were indicators contributing towards grain yield by early sowing compare ...

Shahida Bibi* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

... and mungbean crops were significantly affected by both the main-plot and sub-plot treatments. Similarly, number of seeds pod-1, thousand grains weight, grain and biological yield of mungbean were also found significant. In main plots, weed density m-2 (16.47) and fresh weed biomass (529.8) were lower in herbicide treated plots in mungbean crop. Number of seeds pod-1 (10.85), thousand grains ...

Nazish Huma Khan*, Mohammad Nafees and Adila Bashir

... from Cd, Cr and Ni were significant in crop seeds of orchard field (THQ>1). The substantial load of heavy metals in studied fields showed the anthropogenic source of pollution. Therefore regular monitoring of heavy metals in soil and crops is necessary.  

...

Mukhtarullah1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal1*

...stan, it is planted on a significant cropped area (Ca. 38%) every year. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), wheat is also a popular crop in the cropping system, however, average yield differs by 100% from the national average yield due to rainfed planting (67%). Sowing of wheat in the area starts in October subject to onset of winter rains which delays its planting in the season. This study aims to compare yield performance of newly released varieties of wheat by dela...

Tahir Khan, Raziuddin, Fakharuddin* and Muazam Jamal Razi

Imtiaz Hussain, M. Sajid, Noor ul Amin, Abdul Mateen Khattak, Abrar Hussain Shah, S. Mussarat       Hussain, Sayed Hussain and Nagina Zeb

...most parameters were non significantly influenced by growing conditions and planting dates. The experimental findings revealed that cuttings planted under plastic tunnels growing conditions showed less number of days to buds sprouting (17 days) and more sprouting percentage (96%), number of sprout plant-1 (6.45), sprout length (27.41 cm), sprout thickness (0.12 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (16.33) and plant survival percentage (81.72%). ...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud1, Muaz Abdellatif 2, 3*, Luai Shazali1

...ronment appeared to be a significant factor on the level of antibodies in the tested small ruminants population. Taken together, results indicate the seropositivity of PPRV in the region and warrant future large-scale surveillance studies to better assess the situation of the disease in the region.

...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

...ease is expected to have significant negative impacts on livelihoods. In resource-constrained marginalised societies, it is often difficult to collect disease data in conventional ways. Participatory epidemiology (PE) has been suggested as a particularly suitable research method to study epidemiology and social impacts of diseases in these contexts. However, for PE to achieve its full potential, stronger efforts to achieve true participation and to incorporate...

Keyvan Sharifmoradi1*, Nader Farahpour2

... independent t-test with significant point set at p< 0.05. There was no difference in cadence between left and right of normal subjects and those with PD. However, there was a significant decrease in walking speed and stride length in both sides of PD patients compared to normal subjects. Patients with PD showed a significant decrease in progression force and the second peak of v...

Ali Tahmasebi1, Parvin Raji1*, Mostafa Kamali2

...trate that there were no significant differences in mean values of static stability parameters in EC condition between children with spastic diplegic CP and typically developed children (P˃0.05). There were no significant differences in mean values of static stability parameters during EC and EO condition in typically developed children (P˃0.05). Children with spastic diplegic CP experience the best static standing...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...V within lineage IV with significant substitutions in the nucleoprotein (NP) gene. Genetic variations within NP gene, and possibly in other proteins which are essentially mediating protective immunity, may explain the extreme infectious nature of the virus and its host-specific pathogenesis. Moreover, understanding the nature of such circulating field viruses is essential to underpin the endemic potential of PPRV and its possible spread to the susceptible wild...

Muhammad Jurial Baloch1*, Ghulam Murtaza Channa2, Wajid Ali Jatoi2, Abdul Wahid Baloch1, Imdad Hussain Rind1, Muhammad Ahmed Arain1 and Ayaz Ali Keerio1

... due to GCA and SCA were significant for days to 75% maturity, tillers plant-1, spike length, spike density, grains spike-1, grain yield plant-1, seed index and harvest index. Significance of GCA and SCA variances suggested that both additive and non-additive genes were controlling these characters. The magnitude of SCA variances were higher than GCA indicating pre-dominance of non-additive gene effects for spike length, spike ...

 Ishfaq Ahmed, Ihsan Mabood Qazi and Suraiya Jamal

...4.47–7.09%) showed significant (P < 0.05) increase, while fat content (1.41-1.17%) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease by blending WF with BRF. Similarly, water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI) and swelling power (SP) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease as the concentration of wheat flour in the blends increases. The values for WAI, WSI and SP were ...

Murad Ali Khan and Mohammad Akmal 

...times. Results showed no significant changes in yield traits i.e. plant density (m-2), number of grains per head and 1000 grains weight (g). However, biomass yield (kg ha-1), grain yield (kg ha-1) and oil content (g kg-1) were found significantly (p<0.05) higher for planting geometry 90 x 15.5 cm as compared to 70 x 20 cm on mean values in both years. It is obvious from the data that yield traits are not

 Zar Muhammad and Mohammad Tariq Jan

...N and their interactions significantly affected maize yield and yield components over two years average data. Compost application produced more maize ears m-2 (13%), grains ear-1 (28%), 1000 grains weight (14%), biological yield (56%), grain yield (65%) and harvest index (5%) over control. Among varying composition composts, higher grains ear-1(274), 1000 grains weight (270.7g), biological yield (16151 kg ha-1) and grain yield (4803 kg ha-1) were observed for ...

 Muhammad Ishaq and Raziuddin

 
...zed data revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes for days to flowering, maturity, plant height, primary branches plant-1 and main raceme length. Analysis of combining ability revealed highly significant GCA (general combining ability), SCA (specific combining ability) and RCA (reciprocal combining ability) effects for the studied traits. Based on GCA, best general combiners were AUP-7 for earlier flowerin...

 Farmanullah Khan, Samad Khan, Wiqar Ahmad and Imran Khan

...evealed that NPK75FYM20` significantly (p<0.05) improved the yield. As regards soil properties, NPK20FYM20 reduced bulk density, increased WHC, saturation percentage, organic matter content, plant available N, P and K significantly (p<0.05) both at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. Effect of fertilizer sources either alone or in integrated form was non-significant on Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn concen...

 Zafar Khan, Asad Sultan, Rajwali Khan, Sarzamin Khan, Imranullah and Kamran Farid

 
...men was found to contain significantly higher levels of Pb, Cd and Cr as compared to egg yolk which contains significantly higher levels of essential elements (Fe, Mn and Zn). The mean concentrations of toxic heavy metals; Pb, Cd and Cr in albumen samples collected from Peshawar were 0.13, 0.06 and 0.09 (ppm) respectively. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and Cr in egg albumen of Dir Lower were 0.13, 0.05 and 0.05and in Malakand wer...

 Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Rajwali Khan, Syed Muhammad Sohail, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib and Asim Ijaz

...to male (14%). Similarly significant difference was recorded among age group i.e. adult were more susceptible as compare to young ones. In subsistence farms level prevalence in intensive, extensive farming and nomads was 74.07%, 57% and 83.3% respectively. Breeding through natural service was in greater risk (94%) as compared to artificial insemination (78%). In humans overall sero-prevalence was recorded 12.12%, 09.59% and 08.59% by SPAT, i-ELISA and PCR resp...

 Umed Ali Laghari, Ahmed Naqi Shah, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Zia-ul-Hassan, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro and Khalid Hussain Talpur

... and genotypic variation significantly (p<0.05) determined the yield of grass pea. However, their interaction remained non-significant for all the traits of grass pea under study. As expected, the increasing rate of K significantly (p<0.05) increased various growth traits and yield of grass pea genotypes. The crop supplied with 20 kg K2O ha-1 produced maximum branches per plant (5.2)...

 Arif Khan, Abdur Rahman, Shoail Akhtar, Siraj Uddin, Zahid Ullah and Nazir Ahmad

 
...Breed and animal age had significant and their interaction has significant (P < 0.05) effects on marbling. Animal age group and their (breed x age) interaction had significant effect on the Water holding capacity (WHC). Breed effect on WHC was found not significant at P 0.05. WHC increased significantly (P < 0.05...

Mian Shamas Murtaza1, Aysha Sameen1, Nuzhat Huma1 and Fatma Hussain2

...ed that reduction in fat significantly (p < 0.05) increased the moisture and protein content. The addition of gums further augmented the moisture level owing to owing to their water retention properties. The melt-ability, flow-ability and yield of cheese decreased significantly (p < 0.05) on reducing the fat level, as anticipated. However, the addition of gums gradually improved these aspects with higher values for che...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

... female) of age 14 to 60 significantly (P<0.01) reduced during past 30 years and partly shifted to cropping. The male herding labour reduced 40.2% in semi-nomadic pastoralists and 8% in nomadic pastoralists. Similarly the female herding labour reduced 54.3% in semi-nomadic and 32.2 in nomadic pastoralists. This reduction is highly observed in herding labour of semi-nomadic pastoralists followed by nomadic pastoralists. It is concluded that due to this irrat...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...ased nematode population significantly (P=0.05 and caused reductions in final numbers of cysts per 250 g of soil, eggs and juveniles per cyst. Nematicides effects were not quite significant among each other but had tremendous effects in reducing nematode population compared to that of untreated control. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in numbers of eggs per cyst warrants that nematicides ...

Sungil Kim1, Muhammad Riaz2, Amjad Farooq3 and Sungkwon Park4*

...n loin were analyzed. No significant difference in growth performance and quality traits of pork loin between control and DDGS was observed. Fatty acid composition in pork belly, however, was significantly affected by DDGS treatment. Levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and oleic acid (C18:1) which are positively associated with meat flavor, were greater (p<0.05) in DDGS compared to control group. Supplementation of DDGS in...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

...le and serum glucose was significantly improved. Lipid profile and serum glucose was significantly reduced in all treated groups. Mean cholesterol was (157.66 mg/dl), triglyceride (65.64 mg/dl), HDL (58.88 mg/dl) while no alteration in LDL contents. Significantly effect of water based infusion was notice on mean serum glucose (73.83 mg/dl) Observation of the study indicating that water bas...

Safdar A. Wahocho, Tanveer F. Miano, Noor U.N. Memon and Niaz A. Wahocho

...). The results revealed significant (P<0.05) photoperiodic effect on all the growth and quality traits of Zinnia. The Zinnia grown under 8 hours daylight (8 am – 4 pm) with 38.29 cm plant height, 6.61 side branches plant-1, 41.25 leaves plant-1, 39.75 days taken to initiate flower bud, 7.49 cm flower diameter, 5.76 g weight of single flower, 3.27 days taken to open 1st flower, 8.41 flowers plant-1, 23.67 days blooming period and 28 percent leaf chlor...

Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3*

... supplementary proof and significant information for future taxon studies.

...

Halide Nihal Açikgöz1*, Serdal Kenan Köse2 and Ali Açikgöz3

 

 

...versity of the fauna are significant for solving suspect entomological cases.

 

 

...

Metin Duru1*, Asuman Arslan Duru1, Köksal Karadaş2, Ecevit Eyduran3, Harun Cinli4 and Mohammad Masood Tariq5

... characteristics was non-significant. The significant differences in other egg characteristics between weeks were recorded except for egg shape index and egg height (P<0.05). Very strongly Pearson coefficient of 0.876 was estimated in egg shape index between predicted and actual values (P<0.01) in the CHAID analysis in comparison with other egg internal characteristics. The Nodes numbered 3, 4, 5, 8, 9 and 12 with the ...

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

...d that fire ant invasion significantly suppressed honeydew exploitation by ghost ant. Fire ant suppression markedly increased the ghost ant foraging activity both on plants and the ground. Ant diversity in fire ant-infested plots was significantly reduced compared with in fire ant-free plots. Compared with in the no-ant plots, the colony growth rate of mealybug significantly increased, and...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

... food in rural region. A significant increase in the consumption of meat, fruits, vegetables, rice, beverages, other cereals and backed products is found for married rural household, while fruits, vegetables, sugar, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, oil and fats, backed products and other food consumption increases as urban household is married. Results show a significant increase in the consumption of v...

Robina Karim and Dawood Jan

... variation does not show significant declines; rather it appears largely static, suggesting Pakistan imports trade could not be benefited much by reductions in trade restrictions associated with the implementation of WTO in Pakistan domestic market. This stated analysis thus supports partial acceptance of hypothesis, which states that “Pakistan’s foreign trade is expected to be largely better off once WTO’s regime is fully implemented in Paki...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...iotics has attracted the significant attention, mainly due to the consequences of multi drug resistance and potential threat to human health and the environment. With the increasing incidences of antimicrobial contamination, especially in food, dairy products, agriculture and environment, their regular monitoring is on prime interest. Aptamers are synthetic short sequences of single stranded (ss) oligonucleotides (ss-RNA or DNA), which are developed by an in-v...

Ambreena Hafiz1, Tanzeela Riaz2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*

...n. Soluble Proteins were significantly elevated (79, 100 and 37%) in 4th and 6th instar larvae and adult beetles of Gujranwala, (14, 24 and 14%) in Okara and (14, 13 and 2%) in D.G Khan populations, respectively compared to susceptible population. Free amino acids content of Gujranwala (22, 42, 75%), Okara (18, 30 and 17%) and D.G Khan (4, 15 and 25%) also showed the same trend of elevation in the 4th and 6th instar larvae and adult beetles, respectively compa...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...riment, L. muscarium had significant effects in reducing the nematode population in soil compared to the other treatments. In regard to the growth parameters, root and shoot growth (cm) were enhanced after the application of L. muscarium, followed by D. oviparasitica and S. rugosoannulata. The reproductive rate (Rf = Pf/Pi) of nematodes was much higher in the non-treated plants than those that were treated. The root quality of the fungus-treated plants was

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

...ds and chrysoperla had a significant positive correlation with A. gossypii and T. orichalcea, respectively. Likewise, spiders and lady beetles had significant positive relationship with B. tabaci, N. inconspicuous and Empoasca spp. Furthermore, temperature had a significant positive correlation with B. tabaci, N. inconspicuous and Empoasca spp, suggested increased in temperature also...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...greenhouse conditions. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in the number of galls and egg masses, eggs and juveniles (J2), and the reproduction factor (Rf=Pf/Pi) was observed in the plants treated with L. muscarium compared to the control. However, all chemical nematicides were also effective in reducing the nematode infestation significantly (P=0.05) in soil compared to the control, but there was no si...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...done on these aspects. A significantly greater emergence of IJ of S. feltiae from Galleria mellonella was observed with White traps than with modified Baermann trays. Maximum juveniles of S. feltiae emerged at 50 IJ dose followed by 100 IJ. The emergence of IJ decreased significantly at the dose of 200 IJ and then increased with 400 IJ dose. The minimum number of juveniles emerged at the dose of 200 IJ. The relationship betw...

Pan-pan Guo1, Wei Liu2, Yan Li2, Rui-yu Ma2, Wang Zaigui1*, Kai Zhan2*, Jun-ying Li2 and Sheng-nan Liu2 

...sms of the HTT gene were significantly associated with egg production traits in two Anhui local chicken breeds, but the suggestions that HTT may be considered as a potential molecular marker for the selection of production performance-related phenotypes in local chicken breeds need to be further verified.

...

Ecevit Eyduran1, Daniel Zaborski2*, Abdul Waheed3, Senol Celik4, Koksal Karadas5 and Wilhelm Grzesiak2

...R coefficients. The most significant BW predictors were sex, rump height, shank circumference and head girth. The r value ranged from 0.82 (MLP1) to 0.86 (RBF and MR). The lowest RMSE (3.94 kg) was found for RBF and the highest one (4.49 kg) for MLP1. In general, the applied algorithms quite accurately predicted BW of Beetal goats, which may be helpful in making decisions upon standards, favourable drug doses and required feed amount for animals. The ascertain...

Shakeel Ahmed* and Sarwat Jahan

...(EIA) kits. 48 h fasting significantly increased plasma adiponectin (P<0.001), while decreased leptin (P<0.001) and resistin (P<0.01) concentrations compared to normal fed monkeys. No significant (P>0.05) change in adiponectin levels was observed after NMS injection in both normal and metabolically stressed conditions. NMS administration induced a significant (P<0.01) increa...

Süleyman Kök1*, Sertaç Atalay1, Hasan Semih Eken2 and Mustafa Savaşçi3

...N1 4751 were found to be significant (P<0.05). The positive alleles of SNPs in Calpain and Calpastatin genes and all of their genotype combinations, were also found to be carried by TGC.

...

Muhammad Sohail1,*, Muhammad Naeem Khan1, Naureen Aziz Qureshi2 and Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry3

...1) of each metal induced significantly higher levels of DNA strands breaks as compared to medium dose (240 µg L-1) and very low levels of DNA damaged was observed at high dose (360 µg L-1). Cu and Pb showed significantly higher value of % of tail DNA (56.74±1.81, 47.36±1.23) and comet tail length (41.30±0.758, 49.15±1.90), respectively, as compared to Cr and combined metal exposure (Pb...

Tasnim Farasat*, Saima Sharif, Farkhanda Manzoor, Muneeza Zafar and Shagufta Naz

...l and serum insulin were significantly higher (p< 0.05) in proliferative group of diabetic retinopathy, while triglyceride level, HbA1c (%), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were non-significantly higher (p> 0.05) in diabetic retinopathy groups. To conclude high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was observed among newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

...

Dallin D. Oaks and Cynthia L. Hallen

...derstanding has received significant attention. The pervasiveness of certain metaphors in the lives of members of a religious community is especially significant when they are incorporated into sacred texts. This would seem to be the case not only for Judaism, Islam, and mainline Christianity, but also for Mormonism, a distinctive branch of Christianity. Officially known as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LD...

Faiqah Ramzan*1 and Muhammad Haris Ramzan2

...ly. The levels decreased significantly at all tested doses. Intermittent administration of Kisspeptin –10 negatively regulates the prostatic citric acid levels in adult male mice.

...

John G. Bruno

...taining. While there was significant cross-reactivity between the various captured serotypes, each of the anti-LPS aptamer candidates showed a preference for its cognate E. coli serotype. Results suggest that these aptamers may be useful for enriching specific E. coli pathogens during aptamer-magnetic separation in food samples, leading to a greater ability to detect these serotypes if coupled with genetic identification techniques such as PCR or gene probe hy...

Zafar Waheed, Khalid Usman, Iftikhar Ali

...sses in grain yield were significantly affected by Rumex dentatus population. All parameters decreased with increasing density of Rumex dentatus except loss in grain yield which increased (1.3 to 69.8%) with increasing density of Rumex dentatus (from 5 to 30 plants m-2). The threshold level of Rumex dentatus was observed in T5 and became worse with further increase in population density of Rumex dentatus. It is concluded that yield and yield related parameters...

Ahmed Samy, Wesam Mady, Naglaa M. Haggag, Samah H. Mohamed, Ebtissam N. AlShamy, M.K. Hassan

...rther, strain V3 induced significant up-regulation of IL-1b and IL-6 at 24 hours post infections (hpi) comparing to RSF/1. However, both strains induced significant up-regulations of interleukin (IL)-8 at 1 and 3hpi and interferon (IFN)-α late 24 and 48hpi. Altogether, our results suggest that the concurrent up-regulation of IFNα, IL-1b and IL-6 with higher viral load could represent an important feature affectin...

Muhammad Shafiq and Tahir Maqsood

...iomass were affected non-significantly in response to B application. Regarding chemical analysis concentration of boron in both wheat straw and grains increased with B application but there was no effect of fertilizer B on NPK concentration of straw and grains. These results are very heartening; signifying that for any soil, B adsorption isotherm need to be worked out for location precise fertilizer B use.

...

Dilawar Hussain* and Abdul Mateen

... both 2 and 4 ppm levels significantly (p<0.05) decreased specific growth rate (SGR), net weight gain (NWG), average daily gain (ADG), survival, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PRE), irrespective the addition of the 4TX in the diets. Among different dietary groups of the fish, % survival was not affected significantly (p<0.05). T1 showed maximum NWG (45.49±3.85), FER (0.739...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

... of aluminium phosphide, significant increase in neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil and monocytes throughout the duration of exposure and decrease in the lymphocytes . The results on gill and liver tissues sampled showed concentration and time dependent significant increase (p < 0.005) in the values of malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase ...

Sezgi Arman* and Sema Isisag Ucuncu

... of epithelial area were significantly different.

...

Sezgi Arman* and Sema Isisag Ucuncu

... of epithelial area were significantly different.

...

Noor Us Saher1, Zunaira Amanat2, M. Asif Gondal3 and Naureen Aziz Qureshi4,*

...= 99.4, P<0.005) were significantly more than females throughout the study period. There was a significant difference in size of male and female crabs within sexes; (M. planipes: t = -4.93, P < 0.005) and (A. lunaris: t = -2.92, P<0.005). Various morphometrical relationships were demonstrated that the males of M. planipes and A. lunaris were larger in size and heavier than females (4.34g ± 0.9g; 14.86 ±...

Ibrar Khan1,2,3,*, Sadia Qayyum2, Shehzad Ahmed2, Kashif Syed Haleem2, Mujaddad-ur-Rehman1, Guang-Lei Liu3 and Zhen-Ming Chi3

... common and economically significant group of marine micro-fungi family. The study comprised isolation, microscopic observations and ribotyping, allowed discrimination of the marine fungal isolates as Penicillium viticola F1, Penicillium restrictum F2, Penicillium rubens F8, Penicillium implicatum F10, Penicillium piceum F11, Penicillium oxalicum F12, Penicillium sumatrense F15, and Penicillium vinaceum F16. This study demonstrated that Yellow Sea can be consi...

Asmaa Hamid1,* and Samia Kalsoom2

... gram and chickpea had a significant effect on lowering glucose level and total cholesterol of these experimental animals. Bengal gram however, proved to have a significantly (p<0.05) greater effect on lowering of these parameters.

...

Wang Tian1, Huayong Zhang1,*, Jian Zhang2, Lei Zhao1, Mingsheng Miao3 and Hai Huang1

...on biomass were the most significant factors that influenced zooplankton. Strong correlations between SD and Brachionus leydigi, Chrysophyta and Diaphanosoma leuchtenbergianum, Cryptophyta and Theopilium, Ascomorpha ovalis, Hexarthra mira were observed during the CCA. These zooplankton species may be used as indicators of relevant variables. Results in this research are very useful in guaranteeing ecological security in Lake Nansihu.

...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

...n of transgene have made significant contributions to understanding astrocytic structure and function in vitro and in vivo, evidence suggests that mouse models are limited and sometimes do not fully replicate the complete spectrum of neurological phenotypes seen in human diseases. On the contrary, pigs, especially mini-pigs, show exciting potential for modeling human CNS diseases due to similarities in body size, anatomy, life span, CNS structure and neurobiol...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

...uare analysis revealed a significant relationship between the respondents’ training needs on value addition initiatives and their age, educational level, years of experience and fish farm income. The value addition initiatives use profile of the fish farmers was still very low among the respondents and training was highly needed on value addition initiatives in seven major areas. It was recommended that robust training programmes and advisory services sh...

Shazia Irfan1*, Asima Rani1, Muhammad Arshad2 and Razia Bashir1

...lysis indicated that non-significant association existed between SOD1 (rs2070424) gene polymorphism and RA (p>0.05). Results of HWE estimation indicate that allele frequencies were not deviant from HWE in RA group. The results of present study indicates that Pb and Cr concentration differ significantly between AA, AG and GG genotypes of SOD1 (rs2070424) gene polymorphism in RA patients as compared to control group (p<0...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1*, Lorenzo Gallus2, Sara Ferrando2, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman3, Abdul Ghaffar4 and Abdul Mateen5

...ody of the fish were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by feeding frequency. The highest lipid contents were observed in fish at feeding frequency of three to four times daily. The condition factor (CF), viscerosomatic index (VSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were significantly (P< 0.05) higher in fish at ration levels from 2.5 to 4.5% BW d−1 and feeding frequency of three to four times daily. These results co...

Sidra-Tul-Muntaha1, Muhammad Sagheer1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan1 and Shahbaz Talib Sahi2

... this study. We observed significant results with each treatment. For both repellent and growth inhibitory effects, A. indica and deltamethrin were most efficient among plant extracts and pyrethroids respectively. At highest dose rates, more than 90% repellency was recorded with both A. indica and deltamethrin. Upto 80% progeny inhibition was caused by the extract of A. indica. While more than 50% population of C. chinensis was inhibited with deltamethrin. Mor...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

...e was 59.9%, goats had a significantly higher sero-prevalence of 75.3% compared to 59.4% obtained from sheep, whereas camels were seronegative. The prevalence of PPR was increasing from 27.9% in 2011 to 77.3% in 2016. Seropositivity was higher in wet seasons (60.9 to 61.4%) to 56.7% in dry hot season. Species, year and location appeared to be having significant effect (p<0.01) on the frequency of circulating antibodies in...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

...M + pressmud combination significantly improved soil physical and chemical properties as well as spinach growth compared to other fertilizers with EM. Maximum soil organic matter content (OM) and K was observed in treatment where pressmud was co-applied with EM. While greater N and P were found where compost and poultry manure were co-applied with EM respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) increase in plant height (11%), num...

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

...abor hours have positive significant effect on milk production, while herd size has negative significant effect. Furthermore, the addition of estimated coefficients is less than 1, indicating a decreasing return to scale in milk production. These results suggest that small sized dairy farms are more productive and profitable; however, farmers need to utilize each input at its allocatively efficient level in order to get maxi...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

...ons. Genotypes exhibited significant (p≤0.01) variations for all the studied traits excluding biomass. Genotype by environment interactions (GEI) were significant for all the characters except for thousand kernel weight. The influences of yield components on grain yield were explained by the cluster analysis of environments. Clustering of five test environments based on Shifted Multiplicative Model (SHMM) exposed the majo...

Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

...nd pesticides were found significant at 5% significance level. In inefficiency model grower age, experience and contact with extension workers has significant contribution in decreasing farm inefficiency. However, grower’s family size, his off-farm income and distance between farm and house were found non-significant. The coefficient of education reveals that in study area inefficien...

Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed and Dilnawaz Ahmed Gardezi

...variance revealed highly significant differences for plant height, number of tillers, leaf area, brix percentage, reducing and non-reducing sugar. A total of 79.75% cumulative variance was estimated in genotypes with PCA analysis at eigenvalue >1 and grouped 20 genotypes into five clusters at Euclidean distance (ED) 7. Cluster analysis revealed that the members of clusters I, cluster III and Cluster V diverse genotypes that should be utilised to initiate br...

Sheraz Ahmad Khan and Ghulam Hassan

...s showed the presence of significant variation (p≤0.01) among the genotypes. Heritability estimates were observed high (h2˃0.60) for all the traits. The highest heritability (0.93) was noticed in plant height followed by flag leaf area (0.89). The values of genetic advance were recorded low to moderate for all parameters. Grain yield was observed to have positive significant association with most of the important yie...

Muhammad Aslam Shahid, Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Niamatullah

...ndicated that males were significantly differed from one another in all these characters during both years of study. Maximum spath length (107.21, 107.81cm), weight of pollen grain (150.07, 147.57g)/ tree and number of spath/tree (18.52, 19.24) were recorded in M6, whereas, maximum spath width (15.29, 16.58cm) was observed in M5. The highest number of strand/spath (245.21, 240.53), number of flower/ strand (84.29, 86.80) and weight of pollen grain (12.13, 11.1...

Aqila Shaheen and Nadia Sabir

...maize cropping rotations significantly responded to tillage, residues and organic and inorganic fertilizers. These results suggest that deep tillage has the potential to increase crop yield and WUE of wheat-maize cropping system in mountainous and sub-humid conditions.

...

Naushad Khan1*, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Munir Khan1, Shaista Naz2, Javeria Tanveer1 and Muhammad Kaleem3

...or the maize crop showed significant results due to the proper utilization of the credit by the farmers. The major constraints to farmers while obtaining credit were complicated procedure of pass book preparation, amount less than requirement, unavailability of timely credit and non-availability of collateral. The study recommends amount of loan according to the farmers’ requirements, bank staff cooperation and one window operation to address the problem...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...tract of PDB medium gave significant results against selected phytopathogens compared to GNB medium and selected for further study. Crude (1 µg.mL-1 ) obtained from PDB medium showed 2.50 ± 0.64 mm and 1.97 ± 0.21 mm inhibition zone against X. campestris and C. michiganensis respectively compared to positive reference (streptomycin) and negative refrence (EtOAc) using disc diffusion method. However, the same concentration of crude (1 µ...

Zaffar Malik, Moazzam Jamil, Ghulam Hassan Abassi, Muhammmad Nafees, Muhammad Rafey and Muhammad Kamran

.... The C values decreased significantly for all the amendments and effect of SB and WCB was more prominent, as compared to other amendments. No specific trends, however was observed for φ. Pearson correlation indicated that all the properties i.e., COLE, TS, C, and φ, were significantly correlated with each other. Both fly ash and biochar significantly improved the physico-mechanica...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...ild type plants (WT). No significant decrease was recorded in the chlorophyll content of overexpression lines whereas significant decrease was recorded in the chlorophyll content of WT plants following heat stress. Similarly, no significant reduction in the water content of the leaves of overexpression lines was recorded compared to 33.87% reduction in leaf water content of WT plants as a ...

Zeeshan Haider, Inayatullah Jan and Waqar Akram 

... that farmers observed a significant difference in the overall income and income from tomato crop after the conflict as shown by larger t-values of 6.17 with (p<0.01) and 10.91 with (p<0.01) respectively. It was mainly due to restrained mobility during the conflict, farmers had limited or no access to cultivable land, irrigation facilities, and input and output markets which resulted in increased cost of production and decreased farm productivity of toma...

Ibni Amin Khalil* and Raziuddin

...er interaction for found significant (P<0.01) for the studied parameter. Promising genotypes for seed yield i.e. L-4, L-5, L-7 and T-4 were identified as best parents as they outclassed all other genotypes by producing maximum seed yield per plant of 28 g. Since, the line × tester source was significant, hence data was further subjected to combining ability analysis. For the inheritance of the studied trait (seed yi...
Önder Duysak*andKübra Azdural
...> tissues tended to vary significantly between season and stations.The distribution of heavy metals in P. caerulea followed in their muscular tissues in order; Çevlik > Kaleköy> Payas > Arsuz > Dörtyol > Konacık > Yumurtalık > İskenderun for spring and Kaleköy > Payas > İskenderun > Arsuz > Dörtyol > Yumurtalık > Konacık > Çevlik for autumn.It was f...
Wan-Long Zhu1 and Guang Yang2,*
... leptin levels showed no significant differences between short photoperiod group and long photoperiod group, and serum leptin levels showed a positive correlation with body fat mass. Hypothalamic neuropeptide NPY, AgRP, POMC and CART expressions had no significant differences between two groups. Leptin was negatively correlated with NPY expression, but not correlated with CART, POMC and AgRP expressions. All of the results s...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6
...Body composition was not significantly influenced by different lipid sources although low crude lipid was found in fish fed diet containing FO. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) and visrosomatic index (VSI) were greater in the fish fed FO diet than the remaining diets. Finally, it was concluded that fish oil is the best source of energy in fish diet followed by soybean oil for A. berda growing from 10.1 g and 69.2 g. Further study is required for optimizati...
Serkan Sayiner1* and Hilal Karagul2
...was found that there are significant seasonal differences for each region and regional differences in each season were due to different feeding conditions. Heifer blood selenium and plasma vitamin E levels were generally found within adequate ranges in all regions for both seasons. We suggest that feed supplements containing selenium should be added for the Iskele region during the winter months. For the Morphou region we advise that feed supplements should be...
Irshad Ahmad
...strategy has resulted in significant reduction of the pest population in the target area of district Dir, Pakistan.
...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Zhong-Yuan Zhang1, Yan-Guo Han1, Wei-Wei Ni1, Ming-Xing Chu2, Yue-Hui Ma2, Jian-Ning He3, Huai-Zhi Jiang4, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Yan Zeng1, Ri-Su Na1, Gao-Fu Wang5, Hang-Xing Ren5 and Yong-Fu Huang1*
...tructure did not diverge significantly between high fecundity goats and low fecundity populations, but it followed the agro-ecological zone and management history. This indicated that the frequency of those five microsatellites did not increase during the reproduction of those six breeds. Therefore, these five fecundity related microsatellites are not appropriate biomarkers for goat breeding.

 

...
Kiran Afshan1*, Sarwat Jahan1 and Mazhar Qayyum2
...ield this test indicated significant (p<0.05) values for sheep as compared to goat indicating high risk of infection in sheep. The current study showed that commercial bovine F. hepatica ELISA test is effective in Pakistan for small ruminants.
...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...y fed wasp pair produces significantly more number of eggs, adults and also lived significantly longer than other treatments. Highest fecundity and longevity of parasitoid was recorded in case of parasitoids feeding on 50% honey solution followed by 25% sugar and date syrups solutions respectively. It has provided useful information for the mass rearing of this potential biocontrol agent which may be used in the successful i...
Muhammad Afzal1,Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi1,*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Irfan Hussain1
...astating species causing significant loss annually in South Asia. Feeding deterrence of H. indicola among 10 different woods species were evaluated in choice and no-choice assays conducted under laboratory and field conditions. Visual rating according to (AWPA, 1997) scale, mass loss, wood consumption per termite and mortality rate were determined to evaluate resistance of wood against H. indicola. Populus euramericana and Dalbergia sis...
Zafrullah Khan1, Shah Alam Khan1*, Hamayoon Khan2, Naeem Khan3, Khwaja Junaid1 and Inamullah Khan1
... L.) crop and causes significant production losses to the wheat crop in Pakistan. So far eight genes from the conventional wheat cultivars that are resistant to the attack of R. padi have been incorporated in the commercial wheat cultivars to help manage R. padi. During this study seven wheat genotypes were evaluated as antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance. These tested genotypes were (Pir Sabaq-2004, Atta-Habib, Saleem-2000, Serin-2010, Khy...
Md. Yeamin Hossain1,*, Md. Alomgir Hossen1, Md. Nasir Uddin Pramanik1, Fairuz Nawer1, Md. Mosaddequr Rahman2, Suraiya Sharmin1, Dalia Khatun1, A. H. Bahkali3, Abdallah M. Elgorban3 and Khairun Yahya4
...sex ratio did not differ significantly from the expected 1:1 ratio (χ2 = 4.06, p > 0.05). Total length was varied from 5.59 to 12.87 cm and body weight ranged from 3.40 to 27.87 g. All LWRs were highly significant (p < 0.001), with all r2values exceeding 0.97. The calculated allometric coefficient (b) indicated negative allometric growth in male, female, and comb...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...ll esterases tested were significantly increased in all field collected phosphine-tolerant populations when compared with phosphine-susceptible population. Among developmental stages, the 4th instar larvae possessed higher esterase activities than 6th instar larvae and adult beetles in all populations of T. granarium. The increased level of esterases in phosphine tolerant populations as compared to susceptible population has pointe...
Yaoguo Li1,2 and Maoxian He1
...i-methylation locus) was significantly correlated with the shell height and the shell length, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.204 and 0.233, separately. The incidence of type IV locus (super methylated locus) on the other hand was significantly correlated with the shell length, with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.217. The genome methylation levels were significantly positi...
Muhammad Luqman Sohail1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor2, Omer Naseer1 and Muhammad Usman Saleem3
...nfection. Results showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and platelets while total leucocytes count (TLC), neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were increased significantly (P < 0.05) which indicated hemolytic anem...
Abida Butt,* Imtiaz Alam and Rabia Naz
...apture thread length. No significant difference was recorded in the number of prey items intercepted by decorated and non-decorated webs. The results of this study showed that stablimenta did not increase prey interception efficiency of the web. However, web design of A.trifasciata showed plasticity that can be explained on the basis of studied body measures.
...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
... determinants were found significantly (P<0.05) associated with mastitis occurrence except frequency of milking per day. Antibiogram of Staph. aureus indicated very strong resistance to oxacillin, ticarcillin, ampicilline, amoxicillin, azlocine, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, vancomycin, cefixinme, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime. In contrast to this sulphaphenazole, gentamicin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin were highly sensitive. Piperacillin, Tazabactam and ...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...somatic index (1.4) were significantly (P< 0.05) higher of fish treated with the artificial diet as compared to those in control ponds. Length-weight relationships of the juveniles showed significant (P < 0.0 I) growth and condition factor associated to feed application in treated ponds. Body composition of the fish was not significantly (P>0.05) different in both th...

 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

...ed that all indices were significantly affected by period and season of calving and lactation number except that Wood index that did not vary with seasons. Heritability estimates of various indices were low and ranged from 0.004 to 0.067 indicating very lower genetic control. This is the first study to show genetic of persistency of lactation. Although results may be validated using more data and more accurately recorded pedigree for several generations howeve...
Jiancheng Zhai, Li Gao, Yanling Xia and Heping Li*
...isplay, but there was no significant difference between the male and female.
...
Jun Cui, Xiaoxu Zhou, Zhicheng Wang, Derong Kong, Xuemei Qiu, Hongdi Wang and Xiuli Wang*
...dney. CcWap65 was significantly up-regulated in the liver of crucian carp after heat stress, suggesting that increase in Wap65 gene may be related to high water temperature stress and play important roles in high water temperature environment of crucian carp.
...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Ehsan Kamrani1, Narges Amrollahi Biuki1 and Hossein Zamani2
...emale-biased and was not significantly different during the study. The monthly adult sex ratio (ASR) was significantly different. It means that the sex ratio has no effects on OSR. Moreover, the gonadosomatic indices GSI 1, GSI 2, and GSI 3 were 8.2±0.6, 4.1±0.3 and 9.4±0.9, respectively. GSIs did not showed differ significantly in females; while in males, they were di...
Fazal Said1,Mian Inayatullah2 and Hussain Ali3*
... of honeybee contributed significantly towards increase in the yield and quality of sunflower seed.
...
Shazia Ali, Hizb Ullah and Sarwat Jahan*
... BMI and hemoglobin were significantly reduced (P<0.001), while serum ferritin were significantly increased (P<0.001) in all four thalassemic groups on comparison with control. Kisspeptin levels were significantly reduced in ≤13 years female (P<0.001). While significantly high levels were observed in >13 years of male (P<0.01). T3<...
Sadaf Ijaz Malik1, Kiran Afshan2* and Mazhar Qayyum1
...o groups. Pathologically significant changes were observed in the infected tissue. The parasites had formed pocked in the bile duct mucosa, glandular hyperplasia, thickened blood vessels. The results demonstrate that morphological markers, pathological, hematological and bile biochemical studies are effective tools that could be used as complementary in diagnosis of amphistome infections in ruminants. 
...
Andrea Rezic1, Ivica Boskovic2, Piera Lubinu3, Marina Piria1, Tihomir Florijancic2, Massimo Scandura3 and Nikica Sprem1*
...hology was statistically significant for the shape (p<0.01). Sexual dimorphism as main effect was highly significant for the dorsal skull shape and the mandible shape and size (p<0.01). The comparison of mandible mean shapes using discriminant function analysis and parametric test did not reveal significant differences between the sexes, while dorsal mean skull shape was statisticall...
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
...the wintering period. No significant difference was detected in the daily travel distance between different months (F = 0.658, P > 0.05). Significant differences were detected in the daily home rang between January and February, and between February and March. No significant correlation was observed between daily travel distance and home range (R = 0.256, n = 12, P > 0....
K.N. ArulJothi1, M. Abinaya1, B. Suruthi Abirami1, Melvin George2, S. Elangovan3 and A. Devi1*
...C genotype carriers have significantly lower HDL-C (0.82 ± 0.04 mmol/L Vs, 0.9 ± 0.05 mmol/L (p<0.05)) and higher LDL-C (3.7 ± 0.2 mmol/L Vs 3.5 ± 0.14 mmol/L, (p<0.05)) than TT carriers. The TT carriers have lower risk of developing MI and Hypercholesterolemia with OR – 0.6 and 0.49, respectively. SCARB1 rs5888 polymorphism is associated with the development of myocardial infarction and CC genotype influences LDL...
Akbar Ali1,*, Khalil Mohamed2 and Fawzia Toulah3

 

...gG was seen in 12%, with significantly more in women with age more than 30 years as compared to those with age less than 30 years (19% vs 8%; p=0.038). The percentage of IgG seroprevalence was higher in women who ever got pregnant as compared to those who were never pregnant (13% vs 5%). The percentage was also higher in women with direct contact to soil (14% vs 5%). Only one sample was PCR positive. The results show that overall prevalence of Toxopl...

 Sheraz Ahmed and Fida Mohammad

...d 0.91. Plant height was significantly associated with yield at phenotypic level only. Yield exhibited significantly negative phenotypic correlation with days to flowering. Similarly, yield was positively correlated with leaves per plant, green leaves weight per plot, cured leaves weight per plot and grade index at both phenotypic and genotypic level. Based on findings of the present study, selection among RILs would be more...
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
...ich fry number decreased significantly (P<0.05). The fertilized eggs did not differ for the fish at salinity of 0‰ –20‰, but decreased significantly when salinity levels were increased above 25‰. Water quality parameters remained as temperature (28.1±0.2°C), dissolved oxygen (6.10±0.1 ml/l), pH (6.6±0.1 ml/l) and ammonia (0.02±0.004 ml/l) throughout the study peri...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...nversion (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed in feed intake (P>0.05). The treatment groups supplemented with Allium sativum showed higher growth performance compared to Cassia angustifolia and Artemisia scoparia and control(P<0.05). Relative organ weights and relative carcass yield of treatment groups were not significantly different (P>0.05). The Relative length of the intestine...
Nadeem Rashid1,*, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa1, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Tanvir Ahmad2, Majed Rafeeq1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Arif Awan1, Mohammad Ali1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Asad Ulah1 and Amanullah Khan3
... recorded as 5.3% with a significant difference (P<0.05), the pH was noted to be slightly acidic with non-significant difference (P>0.05) among seasons. Overall mean viable fungal count was 4.72 × 103±708 with a significant association (P<0.05) among seasons. Out comes from study showed that, 44.8% of the assayed samples were contaminated with A. flavus<...
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...in PBMC of PEDV. Most of significant DEGs were involved in multiple cellular processes of cell growth and immune system. Thus, results from our current study indicate that DEG analysis of RNA-seq data help us better understand the precise mechanisms of PEDV in pig PBMC. 
...
Memoona Akber1, Muhammad Mushtaq1,*, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem1, Amjad Rashid Kayani1 and Noor-un-Nisa2 
...ng spring (n = 7). A non-significant difference between numbers of captured individuals of both the sexes was recorded. Adult population of the Norway rat dominated the juvenile during all the seasons of the year. Data on the body weight reflected that the males were heavier than the females in all the four seasons of the year; the heaviest males were observed during the winter season. Reproductive activity revealed that the males were recorded reproductively ...
Salman Khalid1,*, Abdul Rehman2, Mohammad Yasin Amir1, Abdul Rehman1, Imran Sarfaraz1 and Muhammad Asif1
.... The results showed the significant decrease (p<0.001) in tick’s count in both the groups (A and B) as compared to group C. The efficacy of Ivermectin and Fipronil, on 28th day was 93.93% and 77.83%, respectively. Hence, the results proved Ivermectin to be more effective than Fipronil. The 40 birds (n=20 tick infested birds, n=20 healthy birds) were selected for haematological study. The results showed a significan...

M. Abdus Salam1, M. Moynul Haque2, Md. Obaidul Islam3, M. Nasir Uddin4 and Md. Nazmul Haque3*

...d quality of cotton were significantly higher when crop was grown from seeds stored in polythene bag as compared to cloth bag. Interaction of genotypes and seed sources indicated that highest sympodial branches plant-1 (19.11), days to 50% flowering and boll splitting (72.00 and 156.33, respectively), number of bolls plant-1 (20.33), boll weight (4.60 g), seed cotton and lint yield (2305.30 and 832.49 kg ha-1, respectively), ginning out turn (36.04%) and lint ...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...ultural mechanization. A significantly high competency level was found in describing the agriculture machines and equipments and use of hand tools and implements. Most of the respondents have high competency level having practical farming experience. Study suggests pre-service along with in-service trainings along with higher degree in agriculture i.e. PhD for improving their technical competencies in agricultural mechanization

...
Syed Ishfaq Ali Shah1,*, Tassawar Hussain Malik2, Imran Rafi Khan1 and Zahid Hussain
... it was positive and non-significantly correlated with DAP and whitefly on both USDA accessions and local varieties. Maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and wind velocity were negative and non-significantly correlated while, % relative humidity (%R.H) was found non-significantly and positively correlated both with USDA accessions and local varieties. On overall basis, during the cou...
Maoying Zhu, Yuntao Ji, Xiaoyu Wang, Junying Pu and Changqing Qu*
...months, MTT assay showed significant differences in the proportion of adherent viable cells in the FH group and GSH group compared with the control group (p < 0.05), and the FH+H group had a more beneficial effect on post-thaw survival of cryopreserved ADSCs compared with the GSH+H and GSH+FH+H groups. The use of FH and H in long-term storage has the potential to be helpful in commercial and clinical application of ADSCs.
...
Adel Eid Mohamed Mahmoud*
...rations did not show any significant differences among groups.No significant differences were observed in meat chemical analysis of slaughtered animals among different groups. Animals fed BBP recorded insignificant increase in growth rate by 9 g daily with improvement in feeding cost by 10%.Bakery waste can replace corn grains and wheat bran in concentrate feed mixtures up to 60 % in growi...
Yi-qiang Ouyang1, Zhen-xin Liang1, Shi-wen Huang2, Ying Zhang3, Shao-shi Luo1, Jin-ning Liang1, Jia-fu Li1, Yu He4 and Song-chao Guo1,*
...teral hippocampus led to significant learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze test. Pathology analysis of treated animals showed obvious gliosis and neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral hippocampal area. These results suggest that the tree shrew can recapitulate the major features of AD pathogenesis. To provide the basis for further studies with this new animal model, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze changes in the hippocampal tran...
Hamayun Khan1,*, Momen Khan2, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3, Shakoor Ahmad1, Ali Gohar4, Hameed Ullah5, FarmanUllah6, Arab Hussain7, Pershotam Khatri8, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Hamid Rehman1 and Azmatullah Khan1
... using SPSS. The highest significant (P<0.05) response was obtained in extenders containing 0.75% green tea extract for all studied parameters. Based on the findings of the current study, it can be concluded that supplementation of green tea extract in semen extender showed significant response on the post-thawed spermatozoa motility, viability and membrane integrity of Achai bull.
...
Urooj Fatima1, Arslan Mehboob2, Muhammad Abid3, Muti-ur-rehman Khan4 and Tahir Yaqub4*

 

...viruses (CPV) are posing significant threats to the dog population, around the globe. To ascertain the current situation and genetics of CPVs in Pakistan, a total of fifty samples from sick dogs suspected for parvovirus infection were collected from different geographic areas of the country. Samples were screened for positivity and verified for CPV using PCR. From a 30% positive samples for hemagglutination, nineteen (38.4%) samples were positive in PCR. Seque...

Sanaullah Jalil*, Asim Hayat, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas, Muhammad Noman, Muhammad Imran Kasana and Muhammad Mazhar Hussain

...ce. All yield parameters significantly increased by the treatments consisting of RP (100 kg) with FYM (5 t ha-1) and EM @ 50 l ha-1, which also enhanced the nutrient uptake of the crop. It can be concluded that accurate use of cheaper rock phosphate, farm yard manure and effective microbes proved as an alternative of costly fertilizers and sustaining the agricultural productivity. Residual effect of rock phosphate with additional use of farmyard manure with ef...

Neelum Andaleeb, Munir Khan and Syed Attaullah Shah

...tus and distance to city significantly affect women’s involvement in livestock farming. Based on these findings the study recommends that significance of women participation to livestock sector must be recognized in government planes and policies. The provision of credit and livestock training facilities to rural women could encourage their participation in livestock farming and provides them decision power in livestock management.

...
Muhammad Qadir Ahmad¹*, Farheen Ashraf Raza¹, Abdul Qayyum¹, Waqas Malik¹, Rao Wali Muhammad2, Muhammad Asif Saleem1, Amir Hamza2, Ahmad Baksh Mahar3
...lation analysis depicted significant positive association between NL and BW. SV also revealed positive association with SI. BW showed positive association with NLB, NS and SI. LA showed positive association with NL. Path coefficient analysis was utilized to partition the direct and indirect effects of different traits on BW. Path coefficient analysis revealed positive direct effect of NS on BW. Similarly, SI illustrated positive indirect effect on BW via LA. T...
Abdus-Subhan1, Qudratullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2, Muhammad Jamil Khan1, Ammanullah2, Matiullah Khan3
...tics revealed that P had significant effect on tillers plant-1, weight of grain spike-1, grain yield and harvest index % (H.I. %). While (S) had significant effect on yield of grain, straw, biomass and H.I. Maximum grain yield and BCR was recorded in treatment combination of P2 × S1.It is concluded that use of 2-tillers on raise bed sowing method gave
Ahmed Mujtaba1, Tariq Masud1, Asif Ahmad1, Waqar Ahmed3, Saqib Jabbar3* and Robert E. Levin2
...lorogenic acid inhibited significantly the growth of tested bacterial strains. Among the bacterial strain tested Salmonella entritidis and Helicobacter pylori were even more sensitive to 20.313 (µg/ml) of chlorogenic acid and showed zone of inhibition with the value of 6.0 and 7.0 mm. The HPLC analysis of apricot suggested that 5.0 gm of apricot contain 1.04 µg/ml of chlorogenic acid on dry weight basis. It is concluded that apricot m...
Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3
... both the varieties were significantly influenced the fruit decay (%), TSS (%), taste and moisture content (%), while firmness (kg/cm2) and weight loss (%) was found non-significant. Also storage interval significantly affected all the parameters. Interactive affect of varieties and storage intervals significantly affected all the parameters except firmness (kg/cm2

Zain-ul-Aabdin Abro1*, Naheed Baloch1, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2, Waseem Akbar Qazi2, Noor Abid Saeed3

...s. Results revealed that significantly highest (124.86) population was recorded on L. acutangula and lowest (104.725) on L. siceraria at both experimental sites throughout the course of experiment. Moreover, significantly higher population densities of B. cucurbitae were observed during the 4th week of May on L. acutangula (339.4±22.59) and lowest (11.0±0.45) during1st week of January. Similarly, in case of M. ...
Mustafa Cengiz1*, Jama Hussein Ali2, H. Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Adnan Ayhanci3
...ges in the liver tissue, significant decreased in the number of activated Bcl-2, while increased in the number of Bax and caspase-3-positive hepatocytes, a significantly increase in levels of the activities of biochemistry markers (serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)). In contrast, in the groups given D-GaIN and EA, a decrease in the damage of the liver tissue, a

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...ection were also reduced significantly with allamanda spray. Active compounds in allamanda leaves have been separated and identified.Formulated trichoderma effectively controlled soil-borne diseases including root-knot nematode. Mahogany oil spray reduced infestation of stem borer,leaf hoppers of rice; shoot & fruit borer of brinjal and fruit flies of vegetables.Biopesticides (formulated trichoderma) and bio-agents (bracon,trichogramma, ladybird beetle) an...

Wajid Hasan1 and C. P. Singh2

Relationship between the population of mustard aphid,Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and weather parameters on different cultivars of Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.)
...n of L. erysimi governed significantly with the weather parameters. It concluded that the temperature (max. 18.7 and min. 5.0 C), relative humidity (morning 91.5 and afternoon 50.5 percent), rainfall (000.0 mm), evaporation (below 1.55 mm), bright sun shine hours (below 5.8 hr) along with wind velocity below 3.4 km/hr were found very conductive for this pest.

...

M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal
... disease severity showed significant positive correlation with max & min temperatures, min relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy days. Step down multiple regression analysis revealed that the forecasting of BLS could best be done from min temp, minimum relative humidity and number of rainy days.

...

1N. Johnson Singh, 2Amitava Konar and 3Palash Mondal

Incidence of aphids in different traps on potato in Gangetic plains of West Bengal
...bright sunshine hour had significant effect on aphid population. The same abiotic factors were quite different between the first and second year. This was due to the fact that the climatic conditions in second year varied distinctly from the first year.

...

1S. A. Khan and 2S. Jha

Effect of dates of sowing, moisture regimes, varieties and weather factors on incidences of aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in rape and mustard
...days showed consistently significant negative correlation, whereas Trange, which is the difference between Tmax and Tmin, registered always positive correlation with aphid population. On aphid observation date, morning RH showed significant positive correlation, whereas after noon RH registered significant negative association with aphid population. After noon RH prevailing 3 to 5 days pri...

1Parvin Noor and 2Md. Nashir Uddin

Morphological changes of different castes of the subterranean termites (Odontotermes proformosanus) in fungus combs of termitophiles
...d head capsule width are significantly correlated at 0.01 level in their five different development stages.

...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...oefficient matrix showed significantly positive correlation of canker severity with maximum relative humidity at 1% level whereas, anthracnose correlated well with minimum relative humidity, temperature and number of rainy days at 5% level. The negative correlation was obtained for stem canker and dry rot with all parameters at 1% significant level. In case of Phytophthora fruit rot, positive correlation was also recorded wi...

P. Barma and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal activity of fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq.) on pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) and weather relations
... minimum temperature had significant positive correlation (r = +0.386 and +0.501, respectively) on the population build up of the pest. The relative humidity % of morning hours had significantly negative correlation (r = -0.451) and that of evening slightly positive (r = +0.284). Rainfall had insignificantly positive (r = +0.195), soil temperature significant

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
... 70.54%) over check plot significantly. Again, the efficacy of the biocontrol agents was significantly greater in the block with green manured than the block without green manured. Application of hexaconazol 5% EC@ 2.0 ml litre-1 and carbendazim 50% WP @ 1.0 ml litre-1 also reduced the sheath blight disease incidence by 53.25% and 56.86% over the check plot respectively. It was interesting to observe that all biocontrol agen...

A.A. Oyerinde, P.Z. Chuwang, P.Z. and G.T. Oyerinde

Evaluation of the effects of climate change on increased in-cidence of cowpea pests in Nigeria
..., respectively. Also, no significant difference was established in the forms of destructions recorded at the various growth stages of the cowpea plant in the two seasons. Therefore the advent of increased fauna on cowpea established in this study portrayed a need to find possible ways to reduce the emission of Greenhouse gases in the region in order to ameliorate the effects of induced global warming on cowpea production in the country and also provide effecti...

D.K. Hazra, Megha Pant, S.K. Raza and P. K. Patanjali

 

Formulation technology: key parameters for food safety with respect to agrochemicals use in crop protection
...formulations, there is a significant trend towards switching over from such pesticide formulations using petroleum and organic solvent based constituents to user and environment friendly water based formulations. These formulations not only replace toxic, non-degradable ingredients/adjuvants of the conventional formulations but also increase the bio-efficacy of the products through incorporating latest technologies including size reduction (WP to SC, SL to ME)...

Dinesh Kachhawa and Sahidur Rahman

Factors influencing incidence of red spider mite of tea, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) in Assam
...the number of eggs had a significantly positive correlation with the maximum temperature(r=0.320 and r=0.286 for the mites and eggs, respectively) and minimum temperature (r=0.268 and r=0.279 for mites and eggs, respectively). Whereas the mo-tile stage of red spider mite, O. coffeae and eggs had a negative and significant correlation with average relative humidity (r = -0.357 and r = -0.282 for mites and eggs, respectively)....

M. S. Joshi , D.M. Sawant and A.P. Gaikwad

Isolate variations in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting pomegranate
...s was also statistically significant. Highest DRI (15.22) was recorded in the interaction between Bhagwa x Cg 85 and it was on par with Ganesh x Cg 86, Aarakta x Cg 82, Aarakta x Cg 84, Ruby X Cg 86, Patna 5 X Cg 86 and Patna 5 X Cg 82.

...

Someshwar Bhagat and Sitansu Pan

Comparative ecological behaviour of some pre- and post-tsunami isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride from Andaman & Nicobar Islands
...ates), whereas there was significant reduction in their parasitizing ability of post-Tsunami isolates. Similar results were also noted in their rhizosphere colonizing ability in rhizosphere of chick pea seedlings. All isolates of Trichoderma showed significantlty low competitive parasitic ability and rhizosphere colonization in Mohanpur (B.C.KV.) soil as compared to Port Blair (CARI) soil.
 

...

K. K. Hegde and B. S. Nandihalli 

Bioefficacy of some indigenous products in the management of okra fruit borers
..., respectively. GCKE was significantly superior in reducing the fruit borer damage to the tune of 64.83 per cent with higher fruit yield of 35.87 q.ha-1. The highest incremental benefit: cost ratio was noticed in endosulfan treatment (15.00) followed by treatment involving NSKE alternated with cow urine 10% (13.00), repeated sprays of GCKE (10) and NSKE alternated with cow dung 10% (7.90).
 

 

...

B. S. Nandihalli

Utilization of botanicals in the management of the coconut perianth mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer
...NSKE 5 percent was found significantly superior in reducing the mite population with higher healthy nuts (81 nuts 4 bunches), least percent of damaged nut (65 per cent) and highest benefit which was on par with wettable sulphur. The next best treatment was neem oil 2 percent.

...

V. N. Jalgaonkar, M. S. Gawankar, V. W. Bendale and P. D. Patil

Efficacy of some insecticides against cashew tea mosquito bug Helopeltis antonii Sign
...shew is one of the major significant sources of foreign currency for our country and it is also one of the important crops of Konkan region of Maharashtra State. Nearly 60 different pests have been reported on cashew. Among them the Tea Mosquito Bug, Helopeltis antonii Sign. is the most serious one, which is responsible for considerable yield losses in cashew. A field trial was conducted during 2005 at Cashew Research Farm, Regional Fruit Research station, Ven...
Zhensheng Liu1,2, Hui Gao1,2, Jiapeng Dong1, Mingming Zhang3 and Liwei Teng1,2,*
...eeding behavior differed significantly by sex but moving behavior did not. Activity synchronization indices of same-sex groups were higher than for mixed-groups and were highest for male groups. The activity budget hypothesis of sexual segregation was supported by blue sheep behavior in the Helan Mountains.
...
Bao-Ming Ge* Dai-Zhen Zhang, Qiu-Ning Liu, Sen-Hao Jiang, Jun Cui, Chun-Lin Zhou and Bo-Ping Tang
...), however, there was no significant interaction of habitat type and season (F15,120 = 0.529, P = 0.919). The abundances distribution was significantly different among habitats in each season as shown by one-way ANOVA, the higher abundance can be found in the warmer seasons. The highest abundance of A. vulgare occurred in forests with dike age above 100 years in summer, whereas the lowest occurred in the fo...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
...otal protein values were significantly low (P<0.05) in infected groups A and B as compared to control groups C and D on 5th and 7th day. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly (P<0.05) high in infected groups A and B. On 3rd, 5th and 9th day five birds from each group were slaughtered and histopathological lesions...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
...ndard diet group was non-significant. The remission of SLE manifestations was observed in prednisone treated group except renal damage. From the study it was concluded that gluten intake could worsen the clinical manifestations in SLE patients, therefore, administration of gluten free diet might be a better strategy for SLE patients. However, further confirmatory studies are required in this regard.
...
Hai-Ji Zhang1, Di Zhang2, Dong-Min Hou1 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
... mass of liver decreased significantly in fasting groups, which can return to the control level after refeeding. Fasting for 12 h decreased serum leptin levels, and leptin levels can not recover to the control level after refeeding. Interestingly, there were no post-fasting compensatory increases in food intake. All of the results indicated that A. chevrieri can adjust their physiological functions to cope with food shortage, mainly by decreasing body m...
Sohail Ahmed, Muhammad Arshad and Babar Hassan*
...centration of all resins significantly reduced the chances of termites’ infestation as compared to other concentrations by dipping application in contrast to coating method. Drying of woods prior to resin application was also effective in resisting termites’ infestation. The findings of treatment with resins are discussed with previously cited effects of resins and its implication in wood preservation.
...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
...ent. Untreated plots had significantly less grain yield as compared to treated plot in all three crops. Cost benefit ratios were significantly different among three crops as 1:7.3, 1:5.7 and 1:4.8 in mid-Nov, end-Nov and mid-Dec crop, respectively. It is concluded that aphids infestation during the season cause for a decrease of grain yield in untreated plots compared to the treated plots. Early planting gave the highest cos...
Burhan Azam1, Muhammad Naeem Tahir2,*, Faisal Shahzad2, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Abbas4, Madiha Gohar5 and Saima1
...ds. The results showed a significant linear (P<0.001) increase in the intakes of DM, CP and NDF by the animals with increasing level of enzyme in the diet. The milk yield increased until an enzyme supplementation of 15 g/day (T3) and then dropped. The yield of milk protein, fat, solids not fat and lactose were not affected (P>0.05). Milk fat, solids not fat and lactose concentrations differed (P<0.001) among the treatments but did not show (P>0.05)...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi2
...respectively. It was not significantly different during the spawning period. The monthly sex ratios were significantly different during the spawning times. It was also observed an unstable condition for sex ratio and deviated from 1:1. The maximum of sex ratio was in April (1.07± 0.03) as the start of Spawning and September (0.86±0.02) as the recovery of gonad. Therefore, OSR cannot be affected by sex ratio at ...
Madeeha Arshad1, Naveed Ahmad2,*, Muhammad Khalid3, Asmatullah1, Mohammad Tahir2, Khadija Naveed1 and Asia Iqbal4
...phometric studies showed significant differences in nervous, integumentary and skeletal systems against control. Exencephaly, Omphalocoel, hygroma and limb abnormalities were recorded. It is shown that Cr VI causes teratogenic effects in mice embryos.
...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...es under study performed significantly superior to farmers’ practice in terms of reduction in disease severity (32.8-43.6%), yield increase (20.9% - 26.8%) and benefit-cost ratio. Integrated approach was the best approach followed by prophylactic and curative soil disinfestations. Thus, for the present micro-level situation vascular bacterial wilt malady can be addressed by prophylactic application of lime at 500 kg/ha and bleaching powder 20 kg/ha in th...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...cal approaches performed significantly superior over other approaches and traditional practice in terms reduction in percent infestation (92%), increase in germination percentage (36.04%), 88% increase in the quantity of viable seed after storage and benefit-cost ratio. Therefore, seed dressing with neem or mustard oil at 2ml/kg seed can be finally recommended from the present findings for safe storage of black gram for the purpose of food and seed under homes...
Mohammed M. Ibrahim1,2*, Y.S. Chandel1 and Anil3
...ndings revealed that the significant differences were observed between the populations for all characters except abdomen length, fore wing width and length of trochanter and tibia. Overall, the mean of populations for head height × width, proboscis length, thorax length, abdomen length, fore wing length × width, cubital index, hind wing length × width, number of hamuli, coxa length, trochanter length, femur length, tibia length and metatarsus...
Fariha Imtiaz1, Muhammad Islam1, Hamid Saeed2,*, Bushra Saleem1, Maryam Asghar1 and Zikria Saleem2
... ether (5%) demonstrated significant hair growth promoting effects (p < 0.05) compared to standard, i.e., 5% minoxidil and extracts in other solvents. Likewise, ethanol (5% and 10 %) and petroleum ether (5%) extract had significant impact (p < 0.05) on hair length in comparison to minoxidil, however, no significant differences were observed between ethanol (5% and 10%) extract...
Süleyman Kök*
...alue, the difference was significant for CAPN1 316 loci (P<0.001) and CAST loci (P<0.05) and non-balanced but the CAPN1 4751 loci (P>0.05) which did not display a significant difference. The Fis inbreeding coefficients being negative in the sample populations for CAST loci imply heterogeneity in CAST loci (P<0.001). The effective allele number and allele density are other criteria to show the spatial h...
Mehmet Avci1, Recep Aydin1,* and Jale Metin Kiyici2
...feed did not created any significant differences in live weights, daily weight gains, feed conversion ratios and behavioral characteristics of the calves.
...
Erol Akkuzu1,*, Hidayet Güzel2 and Özkan Evcin1
... the pest did not differ significantly between two site productivity classes and between two stand compositions. 
...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Sultan Ayaz2, Sajid Umar4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Muhammad Shafee6, Ikramullah Khan7, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Azmat Ullah Khan8Naimat Ullah Malik1 and Abdul Razzaq9
...evalence of 11.11%, with significant difference (P<0.05) among different study areas. Prevalence was highest in district Bannu (11.66%), followed by district Lakki Marwat and Kohat with 10% in each district. Statistical analysis revealed significant difference (P<0.05) among children of different age groups with highest disease prevalence in children of less than 5 years of age (21.40%) and lowest in children of 11-15 ...
Rafi Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan1,*, Abdul Hafeez1, Asad Sultan1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2, Naila Chand1 and Naseer Ahmad1 
...acteristics indicated no significant differences (P > 0.05). Cost per kg of feed gradually decline with increasing dietary level of SCM inclusion levels (P < 0.05), indicating higher economic benefit. However, the gross return per bird and profit per kg meat were higher for diet D4 (P < 0.05). It was revealed that replacement of soyabean meal with silkworm meal did not affect broiler performance and carcass quality; therefore silkworm meal may effecti...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Moez Ayadi1 and Shabana Naz2
...n was also determined. A significant (P<0.05) increase of calcium (Ca), Zn, Co and Se levels in blood of ewes treated with bolus with a significant increase in phosphorous (P), Co and Se in the blood of their newborn lambs. Furthermore, a significantly higher (P<0.05) inorganic matter percentage in colostrum was found in treated group compared to the control. The body weight of lambs...
Viram Kumar1,*, Moolchand Malhi1, Saeed Ahmed Soomro1, Toufique Ahmed Qureshi2, Muhammad Nawaz Sanjrani3 and Khushal Das Malhi1
... MCH concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.05) and the serum total protein and Mg concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in male compared to female peafowl. In conclusion, the present study provides base-line values for hematology and serum biochemistry of apparently healthy Indian adult blue peafowl of Thar and can be used as reference values to evaluate the health or diseased conditions in the s...
Wenqiao Hui1, Jishun Tang1, Dejian Zhu1, Qian Ban2* and Sheng Chen1*
...n event that contributes significantly to lifetime reproductive efficiency. Anhui white goat is a native Chinese breed, with the characters of early time puberty onset and high fecundity. However, the molecular mechanism of puberty onset has not been well understood. It has been demonstrated leptin act as a critical metabolic cue linking adipose and the onset of puberty. In the present study, we first assessed the morphological changes in adipose tissue at pre...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1*,Ibrahim Alhidary1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Rifat U. Khan3, Abdel Raouf S. Bello4, Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2 and Ramzi A. Amran1
...ls. Acetic acid improved significantly in experimental groups, while propionic acid decreased significantly in T1. Valeric acid and butyric acid decreased significantly in T1 and T2 while isovolaric acid and the ratio of acetic acid and propionic acid and glucose increased significantly in T1. In conclusion, feeding TMR with alfalfa hay, regardless of th...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2,*, Tanveer Hussain2, Rashid Saif2, Sadaf Rashid3, Hanan Sarfraz4, Abbas Ali Shah3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...al status did not differ significantly among case and control groups. Exonic regions of BDNF gene were sequenced. In-silico analysis was performed to detect the possible disease causing effect of genetic variants with OCD. Sequencing of BDNF gene showed one change G>A at position c.196 (rs6265) resulting in a nonsynonymous change from valine to methionine. We found only one homozygous and heterozygous carrier for this polymorphism. Healthy sib...
Sidra Manzoor1,Asif Nadeem1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Wasim Shehzad1, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Muhammad Imran1, Tanveer Hussain2, Abdul Wajid1 and Maryam Javed1
...ion but it was found non-significant in all analyzed traits. So, it was inferred that it might be due to environmental or epigenetic effect, sampling number or a breed difference. To know the functional consequences of the identified polymorphism, RNA secondary structure analysis was performed and SNP was found changing the termination loop shape in mRNA. However, to increase the selection efficacy of dairy animals, the effects of candidate polymorphism should...
Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
... with aphids. But was no significant difference in most of the combinations except wheat with aphids (3.8889±0.4554). The fresh leaves of rose, citrus, brassica and wheat (1.2±0.2006, 1.3556±0.1416, 1.5778±0.1829, 2.1444±0.2027, respectively) attracted significantly more numbers of C. septempunctata as compared to control and aphids alone (0.7667±0.1204 and 0.8333±0.115...
Jianping Gou, Jianli Xiong*, Baoxia Dong, Zhennan Liu and Manman Hou
...r 2015. Females differed significantly in the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, lung, and gonads compared to males; however, liver and fat bodies did not differ between the sexes. The sex difference of these organs may contribute to different energy requirements for reproduction between males and females. Our findings suggest that female toads invest considerable resources into gamete production compared to males, and greater internal organs in female...

Shahid Iqbal Khattak1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Khalid Naveed2 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan1

... foliar application of N significantly (P≤0.05) affected plant height (89 cm), tillers m-2 (313), grains spike-1 (48), 1000-grain weight (43.0 g) and economic yield (3760 kg ha-1). Foliar applied nitrogen also produced higher nitrogen use efficiency, net return, value cost ratio and relative increase in income as compared to soil applied method. However, maximum grain protein content was recorded in soil applied method in comparison to foliar N application....

Umer Wahid1, Shahid Ali2* and Nihal Ahmad Hadi3

...y factors experience was significantly contributing to the technical efficiency of the farmers. On the basis of this study it is recommended that tomato growers in the study area need to increase the number of seedling for the purpose to increase the productivity. It is further recommended that government should provide training facilities to the farmers to improve their skills, as a results of which the productivity will be increased

...

Naveed Muhammad, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Ibrahim and Salman Khan

...ertilizers have positive significant effects on tomato yield. Allocative efficiency analysis reveals that machinery, seed quantity, number of irrigation, fertilizers and chemicals are underutilized, while labor and FYM are over utilized for tomato production in the study area. The study recommends training for growers and field labors, provision of short-term formal credit and subsidies on seed, chemical spray, fertilizers and other underutilized inputs/ capit...

Furukh Faiz1,2, Muhammad Issa Khan2, Masood Sadiq2 and Haq Nawaz3

...the citrus waste has non-significant effect on the feed conversion ratio of the broiler birds. The results also showed that citrus waste in the feed have positive effect on the antioxidant status of the broiler birds. The activity of the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the broiler blood was increased as the citrus waste level in the feed of the broilers was increased. The citrus waste addition in the feed of the broiler have non-
Hazrat Ali1,*, Wajid Ali1, Karim Ullah1, Fazle Akbar1, Sher Ahrar1, Irfan Ullah1, Irum Ahmad1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Ikram Ilahi2 and Muhammad Anwar Sajad3 
...fish generally showed no significant differences among different sites on the rivers. However, in some cases, metal concentrations showed significant increase down the stream. Similarly, a comparison of metal concentrations in muscles of the two species generally did not show significant differences between the two species. Zn concentrations in fish muscles were higher than Cu concentratio...
Madiha Hashmi1, Abid Hussain1, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Farida Ahmed2, Shahbaz Aslam3,Nadeem Afzal4 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
...DRB1*11 demonstrated significant association with aeroallergens and could have a protective role for allergy while HLA-DRB1*12 did not show any association with aeroallergen sensitization.
...
Aneela Qureshi1, Ammara Ainee1*, Muhammad Nadeem1, Masooma Munir1,2*, Tahir Mahmood Qureshi1, Saqib Jabbar2
...nd fiber content changed significantly (p<0.05). Gross energy level in cake which is desirable by consumers was reduced but high fiber cake was dark colored, low in volume and with increased hardness. Treatment (T3) containing 5.6g grapefruit albedo powder shows significantly (p<0.05) higher sensory scores in term of color (8.02±0.50), flavor (8.04±0.29), taste (8.18±0.37), mouth feel (8...
Wu Yi-qun* and Xu Xiu
...rs shows that there is a significant positive correlation (P < 0.05) between feeding and walking, air movement and chasing behavior, and the positive correlation between lying and preening behavior is also significant. The results also showed that weather conditions has obvious influence on wintering behavior, especially on feeding, walking, lying and standing (P < 0.01).
...
Farah Ashfaq* and Tasnim Farasat
...d cholesterol were found significantly high in overweight and obese groups as compared to the normal weight group (p<0.01). In overweight group, resistin levels were significantly related with cholesterol, insulin levels and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.375, p = .000; r = 0.336, p < 0.01; r = 0.301, p<0.01). In obese group, resistin showed a significant...
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
...r postulate positive and significant impact of citrus producing experience and family income on adoption of recommended number of irrigation and hoeing practices whereas age has significant negative impact on the adoption of hoeing practice and fertilizer applications. Positive and significant impact of family income is influencing the adoption of every recommended practice. The present pa...
Koksal Karadas1* and Ibrahim Hakki Kadırhanogullari2
...ent variables were found significantly. In the MARS algorithm, significant independent variables were determined to be some main and interaction effects of NFB, FAS, WPA, EL, AB, FCQ and TSP. The significant order of the Pearson coefficients between actual and fitted values in AHY was MARS (0.913a) > ANN (0.885ab) > Exhaustive CHAID (0.786b) > CHAI...
Hassen Allaya1,2,*, Abderraouf Ben Faleh1, Manel Rebaya1, Sonia Zrelli3, Abdallah Hattour2, Jean-Pierre Quignard4 and Monia Trabelsi1
...4 adult specimens showed significant differences among the means of the two studied sites for 8 standardized morphometric measurements out of 11 characters. The principal component analysis (PCA), scatter plot of individual component score between PC1 and PC2 showed two morphometric groups. The linear canonical variate analysis (CVA), the overall assignments of individuals into their original groups was 95.13%. The morphometric and meristic analysis were fully...

Aftab Wajid1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Awais2, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman3*, M. Aown Sammar Raza2, Usman Bashir2, Muhammad Naveed Arshad1, Sana Ullah4, Muhammad Irfan5 and Umair Gull1
 

...l as nitrogen increments significantly contributed to the related traits of cotton growth, seed cotton yield and yield attributes. Increasing N increments reveals a positive association with biomass accumulation (growth), yield and yield associated components. Among N increments, 200 kg ha-1 achieved more number of bolls per plant (31.00), average weight per boll (3.48 g) and ultimately lead to higher seed cotton yield (2.42 t ha-1) as compared to other N rate...
A. Hamid1,*, M. Ilyas2 and S. Kalsoom3
...on BGF. Both BGF and SGF significantly lowered the TPC in experimental animals compared with purified diet AIN-93, WBF and MBF. The VLDL, LDL and triglycerides levels were also decreased accordingly while a higher ratio of HDL was recorded in rats fed on BGF and SGF compared to the other feeds. The results suggest that BGF and SGF containing the soluble ß-glucan extract can reduce TPC, VLDL, LDL, and triglycerides and higher HDL.
...
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
...igh. Severe lesions were significantly (p<0.01) more frequent (80%) in broilers reared on chopped wheat straw than on pelleted straw (56%). Although the high moisture content was measured in both litter substrates and the high frequency of severe FPD was estimated in both groups of broilers, pelleted straw showed lower moisture content, occurrence and severity of FPD (2.56±0.19) comparing to chopped wheat straw (3.20±0.13) at the end of the ex...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...sonalities and habits. A significant difference was reported in required and possessed competencies of preparing training schedules regarding crops followed by timely appointment and issuance of duties to junior staff for effective and efficient work. Results of the study reported that there is utmost need of training in competencies regarding identification of input supply dealers’ malpractices and evaluation of pesticide companies activities. Timely ap...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
...roots of C-302 contained significantly fewer galls (30) and egg-masses (51) compared to the other fourteen cultivars. Seven cultivars including C-33, Gola Peshawari, 11-2010, 18-2010, 15-2010, 27-2010 and C-68 had 10 root galling and egg-masses indices (from a scale of 0-10). Hence, present study shows that none of the available chili cultivars are resistant to attack from M. incognita and S. rolfsii. The moderate tolerance was found in C-302 fol...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Tasneem Hameed1, Muhammad Afzal2, Arshad Javid3, Nosheen Aslam4, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah6, Majid Hussain5, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1 and Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1
...t digestibility was also significantly increased (p<0.05) by 1000 FTU kg-1 level of phytase supplementation. Digestibility coefficients for sunflower meal based diet increased 15.76%, 17.70% and 12.70% for crude protein, crude fat and apparent gross energy as compared to the reference diet, respectively at 1000 FTU kg-1 level. It was concluded that the phytase supplementation to sunflower meal based diet at 1000 FTU kg-1 lev...
Rahat Naseer1*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Zulfiqar-ul-Hassan2, H. Rehman1, Saima Naveed1, F. Masood1 and M. Tayyab1
...60 days of the trial, no significant difference (p =0.067) in the daily feed intake among the different experimental groups was recorded. Maximum feed consumption was recorded in HT (hydrothermal treatment) 1096.69±26.8 (mean± SE) while lowest in NC (untreated husk) 974.91±18.8 followed by 1069±28 in FT (Fermented), 1045.81±27.7 in BT 1042.47±33 in AT and 1032.17±32 in PC group. A signif...

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

...ry, these viruses pose a significant threat to public health. Owing to significant involvements of neuraminidase (NA) gene in virus pathobiology by mediating virus entry and release, the present study was conducted to determine the phylogenetic relationship of currently prevailing H9N2 isolates in Pakistan. A sum of ten H9N2 AIVs were isolated from 400 suspected samples and were confirmed through serological and molecular as...

Attaullah Khan1, Muhammad Shafi1*, Jehan Bakht2 and Shazma Anwar1

...l growth parameters were significantly improved by seed priming with CaCl2 except shoot length (cm). It is concluded that salinity stresses has adversely affected growth traits of wheat varieties however, seed priming with CaCl2 has alleviated the adverse effects of salinity in wheat varieties. 

...

Sania Shaheen1*, Hina Fatima2 and Muhammad Azeem Khan3

...ermine the factors which significantly contribute to increase the rice output. Moreover, this study estimated the sources of inefficiency. Data collected from 300 sample rice farmers into the Kharif cycle (2013-14) at five main rice growing districts of Punjab namely: Hafizabad, Sheikhupura, Jhang, Vehari, and Gujranwala. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) was applied to find the results of a study. Study results reveal that direct seeding method is more profi...
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
.... All districts showed a significant result for detecting Brucella species (χ2 =54.505, df=8, p<0.05, 95% CI). In conclusion, distribution pattern of the soil borne Brucella species in three districts of Punjab puts both human and animal population at a high risk of exposure. Further studies are required to explore molecular diversity of the pathogens together with sero-conversion in animals and humans.
...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry. Clinical investigation was carried out during the suspected outbreaks of PPR/FMD in sheep and goats in Hail. Saudi Arabia. During the outbreaks 271 (20.6%) died out of 648 (49.3%) of affected animals, the overall morbidity in goats (33.3%) was higher as compared to sheep (12.3%), with a case fatality rate in goats reached 74.69% in the 2nd outbreak. Affected animals exhibited feve...

Wali Khan1, Naushad Khan2 and Shaista Naz2*

...rmed that beekeeping has significant effect on household income. On average of 2 family members per household were engaged in the beekeeping activity. It also provided multiple sources of employment mainly in honey transportation and marketing, thus beekeeping not only served as an income generating activity but also an employment generating activity in present and in future. The major constraints in beekeeping were the expensive inputs, pest attack, lack of m...
Netti Aryani1, Azrita2, Ainul Mardiah3 and Hafrijal Syandri2*
...justed. The feeding rate significantly (p< 0.05) influenced the final fish weight, net weight gain (NWG), average daily growth (ADG), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The maximum growth of giant gourami was found at 6% feeding rate. However, the best feed conversion ratio (1.34±0.18) was obtained at the 4% feeding rate. The carcass composition (crude protein and crude lipid) of giant gourami with different feeding rates sh...
Ayşe Gül Harlıoğlu*
...sac larvae, therefore no significant (P>0.05) difference was observed in these fatty acids between fertilized eggs and yolk-sac larvae. Nevertheless, significant (P<0.05) decreases were observed in C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3, C20:1n-9, C20:2n-6, C20:3n-6 between fertilized eggs and absorbed yolk-sac larvae. Moreover, a significant (P<0.05) decrease was observed ...
Kadir Karakuş1, Bahat Comba2, Abuzer Taş3, Tunahan Sancak3, Arzu Comba2, Devrim Saripinar Aksu4, Hasan Koyun5 and Mohammad Masood Tariq6,*
...n factor was found to be significant only in testosterone (P <0.05). No significant difference between the control and surgical groups in testosterone was noted. In this study, although the application of different castration methods in 4-month-old male Norduz sheep resulted in changes in the blood hormone levels, it was determined that these changes did not affect body weight. In conclusion, the evaluation of the process...
Ibrahim A. Alhidary1,*, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Moez A. Ayadi1,3 and Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2
...s of this trial showed a significantly higher total body weight gain in lambs fed TMR1 and TMR 2. A significantly higher FCR in lambs fed TMR3 compared with all other treatments. The rumen color of lambs fed TMR2 was significantly (P < 0.01) lighter compared with all other groups except lambs fed ABG. Pelleting the alfalfa hay and barley affect the rumen color to be darker compar...

Kamran A. Awan1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal3

...wing dates and varieties significantly affected yield and yield related traits. Sowing made on November 25 showed higher yield than the expected early sown on November 15 or late sown thereafter on December 5 in season in the region. Overall delay in sowing date i.e. from December 5 onwards resulted in sever losses in biomass and grain yield (GY). On averages of varieties, a decrease in biological- and grain yield was estimated 261 and 89 kg ha-1, reapectively...

Fawad Ali1*, Hidayat Ullah2, Ikhtiar Khan1

...ic acid (AB-DTPA) showed significant differences between the two studied localities. Linear regression analysis indicates that concentration of the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn) in vegetables are significantly correlated at R2 value of 0.956 at P≤0.001 with their extractable concentration in soil. Health risk index (HRI) has been found>1 for Pb in Abelmoschus esculentus while rest of the heavy metals have been noted...
Naila Chand1,*, Shabana Naz2, Hamza Maris1, Rifat Ullhah Khan1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi1
... betaine supplementation significantly (P< 0.05) improved feed conversion ratio (FCR). Betaine supplementation significantly (P< 0.05) improved dressing percentage. The treatment groups had significantly (P<0.05) lower heterophil number and significantly (P<0.05) higher lymphocytes number than the control group. The heterophil/lymphocytes rat...
Hameeda Kalhoro1, Abdul Malik2,Ghulam Abbas2,*, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Sajjad Ali Shah4and Haleema Kalhoro3
...CR) were found to be non-significant among all treatments (P>0.05). Survival rate were 90% in T1 which was highest than T2 (50%) and T3 (80%). Water quality remained as temperature (25.2 ± 0.20 °C), dissolved oxygen (5.2 ± 0.11mg/L), pH (6.9 ± 0.15), ammonia (0.48 ± 0.02 1mg/L) and hardness (118 ± 2.4 mg/L). Our results indicated that better growth increment can be achieved on squid or ...
Muhammad Tariq Saeed1*, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid1, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem1, Mumtaz Akhtar Cheema2, Muhammad Shahid1, Abdul-Shakoor1, Abdul-Sattar3
...nd hydration inoculation significantly reduced the time to 50% emergence (E50), mean emergence time (MET) and emergence index (EI) of both soybean varieties. Moreover, osmo priming had no significant effect on E50, MET and EI that was at par with control. On an average, days to maturity (96.42), plant height (25.84 cm), plant population at harvest (25.22), 1000-seed weight (94.97 g), seed yield (1.71 t ...
Shazia Rasheed1,* and Javed Mustaquim2
...tolasmids prevalence was significantly higher in female P. pelagicus (81.2%) than that of male (18.8%) while in case of P. sanguinolentus the prevalence was significantly higher in male (60.5%) rather than female (39.5%).
...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*, Shah Saud Ahmad and Asif Nawaz 

...areas and hence achieved significant yield of these selected vegetables in the study area. It is suggested that steps should be taken so that the participation of farmers in general body meetings and elections of FSC should be enhanced so that the trust of farmers be developed and they would be able to reach the solution of their problems. Timely availability of vegetable seeds along with subsidy should be ensured so that farmers can avail this opportunity.&nb...

Sadia*, Abdur Rab, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Irfan Ullah, Farida Bibi and Islam Zeb

...GA3 application might be significantly reduced the fruit drop and enhanced the growth of guava tree. 

...
Saleem Khan1, Amir Hamza2, Farhadullah Khan3, M. Subhan4, Aziz Khan1, Irfan Ali Shah1, Shakirullah Khan Shakir3*
...ariance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences for radiation treatments, genotypes and interaction for treatments × genotypes regarding plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of bolls plant-1 and yield of cotton seeds plant-1. Higher levels of gamma rays (20 and 25 KR) effected most of the parameters adversely. Significant reduction in plant height was observed for all ...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...spectively. There was no significant difference in age (p-value 0.081), employment status (p-value 0.34) and matrimonial status (p-value 0.28) but there was a significant difference in their education (p-value 0.0002). The prevalence of C allele was 13.5% in disease, 5.83% in controls and found significant with p-value 0.007. These findings suggest that c...
Shabana1,*, Farah Ehsan1 and Shahida Hasnain1,2
...genotyped by PCR-RFLP. A significant difference in genotype distribution was observed between cases (Gly/Gly, 66.9%; Gly/Ser, 20.17%; Ser/Ser, 12.8%) and controls (Gly/Gly, 67.4%; Gly/Ser, 28.5%; Ser/Ser, 4.00%) (p = 0.013). The cases showed significantly higher frequency of the Ser allele compared to the controls (22.9% vs. 18.3%; OR: 1.32, CI: 0.95–1.83, p=0.013). The minor allele (Ser) showed a

Syed Tanveer Shah* and Muhammad Sajid 

...ion and storage duration significantly affected all the studied attributes. More fruit firmness (5.57 and 5.69 kg cm2), less Total soluble solids [TSS] (8.57 and 8.26 °Brix) and TSS-acid ratio (12.62 and 11.48) were recorded by the alone application of calcium chloride at 1.0% calcium concentration, respectively. The effect of calcium sources and concentration on the rest of the quality attributes were found non-significant<...

Abdur Rab1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Naveed Ahmad1, Khalid Nawab2, Syed Ghias Ali3

... rot (BER) incidence but significantly decreased the leaf K+ and Ca content of the fruit and yield. The foliar calcium application decreased the Na+ accumulation, Na+/ K+ ratio and BER incidence as well as increased the leaf K+ and Ca content of tomato fruit, yield and fruit firmness. The interaction of salinity and calcium significantly affected the yield and BER incidence of tomato fruit. Whereas, the yield of tomato decre...

Qudsia Khalid, Safdar Hussain Shah*, Faiza Zaeem and Saad Hussain Shah 

...LiCl adapted line showed significantly higher indices of tolerance than unadapted line at 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM NaCl stress. Adaptation resulted in enhanced accumulation of saturated fatty acids (myristic and stearic acids), while unsaturated fatty acids exhibited variable profiles with enhanced oleic acid and significantly reduced linoleic acid. The regeneration capability of adapted line decreased 10 times (20% to 2%), ...
Muhammad Hannan Ahmed1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Abu Bakar M. Raza1, M. Afzal1, A. Khaliq1, Yasir Iftikhar2 and Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3
...raction effect was found significant in Bt varieties but not for non-Bt cultivars. Average thrips population per leaf on various Bt and non-Bt varieties showed that the CIM-557 along with BT-703 had the highest number of thrips density while Bt variety FH-113 had the lowest thrips population per leaf. Similarly, in relation to thermal effect, high thrips population was recorded at 29-35oC but population declined at...
Ambreen Butt1, Uzma Malik2, Khadija Waheed3, Amna Khanum3, Samar Firdous4, Sara Ejaz5 and Fawad Randhawa2, Tania Shakoori6*
...M. Median cobalamin were significantly reduced in cases (108.95±92 pg/mL) as compared to controls (173±90 pg/mL) at p<0.001. Low vitamin B12 levels (β = -0.29, p=0.004) significantly predicted high fasting blood sugar levels in pregnancy even after adjusting for gestational age and gravidity. ROC curve analysis revealed the optimal cutoff point of serum cobalamin for predicting gestational diabetes to b...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos1,*, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Elsayeid O. Swilam1 and Mu’ath Q. Al-Ghadi3
...tor (PEF) did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between Elancoban and natural products. However, treatment had a significant effect on BWG and FCR (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively), chicks which had received Elancoban had the highest BWG (327.9 g) and converted the feed to gain with highest efficiency (1.444 g: g). Challenged birds had longer small intestines and heavier liver as compared to unchallenged birds. Les...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
...These isolates displayed significant resistance against commonly used antibiotics including carbapenem and colistin proved to be most effective drug. Manuka honey manifested significant antibacterial activity against all test isolates with almost similar zone of inhibition (7.4mm) except E. cloacae. Highest MIC and MBC of manuka honey was observed against K. pneumoniae (30%v/v) while lowest against A. bauman...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Arshad1, Mubasshir Sohail1,2 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa3,4
...d neem oil (82.69%) gave significant control of Varroa mites. With the passage of time, mite mortality percentage increases. Overall, eucalyptus oil at 5ml dose rate gave best result and can be recommended to manage the varroa mite in apiculture.
...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...ant pathogens that cause significant losses in the poultry industry. However, successful establishment of infection in the respiratory tract switch on the pathogen recognition by innate immune receptors and establish first line of defense against viral infections. When specific cellular receptors recognize a virus they trigger the translation of inflammatory cytokine and chemokines leading to establishment of an antiviral state of the host. In this review, we ...

Muhammad Sohail1, Muhammad Nauman-ul-Islam1, Hayazuddin2*, Imtiaz Ali Shah1, Abdur Raziq1, Subhan Ullah3 and Arsalan Ali Shah1

...k among three groups was significantly (p<0.05) different, however highest milk production (4.8±0.74 liter/day) was recorded for group B, followed by Control (3.6±0.51) and group C (2.4±0.71). Cows in group B produced higher (p<0.05) milk fat percent (5.83±0.107) while control and group C produced 4.98±0.78 and 4.51±0.81 (p>0.05) fat percent respectively. Feeding of different levels of MSC have no
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
... sex of animal presented significant (P <0.05) association with tick infestation and burden while type of breed showed significant association with tick infestation but was non-significant with tick burden. Topography presented inverse behavior to that of breed with tick burden and tick infestation. On the other hand, geo-location was only factor exhibiting non-...
Rana Muhammad Aadil1,2*, Xin-An Zeng1, Saqib Jabbar3, Akmal Nazir2, Abid Aslam Mann2, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan2, Abdullah2, Amna Ramzan2
...50 MPa/60 °C/3 min), significant reduction was observed in microorganisms, PME and PPO whereas improvement was observed in cloud value, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins, DPPH activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total flavonoids (TF) and total flavonols as equated to thermal and control, while ºBrix, pH and acidity remain unchanged in all HPP treatments with control and thermal. After this, we suggested that HPP treatment (250 MPa/60 °...
Aqsa Qayyum1*, Masooma Munir1, Saeeda Raza1, Mussarat Gillani1, Saima Kanwal1, Nouman Rashid1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Zarmina Gillani2
...ling no. values differed significantly (p < 0.01) among all the treatments of composite flour. Wet and dry gluten content decreased from 22.16 ± 1.58 % (T0) to 16.43 ± 1.32 % (T3) and 7.46 ± 0.47 % (T0) to 5.03 ± 0.38 % (T3) respectively. With increasing percent of pea flour in biscuits, moisture, carbohydrates and caloric value decreased from (1.84% - 1.33%), (62.87% - 54.57%), (525.64...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...is showed drought stress significantly reduced vegetative and reproductive growth, along with various and biochemical attributes, but augmented the leaf proline. SA application significantly increased plant fresh and dry weight, leaf area, proline and decreased root length, number of roots and water use efficiency. SA treatment therefore decreased adverse effect of stress on strawberry plants. Thus the result sugge...
Aqsa Mehboob1, Noor Khan1,*, Usman Atiq1, Khalid Javed Iqbal2, Rafia Tayyab1, Syeda Suhaira Batool1, Hafiza Saleha Batool1, Sana Amjad1 and Mehwish Tanveer1 
...ce a day. Results showed significant (P≤0.05) higher growth performance among the three treatment groups. Highest weight gain (5.07±0.72g), increase in total length (24.25±4.31 mm) was observed in T2. Better feed conversion ratio (FCR) 1.8 and specific growth rate 1.4 were observed in T1. Proximate analysis revealed significant differences (P≤0.05) among treatments and control for cr...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Wasiullah1 and Wiqar Ahmad

...yanobacteria strains had significantly (p < 0.05) increased the availability of major plant nutrients and SOM under the saline soil conditions. Among the strains, Gloeobacter MMF-4 significantly increased the soil organic matter (SOM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and plant dry weight. Results showed that soil organic matter content improved from 1 to 5.2 g kg-1, NO3-N from 1.9...

Abdus Subhan1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2 and M. Jamil Khan

...nd combinations, exerted significant (p≤0.05) variation in plant growth, yield parameters of wheat and water use efficiency. The inorganic fertilizer gave significantly higher total dry matter, grain and straw yield and also due to the greater grain yield the water use efficiency calculated was greater in the NPK treatment. Bulk density, porosity and organic matter were significantly im...
Zia-ur-Rehaman1, Naila Chand1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Rifat Ullah Khan2,*
... paraoxonase (PON1) were significantly higher (P< 0.05) in TN zone, while serum malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly (P< 0.05) higher in HAT zone. No significant differences were recorded in serum antibody titer against ND, PON1 and MDA among different broiler strains in TN zone, while in HAT zone, Ross and Arber Acer showed significantly (P<...

 Zabih Ullah*, H. Rahman and Niaz Muhammad

...variance revealed highly significant differences for all the traits except anthesis silking interval that exhibited non-significant difference among the tested genotypes. Moderate to high broad sense heritability were observed for all the traits. Hybrid, HP1097-21 showed minimum days to tasseling, anthesis, and silking (70.5, 73.0, and 76.5, respectively) and hence proved to be the earliest maturing hybrid. It also had desir...
Rehmat Ullah1*, Kalim Ullah2, Inam Ullah3, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Asif Nawaz1 
...emonstration have highly significant association with provision of new knowledge at (P≤0.01) level of probability. Analysis of variance confirms that most of the farmers with more than 20 hectare land visit the offices of FAs more frequently. Rank Based Quotient technique depicted that the top priority problem identified in the study area was the scarcity of extension staff. It is recommended that public financial support should be increased which are worki...
Mahmood-Ul-Hassan*, Naeem Fiaz, Muhammad Akhlaq Mudassir and Muhammad Yasin
...n January-2013. A highly significant differences were recorded among all the genotypes and harvesting dates for number of sprouts, millable ecane, striped cane yield and sugar yield. The HSF 240 exhibited better yield and qualitative characteristics than others. Whereas, subsequent ratoon of plant crop harvested on 1st February was found to be superior among all harvesting dates for most of traits and genetic potential of genotypes. It was also foun...
Naheed Bano* and Muhammad Afzal
...1000FTU phytase produced significant interaction effect on calcium and phosphorus digestibility and different body contents of L. rohita. Phytase and citric acid increased the digestibility of calcium and phosphorus with improvement in body dry matter, protein, fat, energy and ash contents of L. rohita. Acidification and phytase supplementation showed significant (P < 0.05) interaction on body composition an...

Akerele Dare*, Ashaolu Olumuyiwa Fowowe, Sanusi Rahman Akintayo and Egbetade Adedolapo 

...sitive and statistically significant influence of the amount of fund apportioned to crop (p<0.01) and livestock (p<0.05) subsectors on output growth in the respective subsectors. Likewise, the amount of the fund allocated to fishery subsector on fish output has positive influence on fish output but significant only at 10% level. While increases in the amount of the fund in a given year may substantially raise crop and ...
Nosheen Rafiq1, Asmatullah Kakar2,*, Arshad Ghani3, Asim Iqbal2, Wali Mohammad Achakzai2, Shagufta Sadozai2, Mohammad Shafiq4 and Mohammad Alam Mengal5 
....39%) was observed to be significant at P-value (P < 0.01)  among the three body. Analysis of sex wise tick counting with age of animals revealed positive and significant correlation (P = 0.1145, P < 0.05). The ratio of tick infestation was observed to be insignificant (P < 0.01) among the breeds, with most elevated prepotency in local (88.97%) and cross breeds (13.33%), resp...

Attaullah Ansari* and Nasreen Memon 

...as a strong positive and significant correlation of number of host plant species with the profusion of hoverflies whereas; temperature had a strong negative and significant correlation with the abundance of hoverflies. Moreover relative humidity, rainfall and cloudiness were also negatively correlated with hoverfly population but their correlation was not significant. Habitat wise variatio...
Shengyan Su, Zaijie Dong*, Wenbin Zhu, Lanmei Wang and Jianjun Fu 
... dyads, which there were significant differences in body weight at tagging, but no difference in body weight at harvesting. Among the 36 dyads, 7 had an YN response (19.4%). When the YN effect had a fixed accumulated value, the value reflected its compensatory like growth degree, i.e., no catch-up like growth in one group means no YN effect in one group can be detected. Heilongjiang carp ♂ × Jian carp ♀ (Yj) combination had the highest catch-...
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
... one of the economically significant disease in commercial poultry industry. This study aimed to develop and optimized a novel tPCR approach to detect Mycoplasma gallispeticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and nonpathogenic mycoplasmas at the same in a single PCR reaction collected from diseased chicken. Direct PCR from the clinical samples produced false negative results. Both culture and PCR were combined as culture-enhanced PCR approach. Three differen...
Rehana Shahida1, Tasnim Farasat1, Shagufta Naz1,* and Shahjahan2
...l. ANOVA revealed highly significant difference of mean among groups and between groups in IL-6, TNF-α, and thrombomodulin (P<0.01).TNF-α showed a strong and positive relationship with insulin and insulin resistance in all the three groups. The expression level of TNF-α was significantly higher in IGT p< 0.01 and diabetes subjects (p<0.01). It was2.44 fold higher in IGT group and 4.5 fold higher in...
Talat Bilal Yasoob and Nasir Ali Tauqir* 
...version ratio (FCR) were significantly (P<0.05) improved in broilers fed all the experimental diets as compared to control during starter and finisher phases. A quadratic response was also observed on the performance of broilers during starter phase. However, a linear effect was seen for feed consumption during finisher phase while quadratic effect was observed for weight gain and FCR in boilers fed different levels of DEB and sodium. At 28 day of ag...

Amjad Ali1*, Sher Aslam Khan2, Abid Farid2, Ayub khan2, Shah Masaud Khan2 and Naushad Ali2 

...election criteria.Highly significant (p ≤ 0.01) differences were found among the genotypes for number of tillers, plant height, cane length,number of nodes, internodes length,number of millablecane and cane yield while non-significant differences were recorded for cane diameter. The effect of genotype and crop interaction was highly significant fornumber of tillers while non-
Jiandong Wu, Miao Ye and Zaigui Wang*
...ated that flavonoids had significant anti-hyperlipidemic activities to rabbits by reducing the content of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and increasing the concentration of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C).
...
Xue-yang Wang1, Shang-zhi Zhang1, Ming-hui Liu2, Dong Yu1, Yan Ma1, Dong-qiong Fei1, Hai-zhong Yu1 and Jia-ping Xu1,*
...expression in hemolymph, significantly high expression levels in 4th instar, moth, and egg, stable high expression levels in the early embryonic development, relatively high expression levels in the 1st day and 5th day of the pupa stage, and highest expression levels in the molting stage. What’s more, BmARM-like protein could be detected by immunofluorescence in all analyzed tissues, including head, midgut, hemolymph, fat...
Nehafta Bibi1, Muhammad Shafiq2, Munawar Saleem Ahmad3 and Haitao Wang1,4,*
...re, individuals consumed significantly greater amount of familiar food in social context than asocial. Our results showed that dominant male Eurasian siskins may reduce neophobia in social context and increase food intake. Present study showed that flocking in the Eurasian siskin and other gathering birds may influence individual fitness.
...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
...prid @ 625 ml/ hectare), significantly controlled the aphid population and enhanced the yield of all wheat varieties. The higher aphid infestations in untreated plots resulted in less chlorophyll content and reduced photosynthetic activity. Photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll contents were significantly higher in insecticide treated plots. Maximum cost-benefit ratio was found (1:9.2) in NW-1-8183-8 when treated against aphid...

Inayatullah Jan*, Sajid Khan, Noor Paio Khan and Muhammad Ashfaq 

...he respondents exhibited significant increase, as confirmed by higher t-values. The study concludes that the socio-economic conditions of the farmers can be improved if credit programme is extended which could benefit all farmers in the area. 

...
Tahira*, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan and Mubashar Ahmad Khan
...ods per plant had highly significant positive correlation with seed yield. The results of path coefficient analysis indicated that in both years, the direct effects of pod length and number of pods per plant on grain yield were positive and of high magnitude. Finally, it was concluded that the trait pods per plant can be exploited for the improvement of seed yield in rapeseed.
...
Liushuai Hua1,3, Shiping Gong1,*, Xiangjing Zhong2, Jun Tao2, Yu Chen2 and Jieming Deng2 
...uring hibernation have a significant effect on turtle health (P< 0.05), but makes no significant contribution to body weight maintenance. An appropriate water depth (less than three times body height) is helpful for body weight maintenance (P< 0.01) when the ambient temperature is not cold enough for normal hibernation. These findings can provide technical guidance for safe overwintering of big-headed tur...
Boran Karataş, Muhammed Arabaci and Şükrü Önalan*
...xperienced statistically significantly less growth when compared to others (p<0.05). Growth parameters of brown trout in polycultures demonstrated that the best growth was observed in G66K34 polyculture group (p<0.05). Study results showed that there was no significant difference between the groups based on food conversion coefficients and survival rates (p>0.05). As a result, it was determined ...
Ehab Bo Trabi1,2, Xianjun Yuan1, Junfeng Li1, Zhihao Dong1, Assar Ali Shah2 and Tao Shao1,2,*
...silages was analyzed. No significant difference was found between the control and treated groups in term of dry matter (DM), neutral determgent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Acetic acid was significantly (P<0.05) low in G2 and G3, while propionic acid and yeast was significantly (P<0.05) low in LAB2. Gas production (GP 72) was
Farid S. Ataya,1,2,* Dalia Fouad,3,4 Ajamaluddin Malik,1 Nikolaos E. Labrou,5 Mohamed S. Daoud1,6 and Hesham M. Saeed7
...ce analysis demonstrated significant differences between amino acid sequence of C. dromedarius and other mammalian GSTP1-1 enzymes. Phylogenetic relationship was studied with different organisms belonging to animal kingdom and revealed that CdGSTP1-1 is grouped with the enzyme from S. scrofa. The 3D homology model of CdGSTP1-1 showed similar fold and topology with the porcine GSTpi enzyme. Gene expression analysis in five camel tiss...
Tahira Perveen1,*, Shaista Emad1, Saara Ahmad2, Zehra Batool1, Sarwat Yousuf1, Sheeza Sheikh1, Sara Qadeer1 and Saida Haider1
...l oil for 3 weeks showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects in FST and EPM, respectively which were comparable to fluoxetine treated group. A significant increased cholesterol levels were observed in fluoxetine treated rats which was not observed in fennel oil treated rats. Therefore, repeated administration of fennel oil may exert antidepressive- and anxiolytic-like behaviors. These effects were found t...
Jianping Li1, Qian Jiang2, Wei Chen2, Yumei Li3, Huaizhi Jiang4, Jinlong Huo5 and Qiaoling Zhang2*
...the black goat, and this significant difference was detected by q-PCR and western blotting. All cashmere goats of different colors examined by immunohistochemical analysis showed either weak (the black cashmere goat) or strong (the white cashmere goat) expression of the KIT protein. These findings suggested a relationship between mutations in KIT exon 13 and differential fur color in cashmere goats. These results lay the foundation for further re...
Mumtaz Akhtar1, Shabana Naz2,*, Muhamamad Iqbal3, Waqar Azeem4 and Mirza Azhar Beg5
...bille at a statistically significant level (P < 0.01). Sex did not seem to be an important factor in this respect. However, interaction of age and sex was statistically significant (F= 6.94; d.f.= 3, 112; P< 0.01).
...
Karim El-Sabrout* and Mohamed H. Khalil
...d results, there were no significant effects of complement LED lighting” after effect on hatchability percent and dead embryos. There were differences observed in chick performance between the two groups, chick weight at hatch was significantly heavier in group of eggs exposed to complement LED lighting during incubation (G2) with high vitality percent than the eggs of G1 (control). We could conclude that providing LED...
Toshina Mushtaq, Muhammad Javed and Sidra Abbas*
...activity was found to be significantly increased both in liver and kidney after ZnCl2 treatments. Statistically significant increase in the liver and kidney peroxidase activity of 96-h LC50 exposed fish were found as 0.621±0.004UmL-1 and 0.219±0.002UmL-1, respectively as compared to the control fish liver (0.123±0.002UmL-1) and kidney (0.056±0...

Muhammad Anas1, Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar2*, Raza Ullah1, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Sohail Latif5 

...ower plants m-2 produced significantly higher achene yield than rest of the planting patterns under study. As regard sunflower-mungbean intercropping system all intercrops gave more economic returns than sole cropping of sunflower and mungbean and planting 6 sunflower plants + 30 mungbean plants m-2 proved to be superior with respect to grain yield and net economic return per unit area. Sunflower appeared to be dominant crop as was indicated by its higher valu...
Jing Xin Mao1,2, Guo Wei Wang2, Yuan She Huang3, Rui Wang2, Guo Ze Wang4, Bing Zeng1 and Fu Yuan Zuo1,*
...ence the gene expression significantly.
...
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
...le oviposition rate were significantly reduced by infected leaves. Furthermore, to elucidate the molecular resistance mechanism of fruit mulberry “Da10” i.e., popcorn disease, Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS) and bioinformatics technique were used for characterize the differential expressed proteins. Almost 78 patho-stress responsiv...

Shaista Naz* and Noor Paio Khan 

...eep. Livestock was found significant at household level in two aspects of income provision and of lowering household and farm budget. Livestock income was derived from the sale of milk, milk products (such as yogurt, butter and butter oil), other products (like farm yard manure and dung cakes) and animals which included calves, goats and sheep mainly. The major share of livestock income was accrued from the animal’s sale followed by milk and milk product...

Muhammad Asad1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Ramzan Ansar2, Ijaz Ahmad3*, Muhammad Suhaib4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

...reatments did not differ significantly with respect to wheat grain and biological yields, yet the highest grain yield (3295 kg ha−1) and biological yield (11173 kg ha− 1) were produced by Wheat Star @ 370.5 g ha−1. Based on better weed control and wheat yield, Wheat Star @ 370.5 g ha−1 and Buctril Super @ 741 ml ha−1 are recommended in similar areas where wheat fields are predominantly affected by drought and infested by broad lea...

Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Muhammad Tahir2, Abid Ali3, Manzoor Hussain3, Muhammad Waheed Anwar4, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 and Ijaz Ahmad

...ed that both the factors significantly affected all the parameters under study while their interactive effect was non-significant. Among green biomass incorporation treatments, maximum plant height (168.34 cm) cob length (16.32 cm), number of grains per cob (410), 1000-grain weight (200.22 g), biological yield (16.63 t ha-1) grain yield (5.75 t ha-1) harvest index (34.22 %) and grain protein content (8.56%) was obtained with...

Ehtisham Shakeel Khokhar1*, Amir Shakeel1, Muhammad Amir Maqbool1, Muhammad Waheed Anwar1, Zoraiz Tanveer1 and Muhammad Fahad Irfan2 

...sis of variance revealed significant differences at 1% level of significance for all traits except fiber fineness. The mean performance of F1 populations were better than parents. Maximum GCV was recorded for number of monopodial branches followed by number of sympodial branches and seed cotton yield. High broad sense heritability estimates were reported for seed cotton yield and all yield contributing traits except fiber quality with high response to selectio...

Haidar Ali* and Malik Muhammad Shafi 

...rated was negatively but significantly related to off-farm employment. Similarly the small farm households of developed villages perform more off-farm employment than the small farm households of underdeveloped villages. This could be associated to the developed means of transport and communications, better education facilities, market facilities as well as availability of off-farm jobs locally. In developed villages of two districts, average per month income ...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Yue-Hui Ma2, Ming-Xing Chu2, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Hui-Jiang Gao2, Huai-Zhi Jiang3, Di Liu4, Li Liu5, Yan-Bin Zhu6, Wang-Dui Basang6, Luo-Bu Danjiu7, Tian-Wu An8, Xiao-Lin Luo8, Shi-Cheng He7 and Yong-Fu Huang1,*
...les of goat. Of the 1026 significantly differentially expressed, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) found, 419 were upregulated and 607 were downregulated. The DEGs related to 56 GO categories, and pathway analysis revealed that these DEGs were significantly enriched in 41 of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including signaling pathways regulating the pluripotency of stem cells, the p53 signaling pathw...

Imran Ali Rajput1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Imran Khatri1 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi2 

...ast decades has played a significant role in suppressing the pest population of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund) which is the main pest of cotton in all over the world. Nevertheless, the indigenous botanical extracts have been used effectively against various sucking pests of cotton but only few studies have been attempted to observe their action against bollworms. Therefore, the present study has been designed to observe the dual action of transgeni...

Imtiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Abbas Khan, Noorullah Khan, Naveed Ahmed, Abdul Waheed, Fazal Yazdan Saleem, Sajjad Khan and Sohail Aslam 

...s that plant spacing had significant impact on the occurrence of rust disease and its severity, yield and yield components. Plants with 10 cm spacing had more disease incidence and severity (79 and 55.66% respectively). Plants with 20 cm spacing had more Bulb weight (99.33 g), Bulb diameter (67.33 mm), clove weight (11.65g) and no of cloves per bulb (12.5); whereas taller plants (54 cm) and maximum bulb yield of 12.85 t ha-1 was recorded in those plots planted...
Fahad Tanveer1, Adnan Afzal2, Muhammad Adeel3*, Sana Shahid4 and Maham Masood5
...ief to this increasingly significant problem. To compare outcomes of sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGs) versus Maitland manual therapy in improving non-specific neck pain. It was a quasi-experimental study design. The study was conducted in Chaudhary Muhammad Akram, Teaching & Research Hospital, Lahore and Suriya Azeem Teaching Hospital, Lahore within six months from June 2015 to December 2015. A total of 75 subjects with non-specific neck pain us...

Bibi Haleema1*, Abdur Rab1 and Syed Asghar Hussain2 

...Ca, B and Zn also showed significant results for most of the attributes. Therefore, application of Ca (0.6%), B (0.25%), and Zn (0.5%) as a foliar spray can be used alone or in combination to improve growth and fruit production of tomato. 

...

Riaz Alam* and Muhammad Sajid 

...als of air layering also significantly influenced the rooting and growth attributes of olive cultivars. Mid August, proved to be the most favorable time for air-layering in terms of rooting percentage (42.40%), number of root (4.37), root length (4.35 cm), weight (1.68 g), number of re-sprout (3.67) and shoot length (5.61 cm) while late (September 14) and early (July 1) layering responded poorly to all the studied attributes. The response of individual cultiva...
Falah Baiee1,3, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff1, Ariff Omar,2 Nurhusien Yimer1, Salman Hammadi1, Tarig Ahmedeltayeb1, Asmatullah Kaka4
...ods. Also, there were no significant differences in semen parameters such as sperm volume, motility, morphology, viability, and concentration. In conclusion, gradation of electrical stimulation into three stages (our modified Method II) could help to ease the collection of semen samples from bulls with minimum discomfort signs. Furthermore, the modified method is also recommended to use for other animals, in particular, the wild animals.
...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...s. Okra cultivars showed significant variations from comparative susceptibility to comparative resistance. On the basis of fruit and shoot infestation caused by H. armigera,Manchali, RK-516, OH-152 and Tarnab Nargis were found comparatively susceptible, Rama Krishna, NS-810, Baharti Kaspori, Lady Finger-1 and Lady Finger-2 showed intermediate resistant reaction while KT-458, Bhindi Punjab Selection, Arka Anamika and Bhindi Sabazpari proved to be compara...
Ibrar Muhammad Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan1,*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Tahir Usman2, Adnan Khan1, Zakir Ullah1 and Hamid Rehman1
...ahiwal bulls, which were significantly (P < 0.01) higher compared with the other cattle bulls. High dead sperm percentage (51.87 ± 0.50%), deterioration of plasma membrane integrity (38.29 ± 0.45%), pH (6.83 ±0.01) and DNA integrity (92.45 ± 0.28%) were observed in frozen semen in cross-bred bulls, which showed significant (P < 0.01) differences with the other cattle bulls. The...
Quang Minh Dinh
...vagina ratio was not significantly different within and between seasons, and the parameters of the von Bertalanffy curve of this fish were given as L= 24.15 cm, K = 0.53 yr-1 and t0 = –0.03 yr-1. The longevity (tmax) and the growth performance (Φ’) were 5.56 yrs and 2.50, respectively. The fishing, natural and total mortalities of this fish were...
Qunhua Han1,2, Meiwen Zhang1,*, Cong Guo2, Xunjun Zhou1, Bo Li1 and Yong Wang1
...) between groups was not significant from day 21 while the body weight (BW) difference was significant or highly significant from birth to day 79, for body length (BL), it was significant from day 2 to day 86, and for tail length (TL), it was significant from day 4 to day 58, indicating that HFL reaches mature size ahe...
Anan Kenthaoand Pornpimol Jearranaiprepame*
...MANOVA) indicated highly significant differences in morphometric characters between populations (p <0.01). The first three principal axes of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 49.29% of total variance. The PCA also revealed that morphological variations related to the characters of head depth, body length, body depth, caudal peduncle length and depth. In discriminant function analysis (DFA), the first two discriminant functions accounted fo...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Aly Khan3
...les with (P<0.05). No significant association was found among the occupational groups and parasitic infection (P<0.05). However, shepherds were found more infected than farmers and education concerned. Due to comparative based approach in different occupational communities the present study is of particular importance and interest. Such studies should continue time to time to know the hazardous of potentially important pathogenic parasitic infections par...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Munir3 and Muhammad Sohail Khan

...ected all the parameters significantly. Maximum fruit set of 98.12, 93.14% and fruit yield of 79.43 and 78.80 kg palm-1 were recorded in 2012 and 2013, respectively, from pollination at spathe opening day. Mean values for these parameters decreased when pollination was carried out after spathe opening. Late pollination after 12 days of spathe opening reduced fruit set and yield but improved the overall fruit physico-chemical quality characteristics with maximu...
Ümit Kumbıçak, Zübeyde Kumbıçak* and Gülnare Huseynli
...chromosomes indicated no significant difference between autosomal pairs, however, X3 was the smallest chromosome but X1 and X2 were intermediate in the karyotype.
...
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Muhammad Shahzad2, Xiaokang Wu3, Chaofeng Ma4 and Jiru Xu1,*
...results indicated that a significant diversity difference between asthma and healthy groups (*P< 0.05), was shown in DGGE profile. Similarity index was found to be lower in inter-group than intra-group that indicated a change in composition of gut flora in asthma patients. Sequencing results also indicated a change of bacterial composition between both groups. qPCR results showed a significant decrease in Bifido...
Muhammad Saqlain1, Humaira Kalsoom1, Muhammad Fiaz1,2, Abid Mahmood1, Rizwan Aziz Qazi4 ,Waseem Safdar5, Pakeeza Arzoo Shaiq1,Bernard M.Y. Cheung3 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1,*
...r allele of FABP2 significantly associated with MetS risk in Pakistani population. Our results showed that frequency of the FABP2 54Thr allele was significantly higher (67%) in MetS cases as compared to controls (35%)(p<0.0001). The 54Thr allele carriers were at increased risk of MetS (OR=3.93, CI=2.09-7.39, p<0.0001) and obesity (for each SD change in BMI, OR=2.00, CI=1.73-2.32, p<.0001). Our g...

Rafiullah*, Muhammad Jamal Khan and Dost Muhammad 

... weeks old seedling were significantly increased with each increment of foliar P suggesting effective absorption through leaf stomata and translocation to other parts of the plant body. The plant height, shoot and root dry biomass yield increased by 55, 40 and 35%, respectively, at 144 mM KH2PO4 solution over control. The shoot and root [P] as well as its total uptake by wheat seedlings also showed several times increase over control. Further increase beyond 1...
Hayat Badshah1, Farman Ullah1, Paul-André Calatayud2, Hidayat Ullah3 and Bashir Ahmad1
...arasitism did not differ significantly between different host plants in laboratory and field conditions. In contrast under multiple choice test conditions, the % parasitism (65.00±3.75, 60.00±2.83, 51.88±1.88, 69.38±2.54, 60.63±2.80 under field conditions and 63.13±2.71, 61.25±2.60, 49.38±2.54, 68.13±2.37, 53.75±2.5 under lab condition for okra, tomato, brinal, hibiscus and potato respective...
Serap Gelibolu1,*, Yasemen Yanar2, M. Ayce Genc3 and Ercument Genc4
...sh with MOS-feed shown a significant increase in live weight and protein efficiency rates when were directly compared with mock-treated fish control. However, there was no statistically supported level of significance was observed for growth rates and feed conversion rates among groups. Improved live weight and protein efficiency rates reflected positively on the survival rate in MOS-fed fish. Interestingly, the whole body and fillet fatty acid composition sho...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
...enhouse conditions was insignificant (P > 0.5, using F-test Graphpad prism 7). Up to 3000 ppm of Huwa-San TR50 reduced the population of N. cucumeris by 11.83 and 17.66% under greenhouse and laboratory conditions, respectively. However, 4000 ppm of Huwa-San TR50 reduced the N. cucumeris population by ~3-fold of the reduction gained with 3000 ppm in both treatments. Moreover, the maximum mortality was held between 3000 and 4000 ppm with no
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...e laboratory, oxamyl had significant effects on the mortality of RPW. After exposure to direct spray of oxamyl, adult mortality was 62, 82 and 100% whereas larvae mortality was 72, 77 and 100% after 1, 24 and 48 h, respectively. Alive adult and larvae were completely paralyzed after 24 hours. There was significant difference between 2 treatments, 1 and 24 h, in both adult and larvae. The mortality of both adult and larvae wa...
Lihong Qin1, Guoliang Zhang1, Chaojie Zhu1, Jian Wu1, Zhihui Zhao2,* and Yumin Zhao1,*
.../FKBP1B-WT group was significantly lower than pmiR-RB-REPORT-DUSP4-mut or PDK4/FKBP1B-mut and negative control groups. Meanwhile, PDK4, DUSP4 and FKBP1B expression levels were down-regulated due to miR-122 and miR-449a overexpression (p<0.01). Moreover, cells proliferation ability was activated after DUSP4, PDK4 and FKBP1B overexpression (p<0.01). Finally, MTT assay results demonstrated that miR...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2,* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...le protein contents were significantly increased in all field collected phosphine-tolerant populations with reference to phosphine-susceptible population. Among developmental stages, the 4th instar larvae possessed higher microsomal enzyme activities than 6th instar larvae and adult beetles in all populations. The increased level of microsomal enzymes in phosphine-tolerant populations as compared to susceptible population has pointed some...
Rana Fartab Shoukat1, Shoaib Freed1,*, Kanwar Waqas Ahmad1 and Ateeq-ur-Rehman2
...4). The results showed a significant effect of binary treatments of fungi and chemical insecticides on biological parameters of C. pipiens and its progeny (P<0.05). The insect pathogenic fungi showed compatibility with insecticides and the combined application can improve the management program of C. pipiens.
...
Wanrong Wei and Weiguo Zhang* 
...d length of tunnels were significantly different between the temporary and permanent burrows. Tunnel width and tunnel height were not significantly different between the temporary and permanent burrows. The permanent burrow had a nesting chamber but temporary did not have any. No hoarding chamber was found in either the permanent or the temporary burrow. The temporary burrow was used to avoid predators in emergency situation...

Safdar Ali1*, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Shahid Mehmood2, Asim Gulzar3 , Ijaz Ahmad4 and Bashir Ahmad Khan5 

...oil moisture content was significantly higher at 30-45 cm soil depth as compared to top soil (0-30 cm; P ≤ 0.05). Besides, higher soil moisture content was measured at wheat developmental stage relative to other stages (P ≤ 0.05). Soil porosity was significantly higher and bulk density was significantly lower under two statistically similar treatments, i.e. 1 MBP + 8 CS as well as 1 ...
Faiza Ambreen*1 and Muhammad Javed2
...e mixture. Statistically significant effects for both concentrations and time of exposure in terms of DNA damage were observed in treated fish as compared to control group. The results supported the use of Comet assay for evaluating the toxicity of pollutants which may be used as part of environmental monitoring programs.
...

Irfan1* , Arshad Javid2 , Muhammad Altaf3 , Muhammad Shahbaz3 , and Khalid Javed Iqbal4 

...hatase (ALP) values were significantly (P<0.05) higher 104.86±16.39 iu/L in grower birds. Similarly, the rearing systems also influenced biochemical parameters of M. gallopavo and significantly (P<0.05) higher values for cholesterol 6.18±0.07mmol/L and ALT 31.26±1.67 iu/L were recorded in birds reared under confinement rearing system. Values for globulin 1.92±0.36g/dL and creatinin 0.77&plus...
Sidra Iqbal1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabbsum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
...d model was found highly significant as revealed by their F-values, P-values and R2 values. Results suggest the efficiency of Bacillus subtilis K-18 for cellulase production from eucalyptus leaves and it would be fruitful for future industrial exploitation in all perspectives.

 

...

Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Naeem*

...value (0.984) shows high significant relationship between total length and wet body weight, while growth pattern was isometric as value of ‘b’ being 2.97 (95% confidence interval of b = 2.840 to 3.092) was very close to ideal slope value (b = 3). Highly significant correlationships (P < 0.001) were found between body weight versus various morphometric characters. The interrelationship of total length to SL, HL...

Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain1, Farhat Jabeen1, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain 2,Sajjad Ahmad3, Abida Ashraf4,Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan1

...f phytase showed clearly significant (p<0.05) enhancement in bioavailability of minerals. Maximum ADC% of minerals was noted at 900 FTU kg-1 level of phytase supplemented MOLM based test diet. By these results, we conclude that addition of phytase at 900 FTU kg-1 level is helpful to develop an eco-friendly and cost-effective fish feed by using MOLM based diet.

...

 Bushra Mazhar1, Nusrat Jahan1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa andleeb2, Shaukat Ali2*

...bacter hormaechei showed significant production of vanillin when inoculated in waste residues of rice bran based media. E. hormaechei produced 5.2 g/l of vanillin in culture media containing ferulic acid as a substrate. Optimum pH for E. hormaechei was 7 and the temperature was 30°C. Using optimum growth conditions and suitable fermentation medium, E. hormaechei can be used at an industrial level as producer of vanillin. Bioconversion of waste residues of ...
Rabia Qurashi, Qurat ul Ane Gillani* and Furhan Iqbal*
 
...ameters did not show any significant variation between the two groups. From amongst serum biochemical parameters triglycerides (P = 0.02) in CGP55845 treated mice showed significant increase compared to the control mice. All other studied parameters remained unaffected indicating that CGP55845 can be injected intraperitonially for the treatment of neurological ailments.
...

Malak Atiq Ullah Khan* and Fida Mohammad 

...iance for G and GEI were significant for almost all traits. Significant GEI suggested that the performance of genotypes was not consistent across environments, revealing strong influence of environments. Generally, GEI explained major portion of total variation and thus had larger effect than G and E on the expression of phenotype for all traits. Average over nine environments, genotype G-79 exhibited maximum values for till...
Rimsha Nawaz1, Muhammad Javed1, Sidra Abbas1* and Safina Kousar2
...e activity was increased significantly in both kidney and liver after exposure to iron chloride in all the treatments as compared to the control group. It was found that enzyme peroxidase had activity of 0.364±0.004 and 0.588±0.004 UmL-1 in the metal stressed fish kidney and liver, respectively while in control fish, the same for both the organs were observed as 0.085±0.002 and 0.112±0.002 UmL-1, respectively.<...
Tariq Mahmood1,*, Fakhra Fazal1, Faraz Akrim1, Hira Fatima1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...the two species differed significantly (p < 0.05). Among anatomical parameters, among females, liver weight and heart length of the two species differed significantly (p < 0.05). Among males, significant differences were found between heart length (p < .001), weight of large intestine, stomach, liver and lungs, and weight of right and left testes (p < 0.05) of the two mongoose ...
Faiza Hassan1, Mubshara Saadia1,*, Muhammad Sher1, Mian Anjum Murtaza2, Muhammad Arshad3,Asam Riaz4 and Mahmood Ahmad Khan5
... extracts have shown the significant (p<0.001) hypoglycemic activity with no considerable effect on mean body weight of rats (ns, p>0.05) as compared to diabetic rats. The AGE treatment has significantly reduced the blood glucose level (56%), however, the EGE treatment was found effective in normalizing the lipid contents of diabetic rats. The black cumin oil treatment has resulted in significa...
Abu ul Hassan Faiz1,*, Fakhar-i-Abbas2 and Lariab Zahra Faiz2
... other soil types differ significantly (P≤ 0.05). The statistical results of this study found the following habitat preference of the species: clay loam for N. indica, sand for Mus musculus and Mus booduga, respectively, loam for Tatera indica and silty clay loam for Golunda ellioti and Millarda meltada, respectively. The PCA results indicate loam as a preferred soil type for N indica and T. indica<...

Soraya Khosravian Dehordi*, Abdolnaser Mohebbi and Kahin Shahanipour

...ll groups did not differ significantly. The values of SOD and GPx were reduced in splenic tissue of Cd-intoxicated rats, but the nano-Se was able improve these undesirable effects. However, these findings imply that the nano-Se could be an efficient material in cases of Cd-intoxication.

...

Ayesha Aihetasham*, Faiza Qayyum and Muhammad Xaaceph

...mption in all groups was significantly lower than control.

...

 Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal*, Mehedi Hasan Kanon, Mohammad Amzad Hossain, Abul Hossain, Shamima Nasren, Md. Jahidul Islam, Md. Arifur Rahman

...ss index was found to be significant (<0.05) among the months. It revealed from the survey that 8 indigenous species which were previously available but not found for 3 to 12 years in the study area. As 5 vulnerable, 7 endangered and 1 critically endangered fish species were available in the study area that is why it is needed to be conserved these species in situ to keep for the use of future generation.

...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4 and Lorenzo Gallus
...wed that fish growth was significantly (P<0.05) higher in term of weight gain, WG % of initial weight, mean daily WG, SGR, feed conversion and survival rate from 15‰ to 30‰ salinity than those reared in 35‰ and 40‰ salinity. Condition factor was found to be significantly higher on 40‰ salinity than 15‰ to 35‰ salinity. Feed conversion ratio remained non-
Zia ur Rehman1, Naila Chand1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3
...erature. In the TN zone, significantly (P< 0.05) higher feed intake and weight gain were recorded on day 21, 28, 35 and 42. Feed intake in TN zone was 3.02, 9.79, 9.74 and 12.14 % higher than feed intake recorded on the corresponding days in HAT while weight gain in thermoneutral zone was 9.28, 15.25, 17.48, and 15.62 % higher than weight gain recorded on the corresponding days in HAT. On day 21, 28, 35 and 42 significant...
Yakut Gevrekçi* and Çiğdem Takma
...predictor variables were significantly changed from 0.88 to -0.65. Age of sexual maturity was found the most predictor variable that affecting EP and it was followed by hatching period. Lower values for goodness of fit criteria were obtained by CHAID algorithm, indicating that this algorithm fits better. Regression tree analysis displayed visual information about the relations among predictor variables. As a result, decision tree analysis is necessary to provi...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
...f the equine” were significantly (P<0.05) associated with seroprevalence of EIV. Our findings of the EIV occurrence in equine population in Pakistan, suggests an under-diagnosis of this virus in Pakistan and warrant additional investigation and continuous surveillance at the molecular level to identify circulating strains for control and prevention of future outbreaks.
...
Muhammad Usman Saleem1, Saima Masood1,*, Hafsa Zaneb1, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Asim Aslam3, Kamran Ashraf4, Habib-ur-Rehman5, Muti-ur-Rehman3 and Muhammad Shabir Shaheen6
...t and carcass yield were significantly high (p < 0.05) in MOS+OAB compared to MOSG, OABG and CONT. The results of small intestine microarchitecture showed that villus length, villus width, villus to crypt ratio, villus surface area, acidic, mixed and total goblet cells increased significantly (p < 0.05) in birds that were fed MOS and OAB alone and in combination whereas crypt depth decreased si...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

...l signs, associated with significant higher mortality and respiratory organ abnormalities, in comparison with the mono-infected groups (P<0.05). There was a non-significant (P>0.05) effect of the inoculation time intervals between vNDV and E. coli inoculation (none or 3 days). Microscopic lesions staining supported clinical and macroscopic findings. Higher virus shedding (P<0.05) in oropharyngeal swabs was ob...
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 
...quent exacerbations were significant (p< 0.001). The model in which mid maximal expiratory flow was used as a surrogate marker for lung function, accounted for the change in the dependent variable to the greatest degree (Adjusted R2= 0.38, p< 0.001). Overall the three models consistently showed that positive family history, high body mass index, heavy smoking, poor lung function (mid maximal expiratory flow/FEF2575, FEV1 and FVC), older age an...

Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Khawar Hussain1, Zilakat Khan Malik2 and Noor Jehan1 

... availability can play a significant role in increasing the output efficiency of strawberry farmers in the study area. 

...

Waqas Liaqat1, Mohammad Akmal1* and Jawad Ali 

...Berseem harvesting has a significant decrease (p<0.05) in production. Nonetheless, sowing made in August is unable to mature grains properly. The yield losses rate relatively expands from July 15 onwards for maize in Peshawar valley. Sowing maize later from June month in season is superior to opt for hybrid maize variety SB-909 and SB-92K97 in the Peshawar region. 

...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4, Lorenzo Gallus4 and Syed Sajjad A. Shah2,3
...n salinity of 0%-15% and significantly decreased on 20‰ and 25‰. The eggs per gram body weight were also recorded in all treatments and highest eggs were obtained i.e. 4.0-4.3 per female on 0‰-15‰. Water temperature (28.02±0.12°C), dissolved oxygen (6.4±0.02 mg/L), pH (7.47±0.04) and ammonia (less than 0.022±0.001 mg/L) were monitored throughout the study period. Water quality parameters remain...

Syed Asif Imran Shah1*, Shah Jehan Khan2, Kalim Ullah1 and Obaid Ullah Sayal

...sis of variance depicted significant (P>0.01) genetic variability among cotton germplasm. Highest and close symmetry between phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variances while lower values of environmental coefficient variance were observed for all the studied attributes which reflected that these traits were genetically controlled and under less influence of environment. Higher broad sense heritability and expected genetic advance reflected that all a...
Tasleem Akhtar*, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Sheraz Ahmedand Imran Bodlah
...emperature had a strong, significant and positive correlation with the foraging activity of A. mellifera on B. napus (r= 0.766; P= 0.0037 **), whereas relative humidity and rainfall had significantly negative correlation (r= -0.759; P= 0.0041 **, r= -0.715; P= 0.0089 **).
...

Muhammad Luqman1,3, Raheel Saqib2*, Xu Shiwei3 and Yu Wen3 

...lts showed that there is significant difference in age and educational status of male heads and their spouses. Majority of the farm families (39.3%) earn income for their livelihoods both from farming and non-farming sources. Intensity of participation of female respondents in different crops and livestock activities was comparatively high as compared to their male counterparts. It was found that average daily share of female in crops related activities was 42...

Imran Khan*, Zahir Shah, Wiqar Ahmad, Farmanullah Khan and Muhammad Sharif 

...micronutrient status was significant, however, variations in physical properties were negligible. The Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn contents were 23, 11, 38 and 33% higher in ST than DT soil, respectively. Significantly higher OM in ST than DT soil is supporting these results where in their respective regression showed r2 values of 0.4, 0.22, 0.22 and 0.24 in ST and 0.24, 0.12, 0.55 and 0.33 in DT soil. The INM5:75,10:50, 15:25 recorded...

Ronaq Zaman*, Shahid Ali and Inam Ullah 

...ndicated that there were significant structural breaks across the sampled farms. Based on these findings three different model was estimated for small, medium and large farms, respectively. The mean calculated technical efficiencies for small, medium and large farms were respectively 0.76, 0.96 and 0.92. This implies that the medium size farms in the study area were the most efficient in resource utilization as compared to small and large size farms whereas th...
Senol Celik1,* and Orhan Yilmaz2
...and chest depth (CD) can significant effect the body weight. Quantitatively, it was identified that values of WH > 62.500 cm and RH > 67.500 cm can positively correlated with the highest body weights. On the other hands, MARS model’s finding showed that the dogs which had the values of WH > 51 cm can be expected to have the highest body weights. The calculated model evaluation criteria of CART algorithm was R2=0.6889, Adj. R2=0.6810, r=0.830, SD...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Dastagir4, Sara Ferrando5, Lorenzo Gallus5, Asad Ali Muhammad1,6, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khalil-ur-Rehman2 
...20‰ salinity were significantly highest in term of weight gain, WG % of initial weight, daily weight gain, specific growth rate, condition factor and survival rate than those reared on 25‰ and 30‰. Feed conversion ratio was found similar in all levels which is not significantly different (P> 0.05). Whole body composition i.e. protein (53.16% – 53.26%), moisture (71.16% – 71.2...
John Martin Fischer
...how they are the same in significant ways.
...

Muhammad Ijaz Khan* and Amanullah Jan 

...ed by irrigation regimes significantly. Higher crop growth rate, leaf area plant, plant height, biological yield (above ground parts of the plant), grain and straw N contents were found in five times irrigated plots as compared with lower irrigation regime. Results showed that growth characteristics and quality of maize were significantly affected by soil conditioners (SC). Farmyard manure incorporation produced

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

...iiformis), is a globally significant disease of wheat. Stripe rust was primarily considered a disease of cooler climate (2°C - 15°C), upper altitudes and northern latitudes, but current epidemics of the disease have confronted this supposition because fresh strains have greater adaptation to higher temperatures and countries closer to the equator. Crop damages can reach 50 - 100%, due to infected plants and shriveled grain. These problems can be overco...

Afsheen Masood1*, Rubab Musarrat2, Shama Mazahir3 and Adeela Ashraf4  

...ildren with leukemia was significantly lower than the parents of normal cohort. Further it was indicated by the correlation analysis that better greater satisfaction was associated with better quality of life. The findings carry significant implications for clinical professionals, health psychologists, community workers and the future researchers. 

...

Arooj Fatima1* and Ashfaq Ahmed

...-values were found to be significant for VAS (0.001) and for DASH (0.000). The paired sample t-test was applied in two sub groups of group A and similarly in group-B. The values were statistically significant i.e., 0.001 for VAS, 0.000 for DASH. P-values obtained for VAS (0.001) and DASH (0.000) when repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied comparing four sub groups. Eccentric exercises give better results i...

Zehra Mohsin1*, Sarah Shahed2 and Talat Sohail

..., age and experience had significant positive correlation with compassion fatigue, r =.252, n=160, p <.01 and r =.256, n=160, p <.01 respectively. Other demographic variables i.e. working hours and monthly income had no significant relationship with the subscales of Professional Quality of Life (compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout). Perceived Social Support had a significant...

Uzma Zahid 

...e females. Findings show significant correlation of career aspiration with life satisfaction, as well as of its educational subscale and life satisfaction. There was a non-significant correlation of achievement and leadership subscales of career aspiration with life-satisfaction. Medical students who are more aspired towards their career seem to be more satisfied in their life. Moreover, medical students were more interested...

Attia Anwar1, Sajida Malik2*, Zobia Usman1 and Sadia Chiragh3 

...706; 0.05 was considered significant. After 24 weeks of treatment with berberine hydrochloride, no significant differences were observed in Hb%, platelet count, liver enzymes and RFTs between two groups. There was a significant increase in RBC count and reduction in serum uric acid and WBC count in experimental group as compared to control group. There were no sign...

Bashir Ahmad1*, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Hayad Zada2, Shahid Sattar1, Toheed Iqbal3, Saddam Hussain1 and Muhammad Saeed4 

...minimum temp showed non- significant negative and positive association (r=-0.32 and 0.07) with population of P. xylostella respectively. Similarly R.H (r=0.89) exhibited positive highly significant whereas RF (r=-0.96) showed negative highly significant relationship with P. xylostella during the year 2012. Likewise, during the year 2013, mean maximum temperature showed non-

Shahid Iqbal1*, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon3 and Intikhab Alam3 

... study findings reveal a significant difference in the area under wheat, maize and vegetables after the flood. At the same time, the area under sugarcane and fodder had also decreased to some extent. Similarly, the use of chemical fertilizers and farm yard manure was also decreased due to decrease in the income of the households after the floods-2010 while an increase, though non-significant, was reported with respect to use...

Fazal Ullah1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Syeda Leeda Gul2, Bibi Zainub1 and Maaz Khan

... Hot water dipping times significantly affected the quality parameters of Sherkhana-I sweet orange fruits. The fruits of sweet orange having hot water dipping time of 15 minutes showed the maximum fruit juice content (51.07%), volume (141.94 ml), firmness (2.41 Kg.cm-2), acidity (1.50%) and ascorbic acid (34.50%). The storage durations also had significant effects on the quality attributes of sweet orange. However the maximu...
Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1,Farzana Abbas2,Ghulam Abbas3,*, Arshad Javid4, Ali Hussain4, Syedah Andleeb5,Khalid Javed Iqbal6 and Muhammad Akmal1

 

...ighest weight, which was significantly higher than T1,T2 and control. Specific growth rates were not significant among treatments. Egg composition showed slight and statistically non-discernable variations. Same trend was observed when broodstock was subjected to analytical tests. Though there was slight increase in lipid and protein composition but statistically remained non-si...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
... were confirmed MDR. Non-significantly higher prevalence of MDR was noted in Cholistan area (38.38%) than to that of Sulaiman Range (29.98%) on subclinical mastitis samples basis Similarly 66.36% of S. aureus isolates from Cholistan area and 61.18% from Suleiman Range were presented themselves as MDR. Oxacillin, Cefoxitin and Ampicillin faced 100% resistance while Vancomycin, Cefixime and Cefotaxime had >78 % of resistance from MDR isolates from both...
Kashif Prince1,*, M. Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Muhammad Asad Ali2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Nisar Ahmad3,Rais Ahmed2, Aamerzish Mushtaq4, Sajid Umar4 and Yung-Fu Chang5
...ttle and buffaloes) were significantly (χ2=23.042, df=1, p<0.05) associated with selenium deficiency. The highest rates (90.62 %) of selenium deficient animals were observed in village Nathoki of tehsil Kasur. The risk factors such as Gender (χ2=11.31, df=1, p<0.05), feed components (χ2=4.47, df=1, p<0.05) and high or low milk production (χ2=36.42, df=3, p<0.05) are <...
Samra Imran1,* and Afifa Tanweer2
... first year of life, had significantly healthier body dimensions. Higher family income, female gender and greater meal satisfaction was found to be associated with better biochemical indices. Most participants reported partial compliance to GFD. Compliant participants reported an increased consumption of junk food whereas, non-compliant patients, consumed significantly higher intakes of meat and fat. Regular intake of carbon...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz3
... (0.3157, P<0.05). No significant association was found among the occupational groups and parasitic infection (0.3089, P<0.05). However, shepherds were found more infected than farmers and education concerned. Due to comparative based approach in different occupational groups the present study is of particular interest. Such studies should be continue time to time to know the hazardous of potentially important pathogenic parasitic infections particularly...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...both the factors was non-significant for all the observed parameters. Considering the individual effect of fertilizer combinations, maximum number of productive tillers m-2 (392.3), number of grains per spike (45.27), 1000-grain weight (44.04 g), biological yield (14.11 t ha-1), grain yield (5.40 t ha-1) protein contents (12.52%), nitrogen (28.22kg kg-1), phosphorus (34.85 kg kg-1) and potassium (47.40 kg ...

Noreen Rasul1*, Madeeha Rashid2, Aqeela Abbas1 and Rubina Sohail

...lthcare facilities as it significantly reduces neonatal mortality. 

...
Ali Murad Rahoo,1,2,* Tariq Mukhtar,1,3 Shoukat Ibrahim Abro,4 Barkat Ali Bughio5 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo6
...G. mellonella was significantly affected by nematode species. Significantly higher numbers of IJ were produced by Heterorhabditid species than Steinernematid species in the cadaver. The production of IJ was the maximum in the case of H. bacteriophora which was not statistically different form H. indica. Minimum IJ were produced by S. feltiae. The IJ produced by S. kraussei and S. carpoca...

Ayesha Saeed*, Mobina Naqvi and Ahsan Javed 

...ion analysis indicated a significant association (AOR 16.076, CI=2.381-108.564, p=0.004).Based on these studies, it was concluded that food insecurity in pregnancy is associated with low birth weight in neonates. Antenatal screening of food insecurity and timely provision food supplements through social welfare can help reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality. 

...

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid 

...migravida. Statistically significant relationship was found between maternal age, education and socio economic status. Anemia in pregnancy nowadays is still a common problem in adolescent and young primigravida and associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Prompt measure should be taken by the stake holders at local and national level to prevent and treat this problem in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with it. 

...

Zahid Akram, Saif Ullah Ajmal, Ghulam Shabbir, Muhammad Munir and Nasir Mahmood Cheema

INHERITANCE MECHANISM OF SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT
...1 and their parents were significantly different for all the parameters. Uniformity of Wr-Vr over arrays as well as significant deviation of regression coefficient (b) from unity confirmed the suitability of additive-dominance model to account for the data analysis. The estimates of genetic component of variation in all the traits exhibited the preponderance of
over dominance gene action. The estimates of average...

Parvez Khaliq*, Muhammad Azim Malik** and M. Aslam Gill***

EFFECT OF CROPPING SYSTEMS, TILLAGE PRACTICES AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON WHEAT STAND ESTABLISHMENT UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
... stand establishment was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the fallow-wheat cropping system compared to maize-wheat, mungbean-wheat, and cowpea-wheat system. Tillage practices (shallow and deep) and fertilizer treatments {recommended dose of fertilizer (F); fertilizer + manure (F+FYM); manure only (FYM) and control (C)} did not show significant effect on both emergence and emergence rate index. Overall,

S. M. I. Hossain*, S. U. K. Eusufzai and M. A. Rahman**

...performance and produced significantly higher yield among the selected varieties. Hence sugarcane varieties Isd 31, Isd 32, Isd 33 and Isd 34 may be cultivated with potential yield in clay loam soil by providing 4 to 5 irrigations at an interval of 21-42 days in addition to two live irrigations at 0 and 14 days after transplanting when soil bed settlings are used as planting material.

...

Muhammad Iqbal, Jalal-ud-Din*, Muhammad Munir** and Mohibullah Khan***

... The male palms differed significantly in days to spathe opening. The M6 took significantly maximum time for spathe opening while the least time was noticed in M13. The significantly longest spathes were found in M10 whereas the M12 possessed spathes of maximum width. The greatest flower spike length was observed in M8. Male palms did not differ significant<...

Saeeda Raza, Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Amer Mumtaz, Nouman Siddiqui, Khalid Nasim and Muhammad Amjad*

...leptically preferred. No significant change in moisture content, peroxide value and free fatty acid were observed during three months storage in double polyethylene bags at ambient temperature (20-25 ºC).

...

Ata-ul-Mohsin*, Ehsan-ul-Haq** and Muhammad Naeemullah*

...er” did not have a significant effect on the growth and development of the aphid or its parasitoid. However, the mean fecundity of the parasitoid was higher on plants with high phosphorus than those treated with high calcium concentrations.

...

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

...ry. Bt cotton can play a significant role to enhance agricultural productivity as the productivity of cotton in Pakistan 0.5 t ha-1, as compared productivity of Bt cotton in China 9 t ha_1, which implies a huge cotton productivity gap. This gap can be narrowed down by the adoption of Bt cotton in Pakistan which will have major impact on food security efforts in the country. The findings of literature review revealed that Bt technology ...

Golam Moula* and Sayedur Rahman**

...e is a highly positively significant relationship between root and shoot length at 0.01% level of significance. The overall percentage of seed germination (mean ± SD) was 41.48 ± 5.63. However, further trial with the germinated seedlings is necessary to explore its viable potentiality at the field level.

...

 Z. A. Soomro, M.B. Kumbhar, A.S. Larik*, M. Imran** and S.A. Brohi***

...ongwith parents differed significantly (P < 0.01) and exhibited genetic variability among the genotypes for all the traits except sympodia/plant. Genetic parameters computed through variance components method show that all the traits were highly heritable in F2 and F3 generations except sympodia/plant, indicating quantitative pattern of inheritance, offering better chances of selection for these traits in F2 and F3 generations. The traits namely plant heigh...

 Muhammad Asim, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Munir* and Muhammad Aslam**

...ant, NODI-3. There was a significant difference in the percent uptake of 3H-ABA between the two varieties both in inoculated and uninoculated plants. A marked difference in the percent distribution of 3H-ABA between different parts of the plants was observed at different developmental phases of root nodules. Leaves of NODI-3 retained more radioactivity as compared to Williams-82 in inoculated as well as uninoculated plants. The stem and roots of Williams-82 pl...

Haq Nawaz Malik*, Iffat Ara**, Muhammad Naeem, Mozammil Hussain, M. Hanif Munawwar and M. Yousaf

 Mohammad Siddique Munawar, Shazia Raja, Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure* and Muhammad Barkat**

... treated colonies showed significant difference from untreated colonies (t test, P< 0.005) and moribund colonies got recovered with increased bee population while the control colonies collapsed. It is therefore concluded that shook swarm method should be incorporated for prevention as well as curing of AFB.

...

Hassnain Shah, Hina Riaz, Nadeem Akmal , Muhammad Sharif* and Abdul Majid**

...er adult animal unit has significantly declined from 0.067 ha to 0.035 ha and production declined from 1.31t to 0.80t from 1986 to 2006. Inadequate nutrition is one of the major constraints limiting livestock production in the country. Feed accounts for almost 70% of total cost of production of milk or meat. The trend for concentrate feeding to livestock is changing from the conventional concentrate feeding to a formulated compound feed. Considering the import...

 Sikander Khan Tanveer, Shaheena Yasmin, Imtiaz Hussain, M.Yaqub Mujahid*, Muhammad Munir and Muhammad Asif**

...P and FYM, statistically significant differences in biological yield, grain yield and yield components of wheat were recorded. Maximum wheat grain yield of 4083 kg ha-1 was obtained with the application of full fertilizer and FYM. Minimum grain yield and biological yield were recorded with no fertilizer and only FYM application. Different combinations of fertilizer NP with and without FYM did not have any significant effect ...

 Zafar Khokhar*, Imtiaz Hussain**, Badruddin Khokhar* and Muhammad Sohail**

...eat genotype, V-7002 had significantly (P<0.05) higher grain yield of 5578 kg ha-1 in comparison with other genotypes. Whereas genotype MPT-6 had grain yield of 5366 kg ha-1 that was also significantly higher than other genotypes. However, V- 7004 had minimum grain yield of 4716 kg ha-1 in comparison with other genotypes. While evaluating performance of different genotypes on different sowing dates, V-7002 resulted in max...

 Badaruddin Khokhar*, Imtiaz Hussain** and Zafar Khokhar*

...ould improve wheat yield significantly. A study was conducted during 2000–2002 to determine effect of different irrigation levels on growth and yield of different wheat genotypes in the province of Sindh. The trial was laid out in split block design at Wheat Research Institute, Sindh, Sakrand, in which four irrigation treatments I3 (irrigation at crown root, booting and soft dough stage), I4 (irrigation at crown root, tillering, booting and soft dough st...

 Rahmat Ullah Khan, Abdur Rashid*, Mohammad Sohail Khan** and Erdogan Ozturk***

...g ha-1 HA alone produced significantly (P<0.05) higher grain yield (2999.9 kg ha-1) and increased the yield by 24% over the control and saved 100% cost of the chemical fertilizer. Results suggested that HA applied alone at 3 kg ha-1 or in combination with half (30:20 kg ha-1) rate of NP fertilizers appeared to be the most economical rate to obtain the maximum yield of wheat under the rainfed conditions of Dera Ismail Khan. HA has great potential as a low co...

Aslam Memon, A. M. Khushk* and Umer Farooq**

...a Province (KP) captured significantly large area than other varieties. Based on varietal adoption indicators, although improvements were registered for most of the indicators, however, their magnitude was quite small indicating slowness of varietal diffusion. Very high variations in varietal diffusion indicators were also observed across provinces, farm size and tenancy status categories.In conclusion, despite that major proportion of total sugarcane area was...

 Abdullah Adil Ansari* and Kumar Sukhraj**

...ra during trial showed a significantly greater response in VW+VC compared with the control by 64.27 %. The fruits have a greater percentage of fats and protein content in VW+VC when compared with those grown with chemical fertilizers by 23.86% and 19.86%, respectively. The combination treatment [VW+VC] also have a significant influence on the biochemical characteristics of the soil with marked improvement in soil micronutrie...

 S. Shahid Shaukat*, Mian Sayed**, Aly Khan, M. Azhar Khan* and Babar Qazi***

...cides and plant extracts significantly reduced the population densities of all three nematodes. Carbofuran was most effective against all the nematodes. Apart from other three treatments, Tridax procumbens emerged as an effective phytonematicide. Helicotylenchus indicus, Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita had similar population density levels and were more or less equally suppressed by all the treatments in the order: Carbofuran > Tridax pro...

Tariq Mahmood, M. Sudheer Tariq, Khalid Mahmood Khokar, Hidayatullah and Syed Ijaz Hussain*

...(2000: 1 a.i w/w) gave a significantly higher yield of 18.07 and 18.63 t ha-1 in cucumber, respectively.

...

 Oguz Bilgin, Kayihan Z. Korkut, Alpay Balkan, and Ismet Baser*

...eeding programme. Highly significant genetic variability was present in parents and their genetic combinations for the characters. The degree and direction of heterosis varied for different characters and for different hybrids. The highest heterosis over mid and better parents (120.14-109.93%) was recorded in hybrid of Kyzyltan91xIDSN209 for grain weight/spike. Maximum limits of heterosis over mid and better parent for spike length, spikelets/spike, grains/spi...

 M. Yasin Mirza, Mubashir A. Khan, M. Akmal, Akbar S. Mohmand, Malik S. Nawaz, Nazakat Nawaz and Najeeb Ullah*

...asons were statistically significant for plant height, number bolls plant-1, 1000-seed weight and seed yield hectare-1. These studies were conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan during rabi 2002-03, 2003-04 and 2004-05. Pooled genotypic and phenotypic variances were maximum for seed yield and minimum for 1000-seed weight. Genotypic coefficient of variation and phenotypic coefficient of variation were observed maximum for seed y...

 Ashiq Saleem, Habib Iqbal Javed, Rashid Saleem,* Muhammad Ansar** and M. Amir Zia*

... except plant height had significant effect in both maize and sorghum. Days to 50% silk in maize are significantly affected by potash when compared with control treatment, but there was no significant effect between single, two and three splits. The grain yields of these two crops increased significantly at K2O level of 120 kgha-1 with three splits. Leve...

 Muhammad Azeem Khan*, Abid Hussain, Irfan Mehmood and Sonila Hassan **

...sitive and statistically significant (except for wheat crop at Attock). This means that an increase in rainfall contribute positively towards area under major crops and their production and vice-versa. Farmers perceived a major change in climate at Kohat and a minor change at Attock over time. They reported unsustainability in production practices at Kohat and water management practices at both sites. Main strategies adopted by the farmers to mitigate the effe...

 Muhammad Afzal, Sarfraz Ahmad , Abdul Salam Baloch* and Qazi Bashir Ahmad**

...ndicated that there were significant differences in prices among seasons. The seasons considered in the study were Eid-ul-Azha, Ramadan, and severe feed shortage period. The prices were the highest at Eid-ul - zha followed by Ramadan and feed shortage (winter) season. The explanatory power of the model was considered adequate as the factors included in the model accounted for 76% of the price variation at Quetta market. Producers should consider major marketin...

Sana Qanber Abbasi1*, Ejaz Ahmed2 and Rabia Sattar1 

...f < 0.05 was taken as significant. Serum pro BNP levels were raised in migraine patients and also in hypertensive patients with migraine (p-value 0.00). Serum pro BNP levels were found to be raised in both migraineurs and hypertensive migraineurs but the increase was not equal. 

...

Halima Shoukat1*, Hafiz Sheraz Arshad2, Faiza Sharif1, Arooj Fatima1 and Filza Shoukat

...ound to be statistically significant (p<0.001) for static stretching techniques with 30s, 60s, 90s holding times, respectively. Based on these finding, it is plausible to conclude that application of static stretching at holding times of 30, 60 and 90 seconds can significantly improve the ROM of knee extension. Stretching techniques with different holding times were equally effective in improving knee extension and gainin...
Maryyum Khalil1, Hamda Azmat1,*, Noor Khan1, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Asim Ullah1 and Sumaira Abbas1
...ecorded. Growth rate was significantly increased in fish fed with enzyme supplemented diets in comparison with control group. The maximum increase in growth rate was recorded in treatment # 2. Highest protein contents 68.18% was observed in treatment # 3 (0.75g kg-1 α-amylase). Specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and condition factor (CF) were higher in all enzyme supplemented groups as compared to control group (p<0.05)...
Nay Naing Htoo1, Basit Zeshan1,2,*, Aung Tun Khaing1, Than Kyaw1, Erkihun Aklilu Woldegiorgis1 and Mohd Azam Khan1
...50.54µm), were not significantly different from CF (3.81mm2, 49.26µm) (P>0.05) but it was significantly different from kids in DM group (1.17mm2, 26.36µm) (P<0.05). The rumen papillary surface area and keratinized layer were also significantly different between CF and DM (P<0.05). The rumen of kids from CFR group had higher sub-mucosa layer ...
Promy Virk
...lycemic effect which was significantly better than all other treated groups. The results on serum ALT, creatinine levels and blood urea also showed a comparable ameliorative effect of both the bulk Trigonella seed extract (TBN) and the green nanocomposite (TN), being more efficacious than metformin. Thus, the green synthesis and application of the Au/Ag nanoparticles offer a novel approach in nanomedicine for diabetes management.
...
Abul Hassan Faiz*, Fakhar-i-Abbas and Lariab Zahra Faiz
...ssium contents. We found significant differences (mound soil and undisturbed soil) in % water saturation, electrical conductivity (E/C), pH, organic matter, phosphorus, potassium and biomass in all types of soil. A Chi-Square Q-Q plot was applied to test for the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA without interaction was used for the different soil types (mound and undisturbed soil) to examine the effects of rat burrowing activity on, plant biomass, saturat...
Nazish Shaukat1, Muhammad Javed1,Faiza Ambreen2* and Fariha Latif1
...sults were statistically significant at p<0.05. Fish liver exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher activity of enzyme than that of gills. The physico-chemical variables viz. pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, total hardness, calcium, magnesium and total ammonia of the test media varied significantly at p<0.05, that exerted significant

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1*, Rehmat Ullah1, Asif Nawaz1 and Ejaz Ashraf2 

...results indicated highly significant association (P≤0.05) between the duration of registration with Farm Services centers, fertilizers and farm machinery provided to the respondents. Farm Services Center’s performed their commitment very well with respect to empowerment of farmers in different agrarian practices like decision making, farm management, varietal selection, management of weed, and selection of fertilizer. Private agricultural companies we...

Anish Shrestha 

...ems to have positive and significant relation with gross return. All of them appeared to be underutilized and needed to be increased by 39%, 74% and 34% respectively for the profit maximization. Main production problem found to be high cost and inadequate availability of modern equipment with the index score of 0.81. And, according to the farmers, main role institution that should play is providing training to the farmers. With proper and efficient use of inpu...
Asad Sultan1, Sahal Ahmad1, Sarzamin Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Naila Chand1, Muhammad Tahir3 and Shakoor Ahmad2
...t supplementation of ZnO significantly (P<0.05) improved feed intake, dressing percentage, body weight, feed conversion ratio, blood parameters and nutrient digestibility at both levels of thermal zones. The results of silymarin on growth, nutrient digestibility and hematological parameters were comparatively lower (P<0.05) in broilers during TN and HS zones. The current results indicate that the supplementation of feed with silymarin and ZnO improved th...
Muhammad Kashif Maan1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Muhammad Ijaz2, Hamid Akbar1, Sajid Umar 3 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*
...tamine anesthesia showed significant increase (P<0.05) in serum alanine aminotrasferase, aspartate transaminase and blood urea nitrogen as compared to isoflurane anesthesia; whereas, no statistical difference (P>0.05) was observed for alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and bilirubin between the two groups. Heart rate, blood pressure and saturation of oxygen were decreased in both groups but this decline was significantly...

Arshed Bashir *, Shamsheer-Ul-Haq**, Mazher Abbas*, M. Aamir Munir** and Aneela Afzal***

Corresponding author:ssrifaisalabad@gmail.com

IMPACT OF SUGARCANE MILLS DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES ON CANE PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB
...y farmers were operating significantly larger land holdings. Area under new high yielding, with more sugar recovery varieties was relatively higher at beneficiary farms as compared to non-beneficiary farms. The beneficiary farmers were getting higher returns from sugarcane production (fresh and ratoon crops) as compared to non-beneficiary farms. Inclusion of small and medium farmers in the sugar mills development activities is recommended to meet the sugar con...

 Parvez Khaliq*, Muhammad Azim Malik**, M. Aslam Gill*** and
Nasir M. Cheema*

Corresponding author: parvezkhaliq786@yahoo.com

EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON MAIZE FODDER YIELD UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
...er was statistically non-significant and on average basis RF+FYM treatment -1 produced higher green fodder (19971.5 kg ha ) than fodder yield of 18349.1 kg -1 ha produced by applying recommended dose of fertilizer. However, green fodder yield produced with these two fertilizer treatments were significantly higher than that of the FYM and control treatments. The FYM treatment gave -1 lowest fodder yield (16997 kg ha ) and was...

 Amanullah, Ahmed Aziz Kurd, Saifullah Khan, Munir Ahmed and Jahangir Khan*

 
Corresponding author:aman_azrc@yahoo.com
BIOFERTILIZER- A POSSIBLE SUBSITUTE OF FERTILIZERS IN PRODUCTION OF WHEAT VARIETY ZARDANA IN BALOCHISTAN
... . Fresh yields differed significantly at all sites. At Mastung field, -1 both fertilizer treatments out yielded the control by 3000 kgha and at Quetta (Aghbarg field-2) the biofertilizer + half mineral fertilizer treatment out -1 yielded the others by over 3000 kgha . The results proved that the application -1 -1 of biofertilizer in combination with N 45kgha and P O 30 kgha increased 2 5 fresh yield from11% to 59% and suggested increases in grain yield of 20-...

 Javid Iqbal, Asghar Ali Mian, Tanveer Ahmad*, Shamsul Hassan** and Sohail Hassan Khan* 

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT ECONOMIC TRAITS OF FOUR IMPORTED BROILER STRAINS UNDER LOCAL CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
...tments A, B and C gained significantly (P <0.05) more weight than the birds in treatment D. On the contrary, the birds in treatment D (4371g) consumed significantly (P <0.05) less feed than birds in treatments A (4896g), B (4934g) and C (4905g) at 7 weeks of age. The FCR's in order of merit were 2.16(A), 2.17(B), 2.18(C) and 2.25(D) and differences were non-significant. The dressing ...

 Shahida N.Khokhar*

CROP INOCULANTS- AN UNDEREXPLORED POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURE
...ad, Pakistan contributed significantly to these efforts. There are many reports on achieving increase in yield of legumes, cereals (wheat, maize) and vegetable crops. This however has yet to be taken to farmers' field effectively. The present paper reviews these efforts, lapses and unfolds new strategies in research and extension in future.

...

 Muhammad Arifullah, Muhammad Munir*, Abid Mahmood**, Saifullah Khan Ajmal and Ghulam Shabbir*

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS OF SOME YIELD ATTRIBUTES IN INDIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L.)
...ility analysis indicated significant general combining ability for most of the traits except plant height and siliqua length. UCD-8/4, KJ-119 and BRS-2 were good general combiners for yield related traits. A cross BRS-2 × UCD-8/4 showed best desired SCA for number of primary branches and siliquae per plant. S-9 × Canola Raya for siliqua length, Canola Raya × UCD-8/4 for number of seeds per siliqua, KJ- 119 × BRS-2, BARD-1 × NIFA R...

 Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Fakhar ul Hassan, Qamar ul Hassan, Usman Shaukat Qureshi, Saman Chughtai and Adnan Saleem*

IMPACT OF CULTIVATION SYSTEMS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA ANANASSA) CV. “CHANDLER”
...ascorbic acid were found significantly higher under tunnel condition as compared to other cultivation systems. The experiment was arranged by employing the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) by using five treatments, each comprising three replications with 20 plants per replicate. 

...

 Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Muhammad Ansar*, Ashiq Saleem**, Zafar ullah Arif*, H.I. Javed and Rashid Saleem**

IMPROVEMENT OF MASH BEAN PRODUCTION UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS BY RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION AND LOW RATES OF STARTER NITROGEN
...lots. The results showed significant differences for all the plant characters under the study. -1 The crop maturity was earlier in control and inoculation + 20 kg N ha as compared to all other treatments. Inoculation in combination with 50 kg N -1 ha significantly delayed crop maturity. The maximum mean average grain -1 yield (681.5 kg ha ) was augmented with the application of inoculation alone and non

 Parvez Khaliq*, Azim Malik**, Nasir Mahmood Cheema* and Muhammad Umair***

ECONOMICS OF WHEAT BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
... the country. However, a significant yield gap in wheat has been reported between yields of substantive and the progressive growers mainly due to poor management of soil, water and fertility issues. A field study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad and the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat (W-F-W) cropping system was evaluated with the improved wheat-maize fodder-wheat (W-MF-W) and wheat-mungbean-wheat (W-MB-W) cropping system...

 Muhammad Tariq*, Raja Muhammad Omer**, Muhammad Ashraf Mian*, Obaid Ur Rehman***, Amjad Tahir Virk and Kazim Abbass**

PROMOTING CERTIFIED SEED AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON YIELD IN RAINFED AREAS
...f fertile tillers m were significantly higher in certified seed source than the farmer's own seed that resulted in significant increase in grain yield. Other yield contributing parameters including number of spikelet per spike, numbers of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight were at par in both seed sources. It was concluded that healthy and pure seed source gave high seed germination and good crop stand which enabled the ...

 Ashiq Saleem, Muhammad Ashraf Zahid, Habib Iqbal Javed*, M Ansar**, Asghar Ali, Rashid Saleem* and Noor Saleem***

EFFECT OF SEEDING RATE ON LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK) SEED YIELD UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...ic thereafter with a non-significant difference for any further increase in seed sown. The -1 existing seed rate of 20 kgha in lentil is seemingly not sufficient to obtain optimum yield. On average, about 2-2.5-fold increase in seed rate of lentil under rainfed conditions can be safely recommended.

...

 Gulzar S. Sanghera and Wassem Hussain*

HETEROSIS IN RELATION TO COMBINING ABILITY PER SE PERFORMANCE IN TEMPERATE RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
...sis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes, crosses, lines, testers and line x tester interactions for all the traits studied. The specific combining ability (SCA) effects along with per se performance revealed that some of the crosses have shown desirable SCA effects, having superior per se performance for most of the traits thus indicating the selection of these crosses. Based on standard check varieties (SR-1 and Jhelum) assessment of ...

 Safdar Ali, Sahiba, M. Azim Malik, Fayyaz-ul-Hassan and M. Ansar*

GROWTH OF RAINFED FODDER MAIZE UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
...0 NP kg ha , there was a significant increase in green fodder and dry matter yields through their interactive effect, that were 90.19% and 159.31%, respectively. This increase may be due to increase in vegetative growth parameters like plant height, stem diameter and leaf area. It was concluded that fertilizers combination of -1 180:90 NP kg ha was recommended for obtaining higher maize fodder yield under rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

...

 Javed Khan, Ehsan-ul-Haq, Naheed Akhtar, Waseem Ahmad Gillani*, Naila Assad**, M.Asif Masood and Irum Raza*

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF IMMATURE STAGES OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON RICE MEAL MOTH, CORCYRA CEPHALONICA EGGS
... of immature stages were significantly different at three different temperatures and with increasing temperature the developmental cycle decrease significantly.

...

 Muhammad Yaqoob*, Rukhsana Anjum, Mumtaz Hussain and Muhammad Jahangir Shah**

GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS AND CHARACTER ASSOCIATION IN SOME CHINESE HYBRID RICE UNDER DRY CONDITIONS
...maturity were however nonsignificant. Plant height ranged from 77 to 116 cm, number of grains per panicle from 152 to 449, number of productive tillers per plant from 15 to 29, 1000-grain weight from 23 to 40 (g) and paddy yield from 2.38 to 10 t -1 -1 ha in different hybrids. The highest yield (10 t ha ) was produced by hybrid GSR-H-0140.

...

 Arshad Ali, Muhammad Arshadullah, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Imdad Ali Mahmood and Badar-uz-Zaman*

RICE PRODUCTIVITY AND SOIL HEALTH AS AFFECTED BY WHEAT RESIDUE INCORPORATION ALONG WITH NITROGEN STARTER DOSE UNDER SALT-AFFECTED SOIL
...n weight and paddy yield significantly (P≤ 0.05) increased with different -1 levels of N doses. Maximum tillers plant (27.66), plant height (138.33 cm), -1 spike length (28.33 cm), and grains spike (175), 1000-grain weight (28.66 -1 -1 g) and paddy yield (4.25 t ha ) was harvested with 5 t ha wheat straw -1 incorporation plus 60 kg N ha . The paddy yield was 19% more than control 2+ + treatment. Positive correlations (r= 0.74) and (r=0.73) between Ca and K ...

 Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Muhammad Arshadullah, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*

EFFECT OF BORON NUTRITION ON PADDY YIELD UNDER SALINESODIC SOILS
...n weight and paddy yield significantly (P≤0.05) increased at different levels of B. 1000-grain weight -1 -1 (31.7 g) and grain yield was the maximum (5.0 t ha ) at 2 kg B ha and 22% more than control treatment. Maximum plant height (155.7 cm) and -1 -1 number of grains spike (125) were recorded with B application @ 1 kg ha . B concentration in grain increased with boron application. Positive correlation (r= 0.94) was found between B contents in grain and pa...

 Munir Ahmad* and Asif Ali Mirani**

HEATED AIR DRYING OF GROUNDNUT
...he potential to become a significant contributor to edible oil production in Pakistan. It is harvested in October-November in Pakistan, when the weather is cold, and it is not possible to dry it down to a safe moisture level by sun drying. Therefore, the chance for developing aflatoxins in it is high. To solve this problem of the groundnut growers, a low cost mobile flat-bed dryer designed and developed at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute (ABE...

 Ayesha Tahir, Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Sharif, Waqar Akhtar and Nadeem Akmal*

AN OVERVIEW OF TOMATO ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
...d and Pakistan increased significantly since 2007. At present, Pakistan has no RCA in tomato trade as the value of RCA is much below the unity. However, keeping in view the 8% growth rate in tomato area and 5% in production, there are opportunities in tomato production for export from Pakistan. At present Pakistan's exports are heavily focused on Middle East and Afghanistan markets. Therefore, there is a need to look for other markets to increase the tomato ex...

 A.A. Mengal* , M. U. Mallah, Z. A. Mirani* and B. N. Siddiqui**

AN ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN

 Asrar Ali*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Abdul Rehman***, Javed Khan, Waseem Ahmad Gillani** and Maria Rauf*

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF MENOCHILUS SEXMACULATUS FAB. (COLEOPTERA:COCCINELLIDAE) AT VARYING TEMPERATURE ON RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI L.
...evealed that there was a significant effect of different temperature regimes on the development and predatory potential of M. sexmaculatus reared on Rhopalosiphum padi. The egg incubation period of predator beetle was 4.16, 3.66 and 2.24 days at 22±1°C, 28 1°C and 34 1°C, respectively. Mean fecundity was 430.53, 548.67 and 432.43 eggs, respectively. Percentage egg hatchability of the predator was significant
EVALUATION OF LEGUME HERBS NUTRITIVE VALUE AS A RUMINANT FEED AND NITROGEN SUPPLY ON SOIL IN WEST TIMOR, INDONESIA
...ume was obviously highly significant (P<0.01) to biomass production 90 days after planting. Moreover, dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) in vitro digestibility were statistically different among the species of legume (P<0.01). In DL the DM and OM were highest i.e., 74.84 % and 74.37%. Meanwhile, the biomass digestibility of DM and OM was affected by the -2 treatments (P<0.01), being highest in CT (2511.4 g DMm and 2172.1 g -2 -2 -2 OMm ) followed...

 Wabekwa, J.W., I.A. Sodagni and F.K. Mohammad*

PHYSIOLOGICAL GROWTH AND YIELD EVALUATION IN PMINERALIZED SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L.) UNDER SUDANOSAHELIAN AGRO-ECOLOGY, NIGERIA
...head dry weight were not significantly influenced by P O rates and 1000- 2 5 -1 grain weights indicated that increased P O application (40-80 kg ha ) 2 5 enhanced grain filling efficiency and this influenced weight per 1000 -1 grains during both years. The application of 40 kg P O ha increased grain 2 5 -1 yield statistically in 2010 rainy season (2289.10 kg ha ) and the combined -1 -1 analysis (1565.20 kg ha ). During 2011 rainy season, 80 kg P2O5 ha -1 recor...

 Arshad Ali, Imdad Ali Mahmood, Muhammad Salim, Muhammad Arshadullah* and Abdul Rasool Naseem**

GROWTH AND YIELD OF DIFFERENT BRASSICA GENOTYPES UNDER SALINE SODIC CONDITIONS
...RS-II and Rainbow showed significantly more percent oil contents in their seeds but genotype Dunkled showed minimum Na+ and K+ concentration in their tissues. 

...

 Shafique Qadir Memon*, Muhamamd Safar Mirjat, Abdul Quadir Mughal** Nadeem Amjad***, Muhammad Azhar Saeed, Shabbir Kalwar, Asif Ali Mirani and Habib Iqbal Javed****

TILLAGE AND NPK EFFECT ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SPRING MAIZE IN ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
... replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, -1 grains cob , 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK @ -1 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero ti...

 Muhammad Arshadullah, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*

CUMULATIVE EFFECT OF SULFUR AND CALCIUM ON WHEAT GROWTH AND YIELD UNDER SALINE-SODIC SOILS
...n weight and paddy yield significantly (P≤0.05) enhanced by increasing the rate of gypsum (CaSO ). The maximum 4 -1 number of grains spike (60), 1000-grain weight (47 g) and grain yield -1 -1 (4.01 t ha ) were recorded with CaSO application @ 150 kg ha . Grain 4 yield was 43% more than control treatment. Positive correlations (r= 2+ + 0.96), (r=0.96) and (r=0.91) between Ca , K , S and negative correlation r= + (-0.99) between Na contents in grain and wheat...

 Tahir Abbas, Bushra Nawab, Rahila Nazli, Rubina Saleem, Amrat Lal and Khalid Jamil*

EFFICACY OF COTTON WASTE COMPOST AND FERTINEMAKIL FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH PARAMETER OF SUNFLOWER PLANTS
...il contents. The highest significant improvement in plant growth characters were recorded in plots treated with cotton waste compost and cotton waste compost+ Fertinemakil fertilizer. The Fertinemakil alone showed less significant effect but it is a good source of organic fertilizer.

...

 Rizwana Sultan*, Javed Khan, Ehsan ul Haq, Tariq Mehmood**, Roshan Zada Khattak***, and Naheed Akhtar**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF TRICHOGRAMMA CHILONIS ISHII (TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) FEEDING ON SITOTROGA CEREALELLA EGGS AT THREE CONSTANT TEMPERATURES
...e that temperature has a significant effect on the biological parameters of Trichogramma and with increasing temperature developmental duration decreased. Similarly effect of host eggs age indicates that maximum parasitism and adult emergence were 97.40 ± 0.84% and 98.20 ± 0.94% on 2h old eggs while minimum parasitism was 24.6 ± 4.92% and adult emergence was 21.5 ± 1.33% from 72h old eggs. Adult longevity and female ratio was not

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-din*, Syed Haider Abbas*, Maqsood Qamar* and Muhammad Noman*

EFFECT OF SPLIT N FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON PHYSIOAGRONOMIC TRAITS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...n was -2 associated with significant increase (P<0.05) in spikes m , 1000 grain weight and dry matter production. Split N application was also linked with better flag leaf chlorophyll retention and cooler crop canopies during grain filling stages which showed positive association with grain yield.

...

 Sajida Taj*, Akhter Ali*, Nadeem Akmal*, Shujaat Yaqoob** and Mubarik Ali***

RAISED BED TECHNOLOGY FOR WHEAT CROP IN IRRIGATED AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ds of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted by the Social Sciences Research Institute, Faisalabad in 2011-12 to assess the determinants of the adoption of the raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted at three sites of the districts Faisalabad and Toba Tek Singh where the Water Management Research Institute, University of Faisalabad promoted the raised bed technology f...

 Muhammad Farooq*, Hidayat Ullah*, Nausherwan Nobel Nawab* and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi**

EVALUATION OF INDIGENOUS TOMATO HYBRIDS UNDER PLASTIC TUNNEL
...n NTT-14-08. Similarly a significant difference was observed among hybrids for fruit diameter. Fruits having more diameter are round to roundish in shape. Fruit diameter ranged from 8.85 to 5.49 -3 cm. Fruit firmness also varied significantly ranging from 3.54 to 1.67 kg m in Sahel and NTT-07-08, respectively. Maximum pericarp thickness (0.90 cm) was recorded in NTT-10-08 while minimum pericarp thickness of 0.58 cm was obser...

 Rabeea Tariq*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Imran Hassan*, Muhammad Rasheed* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY AND GROWING MEDIA ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY
...nd titratable acidity. A significant increase in fresh and dry weight of leaves, number of leaves, fruit yield in term of fruit number, fruit size and fruit weight, and fruit quality with high ascorbic acid contents were observed. On the other hand, plants grown in silt, sand and FYM (1 : 1 : 1) at both planting densities showed significant increment in vegetative growth resulting in early flowering with more flowers per pla...

 Maria Rauf*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Javed Khan**, Abdul Rehman***, Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Asrar Ali**

BIOLOGY AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTATA LINN. ON SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM APHID UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS
...ental duration decreases significantly. The pupal developmental duration was 14.0, 9.2 and 5.2 days, respectively which are significantly different from each other. The adult male and female longevity were 44.7, 37.7, 30.0 and 60.3, 58.9 and 43.7 days. Fecundity rate of females were 123.5, 251.5 and 293.2 eggs per female, respectively. This indicates that adult male and female developmental duration, female fecundity rate we...

 Naheed Zahra*, Muhammad Zubair Anwar*, Sonila Hassan** and Irfan Mehmood**

INSTITUTIONAL CREDIT ARRANGEMENT AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON AGRICULTURAL INCOME IN THE SELECTED VILLAGES OF RAWALPINDI DISTRICT
...sitive and statistically significant relationship between institutional credit and agricultural income of the farmers. The other variables such as source of credit, ownership of farming machinery, access to market and family labour also have a positive and statistically significant relationship with the dependent variable except the age of the farmer. Therefore it is recommended that there is a strong need to enhance easy an...

 Muhammad Yasin Mirza*, Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Muhammad Amjad* and Malik Shah Nawaz*

STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR ECONOMIC TRAITS IN SESAME ( L.)
...E interaction was highly significant for all the traits showing heritable variation among the genotypes. The linear component of GE interaction was also significant for all traits except branches per plant. Pooled deviation was significant only for yield indicating the differential genotypic response across the locations. The significant variance due to ...

 Adnan Umair*, Safdar Ali**, Muhammad Sarwar***, Kashif Bashir**, Muhammad Javed Tareen**** and Muhammad Asghar Malik*****

ASSESSMENT OF SOME PRIMING TECHNIQUES IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA) : A GREEN HOUSE STUDY
... invigoration treatments significantly improved plant vigor in terms of final germination biomass, root, shoot length and nutrient uptake of mungbean seedlings compared to control (non-primed dry seedling). The application of seed priming also improved the protein concentration at the early stage of seedlings. Phosphorous application through priming significantly improved germination up to 95%, seedling -1 vigour index up to...

 Rashid Mahmood*, Elizabeth Stephen Wagchoure* and Ghulam Sarwar*

INFLUENCE OF SUPPLEMENTAL DIETS ON APIS MELLIFERA L. COLONIES FOR HONEY PRODUCTION
...ollen with gram (T ) was significantly better than that 2 produced by the bees fed on other pollen supplemental diets. There was no significant difference for royal jelly production.

...

 Shahida Khalid*and Shahida Nasreen Khokhar*

INTERACTION OF HERBICIDES AND BIO-INOCULANTS WITH AGRICULTURAL CROPS AND WEEDS
... (Leader), were found to significantly mitigate (% increase in root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight) the inhibitory effect of residues , when inoculated with Azospirillum A4. In second experiment two Azospirillum (B2 and B3) and two Azorhizobium (3.6ksk and srsn2k4) isolates reduced seed germination of Phalaris minor by 95%. The results imply that biofertilizer microbes can mitigate the carryover effect of the two sulfonylureas; they can also...

 Muhammad Tayyab Mudassar*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Muhammad Naeemullah**, Muhammad Shakeel*, Muhammad Ashfaque*, Asmat un Nisa* and Javed Khan*

ECONOMIC REARING OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (STEPHENS) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) IN INSECTARY
...Adult emergence rate was significantly higher when provided with S. cerealella eggs, which was more economical than that of P. solenopsis crawlers. For efficient and quality production of C. carnea in laboratory using available and inexpensive equipment to produce the healthy surplus of this predator for experiment and small holding field releases, S. cereallela is recommended as more efficient and economic host as compared to P. solenopsis.

...

 Khawer Jawad Ahmad*, Asif Razzaq*, Khalida Hamid Abbasi*, Muhammad Shafiq*, Muhammad Saleem** and Muhammad Arshadullah***

THYMOL AS CONTROL AGENT OF MITES (VARROA DESTRUCTOR) ON HONEYBEES (APIS MELLIFERA)
...ed (F=3.64, F>P=0.15) significantly different effect among treatments as well as for the control of mite. The average efficacy of thymol was 73.72% as compared to 69.21% by fluvalinate, 72.23% by formic acid and 13.1% in control. The reduction in the effectiveness of fluvalinate may be attributed to the development of resistance against fluvalinate strip.

...

 Said Salman*, Shah Jehan Khan*, Javed Khan**, Rehmat Ullah Khan*** and Imran Khan****

GENETIC VARIABILITY STUDIES IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) ACCESSIONS
...winter 2010-2011. Highly significant (P≤0.01) differences were found for all the traits studied indicating the scope of improvement through simple selection for high mean values of these traits. Maximum genotypic differences were observed for all the studied parameters except chlorophyll concentration index and number of spikelet per spike indicating considerable amount of variation among the accessions for each trait. The genotypic and phenotypic coefficie...

 Nusrat Habib*, Muhammad Zubair Anwar* and Ikram Saeed*

COMPARATIVE PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF RECOMMENDED MUNGBEAN VARIETIES AT NARC EXPERIMENTAL STATION, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
...tice seems to contribute significantly. The output-input ratios of AZRI-06, NM- -1 -1 06 and NM-98 were 3.05, 2.79 and 2.41 with revenue crop day acre of Rs.451, Rs.368 and Rs.318, respectively. AZRI-06 variety showed higher -1 profitability level with higher output-input ratio and revenue crop day -1 acre . Adopting improved technology in mungbean production would further increase the returns at the farm level.

...

 Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Maqsood Ahmad*, Gulshan Riaz* and Sartaj Khan*

PERFORMANCE OF SUMMER FORAGE LEGUMES AND THEIR RESIDUAL EFFECT ON SUBSEQUENT OAT CROP IN SUBTROPICAL SUBHUMID POTHWAR, PAKISTAN
... previous crops were non-significant and ranged from 9.4% to 9.7%. Differences in crude protein yield of oats as affected by the preceding crops -1 were statistically significant and ranged from 705 to 854 kg ha . These differences were due to variation in their dry matter. It was concluded that cereal legume sequenced cropping system gave overall higher yield of the cropping system. Inclusion of tropical forage legumes into...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-Din*, Sikandar Khan Tanveer*, Maqsood Qamar* and Syed Haider Abbas*

EVALUATION OF ADVANCE WHEAT LINES FOR AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN RAINFED ENVIRONMENT
...of the late planting was significant (P<0.05) on grain yield of the crop. Late planting produced 29% lower grain yield than normal planting. Genotypes also showed significant variation (P<0.05) regarding grain yield production under both normal and late sowing dates. Under more stressful growing conditions (late planting), minimum grain yield reduction was noticed in line NR-397 (19%) followed by NARC-09 (20%), NR-400 ...

 Mustaring,* I. Subagyo,** Soebarinoto** and Marsetyo*

 
GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NEW INTRODUCED BRACHIARIA SPECIES AND LEGUME HERBS AS RUMINANT FEED IN CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA
...me herb species affected significantly (P<0.05) plant height, yield, in vitro digestibility. At 8 weeks of age Dolichos lablab showed the -2 highest plant height (189 cm), DM yield (0.45 kg DM m ) and in vitro OM digestibility (71.12%). The nutrient contents were not significantly affected (P>0.05) by legume herb species. In short B. mulato and Dolichos lablab showed the highest growth, DM yield and in vitro digestibil...

 Nazakat Nawaz*, Malik Shah Nawaz*, Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Mirza M. Yasin*, Doulat Baig*, Nasir Mehmood Cheema**, Muhammad Amjad** and M. Altaf Sher**

EFFECT OF BORON ON PEANUT GENOTYPES UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
... fertilizer applications significantly 3 3 increased dry pod yield of all the tested genotypes over control. Dry pod yields of BARD-479, ICG-7326, and ICGV-92023 increased by 14- 20%, 21- 26% and 27- 34%, respectively. Genotype BARD-479 was the most boron efficient user, 83- 88% followed by ICG-7326, 79-83% and ICGV- 92023, 75- 79%. Critical boron concentrations in plant shoot terminals -1 recorded were 22-48, 23-50 and 25-54 mg kg during 2008 and 27-51, 30- -...

 Saima Rani*, Hassnain Shah*, Umar Farooq** and Bushra Rehman**

SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND POLICY ENVIRONMENT FOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...e for both pulses were insignificant factors in influencing the farmers' decision to allocate land. Production of pluses mainly depends on area under the crop. Pulses area under irrigated conditions and sowing season rainfall positively influence the production of gram and mung. Technological factors by the time trend had given positive impact on the yield and production. Demand analysis revealed that own price elasticity of demand was inelastic and less than ...

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Nouman Badar*

YIELD GAP DETERMINANTS FOR WHEAT PRODUCTION IN MAJOR IRRIGATED CROPPING ZONES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ontribute positively and significantly to wheat crop production. Coefficients of dummy variables for cropping zones indicate that farmers in the mixed cropping zone are obtaining better yield of the wheat crop as compared to their counterparts in other selected cropping zones. These results suggested that farmers can increase wheat productivity by increasing the use of factor inputs; however, poverty may be a constraint on realizing these gains. Thus, wheat pr...

 Sajid Ali*, Quratulain Altaf** and Umar Farooq* 

ACREAGE RESPONSE OF FLUE CURED VIRGINIA TOBACCO IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...centives may also play a significant role in increasing area under FCV in the study area. The results also show that area under maize crop negatively affect area under FCV, thereby indicating that maize crop could be considered as competing crop to FCV in the study area. The results of this study could help policy makers in identifying important determinants of acreage response of FCV tobacco crop in the study area. 

...

 Frasat Saeed*, Jehanzeb Farooq*, Abid Mahmood**, Tassawar Hussain***, Muhammad Riaz* and Saghir Ahmad****

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN UPLAND COTTON FOR COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE, EARLINESS AND FIBER QUALITY
...g out turn. The negative significant correlation of CLCuD was obtained with monopodial branches, sympodial branches and plant height. Principal component (PC) analysis showed first five PCs having eigen value >1 explaining 67.8% of the total variation with days to st -1 1 square and flowering along with plant height and sympodia plant which were being the most important characters in PC1. Cluster analysis classified 101 accessions into five divergent groups...

 Aniqa Iram*, Javed Khan**, Nadeem Aslam**, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Habib Iqbal Javed**, Muhammad Irfan*, Awais Rasool*, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi** and Sumera Aslam* 

EFFICACY OF PLANT DERIVED OILS AND EXTRACTS AGAINST WHITEFLY, BEMISIA TABACI (GENNADIUS) ON SESAME CROP
... whitefly population was significantly suppressed by both the botanical oils and extracts as compared to the control treatment but in general botanical oils showed significant results as compared to plant extracts. Soybean oil was quite effective in reducing whitefly population per leaf, while after second spray soybean oil and extract of Mentha spp. was more effective in the reducing whitefly population per leaf. The result...

 Naheed Zahra*, Hassnain Shah*, M. Azeem Khan* and M. Zubair Anwar* 

LIVELIHOOD ASSETS AND POVERTY NEXUS: A CASE STUDY FROM RAINFED POTHWAR AREA OF PAKISTAN
...all scale irrigation was significant and an effective tool to improve income. Therefore along with improvement in irrigation practice through using high efficiency irrigation systems, other water harvesting techniques being demonstrated in the watershed project could also improve livelihood in the area. Better utilization of available resources would also improve livelihood and decrease poverty in the area. 

...

 Muhammad Tahir*, Muhammad Irfan* and Aziz-Ur-Rehman*

EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ZINC ON YIELD AND OIL CONTENTS OF FLAX
... All the zinc treatments significantly improved plant height, stem 4 -1 length, fruiting zone length, fruiting branches, number of capsule plant , -1 number of seed capsule , 1000-seed weight, straw yield, seed yield, and seed oil contents compared to control. Therefore, for producing a higher seed yield and oil contents of flax, it is suggested that 3.00% zinc at bud initiation and after capsule filling stage of flax should be used.

...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai*, Amer Mumtaz*, Nouman Rashid*, Shahzada Arshad Saleem**, Saeeda Raza* and Muhammad Naeem Safdar*

COMPARISON OF INDIGENOUSLY DEVELOPED TANGERINE-ORANGE MARMALADE WITH BRANDED MARMALADES AVAILABLE AT LOCAL MARKETS
...veloped at FSPDI was non-significantly different from all the branded marmalades except Salman’s.

...

 Nusrat Habib*, Saima Rani*, Sabeen Siddiqui*, Shah Zaman** and Muhammad Zubair Anwar*

IMPACT OF MAJOR FARM INPUTS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGARCANE: A CASE STUDY IN TEHSIL KOT ADDU, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... for harvesting were the significant factors which affect on the proceeds of sugarcane growers. The results revealed that costs of land preparation, DAP and urea were highly significant at 1% level with positive coefficients 0.94, 0.23 and 0.76, respectively. The cost of FYM was significant at 1% level with negative impact on sugarcane productivity (-0.07). The coefficient 2 of multiple de...

 Farrukh Saleem*, Babar Hilal Ahmad*, Saleem Zahid* and Bilal Kabeer*

COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF INDIGENOUS NAKED NECK AND NAKED NECK CROSSBRED LAYER CHICKENS
...ues was found to be non <significant> 0.05). The Naked Neck layers produced thicker shelled eggs (0.390mm) and showed better livability than their counterparts. significant>

...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Abdul Razzaq*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASSES AND IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON FORAGE QUALITY
...revealed that there were significant differences in dry matter (DM) among different grasses. DM content of low palatable grasses was generally high (70-75%) as compared to Ipil ipil leaves (45-55%). DM content among mixtures was also variable. For the treatment grass 75% + Ipil ipil 25%, DM range was 65-70%, for grass 50% + Ipil ipil 50%, it was 60-65% and for grass 25% + Ipil ipil 75%, it was 55%. The CP value of the treatments showed

 Muhammad Akhter*, Muhammad Azhar Ali**, Zulqarnain Haider* and Shahzad Muzammil***

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHANGES IN GRAINS OF SOME ADVANCE LINES/ VARIETIES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) AFTER PARBOILING
...length. The study showed significant variation in efficacy of parboiling to different varieties/lines. The results clearly showed average increase in mineral contents in terms of ash% increase, dry matter, longer cooked grain length and considerable rise in vitamin B6 contents, higher total milling recovery and head rice recovery in almost all the samples. While crude fiber, crude protein and crude fat decreased non-significant<...

 Kalim Ullah*, Zahid Usman*,Niamatullah Khan*, Rehmat Ullah**, Fazal Yazdan Saleem***, Shahid Iqbal Khattak**** and Muhammad Ali*****

GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR YIELD AND RELATED TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON GENOTYPES
...05. Results depicted the significant (P≤0.01) differences for the investigated parameters. The genotype DNH-105 was the -1 -1 highest yielding genotype with seed yield of 2610.75 kg ha , 42.3 bolls plant , 3.57 g boll weight and 144.5 cm height in comparison to other eight genotypes. The cultivar Gomal-93 and SLH-373 also showed comparable yield and contributing parameters. The genetic variances of the studied parameters were higher in comparison to varianc...

 Muhammad Arshad Ullah*, Nazir Hussain**, Helge Schmeisky*** and Muhammad Rasheed**** 

INOCULATION AND INTER-CROPPING OF LEGUMES IN ESTABLISHED GRASS FOR INCREASING BIOMASS OF FODDER
... Pakistan. Intercropping significantly increased tillering of grass. Seed inoculation of legumes also gave maximum tillers. The grass and legumes biomass without any treatment were recorded as 7.09 and -1 8.17 t ha , respectively, during two years of study. Mixed fodder -1 production increased to 11.62, 13.6 and 14.13 t ha with 33%, 50% and 67% intercropping, respectively. Respective values of biomass were -1 observed as 13.18, 13.70 and 17.87 t ha when combin...

 Tosif Tabassam*, Tariq Sultan**, M.Ehsan Akhtar**, M.Mahmood-ulHassan** and Arshad Ali**

SUITABILITY OF DIFFERENT FORMULATED CARRIERS FOR SUSTAINING MICROBIAL SHELF LIFE

 Riaz Hussain*, Muhammad Riaz**, Mushtaq A. Saleem*** and Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**

BIOCHEMICAL ABNORMALITIES INDUCED BY ABAMECTIN IN SIXTH INSTAR LARVAE OF THE RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)
...ase and AkP remained non-significant at both doses in the two strains. In PAK strain larvae, the TE activity was inhibited with depletion of total protein contents and elevation of FAA contents. In FSS-II larvae, the effect of abamectin on levels of α-amylase, glucoamylase, AkP, total protein and soluble protein remained non-significant. The activities of TE and AcP were reduced at both doses, while activities/levels o...

 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

ECONOMICS OF MILK PRODUCTION OF MAJOR DAIRY BUFFALO BREEDS BY AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES IN PAKISTAN
...ontribute positively and significantly to milk production.

...

 Riaz Hussain*, Muhammad Riaz** and Mushtaq A. Saleem***

TOXICITIES OF AZADIRACHTIN AND POLYCHLORINATED PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON AGAINST RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE STRAINS OF TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) ADULTS
...s the difference was non-significant because of overlapping 95% FLs to LC. 

...

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool*, Abuzar Muhammad Afzal*, Abu Baker Siddique*, Waseem Akram**, Muhammad Saqalein*, Madiha Basit* and Muhammad Farooq Tahir***

ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF VIRO CARE GZ-08 AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN POULTRY AND ITS IN-VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY
...t with ND vaccines as it significantly reduced morbidity and mortality as compared to the use of vaccines alone. However, further work is recommended in future on GZ-08™ for its use as post-treatment of ND as well as on other antiviral compounds of natural origin to develop a novel antiviral drug against NDV in poultry.

...

 Syed Asif Imran Shah*, Shah Jehan Khan**, Abdul Aziz Baloch*** ,
Obaid Ullah Sayal**, Kalim Ullah* andShujaat Ali**

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS IN VARIOUS INBRED LINES OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
...nalysis exhibited highly significant (P≤0.01) variation among genotypes for days -1 -1 -1 to 50% silking, ear length, kernel rows ear , kernels row , kernels ear and grain yield. Mean square values due to general combining ability were -1 highly significant (P≤0.01) for all studied attributes except kernels ear and grain yield. Highly significant variations for specific combining abi...

 Muhammad Arshad Ullah*, Nazir Hussain**, Helge Schmeisky*** and Muhammad Rasheed**** 

IMPROVING FODDER QUALITY OF PANICUM GRASS THROUGH INTERCROPPING OF LEGUMES AND THEIR INOCULATION
...lity of fodder increased significantly both with the legumes and inoculation. The intercropping of Panicum grass with 67% inoculation proved the best combination. The 6-7% higher crude protein (CP) of mixed fodder was recorded from 67% intercropping in comparison to grass alone while inoculation increased it by further 1-2%. Results also suggested that total digestible nutrients (TDN) were increased by 2-4% as compared to other treatments.

...

 Israr Ali*, Naushad Ali*, Riffat Tahira**, Sardar Ali*, Izhar Hussain* and Sher Aslam Khan*

GENETIC DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT IN BRASSICA GERMPLASM BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES

 Ibrar Ali*, Abdul Mateen Khattak*, Muhammad Ali* and Kalim Ullah**

PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT TOMATO CULTIVARS UNDER ORGANIC AND INORGANIC REGIMES
...ic and inorganic regimes significantly (P≤0.01) influenced all the studied attributes of tomato cultivars. Among different -1 cultivars, Roma gave maximum plant survival (93.8%), number of leaves plant -1 -1 (84.1), number of flower inflorescence (5.4), number of fruits inflorescence (4.3), -1 3 -1 number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (63.9 cm ), fruit weight plant (9.1 kg) and -1 total yield (22.9 t ha ). However, it was closely followed by cultivar Ri...

 Muhammad Qasim*, Sonila Hassan*, Arshed Bashir*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood** and Irfan Mehmood*

ANALYZING PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF SELECTED FOOD AND LEGUME CROPS FOR FOOD SECURITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ere statistically highly significant at 1% level except yield of gram which was significant at 10% level. The estimated annual growth rate of area for wheat, rice and sugarcane was 0.9%, 2.1% and 0.8%, respectively with the production growth of 3.0%, 3.8% and 2.2%, respectively and yield growth of 2.1%, 1.6% and 1.5%, respectively. The results highlighted that the major contribution for expansion in production for rice and s...

 Quratulain*, Muhammad Aslam**, Muhammad Khalid Rafique*, Mian Atiq Ahmad* and Rashid Mahmood***

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF ROSE APHID MACROSIPHUM ROSAE L. ON DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF ROSA INDICA L. IN PAKISTAN
...ther varieties; however, significantly few aphids were observed on Christan Diar. These studies revealed that farmers growing roses on a commercial scale should grow Christan Diar to avoid aphid attack. Maximum average number of aphid nymph, winged and wingeless adults on leaves, buds and flowers were 11.11, 4.97 and 10.13, respectively observed on Perfecta variety

...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Umme Rubab* and Abass Ullah Jan* 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER ANALYSIS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
...or days have contributed significantly to increase the maize yield. However, the DAP and urea have shown no effect on maize yield. The mean technical efficiency was estimated at 83%, implying that the farmers can still enhance their technical efficiency by 11% within the given inputs and technology. The results have demonstrated that maize crop is lucrative crop in the study area as maize growers have received increasing return to scale i.e., 1.90 (Ep>1), h...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Muhammad Nasrullah* and Noor P. Khan** 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER PRODUCTION ANALYSIS OF TOBACCO GROWERS IN DISTRICT MARDAN, PAKISTAN
...ables were statistically significant and have portrayed positive contribution to tobacco production except fertilizer which was found significant but has revealed inverse relation with tobacco production. The mean technical efficiency was estimated at 0.85 depicting that tobacco growers can further amplify efficiency by 15% with given level of inputs. The inefficiency model estimates demonstrate that only experience of tobac...

 Ali Raza Shah**, Muhammad Saffar Mirjat**, Abdul Quadir Mughal***, Inayatullah Rajper** and Asif Ali Mirani****

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS IN A CLAY LOAM SOIL*
...atments while, it was nonsignificant between MT and CTF treatments. Similarly, soil volume disturbed and effective ploughing depth was maximum (P<0.05) under CT followed by MT, CTF and minimum under ZT. Similarly the operating speed was significantly higher (P<0.05) under CTF and lower under CT whereas, wheel slippage/travel reduction was significantly minimum (P<0.05) under CTF a...

 Syeda Nasreen*, Muhammad Ayub Khan*, Muhammad Arshad*, Maryam Kamal**, Doulat Baig *, M. Tariq*, Talat Gilani* and Musarrat Gilani*

COMBINING ABILITY STUDIES FOR SEED YIELD TRAITS IN SUNFLOWER
...-1 expressed the highest significant GCA effects for 1000- seed weight whereas female, CMS-303 represented the highest and significant GCA estimates for head diameter, yield and harvest index. Among male parents, RHA-295 expressed the highest significant magnitude for head diameter while SF-187R possessed the highest significant GCA effects for 1000-seed...

 Imdad Ali Mahmood*, Arshad Ali**, Armghan Shahzad**, Muhammad Asif Masud Ghumman***, Muhammad Arshad Ullah**, Tariq Sultan** and Badar-u-Zaman**

CROP RESIDUES AND PHOSPHORUS EFFECT ON YIELD AND ECONOMICS OF DIRECT SEEDED RICE AND WHEAT GROWN UNDER SALINE-SODIC SOIL
...and subsequent wheat was significantly superior (22 % and 19%, -1 respectively) than that of higher P O application (120 kg ha ) without crop 2 5 residues incorporation. As a whole, constant two years crop residues incorporation further improved the paddy yield (9%) during the following years of crop harvesting. Economic analysis of both the crops was carried out to see the best treatment with sufficient economic benefits as compared to without crop residues i...

 Muhammad Mudasar Aslam ⃰, Muhammad Jamil**, Ijaz Malook**, Amana Khatoon*, Ali Rehman*, Abdur Rahim***, Pirzada Khan*, Shakir Ullah Khan Shakir*, Shahid Irfan*, Faizan Ullah****, Khair Ul Bashar**, Mahideen Afridi** and Shafiq Ur Rehman*

PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA, TAMARIX APHYLLA AND PEGANUM HARMALA ON PLANT GROWTH OF WHEAT AND MUSTARD
...germination of wheat was significantly decreased by 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% while mustard seeds were resistant and were affected by higher dilutions (15%, 20% and 25%) of all plant extracts. Roots of both wheat and mustard were highly affected by plant aqueous extracts at all concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) but shoots were inhibited by higher concentrations (20% and 25%). This study revealed that wheat is more sensitive to different plant extracts...

  Sohaib Arshad*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar** and Maqbool Shahbaz**

DETERMINATION OF FORAGE QUALITY OF INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC RHODES GRASS ACCESSIONS UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...These grasses have shown significant differences in fresh and dry matter -1 yield. Fresh matter yield ranged from 6.17 to 6.68t ha at pre- -1 -1 flowering, 9.67 to 11.83 t ha at full flowering and 22.83 to 27.80 t ha at m -1 aturity. While dry matter yield ranged from 0.86 to 1.38 t ha at pre- -1 -1 flowering, 1.73 to 2.78 t ha at fullflowering and 6.67 to 8.67 t ha at maturity stage. It could be attributed to their genetic inheritance potential. Mean value of...

Salar Khan Yousafzai*, Shah Masaud Khan*, Khalil ur Rehman**, Junaid Khan*, Sher Aslam Khan*, Ijaz Hussain* and Ishrat Naz***

RESPONSE OF TOMATO CULTIVARS TO DIFFERENT ORGANIC FERTILIZERS UNDER AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF MINGORA, SWAT
...st all the traits showed significant differences for organic fertilizers and varieties, while their interactions had a varied response. The analyzed data showed that poultry manure -1 -1 gave maximum yield (24.65 tha ), followed by FYM (24.38 tha ) and mushroom -1 compost (24.11 tha ) while minimum was recorded in plots where no organic fertilizer was used. The results revealed that cultivar, Rio Grand showed maximum number of plant survival percentage (98.33%...

 Hafiz Saqib Habib*, Arshad Mahmood Malik*, Abid Ali** and Muhammad Aamir Khan***

SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF RURAL HOUSEHOLD FOOD EXPENDITURES IN RAWALPINDI
...f earners variables have significant impact on households' food expenditures. The qualification of household head, age and gender were insignificant regarding impacts on households' food expenditures. All the socioeconomic factors were positively elastic regarding food expenditures except marital status variable. Engels law analysis regarding necessities such as food items was confirmed by the food expenditures value of 0.20...

 Muhammad Qasim*, Khuda Bakhsh**, Sultan Ali Tariq*, Mahmood Nasir***, Rashed Saeed**** and Muhammad Ather Mahmood****

FACTORS AFFECTING GROUNDNUT YIELD IN POTHWAR REGION OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... large farmers allocated significantly higher area (34%) to groundnut cultivation compared to other categories of farmers. The gross margins were also significantly higher at large farms. Ploughing frequency, seed rate and labor mandays have positive relationship with groundnut productivity. Therefore, the provision of improved groundnut production technologies package and improved seed to groundnut growers may enhance the p...

 Muhammad Farrukh Saleem*, Munir Ahmad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza** and Abdul Shakoor*

EFFECT OF TOPPING UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON EARLINESS AND YIELD OF COTTON
...ile topping did show non-significant effect on these earliness related parameters. Number of sympodial branches was significantly affected by topping only; with maximum values recorded in no topping closely followed by topping at 150 cm height. Values showed that 90 cm tall plants -1 produced maximum seed cotton yield when supplied with 150 kg N ha ; 120 cm tall -1 plants gave maximum seed cotton with 200 kg N ha while 150 c...

 Muhammad Tahir* and Nawal Zafar* 

FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY PERFORMANCE OF RABI CEREALS SOWN ALONE AND IN BLENDED POPULATION AT VARIABLE SEED RATIOS
...iable seed ratios showed significant effects on fodder yield and quality traits. -1 The maximum number of tillers, number of leaves plant , leaf area, crop growth -1 -1 rate, fresh weight plant , dry weight plant , green forage yield and dry matter yield were obtained in plots where barley was sown alone at 100% seed ratio. The highest crude fiber and total ash percentage was observed in plots where oat was sown alone at 100% seed ratio and crude protein perce...

 Muhammad Mansoor*, Noman Latif*, Zafar Islam**, Sher Muhammad**, Amanullah* and Muhammad Umair***

IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AMENDMENTS ON SOIL CAPPING IN MUNGBEAN PRODUCTION USING CENTRAL PIVOT IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN CLAYEY SOILS
...ht, and grain yield were significantly affected by different soil amendments at P>0.05, except for number of clusters per plant. -1 -1 Maximum of 6.2 branches plant , 62.6 pods plant , 8.3cm pod length, 8.9 grains -1 pod , and 43.3 g of 1000-grain were recorded in treatment where sand and FYM -1 was applied to Vigna radiata @ 60:60 kg plot . Moreover maximum grain yield of -1 1253 kg ha was also recorded in the same treatment; however, treatments with -1 -1...

Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Tariq Sultan**, Arshad Ali**, Ghulam Qadir*** Imdad Ali Mahmood**, Tauseef Tabassam**, Muhammad Arshad Ullah** and Nasir Abbas* 

EFFECT OF PGPR STRAINS ON SUNFLOWER GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS UNDER SALINITY STRESS
...he plant growth improved significantly with PGPR strain under salt stress. The root length, plant height, root and shoot weight increased up to 40%, 40%, 167% and 255%, -1 respectively over un-inoculated at 12 dS m salinity level. Whereas an increase of 38%, 54%, 109%, and 117% in root length, plant height, root weight and shoot -1 weight, respectively was observed over un-inoculated at 10 dS m salinity level. Improvement of 25%, 47%, 112%, and 98% in root len...

 Muneeb Zafar*, Tahir Mehmood**, Irfan Ahmad Baig**, Abdul Saboor** Mazher Abbas***, Shumaila Sadiq** and Khalid Mahmood****

ANALYTICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF NON-OPTIMAL USE OF PESTICIDES AND HEALTH HAZARDS FOR VEGETABLE PICKERS
...Health cost function was significantly different from zero as 2 indicated by F-stat (32.18) and it is also supported by R that about 70% variation in health cost is explained by medication accompanied by productivity loss (Rs. 223), precautionary measure (Rs. 134), attended person cost (Rs. 14) and traveling expenditures (Rs. 16). Hence, strict legislation is required to overcome the availability of hazardous pesticides and to keep the vegetable pickers aware ...

Abdul Hameed Solangi*, Fateh Khan Nizamani*, Aqeel Ahmed Siddiqui*, Muzaffar Ali Khan**, Parwaiz Ahmed Baloch*, Riazuddin* and Khalil Ahmed Solangi***

FIELD COMPARISON AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF GUAR (CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA L. TAUB.) GENOTYPES UNDER AGROCLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
...Acc. Nos. 1-7 while, non-significant differences among Acc. Nos. 1, 3, 6 and 9. Moreover, results showed that high number of branches on Acc. Nos. 4, 10 and 11 as compared to Acc. Nos. 2 and 11 accessions, cluster/plant was high in Acc. No.3, 4, 5 and 6 genotypes as compared to Acc. Nos. 7, 10, 11 and 12 accessions whereas, nonsignificant difference was found in Acc. Nos. 1, 2, 8 and 9. However, pods/cluster was high in Acc....

 Farid Asif Shaheen*, Sadia Parveen*, Ahmed Zia**, Ghulam Qadir*,
Mureed Husain*** and Rifat Ullah Khan****

PREDATORY APTNESS OF ANTS AGAINST RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM HERBST (TENEBRIONIDAE: COLEOPTERA) IN WHEAT FLOUR
...66% pupae of RFB. It was significantly different from non-forest ant population and control with 73.33% and 11.66% pupal predation, respectively. C. rufipes from forest habitat showed maximum adult predation (25%), which was significantly higher than non-forest ant population and control jar with 15% and 3.33% adult predation, respectively. The forest population of M. minimum exhibited 56.66% larval predation that was

 Nisar Ahmed Soomro*, Abdul Fatah Soomro**, Hamz Ali Samo* and
Muhammad Siddique Depar***

GROWTH AND YIELD COMPARISONS OF FOUR COMMERCIAL WHEAT VARIETIES TO IRRIGATION FREQUENCIES
...ns were statistically nonsignificant; which suggested that judicious application of four irrigations will be adequate to produce higher economic grain yield ha .

...

 Abdul Razaq*, Muhammad Jamal Khan*, Tahir Sarwar* and Mohammad Jamal Khan**

EFFECT OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION, SOWING METHODS AND MULCHING ON WHEAT YIELD AND NITROGEN UPTAKE
...ls of deficit irrigation significantly (P<0.05) affected wheat yield and nitrogen uptake. Raised beds cultivation produced higher number of tillers m (415), grain yield (5.13 t ha ), biological yield (12.02 t ha ) and total nitrogen uptake (141.7 kg ha ) as compared to the traditional flat bed. Similarly, mulch plots resulted in higher tillers m (404) wheat grain yield (4.94 t ha ), biological yield (11.94 t ha ) and total nitrogen uptake (137.6 kg ha ) tha...

 Shahid Iqbal Khattak*, Muhammad Amjad Nadim**, Mohammad Safdar Baloch**, Kashif Waseem** and Muhammad Sohail***

IMPACT OF VARIABLE SEEDING DATES ON CEREALS' PERFORMANCE UNDER AGRO-ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF DERA ISMAIL KHAN
... four cereals showed non-significant results. Among different dates, January 1 sowing had the poorest performance in almost all parameters. However, the highest grain yield (3104 kg ha ) was produced by October 15 sowing while the results of November 15 and thereafter sowing were nonsignificant with each other. Data on lodging of these cereal crops was also observed during the study. Barley was the crop showing maximum lodgi...

 Abdul Haq*, Anjum Shehzad**, Muhammad Ilyas**, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**, Abdul Rauf Bhatti** and Mian Inayatullah*

DIVERSITY AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF CITRUS POLLINATORS IN DISTRICT HARIPUR, PAKISTAN
... Shannon-H does not show significant difference. Shannon's diversity shows that Naseem Town is most diverse locality then Nikrian B with relative values of 2.213 and 1.136.

...

 Inayat-Ur-Rahman*, Shamsher Ali**, Mukhtar Alam*, Mohammad Adnan*, Hidayat ullah*, Muhammad Faisal Anwar Malik*, Abdul Sattar Shah* Mohammad Ibrahim*

EFFECT OF SEED PRIMING ON GERMINATION PERFORMANCE AND YIELD OF OKRA ( L.)
...c potential and duration significantly affected germination percentage, which increased as osmotic potential lowered from 0 to -1.2 Mpa while further lowering osmotic potential to -1.6 Mpa and below adversely affected germination. Similarly, germination percentage significantly enhanced as priming duration increased from 6h to 12h but further increase in duration from 12h to 18h caused insignificant<...

Basharat Hussain Shah*, F. S. Hamid*, Shams ul Islam*, Fayaz Ahmad*, Sohail Aslam*, and Noorullah Khan*

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR YIELD AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES AT SHINKIARI, MANSEHRA

 Muhammad Tahir* and Neelam Yasin*

EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS FOLIAR APPLICATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF MAIZE
...icronutrients treatments significantly improved plant height, cob length, number of grains rows cob , cob weight, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, grain protein and grain oil contents. However, micronutrients application at stem elongation stage showed non-significant effect on plant papulation and number of cobs plant . Therefore, for attaining maximum yield of maize, it is suggested that 250...

Mehwish Kiran*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani*, Kashif Waseem*
and Muhammad Sohail**

EFFECT OF ORGANIC MANURES AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF RADISH ( L)
...ttributes and yield were significantly enhanced by the application of organic manures and NPK. The highest values were found in NPK treated plants followed by PM, GM, SS, PrM and FYM, respectively.

...

 Raza Ullah*, Mariam Rehman*, Maria Anjum*, Muhammad Asif
Kamran**, Khuda Bakhsh***, Abdul Saboor****

NAVIGATING FARMING RISKS BY SIMULTANEOUS DIVERSIFICATION AND CREDIT THROUGH FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
...l sources of information significantly encourages the use of both of the risk management tools to manage farm risk. Based on the information from the bivariate and multinomial probit approaches the agricultural extension educators can also improve their programs to guide the farmers in a better way and target farmers who need risk management information the most. At policy level, emphasis may be given to formal training and awareness of the farmers for diversi...

 Ghazala Nawaz*, Muhammad Nawaz Malik**, Muhammad Hassan
Mushtaq***, Fraz Munir Ahmad****, Ali Abdullah Shah*****, Farooq
Iqbal******, Shinawar Waseem Ali*******, Zahida Fatima******** and
Amjad Khan*********

SURVEILLANCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN LIVESTOCK IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...n buffaloes was (7.86%), significantly (P<0.01) higher than small ruminants (5.84%) and cattle (2.05%). Being a subtropical region, geographically significant (P<0.01) variation was observed in burden and pattern of brucellosis i.e., the highest prevalence was in Central (14.81%) followed by South (0.5%) and northern (0.4%) Punjab. Considering the high mean prevalence and its zoonotic importance it can be devastating i...

 Sadaf Javaria*, Muhammad Qasim Khan*, Kashif Waseem*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani*, Habib ur Rahman*, Muhammad Sohail Khan* and Muhammad Sohail**

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON IMPACT OF BIO AND ORGANOMINERAL FERTILIZES ON COMPOSITION AND SHELF LIFE OF TOMATO ( ) FRUIT.
...ed that nutrient sources significantly affected different quality parameters including; physicochemical (vitamin C, lycopene, total soluble solids and pericarp thickness); sensory (fruit color, fruit flavor and fruit firmness) and shelf life. It was concluded that bio-fertilizer integrated with Farmyard Manure emerged as better nutrient source over other treatments. Benefits of bio fertilizer application were more in the presence of Farmyard Manure on quality ...

 

Shakir Ullah*, Aish Muhammad*, Iqbal Hussian*, Hafeez-Ur-Rahman**, Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder***, Muhammad Din**** and Nizamud Din

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS IN APRICOT CULTIVARS GROWN IN GILGIT BALTISTAN PAKISTAN

 Abdul Rehman Khan*, Muhammad Mahmood–Ul-Hassan**, Rizwan Ahmad** and Anjum Munir ***

ARSENIC III TOLERANCE POTENTIAL OF FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLLUTED AND NON-POLLUTED SOILS OF PAKISTAN
...lamentous fungi can play significant role in bioremediation due to their large surface area and metal sorption capacity. In present study, arsenic (As) tolerance of indigenous filamentous fungi was explored. Fungal strains were isolated from peri-urban soils of Multan and Gujranwala irrigated with untreated industrial or municipal effluent. Some fungal strains were also isolated from non-polluted soils of Islamabad area. Arsenic (III) tolerance potential of 18...

 

ROLE OF HONEY BEES FORAGING ACTIVITIES IN INCREASED FRUIT SETTING AND PRODUCTION OF APPLES APIS MELLIFERA MALUS DOMESTICA

...T ,control). There was a significant increase in the apple fruit setting and weight gain in pollinated plants compared to non-pollinated plants. Maximum number of fruits per panicle were 5.33±0.51(Mean±SE) whereas the highest fruit weight 170±2.65g (Mean±SE) was recorded in plants provided with augmentation of honey bees along with natural pollination. The lowest fruit weight of 80±3.05g (Mean±SE) and the minimum 0.33&...

 Asif ullah Khan*, Faizan Ullah*, Sultan Mehmood*, Muhammad Irshad* and Farhat Ullah Khan**

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF L. PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS
...ion of the extract (25%) significantly decreased seed germination (%), seed germination index, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, seedling relative water content and seed vigor index. It was inferred from findings of the present investigation that aqueous extract of exhibits inhibitory effects on growth and development of and therefore could be a potential source of botanical herbicide in the control of this ...

 Ehsanullah*, Muhammad Amjad Shahzad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Ali Zohaib*, Muhammad Ishfaq* and Ejaz Ahmad Warraich*

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOWING METHODS AND PLANTING DENSITIES ON GROWTH, YIELD, FIBER QUALITY AND ECONOMIC EFFICACY OF COTTON
...d 75 cm). Sowing methods significantly affected growth and yield of cotton. Pit planting imposed maximum increase in plant height (152 cm), number of monopodial branches (4.7) and sympodial branches (22.6) per plant, number of unopened (9.4) and opened bolls (41.1) per plant, and average boll weight (3.0 g) of cotton. However, highest seed cotton yield (2944.5 kg ha ) was obtained by flat sowing on 25 cm apart rows owing to highest planting density per unit ar...

Muhammad Nawaz*, Anwar Javaid Wahla*, Muhammad Saleem Kashif*, Masood Qadir Waqar**, Muhammad Anjum Ali*** and Asim Raza Chadhar****

EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS NITROGEN LEVELS ON THE YIELD OF RICE GRAIN IN SHEIKHUPURA, PAKISTAN
...nt nitrogen levels had a significant effect on all studied parameters of both rice cultivars during all the years of experimentation. Both cultivars also differed significantly from each other in number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and paddy yield during all the years of experimentation. Application of nitrogen at 255 kg ha was the most suitable level of nitrogen for both the cultivars. The performance of KSK-133 w...

 Syed Haider Abbas*, Ayesha Tahir**, Muhammad Asim***, Muhammad Sohail* and Riaz-ud-Din*

PRODUCTIVITY AND PROFITABILITY OF WHEAT PAK-13 AT DIFFERENT SEEDING DENSITIES UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...ensity 100 kg/ha and was significantly different among various levels of seeding density. Again, the profitability analysis show the maximum gross margin (Rs. 98920/ha) and BCR (3.44) at 100 kg/ha seeding density level.

...

Sher Muhammad , Ijaz Ashraf*, Amir Khatam**, and Naima
Nawaz*** 

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FARMERS AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN ACTIVITIES OF MODEL FARM SERVICES CENTERS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
.... There existed a highly significant association between age, education, land holding, and tenancy status of the respondents and their participation in various activities being carried out under MFSCs. It is recommended that relatively young, educated, big and owner farmers may be given priority for registration in MFSCs so that they could avail full benefits of MFSCs through active participation.

...

 Nasarullah*, Raiz uddin*, Fakhar Uddin* and Muhammad Jamal*

INTERPRETING WHEAT GENOTYPES FOR GRAIN YIELD UNDER DIFFERENT REGIMES OF KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...sis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes, locations and genotype by environment interactions for days to heading, days to maturity, plant height (cm), spike length (cm), spikelets spike , 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Flag leaf area (cm displayed non-significant differences across environments and its interaction with genotypes. Mean values across the environments range between 147.17 to 174.00, ...