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Global Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Virus in Sheep and Goats: A Meta-Analysis

Global Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Virus in Sheep and Goats: A Meta-Analysis

Apurbo Kumar Mondal1, Md. Rabiul Auwul2, Md. Momotaj Hossen3, Md. Sodrul Islam1*, Narayan Paudyal4, Md. Shahidul Islam1 and Kazi Khalid Ibne Khalil1

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur-1706, Bangladesh; 2Department of Statistics, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur-1706, Bangladesh; 3Faculty of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100, Bangladesh; 4National Animal Health Research Centre, National Animal Science Research Institute (NASRI), Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal.

 
*Correspondence | Md. Sodrul Islam, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur-1706, Bangladesh; Email: msislam@bsmrau.edu.bd

ABSTRACT

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), a prevalent viral disease of sheep and goats that impacts productivity and international animal trade globally. Meta-analysis serves as the most suitable approach for obtaining pooled data from individual studies. This study aimed at using a random-effects model of meta-analysis to compile the estimates of the global prevalence and potential risk factors of PPR among sheep and goats. Based on the selection criteria and quality assessment score, 40 peer-reviewed publications were included in the final database for the meta-analysis. The prevalence was determined in a forest plot using R studio software with a 95% confidence interval (CI). In addition, the significance of the study publications was shown through a funnel plot. The estimated pooled prevalence of PPR was 39.16 % from 2000-2021 with significant heterogeneity (P < 0.01) among the studies. A subgroup analysis was also performed for species, age, sex, study duration, and sample size for the assessment of the potential risk factors. The prevalence rate was found highest in sheep at 42.91%, female individuals at 32.32%, 500 or below sample size at 43.63%, in the period of 2000–2010 at 42.05% and aged animals at 41.23% non-significantly. This is the meta-analysis of PPR worldwide that offers a comprehensive picture of the prevalence of PPR in small ruminants with possible risk factors. Thus, this study will be useful in raising awareness and advocating engaging in initiatives PPR control and prevention.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 3, pp. 1001-1500

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