Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

 

Life Sciences International Journal Issue 7 Volume 1
...roducts for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similarity was determined between the representative strains. Furthermore, these strains have shown homology with previously characterized strains from Pakistan (O/PAK Lahore), Afghanistan, Iran, India, ...

Sehrish Kanwal, Ali Saeed, Muhammad Munir, Memoona Arshad

 

British Journal of Virology
...roducts for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similarity was determined between the representative strains. Furthermore, these strains have shown homology with previously characterized strains from Pakistan (O/PAK Lahore), Afghanistan, Iran, India, ...

Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

British Journal of Virology
...roducts for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similarity was determined between the representative strains. Furthermore, these strains have shown homology with previously characterized strains from Pakistan (O/PAK Lahore), Afghanistan, Iran, India, ...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...nfecting not only domesticated birds but also many other avian species and mammals. Infections of humans were accompanied by mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein which improved the binding affinity to human receptors but simultaneously retained its specificity for avian-receptors. Vaccines were applied nationwide to control the disease in poultry. Meanwhile, the viruses accumulated several point mutations in the HA immunogenic epitopes resulting in anti...

Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
...bject to empirical verification. In the humanities, there is deep suspicion of so-called “meta-narratives” that offer a comprehensive vision of reality on the grounds that their authors are consciously or unconsciously trying to control the thinking and behavior of others. Yet, as Colin Gunton points out, human beings, thus faced with an enormous diversity of options in virtually every area of human life, end up making important decisions simply on...

Thaddeus Metz

... genuine value-theoretic category as something distinct from and competing with, say, objective well-being, and, second, that, even if there were a value of meaning in life, my fundamentality theory of it would not capture its essence well. In this article, I reply to both of these criticisms, aiming to probe these underexplored issues still more deeply. I also contend that these two criticisms are in tension with each other; in order to contend that my theory...

H. Bruce Rinker

...al sciences delayed unification and, thereby, contributed inadvertently to the present-day scourges of fragmentation such as human-accelerated climate change and biodepletion. A philosophia prima is now required to repair and reunite human thought to achieve a consilient valuing as a platform for our survival. One such system of consilient valuing is presently available for our consideration as stewards of the planet: Gaia theory. Under the guidance of such &l...

Mark Zelcer

...t particu- larly well educated enough to appreciate them? Why would Jews put such a Jewish spin on science?

...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

...has increased, which indicates that the H9N2 virus has the increasing potential to infection and cause human epidemics. The threat to the poultry industry and public health should not be ignored. In this review, we summarised the findings of recent studies on H9N2 AIVs epidemics and strategies for their prevention in poultry in China.

...

Ye Liu2, Yulong Cong2, Yiming Shao1*

...reclinical/clinical applications of Tat and its working mechanisms, this review exhibits the superior potential of Tat as immunoregulator on optimizing immune responses mediated by vaccines. These examples of selected studies will provide researchers some implications and inspirations for using HIV Tat to optimize immune responses of vaccines.

...

Aradhana Chopra1, Ravi Shukla2 and Tarun Kumar Sharma2,3*

...e in synthesis and modification makes them an attractive candidate for a variety of applications. Since the last decade, aptamers have been regarded as an emerging player in biology. They have found applications not only in biosensors, but also in other areas such as diagnostics, biomarker discovery, drug delivery, bio-imaging and molecular therapy. In this review we have summarized recent...

Michael R. Molnar

... of the more recent publications on this subject. Aaron Adair promotes his book, “The Star of Bethlehem: A Skeptical View,” with the claim that no one can ex- plain the Star. The Star, he says, has no historical basis nor can it even be explained as a miracle.

...

Kathryne E. Taylor1 and Karen L. Mossman1,2*

...is protein has been implicated in a wide variety of diverse functions, the mechanisms through which it produces these effects continue to be elusive. Recent investigations into the ability of ICP0 to block the activation of antiviral signaling have revealed a potential explanation for some of this confusion – namely, that ICP0 has important functions in the cytoplasm that have been generally disregarded, due to the fact that many frequently used experime...

Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

... the genus Pestivirus in cattle worldwide. Herein, we present the current status of the disease in Brazil showing its nation-wide distribution. In Brazil, BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and ‘HoBi’-like viruses are frequently reported whereas BVDV-2 has a higher frequency when compared with other continents. It is important to reinforce that currently Brazil has no official control program for BVDV. The significance of cattle pro...

Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

...re confirmed by the application of a reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Collectively, results indicate the continuous persistence of PPRV in Kenya.

...

Qin Zhao1,2, Yani Sun1,2, Gaiping Zhang1,3, Frederik Widen4, En-Min Zhou1,2,*

zhouem@nwsuaf.edu.cn

... analyzed for their application in serological diagnosis of HEV.

...

James Ayukepi Ayukekbong1,2

E-mail | james.ayukekbong@microbio.gu.se

...disease is further complicated by the fact that, dengue fever mimics malaria fever and the prevalence of dengue-malaria co-infection is high. Differential diagnosis of fever is therefore necessary to initiate the appropriate clinical care. Despite the endemicity of dengue in Nigeria, the disease is not a reportable disease and routine diagnosis is neglected. Here I undertake an exhaustive assembly of known records of dengue prevalence in Nigeria and provide a ...

Gregg D. Caruso

...wered, some slight modifications are introduced, and the overall account is significantly embellished—for example, Pereboom proposes a new account of rational deliberation consistent with the belief that one’s actions are causally determined (ch.5) and develops a forward-looking theory of moral responsibility consistent with free will skepticism (ch.6). A significant contribution to the field, Free Will, Agency, and Meaning in Life is destined to b...

Weili Kong1, Guangpeng Ma2 and Jinhua Liu1*

...uo;tail’ (CTT) truncation of NS1, there are length variation types of NS1 in different subtype influenza viruses. CTT functions in several ways to defeat the cellular innate immune responses. Here, we discuss those different effects of CTT truncation or elongation of NS1 protein in different genetic backgrounds of influenza experimentations. Conclusively, it can be stated that CTT confers a positive role during the inf...

Khalid Usman, Aziz-Ur-Rehman

...nd time of nitrogen application as well as soil type and cropping system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of spring wheat seeded in three tillage systems viz., zero (ZT), reduced tillage (RT), and conventional tillage (CT) to split application of N fertilizer [50 kg N at sowing + 100 kg N ha-1 at first irrigation (T1); 50 kg N at first irrigation + 100 kg N ha-1 at second irrigation (T2); 50 kg N at ...

Muhammad Arif1, Fazal Jalal1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Dost Muhammad2

...and without biochar application. Biochar was applied at the rate of 0 and 50 t ha-1 with four N levels of 0, 90, 120, 150 kg ha-1 to subsequent maize crop. Biochar significantly enhanced plant height and grain yield. The plots previously sown with legumes produced taller plants and high number of grains ear-1. Nitrogen application increased plant height, number of grains ear-1, thousand grains weight, grain and biological yi...

Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

...EM. In 2009-10, the application of EM with Press mud @ 20 t ha-1 significantly enhanced spinach growth by exhibiting higher average spinach plant height (35 cm), number of leaves (16.4), fresh foliage yields (330 g pot-1), dry foliage yields (32 g pot-1), leaf length (40.5 cm) and leaf area (238.4 mm2) relative to poultry manure, compost or FYM treatments. Similar trend was observed during 2010-11. Over all, press mud with EM was more effective in improving so...

Muhammad Irshad1, Abdur Rab1, Javed Rahman2, Muhammad Sajid1, Ilyas Khan2, Sajad Ali1, Muhammad Razaq1, Sallahuddin1

...rrangement in three replications. Planting Dates (20th Jan, 30th Jan, 10th Feb, 20th Feb and 2nd March) were allocated to main plots, whereas soil media (Silt+ Garden soil+ FYM) at the rate of 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 1:2:1 and 1:1:2 were assigned to sub plots. Days to 50% sprouting, survival percentage, number of roots plant-1 and plant height were significantly affected by planting dates and soil media. Maximum survival percentage (2...

Muhammad Ashraf Khan1, Hizbullah Khan1, Abid Farid2

...life stages treated, indicated that HaNPV is harmless (E< 30%) to the emergence as well as parasitism efficiency of T. chilonis emerged from treated host eggs.

...

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

...icant. Farmers’ education was found to be major determinant of technical efficiency/inefficiency. The esti- mated coefficient of farmers’ education was negative and statistically significant, implies that techni- cal inefficiency decreases with the increase in farmers’ education. The use of more labour and tractor plough hours would increase wheat production in the countr...

Farhad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ashfaq

...and policy makers to allocate and achieve production targets and in longer term planning. A study was conducted during 2009-10 with an objective to estimate the wheat yield response function in two agro-ecological zones in Punjab. The method of ordinary least square was used. Time series data for different explanatory variable (eco- nomic, location and climatic) from 1979-2009 relating to wheat were used for Faisalabad and B...

Mohammed Ali Hussain, Zakiya Ahmed Hassan

...y was conducted in two locations, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq and second at FishKhabor, during spring season 2012. The experimental materials comprise seven F1 hybrids (sangaria, IK8 x zp-707, DK x Hs, zp-707 x un 44052, IK 8 x un44052, un 44052 x DK and polina). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The analysis of varianc...

Hussein Rashid

...e responding to the publication by CH of cartoons deemed insulting to the Prophet Muhammad. Such an understanding seems to flow logically from the re- sponse of certain Muslims to the publication of Salman Rushdie’s Satanic Verses in 1989, and of cartoons of Muhammad printed in Jyllands-Postens, a Danish newspaper, in 2005. In addition, the release of a You- Tube film in 2011 called Innocence of Muslims is often cited ...

Michael Shermer

...ts of the satirical publication Charlie Hebdo?


A. “Moses rocks!”
B. “Jesus saves!”
C. “Vishnu lives!”
D. “Buddha avenged!” E. “Atheists rule!”
F. “Allahu Akbar!”

...

Lawrence Krauss

...rldwide to both the publication of content by Charlie Hebdo before the killings and by the mass protests throughout the Islamic world to the bittersweet cover published the week following that tragedy.

...

Frank Griffel

...t showed yet another caricature of a dark-skinned man in white jelabiyya and turban carrying the now famous “Je suis Charlie” sign. The headline above the drawing of the man reads: Tout est pardonné, all is forgiven. Regular readers of the journal know the man with the brown skin, white jelabiyya, and turban well. It is a familiar depiction of the prophet Muhammad as drawn by the caricaturist Luz, a member ...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

...igations in Tanzania indicate that peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was introduced in 2004 in Ngorongoro district bordering Ken- ya before official confirmation of the disease in most districts of Northern Tanzania in 2008. In 2011, the presence of PPRV in goats of southern Tanzania district of Tandahimba bordering Mozambique was reported. The aim of this study was to perform molecular typing of PPRV strains that caused outbreak in Tandahimba district in 2011....

Chun-Yi Lin1, Meng-Ling Wu2, Tang-Long Shen1, Hsin-Hung Yeh3, Ting-Hsuan Hung1*

 

Rashid Saleem1*, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmad2, Muhammad Abbas Anees2, Abdul Razzaq3 and Ashiq Saleem1

 

...n horizontal blocks replicated thrice with RCBD strip block system. Sole mungbean and intercropped mungbean with maize were treated with five fertility treatments (T1, control; Phosphorus and Potash (PK) (80-60 kg ha-1) + inoculation, T3, (120-80-60 NPK kg ha-1); T4, poultry manure (PM) @ 15 t ha-1 and half PM+ half PK+ inoculation, half poultry manure (7.5 t ha-1) + half PK (40-30 kg ha-1) + inoculation. According to statistical analysis, data revealed that p...

Qingzhong Yu

 

...ut compromising the replication of the Newcastle disease virus. Recently, inserting a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene upstream from the GE sequences of the viral genes and subsequent quantitative measurements of the GFP fluorescence intensity, we have concluded that the P and M junction region is the optimal insertion site for a high level of foreign gene expression by a NDV vector.

...

Suresh V Kuchipudi* and Kin-Chow Chang

 

...nt evidence strongly indicated that skeletal muscle cells fully support productive replication of influenza A virus (IAV) and could play an important role in disease outcome. We are of the opinion that skeletal muscle could be a key innate immune tissue/organ in the pathogenesis of influenza and other systemic viral infections which warrants further in-depth investigations.

 

...

Galina N. Leonova1*, Ilya G. Kondratov2, Sergei I. Belikov2

 

...olated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks and one strain was isolated from the blood of a person after a tick bite. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains are related to LI/A and LI/K strains isolated in England and Scotland.

 

...

Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

...an and Middle East, replicates at a significantly higher level, induces more potent innate antiviral and inflammatory response, and causes more severe damages in lymphoid tissues when compared with virulent viruses of other genotypes. Therefore, severe pathology in immune organs, caused by genotype VIId of NDV, is associated with high levels of virus replication and an intense innate immune response.

...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

...stan. The study also indicates that crude protein and mineral content in fodder maize can be improved through N application and complete reliance on protein and mineral supplements for farm livestock can be reduced.

 

...

Ahmed Sultan Jatoi1*, Shahid Mehmood2, Jibran Hussain2, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq2, Yassar Abbas3, Muhammad Akram2

 

...experimental units (replicates comprising 20 chicks each). Growth parameters i.e. weekly body weight (g), weight gain (g), times of weight gain, feed intake (g) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were calculated during the study period. Data were analysed by ANOVA technique and means were compared by using DMR test. The results of the present study showed that the weekly mean body weight (g) of Japanese quail birds obtained from the four strains designating as M,...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

...results of the study indicate that credit has positive effects on wheat productivity. Analysis shows that only 30% of credit users are utilizing loan for the purchase of seed and fertilizers while 70% are utilizing loan for other purposes as for marriages & ceremonial and for purchase of agriculture land & tractor etc. Similarly, 80 percent of credit users are borrowing from Zarai Tarqiati Bank Limited (ZTBL). It is suggested that financial institution...

Dallin D. Oaks

 

...n of languages led to a scattering of the people. Indeed, a close examination of the account seems to allow an interpretation of events that is compatible with what linguists have observed about how languages can diversify, though some challenges may still remain in reconciling assumptions about the available post-Babel time frame versus the lengthy time frame that linguists have assumed to be necessary for the current diversificat

Leonard Izzard1, 2, John Stambas1, 2*

...lign: justify;">The application and use of miRNA-based technology in influenza research is rapidly expanding. miRNAs are currently being used to manipulate pathogenicity and immunity and as biomarkers for disease severity.

...

Hai-Bo Wang, Qiu-Hua Mo, Ze Yang*

...id sequence-based amplification (NASBA) and molecular beacon technique. Recently there have been two major progresses in the field, in which RT-NASBA technique was applied for the detection of diarrhoea related viruses. This mini review overviewed the basic principle of RT-NASBA and discussed the significance of these new findings.

...

Josef D. Jarhult1, 2

...vir treatment of uncomplicated influenza in otherwise healthy patients shortens influenza symptoms with approximately 24 hours, and increases nausea and vomiting by 3-5%. Whether oseltamivir treatment has an effect on the frequency of influenza complications or not remains controversial. Oseltamivir is still standard as prophylaxis, treatment of severely ill patients and patients with risk factors for severe influenza diseas...

Khalid Usman1*, Niamatullah Khan2, Fazal Yazdan3

...mplete block design replicated thrice. The strain DNH-105 gave optimum yield owing to more bolls per plant (37.2), boll weight (3.4 g) plus higher ginning out turn (39.9%) compared to the standard varieties of cotton in Pakistan. The quality characteristics such as fibre length (29.2 mm), strength (28.5 g tex-1), micronaire (4.3µg inch–1) and uniformity (80.2%) were also higher for DNH-105 than other varieties. Ginning out turn ranged from 37.2 (CI...

Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho1*, Isreal Ogunlade1, Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde2

...rea as poor. Level of education, access to training and membership of farmer-groups negatively influenced accountability at p<0.05. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that agricultural extension policies that will ensure accountability of extension to farmers should be put in place. Farmers should also be enlightened in order to create awareness as to their rights as clientele in the extension process. 

...

Asma Noshad1, Mudassar Iqbal1*, Zafar Iqbal1, Hamida Bibi2, Saifullah3, Salma Bibi4, Hamid Ullah Shah1

...lated and used as an indicative of insecticidal potential. The maximum mortality of aphids was achieved at 80 µg mL-1 and the LC50 for the fruit body extract after 24 HRS was calculated as 12.83μg mL-1, followed by the extract from the fermentation filtrate with LC50 value 25.03 μg mL-1. The mycelial extract with LC50 (29.96 μg mL-1) exhibited least insecticidal activit...

Faheem Khan*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...valuating the role of education in enhancing sugarcane yield. Two districts namely Mardan and Charsadda of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province were selected for this purpose. A multi-stage sampling method was used to draw sample of 336 sugarcane growers for the present study and an interview schedule was used to solicit responses that addressed the research objectives. The findings from the study showed that 80 percent of respondents were illiterate while the 20 perc...

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

... were recorded. The application of organic sources of farmyard manure and poultry manure in combination with inorganic NPK fertilizers had shown positive effect on chickpea plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1 and seed index. The growth and yield of chickpea significantly increased with the collective application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures. It is concluded that the appli

Shahid Iqbal Awan1*, Syed Dilnawaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Amjad Ali3, Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed1, Aurangzeb Rao1

...elation coefficients indicated that grain weight had a significant positive relationship with residual transpiration, osmotic adjustment, cell membrane stability, flag leaf weight, specific flag leaf weight, while negatively correlated with specific flag leaf area. These results indicated the importance of physiological traits and their positive influence on grain weight. Multivariate techniques, including factor analysis (F...

Thomas J. Coleman III1*, Ralph W. Hood Jr.1 and John R. Shook2

...em as well as their implications for the study of atheism and secularity.

...

Jonathan Jong

... biological ones), fuzzy categories. There is no such thing as religion, such that the term “religion” picks out all and only all examples of religion, or specifies the necessary and sufficient conditions for counting as religious. Rather, there are causally and phenomenologically distinct phenomena—such as the belief in supernatural agents, participation in rituals, formation of non-kin groups, obedience to moral codes, and so forth—th...

Joseph Langston1*, Joseph Hammer2, Ryan T. Cragun3

...ecular nonaffiliates indicated that they would join such groups if they were locally available. Neither maximum accommodation nor confrontation with religion was indicated by a majority of nonbelievers, though more respondents opted for accommodation (60%) than confrontation (25%). Most respondents indicated that their willingness to attack or ridicule religion was not absolute, but rather...

Gareth Longden

...ence, employment, and education background of the members.

...

Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi

... academics? Research indicates that it has to do with a process of selection and self-selection, which starts in childhood and channels individuals who are highly intelligent, critical, independent, and confident towards the academic world. Contrary to what some might think, it is not getting a Ph.D., which contributes to individual secularity; it is young secular individuals who are highly likely to commit themselves to an academic life.

...

Rabbi Paul Shrell-Fox

...ters. That study was the catalyst for the current study of rabbis’ shift in religious beliefs in general, and belief in God in particular. Approximately 25 rabbis voluntarily submitted vignettes concerning their shifts in religious belief. These vignettes were solicited via rabbinic list-serves. Those rabbis who denied a belief in a supernatural being were interviewed to explore the evolution of their religious faith and its impact on their religious pra...

Marcus Mann

...rist attacks’ implications to a word processor. What started as an itch evolved into his first book, The End of Faith: a scathing indictment of religion, which in his opinion, was an impetus just as effective and real as the jet engines that propelled the terrorists’ weapons of choice to their targets. The End of Faith was the first of four polemics that have come to symbolize what is now known as “The New ...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa and Muhammad Arshad Khan

...rry foliage through application of urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP). Urea at the rate of 608 kg/ha and DAP at the rate of 260 kg/ha was applied on six mulberry varieties. The results showed a deficiency in nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and manganese in soil before the fertilizer application. Contrarily, high copper and potassium contents were found. After three weeks of fertilizer applicat...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...p;laid out in three replicated randomized complete block design. The seed of cotton variety “Sindh-1” was sown through drilling in the 1st week of May each year. The treatments consisted of: weedy check (no weeding), interculturing twice (30+60 DAS), Dual Gold 960-EC (S-metolachlor) @ 2.50 L ha-1, sorghum water extracts @ 15 L ha-1 (twice) and 25 L ha-1 (once and twice) and sunflower water extracts @ 15 L ha-1 (twice) and 25 L ha-1 (...

Gultaj Hussain1, Abdur Rahman1*, Tariq Hussain2, Siraj Uddin1, Tariq Ali3

E-mail | abdur_rahman@aup.edu.pk

...ples were collected from cattle slaughtered at Peshawar, Pakistan. Samples were processed and analyzed for TVC of E. coli and S. typhymurium at 0, 48, 144 and 288hrs during 12 days of meat samples refrig- eration storage at 4±1 °C. The pH of meat samples were checked and recorded on similar intervals. During 12 days storage, significant reductions (i.e. P <0.05) were found in both E. coli O157: H7 and S. typhymurium growth when exposed to these t...

Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

...opportunity for the application of phylogeography at the intra-host level, which has until recently been limited by dataset quality and the lack of a rigorous statistical framework. As recently described in studies using the SIV-macaque model of neuroAIDS, the incorporation of
spatial, temporal, and demographic inference into intra-host evolutionary analysis using Bayesian phylogeography allows for inference of pathogen migration between ...

Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye1, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji1, 2 *

...the twelve isolates replicated on L20B cell line. All were positive for both the panenterovirus 5l-UTR and partial VP1 PCR reactions while only the four isolates recovered on MCF-7 where positive for the EV-C-3Dpol/3’-UTR-PCR assay. The eleven isolates with exploitable VP1 sequence data were identified as CVA13 (4 isolates), E3 (1 isolate), E7 (3 isolates) and E19 (3 isolates). Recombination analysis showed evidence of recombination events. Results of th...

Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco1*, Gaby Dolz1, Danilo Montero-Caballero2, Juan Jose Romero-Zuniga2

...esults of this study indicate that BTV is endemic in sheep herds from Costa Rica, and animals seem not show clinical signs. We recommend carrying out further studies, to determine the presence of BTV in goats and wild ruminants, and to identify serotypes present in the country.

...

Shumaila Manzoor1, Afshan Ahmed1 and Muhammad Abubakar2*

...t of sera collected from cattle with foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. The pattern of antibody titers in animals of different age groups was observed as less than 1 year, 1-2 years and more than 2 years for both ELISA and SNT. The peak immune response measured by SNT was 2.8log10 whereas ELISA detected serum antibody titer up to 2.4 log10. Findings showed that highest titers were seen in animals of age > 2 years i...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

... virus (BTV) and identification of the main breeding sites of Culicoides. From April 2009 to March 2010, the study was carried out at 14 sites distributed across the country. Results indicated that the two most abundant Culicoides species were Culicoides imicola (94.2-95.85%) and Culicoides newsteidi (2.21-2.72%). The rate of prevalence of these species was bi-phasic and higher from April to June, and Oct...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

... these emerging NGS applications and offers the opportunity to study i.e. whole ecosystems. Basically, the metagenomics approach is similar to well-known shotgun-sequencing, though on a much bigger scale. For instance, the metagenome of a lake would include all the fish, ducks, plants, fungi, bacteria and everything else that belongs to the lake. If we apply this approach to clinical samples we can identify the community of etiological pathogens, without any k...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...eroxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were assessed. Imidacloprid enhanced malondi- aldehyde (MDA) and proline contents over their respective controls at all doses and growth stages observed, attaining maximum with 40 grams Imidacloprid active ingredient per hectare-1 at day 15 after treatment. The antioxidative enzyme activity o...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

...gn with two factors replicated three times. Different levels of potassium (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg pot-1) and maleic hydrazide (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) were used. The results revealed that potassium levels significantly influenced all the parameters except the stem diameter. Minimum days to flowering (118.1), maximum plant height (45.83 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (54.1), fresh flower weight (44.29 g) and dry flower weight (5.12 g) was obtained with the ap...

Muhammad Imran1*, Muhammad Mobashar2, Muhammad Irfan3, Shazia Hanif4, Sumaira Hanif5 and Muhammad Abubakar6

...and MLM4. This study indicated that CSC can be substituted completely with MOLM however a combination of MOLM and CSC improved milk yield than either protein source fed alone in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes in Pakistan.

...

Muhammad Arif Zafar1*, Arfan Yousaf1, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1, Faisal Ayub Kiayani1, Matee ul Islam2 and Muhammad Farooq Iqbal1 

... the evaluation of complications and survival after using a modified two-layer, hand-sewn, end-to-end anastomosis technique in a calf treated for traumatic umbilical hernia with peritonitis. A cross-bred calf was presented with peritonitis due to traumatic umbilical hernia. The decision to operate the calf was made after confirmation of umbilical hernia resulted in septic shock. Animal was first stabilized with supportive treatment prior to surgical decompress...

Mushtaq Ahmad1*, Habib Akbar1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan Khattak2 and Abdul Bari3

...arrangement in four replications. Sugar beet was sown at the rate of 6 kg ha-1 at four seeding depths from 1 to 4 cm. Nitrogen was applied at band and broadcast methods at the rate of 140 kg ha-1 mixed with biochar at the rate of 25 and 50 t ha-1. The data collected on various parameters were statistically analyzed and planned mean comparisons were carried out to explain significant differences. Seeding depth significantly affected all the studied parameters e...

Kang-Seuk Choi

...technology has many applications. This paper reviews the potential of VLPs as an alternative to IBD vaccines, along with their specific applications in the field.

...

Mohammad Taghi Karimi

...The searched outcome indicated that there were at least 15 articles published on this topic and most of them have a small number of subjects. Although some new orthoses have been developed to decrease the curve of kyphosis, most of them did not test on more number of subjects. It seems that Milwaukee orthosis carry higher effciency to reduce the curve of kyphosis. There are not enough evidences regarding effects of orthosis on kyphotic curve. However, based on...

Seyed Mohsen Mirbod

...h post-operational complications. The aim of this study is to design an orthosis which is easy to use, economical and effective. A new knee orthosis was designed to improve the performance of OA patients during standing and walking. Two subjects with knee osteoarthritis recruited in this research study. The gait performance of the subjects and their stability to stand was evaluated by the use of motion analysis system and a force plate (Kistler). The medi...

Muhammad Amjad Nadim1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Ejaz Ahmad Khan1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Kashif Waseem2

...angements with four replications. Main plot consisted of NPK and organic fertilizers while micronutrients viz. Zn, Cu and B (alone and in combinations) were assigned to sub-plots. The results revealed significant variations in plant growth and yield attributes with recommended doses of NPK fertilizers. This treatment (NPK at recommended levels) resulted in higher leaf area index (0.33 and 0.27 [49 days after sowing-DAS] and 2.03 and 2.77 [98-DAS]), crop growth...

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

...gement having three replications. Findings of the experiment revealed that guar as previously green manuring crop considerably increased leaf area index (LAI) 4.4, crop growth rate (CGR) 5.7 g m-2 d-1, seed yield (2329 kg ha-1) and harvest index (22.10%). Incorporation of whole plant had significantly increased LAI (4.1), seed yield (2226 kg ha-1) and harvest index (22.1%) of canola crop over stubbles incorporation. Decrease in CGR and grain yield was observed...

Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

...ated for problem identification. It was found that machinery was provided to almost half of the respondents. Similarly seed was the most provided input followed by fertilizers. Top most source of agriculture information was input dealers followed by Model Farm Services Center. The top learned skills by respondents in MFSC were the agronomic practices whereas there was big gap in horticultural practices. Major constraints identified were less machinery utilizat...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...ots fall within the demarcated forty-sampled quadrats from both irrigated and non-irrigated farms. Information on socio-economic activities of the rice farmers, level of rice yield, agricultural practices for rice production and farm management techniques employed in the study area were observed. The study employed simple percentages to analyse the farmers’ responses; while regression model established significant relationships between rice yield and far...

Moorthy S. Muthuswamy

...t the value of modern education, and the ideology of radicals. Not least of all, this approach, as history suggests, has a good chance of reinvigorating modernity in affected Muslim communities.

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Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

...rectly detect viral replication without the use of secondary labeling. This mini-review discusses the applications of reporter CSFV in the study of CSFV biology, including efficiently screening the antivirals against CSFV and viral receptors, conveniently tracking the viral proteins in live cells as well as improving diagnostic methods and vaccines for classical swine fever.

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Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El Naggar2, Ahmed M. Helal3, Hussein Ahmed Hussein1 and Neil LeBlanc4

...e fusion (F) protein indicated the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of the F and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes indicated that the isolate clustered with the PPMV-1 strains recently reported from Israel within subgenotype VIb. Our findings report the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egyptian pigeons and the potential role these wild birds can play in the transmission and evolution dynamics of PPMV-1.

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Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

... lack of success in eradicating Aleutian disease (AD) by stamping out, a new strategy for disease control with focus on evaluation of disease progression has been proposed. For estimation of antibodies in serum and dried blood samples collected from mink, a VP2 ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) system was recently evaluated. However, such estimations of disease progression are commonly based on single sampling occasions and it i...

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

...RCB) design in four replications. Sowing date (SD) were main plot and N-rate subplot treatments. Mean results of replications revealed a significant reduction in days to flowering and maturity by delay SD. However, positive responses were observed by increase in N-rate. Early planting showed maximum biomass and yield at 120 kg N ha-1 which was due to reflecting higher leaf area, plant height and stem diameter (cm)...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...ofed livestock including cattle, goats, sheep, pigs and wild ungulates. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic losses to livestock farming and industry has increased global concern for the disease. Currently, 3 serotypes of FMD virus (O, A and SAT-2) and 06 lineage are circulating in the North Africa, of which serotype O is responsible for most of the outbreaks. However, t...

Mohammed M. Islam1, 3 *, Damian F. J. Purcell2 and George Kannourakis1,3

...#65279;Efficient identification of viruses is paramount to not only define the cause of uncharacterized infections but also to estimate the dynamics of viral population in the infected hosts. Several recent methodologies and chemistries have been proposed for viral diagnostics with variable outcomes and successes. In this review, we discuss a novel approach to identify the least transcripts of viral genomes using suppression subtractive hybridization that can ...

Shahida Bibi* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...t design with three replications. Herbicide treatments (herbicide used and herbicide not used) were assigned to main plots, while intercropping treatments (sole maize, sole mungbean, 5 rows of mungbean + 6 rows of maize, 10 row of mungbean + 6 rows of maize) were allotted to subplots. Results of the study revealed that weed density m-2, fresh weed biomass in maize and mungbean crops were significantly affected by both the main-plot and sub-plot trea...

Mukhtarullah1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal1*

...rangements in three replications during winter season 2014-15. Sowing dates were assigned to main plot and varieties to sub plot as treatments. Thirteen wheat varieties (i.e. Pak.2013, Dharabi, Tatara, Lalma, Chakwal-50, Shahkar-2013, PS-2005, Hashim-2008, Zam-2004, KT-2000, Atta-Habib, Siren-2010 and Khttakwal a local as check) were planted on five dates (i.e. 29th Oct, 10th Nov, 25th Nov, 10th Dec, and 25th

Imtiaz Hussain, M. Sajid, Noor ul Amin, Abdul Mateen Khattak, Abrar Hussain Shah, S. Mussarat       Hussain, Sayed Hussain and Nagina Zeb

... The experiment was replicated four times. The Silvery softwood cuttings were planted in two different growing conditions i.e. under plastic tunnels and open field growing conditions, on five different planting dates with the regular interval of 15 days such as January 15th, January 31st, February 15th, March 2nd and March 17th. The growing conditions were studied in main plots, while the planting dates we...

Qaizar Ahmed1, Fida Mohammad2, Hidayat-ur-Rahman2, Sheraz Ahmed2* and Fakharuddin2

...B) design with four replicates at Tobacco Research Station Mardan (plain) and Tobacco Research Substation Mansehra (hilly). Data for all traits were analysed in pooled analysis and individual environments. Heterosis over better parent was determined for all traits across environments. Heterobeltiosis estimates reflected both positive and negative values, suggesting additive as well as non-additive gene actions in the expression of traits. Performance of hybrid...

Nadeem Khan1*, Arshad Ali Khan1, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Nouman2 and Badshah Islam1

...atments (cultivars) replicated three times during 2015. The results showed that Tarocco attained maximum height (156.13 cm), followed by Mexican Lemon (146.80 cm). Similarly, maximum plant spread and leaf area were recorded in Mexican Lemon 124.07 cm and 11.35 cm2, respectively. However, Hamlin showed the highest stem girth (9.90 cm) and number of branches (66.53). The internode length was the greatest in Kinnow cultivar (2.66 cm). In case of diseas...

Ashley C. Banyard1* and Satya Parida2

...e successful global eradication of rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus has also been targeted for global eradication by the OIE. Whilst the tools are available to attempt eradication there are a number of factors that will influence the strategy taken to progress with the aim of eradication. Here we describe current areas where...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...ired to control and eradicate it. However, with challenges such as uncontrolled movement of animals across porous borders, limited financial capacity of farmers to expand or improve the systems, and inadequate supply of quality vaccines and the problem of delivery to maintain cold chain, there is need for a very strong regional coordination for effective and sustainable control of PPR in Africa. The African continent is currently divided into 57 countries (or ...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud1, Muaz Abdellatif 2, 3*, Luai Shazali1

...en together, results indicate the seropositivity of PPRV in the region and warrant future large-scale surveillance studies to better assess the situation of the disease in the region.

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Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...announcement of PPR eradication by 2030 has opened lot of research gaps for the development of vaccines and diagnostics for differentiating infected and vaccinated animals. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, recombinant protein based vaccines and/or diagnostics are being tested in various heterologous systems across the globe for development of vaccines and/or diagnostic antigens. The recombinant viral proteins, virus like particle based vaccines, ...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

...Bangladeshi isolate, indicating that the PPRV strains in Bangladesh are continuously changing their genetic character.

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Muhammad Jurial Baloch1*, Ghulam Murtaza Channa2, Wajid Ali Jatoi2, Abdul Wahid Baloch1, Imdad Hussain Rind1, Muhammad Ahmed Arain1 and Ayaz Ali Keerio1

...ck design with four replications during 2010 at Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. Genetic analysis of yield traits from half diallel crosses was carried-out. Mean squares due to GCA and SCA were significant for days to 75% maturity, tillers plant-1, spike length, spike density, grains spike-1, grain yield plant-1, seed index and harvest index. Significance of GCA and SCA variances suggested that both additive an...

Murad Ali Khan and Mohammad Akmal 

...plete block design, replicated four times. Results showed no significant changes in yield traits i.e. plant density (m-2), number of grains per head and 1000 grains weight (g). However, biomass yield (kg ha-1), grain yield (kg ha-1) and oil content (g kg-1) were found significantly (p<0.05) higher for planting geometry 90 x 15.5 cm as compared to 70 x 20 cm on mean values in both years. It is obvious from the data that yield traits are not significantly aff...

 Zar Muhammad and Mohammad Tariq Jan

...ndment like compost application can improve soil quality and enhance crop production in agricultural system. Two years field trials were carried out during 2011-12 at New Developmental Farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. Thirteen compost treatments including control as main plot treatment and two fert-N levels (0 and 75 kg N ha-1) as subplot treatments were used. Compost materials i.e. farmyard manure (FYM), cereal residue (CR) and legum...

 Muhammad Ishaq and Raziuddin

 
...σ2SCA>1.00) indicated that gene action was predominantly additive for days to flowering while, for the rest of the traits non additive gene action was responsible as the predictability ratio was less than unity which was further confirmed by higher values of variances of SCA than GCA. In present study for all the traits except days to flowering, non-additive gene action was prominent therefore selection should be delayed to late segregation generation...

 Mohammad Fayaz, Abbas-ullah Jan, Dawood Jan, Ghaffar Ali and Yousaf Hayat

...d log-log-inverse specification of Engel curve for cereals’ quantity and quality response to households’ income in Pakistan. The elasticities of interest (quantity, expenditure and quality) were inelastic with reasonable difference in magnitude across urban and rural households. Overall, the quality elasticity turned out to be positive with an estimated value of 0.0061 and 0.2375 for wheat & wheat flour and rice & rice flour, respectively. ...

 Shahab e Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah, Khalid Khan Khattak

...owed that experience, education, landholding size and total income had positive relationship with access to credit whereas, age and farmers’ group had negative association with access to credit. Our findings suggest that there is a need to revamp the policy to address the interests of small landholders, particularly those who possess land less than 5 acres because they had limited access to formal sources of credit.

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 Aqila Shaheen

... basis of this data application of integrated soil conservation practices could improve the soil sustainability and crop productivity of eroded lands. Furthermore, this data could also be helpful in developing policies, strategies and programs for the conservation of eroded lands.

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 Farmanullah Khan, Samad Khan, Wiqar Ahmad and Imran Khan

...ntegrated sources is advocated for higher productivity and soil fertility. The current research was designed to the exact ratio of nutrients from organic and inorganic sources for water eroded lands during 2007-08. The combination of nutrient sources tested were; control, NPK50 (50% NPK), NPK75 (75% NPK), NPK100 (100% NPK), FYM10 (10 t ha-1 FYM), NPK50+FYM10, NPK75+FYM10, NPK100+FYM10, FYM20 (20 t ha-1 FYM), NPK50+FYM20, NPK75+FYM20, NPK100+FYM20. Results reve...

 Zahir Shah, Shakoor Ahamd, Mian Saeed Sarwar, Murad Ali Khan and Javid Ali

 Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Rajwali Khan, Syed Muhammad Sohail, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib and Asim Ijaz

...ples were collected from cattle and humans respectively. Total 40 samples of subsistence farms and 30 nomadic herds were analysed. Forty eight farm workers, 40 farm owner 36 abattoirs workers, 15 veterinary assistants, 15 veterinarian and 40 butchers were also screen out. Overall sero-prevalence in cattle was 15.36% on SPAT, 14.39% by i-ELISA and 14.14% through PCR. Higher prevalence was recorded in abattoir shops (31.01%) f...

 Gul Naz and Mohammad Akmal

...suitable variety identification for agro-climate and its optimum N-fertilizer demand with application are need of the day to overcome on N-leaching from the soil and to ensure future food security. Present study was, therefore, conducted in two seasons (2011-12 and 2012-13) at the Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan. Treatments were laid-out in a randomized complete block design; split pl...

 Umed Ali Laghari, Ahmed Naqi Shah, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Zia-ul-Hassan, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro and Khalid Hussain Talpur

...k design with three replications. The study involved five commonly grown grass pea genotypes (Sel-B 111, Sel-449, Sel-190, Sel-1785 and Sel-945) and three K doses (0, 10 and 20 kg K ha-1). The results revealed that K nutrition and genotypic variation significantly (p<0.05) determined the yield of grass pea. However, their interaction remained non-significant for all the traits of grass pea under study. As expected, the increasing rate of K significantly (p&...

 Abdul Qahar and Bashir Ahmad

...) in subplots, were replicated thrice in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement. Maximum biological yield, grain yield and harvest index were recorded with 350 kg N ha-1. Among studied maize hybrids, R-2210 achieved more biological yield, grain yield and harvest index than R-3305 and R-2207. Maximum net income and benefit cost ratio (BCR) were recorded in plots with 350 kg N and 40 kg S ha-1 for R-2210. Nitrogen and sulfur content in soil...

Neha Singh and Anjana Pandey

...s. CELL SELEX is a modification of SELEX where instead of using purified ligand molecules, whole live cells are used as targets, so the aptamers being generated could bind target molecules on live cells in their native conformation and it is possible to know the molecular profile of the cellular surface. Whole CELL SELEX is very useful in the field of diagnostics and targeted therapy and the aptamers generated can be utilized to differentiate cancerous cells f...

Jannatul Noor, Md. Ahaduzzaman, Mir Md. Afzal Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Sardar Abdur Rahim and Md. Samun Sarker

Koksal Karadas1, Muhammad Tariq2, Mohammad Masood Tariq3* and Ecevit Eyduran4

...ar Model), CART (Classification and Regression Tree), CHAID (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector), Exhaustive CHAID, and a ANN type MLP (Multilayer Perceptron) in the prediction of lactation milk yield in sheep was measured comparatively by model assessment criteria, such as R2, R2ADJUSTED, SDRATIO, CV(%), RMSE, RAE, MAPE, MAD and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between actual and predicted milk yield value...

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...s laid out in three replicated completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of control (untreated), eucalyptus water extract at 10, 20 and 30 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10, 20 and 30 g kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 10 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 20 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 20 ml kg-1 soil and eucalyptus powder at 30 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 30 ml kg-1 soil. Data showed that all the treatments o...

Yingbin Wang*, Ting Ye, Xiaogang Wang and Congyu Zhou

...elationships between the catch of Portunus trituberculatus in the northern East China Sea, and 6 main impact factors, which include the number of main catch vessel (NMV), power of main catch vessel (PMV), number of trawl vessel (NTV), power of trawl vessel (PTV), release number of larval crab (RELE), and sea surface temperature (SST). The results showed that the interpretation ratio (IR) o...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

... justify;">Chitosan is a cationic biopolymer that can be used for sustainable waste water treatment as a coagulant-flocculent due to its ability to coagulate various ionic substances such as metal ions as well as dyes. In the current study novel polymer composites were prepared using natural polymers chitosan and starch in molds. Structure of composites was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The physical parameters such as weight and swelling degree ...

Sayeda Sarah and Muhammad Ibrar

...orrhiza) along with application of various levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 100%) of rock phosphate (RP) fertilizer on spores density and percent root colonization of selected sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in P-deficient soil. It was observed that spore density and AMF root colonization was higher in the soil of control (RP0) plants, which decreases progressively with increasing fertility level. Less number of spores and percent root colonization was found ...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

...that the factors like education, experience and distance from the main market, are the most influential determinants of the technical efficiency in both NonBT and BT- cotton farms. Extension of cotton production required the development of cottonseed that will be suitable for environmental conditions of Pakistan.

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Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Khalilluah Panhwar, Rabail Gandahi, Muhammad Saleem Sarki and Mahmooda Buriro

...; and plots without application of K (120-70-0 kg ha-1) and PK (120-0-0 kg N ha-1) increased number of red leaves. In case of micronutrients, Zn @ 4 kg and B @ 1.5 kg ha-1 were highly effective to control reddening of leaves, respectively. Interactive effect of NP @ 120-70 kg ha-1 × Zn @ 4 kg ha-1 resulted in maximum reduction of red leaves. Regardless the application of N, P or K and their control, reddening of leaves...

Hassan Tarik Atmaca

...tional strengths to eradicate the disease from the planet. This Editorial highlights recent research articles and reviews that have provided up-to-date and current research trends in the field to further facilitate disease eradication campaigns. 

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 Shaoling Lin and Jiamiao Hu

... viral assembly and replication is poorly defined. In this study we demonstrated that HCMV pUL23 interacts with an essential component of capsid, the minor capsid protein (mCP, pUL85). Interaction was determined and confirmed with yeast two-hybrid, GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. This interaction may serve as a link in the processes of HCMV capsidation and tegumentation. This study provides further evidences in the functions of tegument prot...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...namide through soil application to control sugar beet cyst nematodes Heterodera schachtii. Lecanicillium muscarium decreased nematode population significantly (P=0.05 and caused reductions in final numbers of cysts per 250 g of soil, eggs and juveniles per cyst. Nematicides effects were not quite significant among each other but had tremendous effects in reducing nematode population compared to that of untreated control. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in num...

Wan-Long Zhu* and Gao Wenrong 

... biochemical markers indicative of thermogenic capacity. The results showed that A. chevrieri adapt to winter or under cold condition by increasing thermogenesis and food intake. The present results suggest that the observed physiological regulation from the organismal, hormonal levels to the cellular levels of this alpine small mammal were important and allowed A. chevrieri to overcome the physiological challenges of an change to cold environmen...

Usman Ijaz1, Muhammad Sajid Tahir2, Khalid Abdul Majeed3*, Shahid Iqbal4, Iffat Huma5, S. Firyal6, Ijaz Ahmed7, Shahid Chohan8 and Aamir Riaz Khan9 

...e subunit I (COI) gene. Scat samples of 15 different known leopards were collected from Nathiagali, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. After amplification with specific oligos, the amplicons of partial region of COI were subjected to sequencing, and then observed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPs were observed on three loci of the COI gene as compared to reference sequence of

Sungil Kim1, Muhammad Riaz2, Amjad Farooq3 and Sungkwon Park4*

...together, these data indicate that DDGS can be utilized as a feed additive and has beneficial effects on unsaturated fatty acid formation in pork without deleterious effect on growth performance.

...

Paul I. Ankeli, Mashood A. Raji, Haruna M. Kazeem, Moses O. Odugbo, Nendir J. Umaru, Idowu O. Fagbamila, Livinus T. Ikpa, Obinna O. Nwankiti, Issa A. Muraina, Pam D. Luka and Nicholas D. Nwankpa

...al of apparently healthy cattle in Plateau State, Nigeria. One hundred and sixty six ear swab samples (n=166) were cultured from which eight (8) Mycoplasma species were isolated and characterized using conventional biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Six (6) were observed to ferment glucose, reduce tetrazolium chloride and hydrolysed casein. They had no phosphatase activity, did not produce ‘film and spots’ and neit...

Muhammad Aslam

... improved agriculture-education-training-research- extension-nexus, reclamation of salinized lands, improved agricultural credit and support price policies. Recommendations include improving agricultural research and extension systems, accelerating diffusion and adoption of latest agriculture technologies and inputs, enhancing good quality seed production, improving irrigation water management and improving reclamation and drainage.

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Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

...rgrah), geographically located in the southern region of Punjab province of Pakistan. The study analyzed the significance of milk marketing cooperatives by revealing and evaluating possible returns to smallholders in dairy sector. The hypothesis that milk marketing cooperatives are beneficial for milk producers was tested by surveying the cooperatives’ members. Econometric techniques to draw inferences include the applicat...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

... WST-III with three replication. Group WST-0 was kept as a control, while WST-I, WST-II and WST-III were treated with W. somnifera water based infusion @ 10, 20 and 30ml/lit respectively. The means were compared by using CRD as statistical model for analysis. Lipid profile and serum glucose was significantly improved. Lipid profile and serum glucose was significantly reduced in all treated groups. Mean cholesterol was (157.66 mg/dl), triglyceride (65.64 mg/dl)...

Safdar A. Wahocho, Tanveer F. Miano, Noor U.N. Memon and Niaz A. Wahocho

...Tandojam in a three replicated RCBD design. The zinnia plants were grown under four photoperiodic treatments which included T1=Natural photoperiod (Control), T2=4 hours daylight (8 am -12 noon), T3=6 hours daylight (8 am – 2 pm) and T4=8 hours daylight (8 am – 4 pm). The results revealed significant (P<0.05) photoperiodic effect on all the growth and quality traits of Zinnia. The Zinnia grown under 8 hours daylight (8 am – 4 pm) with 38.2...

Ghani Akbar, Muhammad Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Hassan, Qurban Hussain3 and Greg Hamilton

...xcessive irrigation application and intensive tillage is the norm on Pakistani farms, which exacerbate water logging and salinity and reduce the water productivity of major crops. Addressing these issues, a long term experiment (2000 to 2009) under wheat-maize (9 seasons each) cropping pattern was conducted on raised beds (with furrow spacing of 65 cm (Narrow Bed-NB), 130 cm (Medium Bed- MB) and 180 cm (Wide Bed-WB)), with controlled traffic regime emplaced, i...

Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Himayatullah Khan

... of transport and communications, better education facilities, market facilities as well as availability of off-farm jobs locally. The study recommends that with the decrease in the size of holdings unemployment in the agriculture sector is likely to increase. There is a need to create off-farm employment opportunities. Agro based industries seems to potential area to generate employment opportunities. Simultaneously there i...

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

...ity, communal domain, education level, employment status and demographic factors (drug route, drug dose) have bearing upon heroin addiction was collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Early age of addiction onset, low literacy rate, peer pressure, occupation type, and stress are among risk factors increasing susceptibility towards heroin addiction in our studied cohort. Drug abuse initiated at an early age seems to trigge...

Abida Saleem, Sajida Parveen and Muhammad Jamal Khan

.... The adsorption, as indicated by b and K values was higher for BC followed by FYM but MCB and 1/n value that reflects the buffering capacity was higher for FYM than BC or PM. The lower adsorption of Zn at lower IZnA below 20 mg Zn L-1 and higher for higher IZnA for amended soil over non-treated soil suggesting its contrasting effect at different IZnA levels.

...

Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

...ts is necessary. Identification of the genes, and their variants, involved in innate immune responses is essential for the understanding of this inflammatory disease and to identify potential genetic markers for resistance to mastitis. This article presents a systematic integration of complex biological interactions of 226 mammary gland genes to uncover underlying regulatory networks. Data were collected from various databases after having an exhaustive litera...

Aqila Shaheen and Mehwish Matien

...es. Data combined over locations illustrated that Mollisols contained higher SOC and K, whereas, TN, AP, and BD were statistically similar at both sites. The SOC was positively correlated with TN, AP and K of soil, whereas, SOC was negatively correlated with BD and pH of the soil. There is a large difference in SOC storage and physico-chemical properties mainly in relation to climate, soil type and vegetation.

...

Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3*

...re conducted, using a concatenated set of 12 protein-coding genes, and adding 16 other species of gobies (Gobiidae). The mitogenome sequences of O. lacepedii, O. rebecca

Halide Nihal Açikgöz1*, Serdal Kenan Köse2 and Ali Açikgöz3

 

 

...bait traps were used for catching flies. Chicken liver was used in the study to attract blowflies. Eggs and larvae of the flies that oviposited on the liver were raised and identified. Six different indices were used to determine diversity (Shannon-Wiener [H’], Simpson Dominance [Sd], Simpson Diversity [S], Margalef Species Richness Indices, Pielou’s Evenness [EH], and Simpson Resiprocal Indices). Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Calliphora v...

Haji Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal* and Saira Saleemi

...of fish nets and identifications of these fishes were made by using standard taxanomic keys on the basis of morphometric characters. Seventy species belonging to 43 genera and 17 families were recorded from the study area of Indus River. Thirty two species were commercially important. Alpha Diversity Indices study showed that fish diversity of the River was quite rich (species richness, 70) and diverse, (Shannon’s index=3.66), (Simpson-D=0.96), Evenness ...

Sadiq Hussain, Muhammad Sharif, Sarmad Khan, Fazli Wahid, Hina Nihar, Wiqar Ahmad, Imran Khan, Nadeem Haider and Tabassum Yaseen

...y Randomized Design replicated four times during season 2014-15. Phosphorus (P) was applied at recommended level of 90 kg ha-1. Vermicompost was used as a source of P on the basis of its P concentration. The recommended dose of N @ 120 kg ha-1 was applied in the form of vermicompost and urea, while K was applied in the form of sulphate of potash. Spores of mycorrhiza were isolated from fresh growing crop of berseem at the University research farm and used as i...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

...11-12. Food products are categorized into fourteen groups including milk, meat, fruits, vegetables, sugar, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats, tea and coffee, backed products and other food. Economic factors such as food commodities price and household’s income and their socio-economic and demographic characteristics are included in the model. Results indicate that with an incre...

Zaheer Ahmad Qureshi and Khuram Nawaz Sadozai

...aches. The lower poorest category estimated through deciles contributes 2.78% to the overall rural region’s income. However, the upper richest category shares 30.06% to the aforementioned income. The deciles measured through expenditure approach revealed that the lower poorest category and upper richest category contributes 3.13 and 25.59, respecti...

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

.... Missing mites data indicated repellency due to pesticides, was highest at the start of experiment, and then these acclimatized on leaf discs. Thiacloprid having lowest LC50 value 295 and proved toxic for the predator while diafenthiuron and pyriproxyfen have higher values. The findings of the study revealed that among five tested pesticides chlorfenapyr and thiacloprid proved moderately harmful for N.barkeri, hence cannot be recommended in IPM module.

...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...cile labelling and modification, which makes them ideal candidates for development of new biosensing applications for detection of specific target molecules. In the present review, we concentrate on the recent advances in the development of aptasensors for antibiotics residue analysis based on electrochemical signal generation. Aptamers possesses the strong potential as receptors for the development of biosensors for antibio...

Asma-ul-Husna1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari2, Bushra Allah Rakha3, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah1 and Shamim Akhter1*

... three weeks (three replicates). Qualifying semen ejaculates were diluted (50×106 motile spermatozoa ml-1) in tris citric acid extender with melatonin at 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mM. Diluted semen was cooled to 4°C for 2 h and equilibrated for 4 h at 4°C. Straws were then kept over liquid nitrogen vapours for 10 min and plunged in liquid nitrogen for storage. Thawing was performed after 24 h of storage, at 37°C for 30 seconds and pos...

Ayanda Opeyemi Isaac,1,* Oniye Sonnie Joshua2 and Auta Jehu2

 

...Juveniles of the African catfish were exposed to varying acute concentrations of glyphosate and paraquat. The fishes responded, exhibiting different behavioural abnormalities like hyperactivity, abnormal swimming, restlessness, loss of equilibrum and haemorrhage. Observation of opercular ventilation count (OVC), tail fin movemant rate (TMR) and air gulping index (AGI) showed a marked difference between control and exposed fishes, indic...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

... enhanced after the application of L. muscarium, followed by D. oviparasitica and S. rugosoannulata. The reproductive rate (Rf = Pf/Pi) of nematodes was much higher in the non-treated plants than those that were treated. The root quality of the fungus-treated plants was significantly improved. All fungi conclusively proved to be effective against H. schachtii and need to be further investigated at the molecular level.

...

Syeda Farzana Bibi*, Lal Badshah and Siraj-ud-Din

...ke life form spectra indicated that Therophytes (53.33%) were the most dominating life form. Leaf size spectra showed that the most abundant leaf size was Microphyll (50%). This study not only gives information about the flora of motorway but can provide a baseline for future studies and plantation of this area. It is suggested that plantation of invasive species should be discouraged which might become problematic in future for the indigenous flora.

...

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

...r, correlation study indicated that syrphids and chrysoperla had a significant positive correlation with A. gossypii and T. orichalcea, respectively. Likewise, spiders and lady beetles had significant positive relationship with B. tabaci, N. inconspicuous and Empoasca spp. Furthermore, temperature had a significant positive correlation with B. tabaci, N. inconspicuous and Empoasca spp, suggested increased in temperature also increased their population. I...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...hapla, through soil application under greenhouse conditions. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in the number of galls and egg masses, eggs and juveniles (J2), and the reproduction factor (Rf=Pf/Pi) was observed in the plants treated with L. muscarium compared to the control. However, all chemical nematicides were also effective in reducing the nematode infestation significantly (P=0.05) in soil compared to the control, but there was no significant difference (P...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

...s study aimed at identification of mutations in GPR54 and GNRHR genes and their correlation with HH in Pakistani boys. Thirty one boys with delayed puberty and thirty one normal age matched controls were examined. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR using specific primers for GPR54 and GNRHR splice site exons. Mutations were analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and/or sequencing. No mutation was identified in GPR54 gene, whil...

Afzaal Ahmad Naseem1*, Maleeha Akram1, Sarwat Jahan2, Kiran Afshan2, Zubaria Iqbal1, Faheem Tahir3, Mazhar Qayyum1 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1

... been ascribed to reciprocated physiological influences of both somatotropic and gonadal axes, manifested as higher secretion of growth hormone (GH) and testosterone (T). GH and T affect linear growth velocity (LGV) directly through stimulation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Furthermore, T promotes LGV through augmentation of GH secretion. Nevertheless, age and developmental stage dependent changes in GH and T and LGV and their associations require further i...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...the development and application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) depend on the use of host insects for in vivo production. As there is little information regarding relationship between nematode dosage and production of infective juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema feltiae and ability to locate hosts, therefore, in the present studies investigations were done on these aspects. A significantly greater emergence of IJ of S. feltia...

Pan-pan Guo1, Wei Liu2, Yan Li2, Rui-yu Ma2, Wang Zaigui1*, Kai Zhan2*, Jun-ying Li2 and Sheng-nan Liu2 

...76A) were detected and located in exon 42 and intron 54 in HTT gene, respectively. One of them (g. 50831 G>C) was a missense mutation. Genotype and allele frequency analysis showed that SNP G62976A and SNP G50831C of the HTT gene in chicken had some effects on reproduction traits, and the genotype GG was the advantageous genotype. Additionally, four HTT haplotypes (H1: GG; H2: GC; H3: AG; H4: AC) and their frequency distributions were estimated using the ph...

Taghreed A. Hafiz1, Murad A. Mubaraki1*, Mohamed A. Dkhil2,3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy2

...lusion, our findings indicate that the methanolic extract of Capsicum annuum could be used in combination with standard drug to treat herpes infection.

...

Ecevit Eyduran1, Daniel Zaborski2*, Abdul Waheed3, Senol Celik4, Koksal Karadas5 and Wilhelm Grzesiak2

...capability among classification and regression trees (CART), chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID), radial basis function (RBF) networks and multilayer perceptrons with one (MLP1) and two (MLP2) hidden layers in body weight (BW) prediction from selected body measurements in the indigenous Beetal goat of Pakistan. Moreover, the results obtained with the data mining algorithms were compared with multiple linear regression (MR). A total of 205 BW reco...

Ali Raza Awan*, Sehrish Firyal, Muhammad Tayyab, Lala Rukh, M. Zia ul Haq, Shagufta Saeed and Muhammad Wasim

...ameri borealis). Identification of the sub-species is an intricate chore. This study aimed to genetically identify and classify the indigenous wild Rose-ringed Parakeet of Pakistan using Cytochrome b (Cytb) gene polymorphism. Mitochondrial DNA of 24 unrelated Pakistani wild Ring-rose Parakeets was isolated and utilized for amplification and DNA sequencing of Cytb gene. The Phylogenetic ana...

Süleyman Kök1*, Sertaç Atalay1, Hasan Semih Eken2 and Mustafa Savaşçi3

...: justify;">Turkish Grey cattle (TGC) is one of Turkey’s native cattle breeds. TGC was a popular race to breeding within Thrace and Western Anatolia, but unfortunately they are under the threat of extinction recently. The application of gene specific molecular markers in genotyping and genetic identification is of essential significance for preserv...

Sania Subhan Qureshi, Mian Saeed Sarwar and Zahir Shah

... was healed and no complication was reported from the owner.

...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

... reported in the identification of viral factors involved in the host immunosuppression, although future studies employing in vivo infection models are needed to clearly understand the mechanisms developed by these viruses, in particular PPRV, to interact with the host immune system. A better comprehension of this behaviour could lead the global strategy for the control and eradicaton of PPR, initiated by Food and Agricultur...

Giselle R.R. Ayres* and Brandão P.E

...iral transcription, replication and pathogenesis. The last 3’ one-third of the genome codes the four structural and accessory proteins. Nsps act in a complex replication process, made possible by the special characteristics of AvCoV genome. This manuscript aims to present an overview of the main aspects of the current knowledge on the main AvCoV replicase genes.

...

Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1, Farzana Abbas1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Naeem Tariq Narejo2, Khalid Javed Iqbal3, Ghulam Abbas4* and Syedah Andleeb5

...randomly stocked in duplicate earthen ponds (90×70×4ft) and fed on 40%, 35% and 30% protein diet @5% of their live body weight. In 40% protein diet treatment, male fish was injected 1st dose with ovaprim + HCG (0.3+0.3ml) and female fish was given 2nd dose after 24 hrs of intervals with ovaprim (0.2ml), while 1st dose ovaprim (0.7ml)+HCG (1.0ml) and 2nd dose ovaprim (0.7ml) was given to the females. The treatment which was given 35% protein diet re...

Dallin D. Oaks and Cynthia L. Hallen

...re and some crucial implications that grow from these metaphors. The discussion considers the relationship of these metaphors to such matters as an open canon of scripture, the relationship of grace and works, the doctrine of the eternal progression of human beings, and the vital nature of covenants. As part of the discussion, the metaphor of restoration is identified as the overarching Mormon metaphor to which the others are subordinate.

...

Bibi Tayyaba Batool1, Aemal Tareen1, Shahjahan Shabir Ahmed1, Hira Ejaz1, Mohammad Azam Kakar1, Syed Abdul Rehman2, Mohammed Saeed1, Zafar Ahmad3, Mohammad Masood Tariq3, Mohammad Arif Awan3 and Muhammad Naeem Shahwani1*

...d bovine tuberculosis in cattle, goats and sheep in some primary dwelling districts of Balochistan. Our results showed that brucellosis was found 2.2% positive from Quetta district and 0.6% positive from Pishin district and bovine (TB) was found 0.60% positive from Quetta and none from Pishin district of Balochistan.

...

Hira Akhter1, Bilal Aslam2*, Naveed Shahzad3, Tanzeela Farooq4, Muhammad Umer5 and Muhammad Hidayat Rasool2

... Furthermore results indicated that H9N2 subtype may survive in layers without showing any symptoms.

...

Rongrong Li1, Kun Li2, Xiaoqiang Wang2, Houqiang Luo2, Gang Qiu2, Hui zhang2, Yanfang Lan2 and Jiakui Li2,3*

...ctively. The results indicates that the Tibetan gigs were exposed to T. gondii in Tibet area, which should arise a public concern of the threat to human and other animals in this unique region of the world.

...

John G. Bruno

...led with genetic identification techniques such as PCR or gene probe hybridization.

...

Zafar Waheed, Khalid Usman, Iftikhar Ali

...design having three replications during 2013-2014. The treatments comprised of wheat + Rumex dentatus 0 plants m-2 (T1), wheat + Rumex dentatus 05 plants m-2 (T2), wheat + Rumex dentatus 10 plants m-2 (T3), wheat + Rumex dentatus 15 plants m-2 (T4), wheat + Rumex dentatus 20 plants m-2 (T5), wheat + Rumex dentatus 25 plants m-2 (T6), and wheat + Rumex dentatus 30 plants m-2 (T7). The results revealed that plant height, spikes m-2, spike length, spikelets spike...

Ahmed Samy, Wesam Mady, Naglaa M. Haggag, Samah H. Mohamed, Ebtissam N. AlShamy, M.K. Hassan

...BMCs showed that V3 replicated more efficiently comparing to RSF/1 at all-time points. Further, strain V3 induced significant up-regulation of IL-1b and IL-6 at 24 hours post infections (hpi) comparing to RSF/1. However, both strains induced significant up-regulations of interleukin (IL)-8 at 1 and 3hpi and interferon (IFN)-α late 24 and 48hpi. Altogether, our results suggest that the concurrent up-regulation of IFNα, IL-1b and IL-6 with higher vir...

Muhammad Shafiq and Tahir Maqsood

...ly in response to B application. Regarding chemical analysis concentration of boron in both wheat straw and grains increased with B application but there was no effect of fertilizer B on NPK concentration of straw and grains. These results are very heartening; signifying that for any soil, B adsorption isotherm need to be worked out for location precise fertilizer B use.

...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

... biochemistry of African catfish (C. gariepinus) juvenile on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fish were exposed to 0.175, 0.0875 and 0.035 mg/L corresponding to 1/10, 1/20 and 1/50 of the 96 h LC50 value (1.75) of the pesticide. Behavioral responses which include colouration of the fish skin and opercula colouration were observed. Aluminium phosphide elicited effects on the haematological parameters of the fish such as a decrease in Hb when compared to the control; redu...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

... viral disease affecting cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and wild animals around the globe. This highly contagious disease causes severe economic loss due to reduced productivity of the affected animals as well as increased mortality in calves and kids. In this study proportionate prevalence of FMD in cattle was estimated and the distribution of FMD according to different factors was evaluated. Both retrospective and prospect...

Noor Us Saher1, Zunaira Amanat2, M. Asif Gondal3 and Naureen Aziz Qureshi4,*

...ollected as a part of by catch of gillnet deployed for shrimps from April 2005 to March 2007 in Sonmiani Bay waters (Miani Hor lagoon). M. planipes was found abundantly in Sep. 2005, Nov. - Dec. 2005 and Dec. 2006 (93.3%, 94.7%, 92.3% and 87 % respectively). A. lunaris was found in abundance during May 2005 (85.7%) and Aug. 2005 (81.8%). Male specimens of both species (M. planipes: χ2 = 245.4, P < 0.005) and (A. lunaris: χ2 = 99.4, P<0.005) were ...

Ibrar Khan1,2,3,*, Sadia Qayyum2, Shehzad Ahmed2, Kashif Syed Haleem2, Mujaddad-ur-Rehman1, Guang-Lei Liu3 and Zhen-Ming Chi3

...ens F8, Penicillium implicatum F10, Penicillium piceum F11, Penicillium oxalicum F12, Penicillium sumatrense F15, and Penicillium vinaceum F16. This study demonstrated that Yellow Sea can be considered as a valuable natural source of Penicillium species, which can be used for the production of medicinally important different secondary metabolites and organic acids. 

...

Abdul Aziz Khan1,*, Waseem Ahmad Khan2, Waseem Ahmad Khan3 and Najam-ul-Huda Khan4

...a of 375 trap nights indicated highest abundance of Mus booduga (no = 132), out of 141 small mammals trapped. Majority of the Mus booduga specimens were adults (56.06%) while the juvenile/sub-adults were 43.94% of the total specimens trapped. The highest trap success of Mus booduga of 74% was achieved at Namal Lake, followed by Khabeki (38.67%), Uchali (30.67%), Kallar Kahar (16%) and the lowest at Jahlar Lake (12%). The results of the present study indi

Wang Tian1, Huayong Zhang1,*, Jian Zhang2, Lei Zhao1, Mingsheng Miao3 and Hai Huang1

...ecies may be used as indicators of relevant variables. Results in this research are very useful in guaranteeing ecological security in Lake Nansihu.

...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

...etimes do not fully replicate the complete spectrum of neurological phenotypes seen in human diseases. On the contrary, pigs, especially mini-pigs, show exciting potential for modeling human CNS diseases due to similarities in body size, anatomy, life span, CNS structure and neurobiology. Previously, via the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique, we successfully generated transgenic Guangxi Bama mini-pigs carrying a fluorescent protein (DsRed) reporter gene ...

Abdul Baset1, Qun Liu1,*, Muhammad Tariq Hanif1, 2, Baochao Liao1, Aamir Mahmood Memon1,3 and Muhammad Mohsin1

...justify;">Time series of catch and effort data were analyzed to estimate the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) of Indian oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps (Valenciennes, 1847, Family: Clupeidae), fishery resources from Pakistani waters. The catch and effort data (1994 – 2009) were analyzed by CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) consists of Fox, Schaefer and Pella Tomlinson models and...

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

... 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that two strains were S. aureus, while all others were different coagulase negative Staphylococci. Their sensitivity against three phages indicated broad host range of phages SANF and SA2, and relatively narrow host range of phage SA. Phage SNAF showed an effective growth reduction of S. aureus RP isolate, compared with other bacteriophages. The bacterial challenge test in milk indi

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

...d one level of formal education or the other (82.5%). Chi-square analysis revealed a significant relationship between the respondents’ training needs on value addition initiatives and their age, educational level, years of experience and fish farm income. The value addition initiatives use profile of the fish farmers was still very low among the respondents and training was highly needed on value addition initiatives i...

Shazia Irfan1*, Asima Rani1, Muhammad Arshad2 and Razia Bashir1

...pecific PCR based amplification strategy. The serum samples were analyzed for determination of metals and minerals through Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA 6600 Shimadzu). The statistical analysis indicated that non-significant association existed between SOD1 (rs2070424) gene polymorphism and RA (p>0.05). Results of HWE estimation indicate that allele frequencies were not devian...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1*, Lorenzo Gallus2, Sara Ferrando2, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman3, Abdul Ghaffar4 and Abdul Mateen5

...er day. Fish in all replicates were fed with diet comprising 40% protein and 20% lipid for 75 days. Higher percent weight gain (% WG), best feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were recorded at ration level from 2.5 to 4.5% BW d−1 and feeding frequency of three to four times daily. The moisture, protein and ash contents of whole body of the fish were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by feeding frequency. The highest lipid cont...

Muhammad Saeed* and Iftikhar Hussain Khalil

...g RCB design with 3 replications. General combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and narrow sense heritability for maturity and yield components traits were determined. The main objective of the research was identification and proper selection of best performing wheat parental genotypes and best F1 crosses, based on GCA and SCA estimates. Significant differences were observed among the wheat genotypes for ...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...fluctuation) clearly indicated the occurrence of previous outbreaks of PPR virus due to persistency of virus in endemic regions.

...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

...son. Species, year and location appeared to be having significant effect (p<0.01) on the frequency of circulating antibodies in the study. The results highlight that PPR in Hail is alarming and warrants mass vaccination along with appropriate control measures.

...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

...on regarding its co-application with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on enhancing spinach yield is scarce. A pot experiment was conducted at Gomal University D.I. Khan, Pakistan, during 2009-10 to study the changes in soil fertility and spinach growth after the application of EM with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers. The six treatments were; control (T0), 10 tons (t) ha-1 farm yard manure (FYM) (T1), 20 t ha-1...

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

...ents is less than 1, indicating a decreasing return to scale in milk production. These results suggest that small sized dairy farms are more productive and profitable; however, farmers need to utilize each input at its allocatively efficient level in order to get maximum profit.

...

Qamar Ali, Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan

...city was positive for education, polythene sheet, fertilizers, chemical, irrigation and labour days. Under utilization of resources was found for polythene sheet, fertilizers, chemicals, irrigation and labour days. Over utilization of resources was observed for seed quantity and use of tractor. There exist decreasing return to scale (87.7%) but its value will surely increase after efficient use of inputs. A little adjustment is required in the use of inputs fo...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

...e design with three replications. Genotypes exhibited significant (p≤0.01) variations for all the studied traits excluding biomass. Genotype by environment interactions (GEI) were significant for all the characters except for thousand kernel weight. The influences of yield components on grain yield were explained by the cluster analysis of environments. Clustering of five test environments based on Shifted Multiplicative ...

Nusrat Habib, Safeena Inam and Abdul Hayee Qureshi

...respondents of different categories comprised of 43 adopters and 57 non-adopters of sunflower. The probit estimates were carried out to find out factors contributing to non-adoption of sunflower. Factors contributing to non-adoption of sunflower were respondent experience, access to credit, total cost of sunflower, access to price information of market, distance from input shop and more profit from competing crops indicating...

Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

...t. The coefficient of education reveals that in study area inefficiency raised with increase in grower’s formal education. In order to increase grower’s productivity government should ensure the provision of quality extension services. Many of the farmers achieving high and consistent yield and then obtaining high technical efficiency in study area can be used effectively to demonstrate the benefits of good farmi...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...a small irrigation dam located on the northern border of district Charsadda, adjacent to Mohmand agency. The construction of dam was started in 2009 and was completed in 2011. It is claimed that dam will irrigate 5000 acre of land in four mouza’s of district Charsadda. Present study is an attempt to determine the impact of Palai dam on the land use and cropping pattern, crop production and revenue of mouza Qilla, Tehsil Tangi, district Charsadda in Khybe...

Muhammad Aslam Shahid, Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Niamatullah

...ristics. The results indicated that males were significantly differed from one another in all these characters during both years of study. Maximum spath length (107.21, 107.81cm), weight of pollen grain (150.07, 147.57g)/ tree and number of spath/tree (18.52, 19.24) were recorded in M6, whereas, maximum spath width (15.29, 16.58cm) was observed in M5. The highest number of strand/spath (245.21, 240.53), number of flower/ strand (84.29, 86.80) and weight of pol...

Hina Fatima, Lal Almas and Bushra Yasmin

...used to estimate the allocative efficiency of cotton-melon cropping systems efficiency. The result illustrates that none of the farmers to be optimally using their inputs. The average allocative efficiency was around 75%. Approximately 36 percent of farms allocative efficiency varies from 0.20 to 0.60. Around 60% of farms allocative efficiency ranges fro...

Naushad Khan1*, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Munir Khan1, Shaista Naz2, Javeria Tanveer1 and Muhammad Kaleem3

... was disbursed under the category of medium term followed by short term. The average yield, cost and return for the maize crop showed significant results due to the proper utilization of the credit by the farmers. The major constraints to farmers while obtaining credit were complicated procedure of pass book preparation, amount less than requirement, unavailability of timely credit and non-availability of collateral. The stu...

Zaffar Malik, Moazzam Jamil, Ghulam Hassan Abassi, Muhammmad Nafees, Muhammad Rafey and Muhammad Kamran

... Pearson correlation indicated that all the properties i.e., COLE, TS, C, and φ, were significantly correlated with each other. Both fly ash and biochar significantly improved the physico-mechanical parameters of vertisols. However, low doses (2%) of straw biochar were more beneficial by keeping in view the availability and economic level of the landholders.

...

Ibni Amin Khalil* and Raziuddin

...ield condition in a replicated trial for seed yield plant-1 performance. Differences among the parental lines, testers, F1 hybrids and line × tester interaction for found significant (P<0.01) for the studied parameter. Promising genotypes for seed yield i.e. L-4, L-5, L-7 and T-4 were identified as best parents as they outclassed all other genotypes by producing maximum seed yield per plant of 28 g. Since, the line × tester source was significan...

Muhammad Afzal1 and Murad Khan2*

...s. The sample farms were categorized into three groups i.e. small, medium and large. For analysing the data, descriptive statistics and gross margin were used. The average total cost of small poultry farm was Rs. 3,10,067 per flock while that of medium and large farms were Rs. 4,99,002 and Rs.7,34,290 respectively. The highest cost was estimated for feed followed by chicks cost. The average gross margin of small farms was Rs. 38,556 while that of medium and la...

Gökhan Kuş1,*, Hatice Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Emre Comlekci3 

...nent of ceramide pathway catalyze metabolism of proapoptotic ceramide to anti-apoptotic sphingosine and other fatty acids. In this study we have evaluated the pro-apoptotic effect of ceranib-2, a human ceramidase inhibitor and of a short-chain C2 ceramide on human lung adenocarcinoma cells, A549 by determining cytotoxicity of these agents by trypan blue assay, apoptosis inducing ability by annexin V and JC-1 staining and ultrastructural alterations by transmis...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
... justify;">Early identification of yeast to the genus and species level is necessary for effective antifungal therapy, and can also facilitate control of infections. A total of 50 isolates were isolated from 60 swab samples collected from two poultry processing plants represented broiler carcasses swabs and worker (hand swabs and nail scrapings). Phenotype-based methods for identifying yeast especially Candida species are often difficult, time-consuming and no...
S. Bushra1,*, M. Tariq1, M. Naeem1, M. Ashfaq1, I. Bodlah1 and M. Ali2
...rapae after the application of treatments was studied and analyzed statistically. The study revealed that plant extract can be toxic to paprasitoid D. rapae. This study will help us to use those insecticide formulations, which not only kill the aphid pests but are also eco-friendly to natural enemies and our environment.
...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6
... stocked with three replications for each treatment. Four isonitrogenous diets containing different oils i.e., fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO), olive oil (OO) and palm oil (PO) were given to the juveniles for 60 days. Best specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were noted in the fish fed diet containing FO. Fish fed diet comprising OO and PO showed poor SGR and FCR values than those fed with FO and SO diets. Body composition was not ...
Lingtong Ye1, Chao Cao1,2, Bin Tang1,2, Tuo Yao1, Ruixuan Wang1 and Jiangyong Wang1*
...ture unambiguous identification using an integrative taxonomic approach that combines morphology and molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. Adult P. websteri exhibit a high degree of morphological plasticity in the palp pigmentation pattern, the shape of the anterior edge of the prostomium, the shape of the major spines on chaetiger 5, and the shape of the pygidium. The COI gene sequence demonstrated that the ...
Muhammad Mohsin Javed*, Muhammad Azhar Nisar, Bushra Muneer and Muhammad Usman Ahmad
...n U-shaped manner with a cation exchange membrane. The MFC constructed was subjected for the bioelectricity production by using vegetable waste extract as substrate. The power production was analyzed for three days. Maximum power density of 88990mW/m2 with a current density of 314.4mA/m2 was observed on the second day of process with minimum internal resistance comparatively i.e. 123.23Ω. The higher power density shows effici...
Hafiz Aftab Ahmed1, Asif Ali2, Akbar Ali2, Salman Ahmed Abid3 and Sajid Umar4*
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Zhong-Yuan Zhang1, Yan-Guo Han1, Wei-Wei Ni1, Ming-Xing Chu2, Yue-Hui Ma2, Jian-Ning He3, Huai-Zhi Jiang4, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Yan Zeng1, Ri-Su Na1, Gao-Fu Wang5, Hang-Xing Ren5 and Yong-Fu Huang1*
...gement history. This indicated that the frequency of those five microsatellites did not increase during the reproduction of those six breeds. Therefore, these five fecundity related microsatellites are not appropriate biomarkers for goat breeding.

 

...
Kiran Afshan1*, Sarwat Jahan1 and Mazhar Qayyum2
...ult of current study indicated diagnostic accuracy of test 95.6%, while sensitivity and specificity of this assay for small ruminants was 97.83% (95% CI: 92.35% to 99.67%) and 93.75% (95% CI: 87.54% to 97.44%) respectively. In field this test indicated significant (p<0.05) values for sheep as compared to goat indicating high risk of infection in sheep. The current study showed that comm...
Farkhanda Manzoor1, Iram Amin2,*, Muhammad Shahid2,Samia Afzal2,Hania Ramzan1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah2 and Muhammad Idrees3
...cused on a rapid identification of dengue virus from larvae of Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) by using PCR. During this study, larvae of A. aegypti and A. albopictus were collected from different localities of Lahore during May to September of 2012 to 2014. RNA extracted from each mosquito larvae pool was tested by nested PCR for detection of dengue virus. Out of total 50 pools of Aedes aegypti larvae, DV-2 wa...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
...Abad) dengue suspected locations of district Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. A semi-nested multiplex PCR was used to amplify the cDNA of the four dengue serotypes. Six out of 35 (17.14%) adult mosquito pools were found positive for dengue virus with type-2 (77.77 %) and type-3 (11.11 %) while a single (11.11%) pool of concurrent infection with type 2 & 3 was also detected. The adult Ae. aegypti belonging to Shuba Bazaar showed 33% posi...
Zafrullah Khan1, Shah Alam Khan1*, Hamayoon Khan2, Naeem Khan3, Khwaja Junaid1 and Inamullah Khan1
...antixenosis or tolerance category of resistance to the R. padi. This study concludes, Serin-2010’ as standard resistant cultivar for future breeding program.
...
Md. Yeamin Hossain1,*, Md. Alomgir Hossen1, Md. Nasir Uddin Pramanik1, Fairuz Nawer1, Md. Mosaddequr Rahman2, Suraiya Sharmin1, Dalia Khatun1, A. H. Bahkali3, Abdallah M. Elgorban3 and Khairun Yahya4
...efficient (b) indicated negative allometric growth in male, female, and combined sexes (b < 3.00, p < 0.001). All LLRs were highly significant (p < 0.001), with coefficients of determination (r2) values exceeded 0.98. Among the condition factors, KF is the best index for assessing the well-being of this species in the Ganges River. The WR was not significantly different ...
Pinar Oztopcu-Vatan1, Gokhan Kus2, Emine Inan3, Melek Gunindi Korkut3, Selda Kabadere4,* and Ruhi Uyar4
...0 µM for 48 h applications. Used as a positive control, 250 µM 5-Fluorouracil decreased the cell survival by only 40 % after 48 h, but licofelone treatment with the same dose and time duration decreased the number of surviving cells by 87 %. Treatments with 150, 200 and 250 µM licofelone caused early apoptotic cell rates of 4, 15 and 24 % for 24 h and 6, 13 and 24 % for 48 h, respectively. In addition, 150, 200 and 250 µM of 5-Fluoroura...
Mehmet Cilbiz1* and F. Banu Yalim2
.../i>) by length-converted catch curve was estimated at 0.83 year-1, fishing mortality (F) 0.14 year-1, natural mortality (M) 0.69 year-1 and exploitation rate (E) 0.17. According to the result of Relative Yield/Recruit analysis estimated Emax>E, so in this context stock of O. mykiss was not overexploited in Karacaören I Dam Lake.
...
Yaoguo Li1,2 and Maoxian He1
...rl oyster, Pinctada fucata (P. fucata). The incidence of type II locus (hemi-methylation locus) was significantly correlated with the shell height and the shell length, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.204 and 0.233, separately. The incidence of type IV locus (super methylated locus) on the other hand was significantly correlated with the shell length, with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.217. Th...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
... Each treatment was replicated tenfold. Data were recorded after one week interval up to five weeks to record different developmental stages of M. incognita. After each harvest, neemex in combination with G. mosseae proved the most effective as the development of nematode was adversely affected. Developing juveniles and adults were less in number in the combined treatment. 
...
Muhammad Luqman Sohail1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor2, Omer Naseer1 and Muhammad Usman Saleem3
... (P < 0.05) which indicated hemolytic anemia. While, serum biochemistry showed significant elevation in alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine which indicate renal and liver damage. Concentration of Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Cu and zinc in serum were significantly decreased (P< 0.05), indicating tubul...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
... aureus isolates indicating very pathogenic nature of infection in the area. Risk factors determinants were found significantly (P<0.05) associated with mastitis occurrence except frequency of milking per day. Antibiogram of Staph. aureus indicated very strong resistance to oxacillin, ticarcillin, ampicilline, amoxicillin, azlocine, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, vancomycin, cefixinme, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime. ...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
... associated to feed application in treated ponds. Body composition of the fish was not significantly (P>0.05) different in both the treatments, though protein and lipid contents of fish in treated ponds were greater than that of control ponds. The moister content of liver, muscle, viscera and whole body were not significantly different in control and treated ponds. These results concluded that feed including 42% protein and 20% lipid are best for cul...

 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

...oreover, our results indicated that all indices were significantly affected by period and season of calving and lactation number except that Wood index that did not vary with seasons. Heritability estimates of various indices were low and ranged from 0.004 to 0.067 indicating very lower genetic control. This is the first study to show genetic of persistency of lactation. Although results may be validated using more data and ...
Muhammad Akbar Khan1,*, Sayyed Ghyour Abbas1, Muhammad Adeeb Babar1, Sabah Kiran1, Ayesha Riaz2 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...">Extinct tragulidsDorcatherium minus and Dorcatherium sp. were recorded from the Chinji Formation of Pakistan. Furthermore, Dorcatherium minus is relatively rare in Middle Miocene site of Dhok Bun Amir Khatoon, Chakwal district, Punjab province, Pakistan. The referred specimens comprise isolated dental elements and mandible fragments. The presence of tragulids ...
Yang Wang1, Zhide Cheng2, Mengjie Tang3, Haixia Zhou1, Xiaolu Yuan4,Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Shuting Mao1 and Jing Wang1,*
...ies by LDH-C4 catalyzed anaerobic glycolysis, which reduces the dependence on oxygen and enhances the adaptation to the hypoxic environments.
...
Faiz Muhammad,1, 2,*, Zhang Zhi-Feng,1, Shao Ming-Yu1 and Muhammad Shafi3
...n cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA (RACE) and anchored PCR method. The full length of the (LvCypA) had 855 bp, containing 495 bp of open reading frame (ORF), encoding 164 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 17.6 kDa. The LvCypA has four β- strands. Tissue distribution of the LvCypA after real time analysis revealed that expression is in order of muscle, gill, lymphoid organ and hepatopancrease. 
...
Nagwan F. Zahran, Ali F. Hamza and Rehab M. Sayed* 
...s in the RAPD-PCR amplification patterns of the irradiated insects. 
...
Sadaf Ijaz Malik1, Kiran Afshan2* and Mazhar Qayyum1
...h. Morphological identification of G. expalanatum was carried out on the basis of size and shape of worm. The hematological and bile biochemical changes were found in two groups. Pathologically significant changes were observed in the infected tissue. The parasites had formed pocked in the bile duct mucosa, glandular hyperplasia, thickened blood vessels. The results demonstrate that morphological markers, pathological, hematological and bile biochemical...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...recessive resistance are categorized as most beneficial plant defense approaches used by plants. The review also briefly explains about introgression of durable resistance to generate virus resistant cultivars for economically important crops through molecular breeding techniques via utilizing advanced molecular markers involving cis and trans genetics. The review adhere recent research findings regarding disease resistance against viral diseases and concludes...
... to publish quality publications, both critical reviewers and cutting-edge research, in coming issues of the Hosts and Viruses.
...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...ious forms of PCR amplification inhibitors. In current study, IC-PCR was used for the detection of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) from plant extracts of Nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated with ToLCNDV. To immunocapture the ToLCNDV, two antisera raised against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-coat protein (TYLCV-CP) and African cassava mosaic virus-coat protein (ACMV-CP) were used. However, immunocapture of ToLCNDV could only be achi...

 Nosheen Noor Elahi* and Misbah Mughal

...of Zinc. The results indicated substantial differences among the sugarcane varieties for various stem epidermal cell combinations and structures like number of stomata, number and shape of cork, silica, long, and pointed elongated cork cells. It is therefore contended that the structure of the epidermis in sugar cane can be used as a characteristic of variety differentiation.

...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
...is virus subgroup A, indicating a high risk factor for poultry industry.
...

Tuli Dey, Sonnet Poddar and Mukti Barua

...ductive disease of dairy cattle. A crossbreed cow of 3rd lactation came to Madras veterinary college with the clinical sign of complete uterine prolapse which calved one day before. The cow was handled and the prolapsed mass was corrected so carefully that there could be saved the life without any complication. The prolapsed mass of cow was managed with lukewarm water and manual pressure replacement in non-raising condition ...

Zahir Shah, Ahmed Nawaz Tunio, Shakoor Ahmad, Ijaz Ahmad, Javid Ali, Sher Bhader Khan

 Sheraz Ahmed and Fida Mohammad

...ial was planted at two locations i.e. Mardan (E-1, E-3 and E-5) and Mansehra (E-2, E-4 and E-6) using alpha lattice design with three replicates during 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15. Heritability in broad sense was generally low for all traits except nicotine and reducing sugar. Days to flowering was the most environment responsive trait and its heritability fluctuated between 0.22 and 0.91. Plant height was significantly ass...
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
...ept per tank with 2 replications. They were fed with commercial floating pellets having 35% crude protein at 2% body weight twice a day for 60 days and eggs were collected weekly. Results showed that fertilized eggs were found to be greater in number at low salinity level as compared to higher salinity level. Survival of fry ranged from 1058 to 1100 at salinity level of 0‰ – 20‰ with 5% increment, after which fry number decreased significan...
Mirza Imran Shahzad1,*, Anna Iqbal2, Farrah Ali1, Nuzhat Sial3, Muhammad Ashfaq4, Abul Hasanat5 and Azra Khanum6
... the second for ultrasonication treatment, before conducting antimicrobial activities. Zones of inhibition were measured by using disc diffusion method. Supernatant fraction of E. coli was positive against Sal. typhi and supernatant fraction of P. multocida was positive against E. coli, which show that antimicrobial agents were secretory in nature. Sonicated fractions were on ...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...nt groups with four replicates of ten chicks. Six treatments were three herbs i.e. Allium sativum, Cassia angustifolia and Artemisia scoparia @ 0.5 and 1.0% respectively, control (basal diet), and a positive control (Oxyfeed® @ 2g/kg). In the study, the treatment groups, which were given diet supplemented with herb and antibiotic, exhibited improved weight gain, average daily gain, and feed conversion (P<0.05). No ...
Nadeem Rashid1,*, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa1, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Tanvir Ahmad2, Majed Rafeeq1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Arif Awan1, Mohammad Ali1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Asad Ulah1 and Amanullah Khan3
...plate technique. Identification of fungal isolates was carried out on the basis of cultural and morphological characters by using slide culture technique. While mean moisture percentage was recorded as 5.3% with a significant difference (P<0.05), the pH was noted to be slightly acidic with non-significant difference (P>0.05) among seasons. Overall mean viable fungal count was 4.72 × 103±708 with a significant association (P<0.0...

Mohammad Raoofi and Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim

...k design with three replications in two cuttings during 2013-14 crop years. The experimental treatments were weed interference and non-interference in two levels (hand weeding and non-hand weeding) and plant density in four levels (20, 40, 60 and 80 stems per square meter). The results obtained in two cuttings in the third year of established alfalfa showed that the weeds caused quantitative and qualitative reduction in alfalfa. Alfalfa in the second cutting h...
Cansu Akbulut1,*, Tuğba Kotil2, Burcu Öztürk1 and Nazan Deniz Yön1
...c vacuolization, mitotic catastrophe in mitochondria , chromatin condensation, mitochondrial vesiculation and dispersion at ooplasm were observed. In mitochondria, mitotic catastrophe , vesiculation, swelling and loss of organization of cristae were detected.Here we showed that TiO2 exposure trigger paraptotic type cell death in zebrafish ovary.
...
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...om our current study indicate that DEG analysis of RNA-seq data help us better understand the precise mechanisms of PEDV in pig PBMC. 
...
Shahzad Ali1,*, Heinrich Neubauer2, Falk Melzer2, Iahtasham Khan1, Shamim Akhter3,Tariq Jamil2 and Sajid Umar3
...ction in three different cattle farms located at Potohar Plateau in Punjab, Pakistan. A total of399 serum samples from indeginous and exotic cattle were tested for brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and multiplex real-time PCR for Brucella sp., Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis. A total of 20 (5.01%) samples were found seropositive by RBPT and 19 (4.76%) by SAT, however r...
Tausif Ahmad1, Iahtasham Khan2, Saddaf Razzaq1, Saeed-ul-Hassan Khan1,* and Raheela Akhtar3
...>Brucella abortus in cattle and buffaloes in the districts of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A total of 120 serum samples were randomly collected from buffaloes and cattle (60 per species) at Civil Veterinary Hospitals, animal markets and peri-urban livestock holdings in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Serum samples were initially screened by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). RBPT positive samples were subjected to a ...
Memoona Akber1, Muhammad Mushtaq1,*, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem1, Amjad Rashid Kayani1 and Noor-un-Nisa2 
... throughout the year indicating that Norway rat reproduces the year around in the urban environment of Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
...-on to the declared eradication of dracunculiasis in Dera Ismail Khan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province, Pakistan through investigating disease recurrences and Cyclops species in drinking water sources. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out using in-person questionnaire evaluation along with microscopic assessment of water samples for Cyclops species. Based on previous clinical records of dracunculiasis, five villages of D...

Habib Ullah Khan1*, Saleem Ullah1, Hamid Ullah Shah1, Muhammad Arif2

...il minerals in mg/kg indicated greatest variation in Fe from 2.759 to 5.358, Mn from 0.324 to 0.73, Na from.9 to 11.9 and K from 8.60 to 15.30 while other minerals like Cu, Zn, P, Pb and Ni showed moderate variability. It was concluded that acid base treatment of the wood coal resulted in pH, EC and minerals changes which might have good or bad effect on plants grown in those soils.

...

M. Abdus Salam1, M. Moynul Haque2, Md. Obaidul Islam3, M. Nasir Uddin4 and Md. Nazmul Haque3*

...raining and Seed Multiplication Farm, Sreepur, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Significant variations related to genotypes and seed sources were observed for stand establishment, branch development, phenology, yield components, yield and fiber quality attributes of cotton. Yield and quality of cotton were significantly higher when crop was grown from seeds stored in polythene bag as compared to cloth bag. Interaction of genotypes and seed sources indi

John G. Bruno

...the way for more sophisticated analysis that could lead to improved rickettsial serodiagnostics and aptamer-based vaccines.

...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...rams and their higher educational qualification. The differences were considered as training needs and the AEOs need in-service training to enhance their ability in agricultural mechanization. A significantly high competency level was found in describing the agriculture machines and equipments and use of hand tools and implements. Most of the respondents have high competency level having practical farming experience. Study s...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...ration in eggs. Data indicated that all chickens vaccinated with pCA-Egy-H9 were fully protected without clinical signs and virus shedding. Our results revealed that the pCA-Egy-H9 plasmid DNA vaccine could induce complete protection in chickens against H9N2 virus challenge and may propose an alternative strategy to control virus infections in the poultry industry.

...

Muhammad Asif Zahoor1, Zeeshan Nawaz1, Abu Baker Siddique1, Sajjad ur Rahman2 and Shahid Ali1*

...d with molecular identification of Mycoplasma infections. A total of 96 tissue samples from trachea, air sacs, lungs and oral swabs along with blood from each bird were collected and initially subjected to isolation of Mycoplasma spp. using brain heart infusion broth supplemented with horse serum. The blood was used for serum plate agglutination assay. Thereafter, the samples were subjected to genomic DNA extraction to detect Mycoplasma spp. using multiplex-PC...

Sadiq Ali* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...re selected and thirty locations were randomly selected from each village. The data revealed that the flora is predominated by parthenium weed with the highest relative density of 63.4% among all weeds, followed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Cannabis sativa L. and Chenopodium album L. with relative density of 11.37, 10.86 and 7.31%, respectively. Moreover, at different locations, the parthenium weed is competing with C. sa...
Tianzhu Chao, Huiqiang Cai, Yuxun Zhou, Kai Li* and Junhua Xiao
...tricted to Shanghai, indicating the elevated risk in this cosmopolitan cities. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that M. m. musculus migrated from northern China to eastern China and that M. m. castaneus invaded from southern China. The two subspecies form a hybrid zone in eastern China. There were three major well-differentiated clades within M. m. castaneus, which were designated as CAS1, CAS2 and CAS3 a...
Jun Gao1,2, Liang-Liang Yue3, Xianhuan Jiang1, Liju Ni4, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Yuxun Zhou,1 Kai Li1,* and Junhua Xiao1,*
...illion years ago (Mya) located in the Penultimate Glaciation. Divergences within the three clades taken place during the interglacial period between the Penultimate Glaciation and the Last Glaciation. Bayesian skyline plot indicates the effective population size of M. fortis had been experiencing a downward trend in the past decades, which may due to the habitats loss and environmental degradation.
...
Maoying Zhu, Yuntao Ji, Xiaoyu Wang, Junying Pu and Changqing Qu*
...ercial and clinical application of ADSCs.
...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabyasachi Pal2, Ghule Tushar Manohar2, Somnath Bhattacharyya3, Amit Singh4, Prahlad Sarkar5 and Samuel Lalliansanga6
...ase phenotype and amplification of rDNA and partial sequence homology of ITS-1and ITS-2. Host differential tests confirmed the race 2 of M. incognita infecting passion fruit. Pathogenic relationship with the passion fruit was proved through inoculation studies and inoculated plants also produced almost similar above-ground symptoms and profuse root galling. The pathogenic potential of M. incognita on passion fruit was determined; the minimum 10 s...
Hamayun Khan1,*, Momen Khan2, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3, Shakoor Ahmad1, Ali Gohar4, Hameed Ullah5, FarmanUllah6, Arab Hussain7, Pershotam Khatri8, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Hamid Rehman1 and Azmatullah Khan1

Muhammad Noor, Hidayat ur Rahman and Muhammad Iqbal

...erate to high range, indicating that the total variability was mostly of genetic nature and hence, could be effectively utilized in maize breeding programs for developing popcorn varieties having early maturity and accompanied with other desirable attributes.

...

Neelum Andaleeb, Munir Khan and Syed Attaullah Shah

... value is 4.81 which indicate that women were on average involved for 4.81 hours per day in livestock farming activities. Regression results show that respondent’s age, experience in livestock farming and education, education of the household head, access to credit, livestock income, tenural status and distance to city significantly affect women’s involvement in livestock farmi...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
...ements having three replications was used. Significantly maximum 1000 achene weight, achene yield, biological yield, harvest index and protein content were recorded where seed inoculation with PGPR-1 + PGPR-2 and full dose of recommended chemical was applied during both the growing seasons. Overall the performance of sunflower was better in spring as compared to autumn season. However, it was also noted that the combination of PGPR-1 + PGPR-2 and half recommen...
Muhammad Qadir Ahmad¹*, Farheen Ashraf Raza¹, Abdul Qayyum¹, Waqas Malik¹, Rao Wali Muhammad2, Muhammad Asif Saleem1, Amir Hamza2, Ahmad Baksh Mahar3
...k design with three replications. Significant variation among the genotypes was observed for studied traits by analysis of variance. Pearson correlation analysis depicted significant positive association between NL and BW. SV also revealed positive association with SI. BW showed positive association with NLB, NS and SI. LA showed positive association with NL. Path coefficient analysis was utilized to partition the direct and indirect effects of different trait...

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...ent process and its implications for pastoral resources. Land use-classes such as forest, agriculture, pastures and snow cover were recorded by means of Global Positioning System (GPS) and further processed to develop maps by using Geographic Information System (GIS). The impacts of agriculture encrachment were determined by means of group discussions, household’s interviews and personel observations. The results showed that crops cultivation occupied 18...

Wazha Mugabe1,2, Lawrence Akanyang1, Mackenzie Nsinamwa1, Batanani Moatswi1, Naledi Matthews1, Kealeboga Dipheko1, Imtiaz Ahmed Ujjan3 and Assar Ali Shah2*

...maintenance purposes for cattle in the dry season. Thus understanding the dynamics on rangeland response to grazing could prove worthy in finding an equilibrium point for optimizing animal productivity, with limited range degradation. Therefore, the current study was aimed at determining and comparing fodder tree species composition along grazing gradient in fenced and unfenced grazing area in the Gaborone North Region. For each study area, two parallel transe...

Waqas Ahmed Dogar2, Arshad Ali Khan3*, Saeed Ahmed2, Sudheer Tariq2, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Imran2, Muhammad Noman2 and Nadeem Khan1 

...s. Overall situation indicated that plants planted at 11 x 22ft (T1) showed better results as compared to plants planted at 11x11ft (T2) and 22 x 22ft (T3) of both species. Musambi showed best results as compared to Kinnow. So this study helped to optimize best planting distance in citrus adopted for high yield and good quality fruit with some extra care and management practices in orchard and proved to be the best planting distance for citrus under agro ecolo...
Ahmed Mujtaba1, Tariq Masud1, Asif Ahmad1, Waqar Ahmed3, Saqib Jabbar3* and Robert E. Levin2
...ne pathogens and quantification of the chlorogenic acid (CA) using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The chlorogenic acid was isolated using resin. The recovered amount of compound was calculated. Aliquots of the extracts at known concentration of chlorogenic acid were then applied against different bacterial strains for antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of isolated compound was also measured. Two antibiotics were used a...
Ahmad Khan1, Raza Ullah Khan1*, Muhammad Zameer Khan1, Fayyaz Hussain1,Muhammad Ehsan Akhtar2, Jalal-Ud-Din3
... were obtained with application of plant derived HSs; SFDHSs and MDHSs respectively, while 24.7 t/ha bulb were obtained with CDHA applied at the rate of 20 kg/ha. Almost same trend was observed with respect to the number of bulbs per plot. The highest number of 28.3 bulbs/plot were obtained in CDHA given at 20 kg/ha, followed by 25.5 and 24.6 bulbs/plot in SFDHSs and MDHSs both applied at 30 kg/respectively. On overall, results from this study implies it is op...
Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3
...gn (CRD) with three replications and two factors i.e. guava varieties (Safeda and Karela) and storage intervals (0, 3, 6, and 9 days). The data was recorded onfirmness (kg/cm2), weight loss (%), moisture contents (%), taste, decay fruits (%) and total soluble solids (TSS). The experimental result showed that both the varieties were significantly influenced the fruit decay (%), TSS (%), taste and moisture content (%), while firmness (kg/cm2

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

...iods and fertilizer application (today or in the future) will certainly increase production. This scenario demands devising adaptation strategies for farmers to be made available, this should be the key policy intervention of the government to cater with the climate change on agriculture and particularly on maize. Fertilizer management and crop variety choices according to the changing climate will address this serious conce...
Mustafa Cengiz1*, Jama Hussein Ali2, H. Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Adnan Ayhanci3
...s in mind, the rats were categorized into five groups. The study groups were given saline, 0.2 % dimethyl sulfoxide, D-GaIN, EA plus D-GaIN and D-GaIN plus EA, respectively. In the group given D-GaIN, the following transmission electron microscopic and light microscopic results were found: degenerative changes in the liver tissue, significant decreased in the number of activated Bcl-2, while increased in the number of Bax and caspase-3-positive hepatocytes, a ...
Neenish Rana, Nosheen Ehsan, Awais Ihsan and Farrukh Jamil*
...However, it has been indicated by several lines of evidences that some pseudogenes are active. Using current data of NCBI we have retrieved 65 pseudogenes from the genome sequence of human pathogenic bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strain 26695. Computational analysis of the genome showed 6 transcriptionally active pseudogenes that can produce stable mRNA secondary structure compared to their functional parents. Moreover it was observed ...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...he detection and identification of viruses has been a challenge since the advent of the discipline of plant virology over a century ago.Agreat variety of methods have been developed that permit differentiation of viral pathogens.These methods, initially based solely on identifying the distinct biological characteristics of different viruses, were soon supplemented with methods based on light or electron microscopy and serology and subsequently by Enzyme Linked...

Neerja Agrawal, Mukesh Srivastava, Akhilesh Tripathi and Amrendra Singh

Survey and monitoring of pests, parasites and predators of pulse crops in central and eastern Uttar Pradesh
...pa armigera, Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua, plant hopper of Pentatomorpha group, termite Odontotermes spp, and cut worm Agrotis ipsilon in chickpea whereas Campoletis chlorlidae was recorded as natural enemy feeding on H. armigera larvae. In pigeonpea crop, mainly H. armigera, leaf webber Grapholita (Cydia) critica, Myllocerus spp, spotted pod borer Maruca testulalis, plume moth Exelastis atomosa, tur pod bug Clavigralla gibbosa, jassid Amrsca bi...

A. K.Bhattacherjee and B. K. Pandey

Dissipation of carbendazim in mango after pre- and post-harvest treatments
...ell as post harvest applications. Two pre harvest sprays of carbendazim@0.05 and 0.1 per cent were given to mango fruit (cv. Chausa) at 10 days interval in such a way that last spray fell 12 days prior to harvest to control post harvest diseases viz., anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Lasiodiplodia theobromae). Carbendazim dissipated to 1.01 and 2.14 mg kg in mature whole fruit after harvest (12 days after second spray) at 0.05 and...

Wajid Hasan1 and C. P. Singh2

Relationship between the population of mustard aphid,Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and weather parameters on different cultivars of Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.)
...high (0.92 to 0.99), indicated that the population of L. erysimi governed significantly with the weather parameters. It concluded that the temperature (max. 18.7 and min. 5.0 C), relative humidity (morning 91.5 and afternoon 50.5 percent), rainfall (000.0 mm), evaporation (below 1.55 mm), bright sun shine hours (below 5.8 hr) along with wind velocity below 3.4 km/hr were found very conductive for this pest.

...

Palash Mondal1 , Amitava Konar2 and N. Johnson Singh3

Evaluation of insecticidal schedules for the management of insect pests of potato
...which received soil application of phorate followed by spraying of chlorpyriphos,imadicloprid and cartap hydrochloride, respectively at 40, 55 and 70 DAP than other treatments. Maximum yield of healty potato tuber was recorded in the plot treated with chlorpyriphos before planting and foliar spray of acephate, imadichloprid and chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin at 40, 55 and 70 DAP(T ).Yield of damaged tuber caused by soil pests was found maximum in control plot an...

M.K. Pandit,P. K. Pal and B. K. Das

Effect of date of sowing on flowering and incidence and damage of melon fruit fly in snap melon Cucumis melo var.momordica genotypes
...actorial RBD with 3 replications. Observations on days to first male and female flowers, node number of first male and female flowers, total number of fruits and number of melon fruit-fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett),Diptera: Tephritidae] infected fruits were recorded.Snap melon being a monoecious and warmth loving crop, tends to bear increasing number of female flowers with time; days to first female flower gradually lessened from the first to the thir...

1N. Johnson Singh, 2Amitava Konar and 3Palash Mondal

Incidence of aphids in different traps on potato in Gangetic plains of West Bengal
... The population of aphid catches was quite lower in yellow pan trap than yellow sticky trap. Aphids were first observed in traps during third week of December and the population of pests gradually increased to reach the peak in second week of February in the first year of study (2006-07) while in second year of study (2007-08) the aphid population appeared in second week of December and attained its peak by the end of February. The abiotic factors viz., temper...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...nly for direct soil application in nurseries/main fields to suppress the soil-borne inoculum. In liquid state fermentation, Trichoderma is grown in inexpensive media like molasses and yeast medium in deep tanks on a commercial scale. Biomass from the liquid fermentation can be made into different formulations like, dusts, granules, pellets, wettable powders. Trichoderma formulations can be applied to the seed either by dry seed treatment or by seed biopriming ...

1Parvin Noor and 2Md. Nashir Uddin

Morphological changes of different castes of the subterranean termites (Odontotermes proformosanus) in fungus combs of termitophiles
...iological attributes indicated that Odontotermes proformosanus are polymorphic in nature and have exopterygote post-metamorphic development. During the period of study, eggs and nymphs were collected in different seasons from the fungus combs of termite mounds. Eggs of O. proformosanus were found profusely in fungus comb in the months of March, May, September and October of 2006 to 2008 Average lengths and standard deviation (mean±SD) of the eggs were (...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...bjective of developing location-specific integrated management schedule of the parasite, crops, other than sugarcane, grown in the target area were evaluated for their potential as trap and catch crops of the parasite. Twelve crops, selected on the basis of germination induction test of A. pedunculata seeds on root exudates as compared to that of three germination inducing chemicals (viz.; NaOCl, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazo...

S. Subharani, S. S. Thorat, N. Abem, L. Amit Kumar and T. K. Singh 

A database on parasitoid of insect pests of crops in Manipur, India
... helping in easy identification of the species. Keywords: Database, insect-pest, parasitoids, Manipur
 

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Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
...reatment where four applications of the Trichoderma preparation ha-1 at quarterly intervals were given. The maximum foot rot disease was recorded in control treatment. The yield parameters like fresh weight of 100 leaves and leaf yield were good in treatments where BM was applied. Trichoderma applications resulted in better c : b ratio during 1 st year, where as applications of P. fluoresc...

Debjani Chowdhury, P. C. Paul and B. Dasgupta

Management of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola
...eaves was recorded. Application of mancozeb resulted in the lowest PDI of target spot of Sarpagandha, increased the yield (both fresh weight and dry weight of the plant per sq.M) and increased the fresh weight and dry weight of plants.

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Amitava Konar, Palash Mondal and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of potato pests in different dates of planting in Gangetic plains of West Bengal, India
...ign (RBD) with four replications. The recommended practices for raising the crop in the field was maintained except the application of insecticides. It was observed that the crops of first planting (at 3rd week of November) harboured less pest infestation. However, the whitefly infestation was found lower in second and third plantings (at 4th week of November and 1st week of December). The infestation of soil pests such as m...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Population proliferation and spread of Trichoderma spp. in soil under two different delivery systems
...ign: justify;">Post application population proliferation (build-up) and spread of Trichoderma spp., Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride in three different types (sterilized, solarised and natural) clay loam soil at 50% water holding capacity (pH 6.5) was studied both under laboratory and field conditions following two types of delivery systems, through organic based (vermicompost + neem cake (90% + 10% w/w)) and seed based (sterilized wheat seed) inoc...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...ce, preparation and application methods of new botanicals and microbial pesticide formulations, evaluation of field bio-efficacy and conservation of biological agents, cultural control measures, genetic techniques and sex pheromones technology. In tea husbandry, cultural control measures such as plucking, pruning, shade regulation, field sanitation, fertilizer application, manipulation or destruction of alternate hosts and s...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Control of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) root and collar rot (Rhizoctonia solani) with some organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum under field condition
... combinations. Soil application of Trichoderma in vermicompost +20% neem cakes gave better disease control over the others.

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Sunita J. Magar and D.D. Nirmal

Effect of plant spacings and cultivars on spread of Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) disease
...ani Kranti and Local indicated that the first appearance of symptom was earlier in cv. Local and late in cv. Parbhani Kranti. The rate of infection was higher at 45 to 60 days after sowing in both kharif and summer while in cv. Local it was higher at 30 to 45 days after sowing. Less infection rate was observed at 30 to 45 days after sowing in closer plant spacing 30 x 30 cm in both kharif and summer seasons also the minimum infection rate throughout its growth...

Amitava Konar, Kiran A. More and Pradip Mondal

Efficacy of some insecticides against cutworm and molecricket of potato in West Bengal
...treatments and five replications. Among the various treatments for managing soil pests of potato (cv. Kufri Bahar) i.e. cutworm and molecricket soil treatment of phorate 10 G @ 15kg ha-1 at planting plus drenching the ridges with chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2.5ml/L of water on appearance of pest (T5) was found most effective in decreasing the incidence of cutworm and molecricket followed by soil treatment at planting with phorate 10 G @15kg ha-1 with addition drench...

Amitava Konar, S. Paul and Kiran A. More

Efficacy of different insecticidal treatment schedules against aphid and whitefly on brinjal
...schedules and three replications. Among all the treatments soil application of phorate at transplanting, followed by foliar spray with acephate, thiodicarb and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki at 50, 70 and 90 days after transplanting, respectively) and seedling treatment with imidacloprid before transplanting, succeeded by foliar spray with imidacloprid, novaluron, B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki and novaluron at 30, 50,...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...e need for repeated application of insecticides and dearth of labour for application of insecticides made it difficult for the farmers to maintain the crop and forced many farmers to even abandon papaya crop cultivation altogether. Considering the drastic reduction in the wet latex supply, SPFP has taken up series of initiatives which are summarized in this paper. Initially, a survey made in more than 80 farmers holdings sup...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers

S.K. Sahoo

Incidence and management of mustard aphid (Lipaphis ery-simi Kaltenbach) in West Bengal
...l cost benefit ratio indicated that most favourable return was obtained under Dimethoate 30EC (1:20.8 & 1:13.3) followed by Oxydemeton-methyl 25EC (1:16.8 & 1:9.1), while poor incremental cost-benefit ratio was observed in Fipronil 5SC (1:5.8 & 1:2.1) and Acephate 75 SP (1:7.1& 1:4.3) during the year 2010-11 and 2011-12, respectively.


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Md Riton Choudhury, Koushik Brahmachari, Sudeshna Kar and Rupayan Deb

Integration of weed management practices in rice-potato-groundnut cropping sequence
...bly replaced by the application of herbicides. From the point of eco-safety measures and economy, combination of hand weeding and mulching can be judiciously recommended in potato and groundnut.


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Madhuban Gopal, Rajesh Kumar and Arunava Goswami 

Nano-pesticides - A recent approach for pest control
...ique. The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) studies, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies confirmed the nano-structure of nanopesticides. Nanoparticles of sulphur and hexaconazole thus characterized were estimated for the presence of active ingredient in the formulation adopting analytical techniques like Gas Chromatography / High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The bio-assay studies revealed many fold impro...

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...hout green manured. Application of hexaconazol 5% EC@ 2.0 ml litre-1 and carbendazim 50% WP @ 1.0 ml litre-1 also reduced the sheath blight disease incidence by 53.25% and 56.86% over the check plot respectively. It was interesting to observe that all biocontrol agents were found effective significantly than the fungicides. Therefore, the fungal biocontrol agents, particularly, B18 and B16 could be used as biofungicide as well as biofertilizer for the manageme...

Biswajit Pramanick, Sruti Karmakar, Koushik Brahmachari, Rupayan Deb 

An integration of weed management practices in potato un-der New Alluvial soil
...ith nine treatments replicated thrice. The predominant weed flora in the experimental field of potato was Cyperus rotundas, Chenopodium album, Anagallis arvensis and Fumaria purviflora. The results revealed that the maximum tuber yield and return per rupee invested vis-à-vis the maximum N, P, K uptake by potato and the minimum uptake of N, P and K by weeds emerged in the potato field were recorded under the treatment T3 (hand weeding at 20 DAP along wit...

Dipak Mandal, Paramita Bhowmik and M.L. Chatterjee

Evaluation of new and conventional insecticides for the management of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rapeseed (Brassica juncea L.)
...l cost benefit ratio indicated that highest return was obtained from imidacloprid (1:16.12) followed by lambda-cyhalothrin (1: 15.68) treated plot.
 

 

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S. Patra, V.W. Dhote, SK F. Alam, B.C. Das, M.L. Chatterjee and A. Samanta

Population dynamics of major insect pests and their natural enemies on cabbage under new alluvial zone of West Bengal
...k Design with three replications. Cabbage (cv Rareball) seedlings were transplanted in the plot of 9 m2 area with 45cm x 45cm spacing. Observation was recorded at weekly interval from randomly selected five plants /plot. Peak population of diamond back moth (DBM) was recorded on 1st March and 23rd February with13.60 and 14.33 larvae /plant during 2011-12 and 2012-13 respectively. Cabbage aphid reached its peak on 9th February (14.17 aphids/inch2 leaf) and 16th...

Abhijit Ghosal and M. L. Chatterjee

Bioefficacy of imidacloprid 17.8 SL against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in brinjal
...icotinoid as foliar application against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 50 g a.i./ha, was found superior against whiteflies among other treatments, received lowest number of whitefly population (1.55/plant) and offered maximum reduction of whiteflies (83.15%) as well as highest marketable fruit yield (146.50 q/ha). However, imidacloprid at lower doses showed nearly similar results. The other neonicotinoid, thiamethoxam also provide...

D.K. Hazra, Megha Pant, S.K. Raza and P. K. Patanjali

 

Formulation technology: key parameters for food safety with respect to agrochemicals use in crop protection
...se rate or repeated applications to get desired bioefficacy which lead to accumulation of pesticide residues in food commodities along with environmental pollution. Conventional formulations, because of their characteristics i.e. dustiness and use of volatile organic solvents in their preparation maximize several problems like health haz-ards and environmental pollution etc. With the increasing awareness of toxic effects of conventional formulations, there is ...

Lakshman Chandra Patel and Chandan Kumar Mondal

Management of causal agents of chilli leaf curl complex through bio-friendly approaches
...y was recorded with application of diafenthiuron at 15 days interval from seedling to early fruiting stage. Among the ecofriendly options, alternate use of garlic with spirit performed better than their single repeated use starting from seedling to early fruiting stage at every 15 days interval. 

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Rashid Pervez, Santhosh J. Eapen, S. Devasahayam and M. Dinsha

Characterization of entomopathogenic nematode, Stein-ernema carpocapsae from ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizosphere in India
...es punctiferalis), hairy caterpillar (Euproctis sp.) and greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) was found under in vitro condition. Further this isolate displayed high virulence on above insect species. This study reported occurrence of a isolate of S. carpocapsae from ginger rhizosphere from India. This indigenous isolate could be investigated further for managing insect pests of ginger.

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Goutam Samui and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal incidence and management of Apsylla cistellata Bucton. on mango in West Bengal
...ng the pest. Hence, application of insecticides had to be synchronized with the emergence of nymphs. To manage the shoot gall psylla, mechanical control (Pruning) and insecticidal control measure were taken up in the district of Murshidabad. In mechanical control, both pruning of 15 cm and 30 cm of affected shoots resulted in the formation of lower number of gall/shoot as compared to control. But pruning at 30c m had been found to be most effective in managing...

Amitava Konar and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of aphids on various potato germplasms in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal
... except insecticide application. The aphid species viz. Myzus persicae (Sulzur) and Aphis gossypi Glover were recorded first during third week of December and crossed the threshold limit (20 aphids/100 compound leaves) during first to second week of January in Kufri Chandramukhi whereas in Kufri Jyoti and Kufri Joawhar, the pest was observed first by fourth week of December and attained the critical level during second to third week of January. The pest initia...

Anil Sehajpal, Saroj Arora and Parminder Kaur 

 

Evaluation of plant extracts against Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight of rice
... extracts, viz. Abrus precatorious, Acacia auriculiformis, Bougainvillea glabra, Convolvulus arvensis, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Morus alba, Thevatia peruviana, and Withania somnifera did not exert any effect. Among all the plant extracts, A. sativum exhibited strong fungitoxicity even at the lowest concentration, i.e. 100 ppm, with relative magnitude of inhibition 2.0 mm against the pathogen R. Solani. With regard to the effect of 8 plant oil samples tested, it...

S. Pal, H. Banerjee and N. N. Mandal 

Efficacy of low dose of herbicides against weeds in transplanted kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.)
... 7 treatments and 3 replications. The results revealed that the major weed flora associated with the transplanted rice during kharif season was mainly comprised of Echinochloa colona (30 %), Cyperus difformis (20 %), Monochoria vaginalis (30 %) and Ludwigia parviflora (20 %). Penoxsulam 24 SC at 0.0225 kg a.i. ha-1 applied at 8-12 days after transplanting was most effective to check all types of weed population and their growth. This treatment also gave the ma...

Dhananjoy Mandal

Eco-friendly management of mealybug and wilt in pineapple
...al (3 treatments, 8 replicates) in 2006-07 at Chopra, Islampur, Uttar Dinajpur, West Bengal, for eco-friendly pest management of mealy bug, Dysmicoccus brevipes Cockerell in pineapple, the treatments were: T1 [Farmers’ practice: phorate 10 G @ 20 kgha-1 during planting + monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.03% at 100 DAP + endosulfan 35% EC @ 0.02% during 150-180 DAP]; T2 [Treating planting materials (basal portion) with monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.02% + phorate 10 G ...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
... The specific values indicating variations in population at exact grids and helping the individual farmer in decision-making in pest management at varied pesticide doses depending on varied soil pest population intensity and spatial distribution. Often it ends up in reducing the quantum of a pesticide threatened with withdrawal. We understand Appropriate PA (Appropriate Precision Agriculture, APA) as Site-Specific Appropriate Precision Agriculture (SSAPA) appl...

Partha Pratim Ghosh and 2N. C. Mandal 

Some disease management practices for bacterial wilt of potato
...k Design with three replicates and seven treatment modules, as described in Materials & Methods. Investigation revealed that T1 (TPS whole tuber planting) and T4 (supervised management - cowdung @ 40 ha-1 at land preparation + seed piece tuber treatment with carbendazim 2.5 gL-1 and Streptocycline @ 1 gL-1 + stable bleaching powder drenching with out removal of affected plant at 40 Days After Planting (DAP) @ 10 gL-1, along with protective banding with wel...

B. S. Nandihalli

Utilization of botanicals in the management of the coconut perianth mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer
...of the present study indicated that among different botanicals, NSKE 5 percent was found significantly superior in reducing the mite population with higher healthy nuts (81 nuts 4 bunches), least percent of damaged nut (65 per cent) and highest benefit which was on par with wettable sulphur. The next best treatment was neem oil 2 percent.

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Shrinivas Mudigoudra and Shekharappa

Evaluation of plant products aganist sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani
... The results clearly indicated that NSKE (5%) recorded less eggs of shoot fly (0.40egg/plant), per cent dead heart (14.97%) and maximum grain yield of 13.22 q.ha-1 among different plant products. The next best plant product was found to be V. negundo @ 5% in recording less incidence of shoot fly and obtaining higher grain yield. However, both the treatments were found next best only to carbofuran 3 G.

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Shekharappa

Biological control of earhead caterpillar, Helicoverpea armigera Hubner in sorghum
...e management of ear head caterpillar (H. armigera) in sorghum ecosystem of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The mycoinsecticide N. rileyi was highly infective at both the dosages 1x108 conidia per litre & 2x108 conidia per litre against H. armigera as compared to Ha NPV 250 LE per hectare and chemical control in mitigating the pest population as well as in obtaining the higher yield.
 

 

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Sujoy Mondal and S. S. Ghatak

Bioefficacy of some indigenous plant extracts against epilachna beetle (Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr.) infesting cucumber
...ty of cucumber in a replicated Randomized Block Design at Viswavidyalaya Instructional Farm during 2004–05 to find out the impact of plant derived pesticides viz; Neem Azal, Rhizome extracts of Acorus calamus with petroleum ether as solvent and seed extracts of Annona squamosa with methanol as solvent in controlling epilachna beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata, Fabr; Both Neem Azal and seed extracts of Annona squamosa were used at 4ml, 5ml and 6m...

V. S. Desai, S. D. Desai, A. J. Mayekar and V.G. More 

Infestation of coconut eriophyid mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer in Konkan region of Maharashtra
...rch 2005. The survey indicated that the infestation was higher in Thane district followed by Sindhudurg district.
 

 

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V. N. Jalgaonkar, M. S. Gawankar, V. W. Bendale and P. D. Patil

Efficacy of some insecticides against cashew tea mosquito bug Helopeltis antonii Sign
...chedule. The results indicated that out of six treatments selected, the treatment of 0.003% lambda-cyhalothrin was observed significantly superior over all other treatments followed by 0.01% triazophos that was also significantly superior over rest of the treatments.
 

 

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S. Pal and I. Sarkar

Pests infesting ornamental plants in hilly region of West Bengal
... the leaves. The tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura) was serious on Gladiolus and Anthurium. Cutworm (Agrotis segetum) damaged the seedlings of Gladiolus. Among the Coleopteran pests, the Blister beetle (Mylabris p) was the most important feeding on the flowers of Gladiolus and China rose. The steel blue beetle, Altica p. and white spotted flea beetle (Monolepta signata) was found infesting Gladiolus and Chrysanthemum respectively. The serpentine leaf mine...
Bao-Ming Ge* Dai-Zhen Zhang, Qiu-Ning Liu, Sen-Hao Jiang, Jun Cui, Chun-Lin Zhou and Bo-Ping Tang
...ividuals’ data indicated that there were significant correlations of abundances distribution among seasons (P < 0.050). The distribution of A. vulgare varied among different forests, and then the environmental change according to the dike age increasing should be considered as the main factor explaining such variation.
...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
...erved. These results indicated that pathogenic field IBDV caused the serum biochemical changes by damaging the liver and kidney tissues with histopathological effect on lymphoid organs of chicken.
...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
...ted in several food applications. Keeping in view the increased demand of natural antimicrobial agents to control prevalence of food borne pathogens in final packaged food products as well as for food preservation/ biocontrol, this study was designed to isolate lactoferrin from milk of camel. Cation exchange resin (CM-Sephadex C-25) was used for the isolation of lactoferrin using the fast protein liquid chromatography. The lactoferrin was further characterized...
Sadia Munir1a, Asif Nadeem1a*, Maryam Javed1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3 and Sidra Manzoor1 
...morphic sites in Sahiwal cattle. Samples from Sahiwal cattle breeds were sequenced using six set of primers. A total 15 polymorphisms; 12 in intronic and 3 in exonic region, were identified. The sequences of the amplified Pit1 gene fragments were aligned with the help of BLAST for SNPs identification. This is a first report toward genetic screening of this gene at molecular level in...
Song Li1,* and Zuojian Feng2
...acteristics. Results indicated that the allopatric samples from Xizang were obviously different from all those previously defined in Yunnan. Therefore, we describe them as new subspecies P. a. muzongensis subsp. nov. Discussion on the relationships between the differentiation of P. albiventer and its environmental evolution in southwestern China are also provided.
...
Hai-Ji Zhang1, Di Zhang2, Dong-Min Hou1 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
.... All of the results indicated that A. chevrieri can adjust their physiological functions to cope with food shortage, mainly by decreasing body mass, thermogenesis and serum leptin levels.
...
Sohail Ahmed, Muhammad Arshad and Babar Hassan*
... resin treatment was indicative of effectiveness. Highest concentration of all resins significantly reduced the chances of termites’ infestation as compared to other concentrations by dipping application in contrast to coating method. Drying of woods prior to resin application was also effective in resisting termites’ infestation. The findings of treatment with resins are discu...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
...design having three replications. Planting dates were kept in main plots while, insecticide treatments were kept in sub plots. Incidence of aphid population was found in mid January. Three species of aphids: Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), Schizaphis graminum (R.) and Sitobion avenae (F.) were found infesting the wheat crop. At the time of aphid invasion crops were at different growth stages such as 1st node (crop 1), at ...
Yasemin Bircan Yildirim* and Hediye Tugce Vurmay
...run Bay at 6 different locations (local fishermen’s fish market) were evaluated. The Serratia spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae were isolated from the gill samples, while E. aerogenes, E. cloacae, Proteus vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluorescens were isolated from the fish intestine samples. E. aerogenes (68.4%), Serratia spp. (53.3%), E. clo...
Ayesha Zahid,Ammara Muazzam, Sidra Mustafa, Saba Irshad*,Malik Siddique Mahmood and Rehman Shahzad

 

...post translational modifications in a way which might have a deleterious effect on ion channels anatomy and on the whole, pave ways to the genesis of cataract.
...
Rauf Ahmad1, Karam Ahad2 and Aziz Ullah Shah3
... of fine and coarse rice category, were tested for their performance against the respective standards. In hybrid category, 58% candidates milling quality found excellent or good (head rice yield– HRY 51-70%), 23% marginal (HRY 40 – 50%) and 18% below limit (< 40%). Physically, 60% samples were extra-long size, slender shape and coarse type. Nineteen percent samples were long or medium size but slender shape an...
Jia-xiang Wang1,2,* and Peng Li1,2
...emistry. Our results indicate that the pancreas is divided into twosections: the exocrine and endocrine portion.The exocrine portionis comprised of peripheral gland cells and centroacinar cells; the endocrineportion consists of islet cells. Ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells were found in both the pancreatic exocrine portion and islets. The greatest number of ghrelin-ip cells was found in the islets, and the cell density decreased gradually from the pan...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...; practice). Results indicated all the management approaches under study performed significantly superior to farmers’ practice in terms of reduction in disease severity (32.8-43.6%), yield increase (20.9% - 26.8%) and benefit-cost ratio. Integrated approach was the best approach followed by prophylactic and curative soil disinfestations. Thus, for the present micro-level situation vascular bacterial wilt malady can be addressed by prophylactic appli
1Sitesh Chatterjee, 1Chirasree Gangopadhyay and 2Santosh Kumar Roy
...properly in seedbed application with chlorantraniliprole granule 0.4% WW/SR in seven days prior to seedling uprooting along with spraying of indoxacarb 14.5 SC /chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC /flubendiamide 48% SC in the main-field. The leaf folder was also managed properly by application of chlorantraniliprole granule in seedbed along with spraying of chlorantraniliprole/spinosad in the main-field. The incidence of dead heart...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...tional practice and replicated among 10 different household at 10 villages. Results showed that grain dressing with both neem and mustard oil under botanical approaches performed significantly superior over other approaches and traditional practice in terms reduction in percent infestation (92%), increase in germination percentage (36.04%), 88% increase in the quantity of viable seed after storage and benefit-cost ratio. Therefore, seed dressing with neem or m...
Mohammed M. Ibrahim1,2*, Y.S. Chandel1 and Anil3
...re collected from four locations representing two different agro-climatic zones of Himachal Pradesh during 2012. The findings revealed that the significant differences were observed between the populations for all characters except abdomen length, fore wing width and length of trochanter and tibia. Overall, the mean of populations for head height × width, proboscis length, thorax length, abdomen length, fore wing length × width, cubital index, hind...

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

...ia verrucosa, Digera muricata, Sida cordifolia, Ipomoea pestigridis and Trianthema portulacastrum were selected for in vitro studies. Fungal isolates namely Ascochyta cypericola, Bipolaris sp., Chaetomium globosum, Colletotrichum capsici, Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia lunata, Curvularia tuberculata, Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium sp. and Gibbago trianthemae were isolated by inoculation of parasitized weed pr...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

...nated and challenged indicated that MDA for H5N1 gradually decreased from 5.1 to 0.4 log2 and disappeared with in a month. While MDA for NDV remained 2.1 log2 until 28th day of age, the Geometric mean titers (GMT) for H5 were increased from the 7th day of age using both antigens (RE-5 antigen) and (S75/Egy/2015 antigen). Generally, GMT post-challenge was increased as the chicks overcome the infections. In conclusion, our results indica...

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...lly important disease of cattle and is caused by the LSD virus (LSDV). LSD is endemic in most countries of Africa and Middle East and can be transmitted either by mechanical as well as intrastadial and transstadial routes. Since capripoxviruses are serologically identical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. In this study, we analysed the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR)...
Süleyman Kök*
...: justify;">Turkish grey cattle (TGC) are facing the danger of extinction. Intensive breeding program has mainly been used for purebred TGC that are under the conservation of Bandırma Livestock Research Institute (BLRE) ex-situ program. This study aims to compare 3 SNP of the genetic features of purebred TGC that are under the conservation of ex-situ (51 cattle) program with the ones raised by the smallhol...
Baohua Chen1,2, Wenzhu Peng3, Jian Xu2, Jingyan Feng1,2, Chuanju Dong1,2 and Peng Xu2,3,*
...role in cellular detoxification and oxidative stress tolerance. Comparing with that in mammals, investigation of GSTs is more complicated in teleosts because of the greater pressure they suffer in aquatic environment. In this study, we identified a set of 27 GSTs including 8 classes of members in common carp genome. Both sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis exhibited that genes derived from the same GST class from d...
Rafi Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan1,*, Abdul Hafeez1, Asad Sultan1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2, Naila Chand1 and Naseer Ahmad1 
...ibuted into fifteen replicate groups (n=10), and consequently reared on five experimental diets according to a completely randomized design. Feed intake was higher in D4 group in comparison with other groups (P < 0.05). Live body weight was higher in D4 group than D2, D3 and D5 groups (P < 0.05). FCR and dressing percentage were similar among the all groups (P > 0.05). Albumin was higher in D1 group in comparison with other groups (P < 0.05), howev...
Ahmad Ali1,*, Sheikh Muhammad Azam2, Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Ghulam Mustafa1 and Mujahid Kaleem3
...758). There are five big cat species in the genus Panthera and tiger is the biggest one. Data were collected by recording observations on breeding of Royal Bengal Tiger in captivity at Bahawalpur Zoo from June 2012 to July 2014 (two years) on prescribe sheets. Data from June, 2003 to December, 2011 (nine years) were collected from zoo management. In two years study Tiger breed once and produce four cubs (female) while in nine years it breed three t...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...les from 600 different locations across the region were analyzed for isolation. Isolation was carried out on embryonated chicken eggs. Identification of H protein was undertaken through hem agglutination Inhibition (HI) test while N typing was done using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure. Out of 600 examined locations twenty two (22) H9N2
Yun Wang1,*, Lei Guan1, Jiding Chen1, Yaping Kong1, Lang Si2 and Asif Shah3
...lates will facilitates locating the route selection parameters for the proposed upcoming expressway. Using the procedures of field investigation along QTH during months of May, August and December in 2014 and 2015, we recorded the occurrence frequency, number of ungulates, and the perpendicular distance between QTH and QTR. To improve the protection mechanism for the four large ungulates viz., Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsonii, Tibetan gazell...
Muhammad Ashfaq,1 Shamim Akhtar,2 Saleem Akhtar2,* and Mariyam Masood2
...akistan, but its multiplication for inundative releases has been impacted by a hyperparasitoid, Promuscidea unfasciativentris Girault (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae: Eriaporinae). Traditionally the detection of hyperparasitoid is done by host-rearing, but that is time-consuming when working with field populations at larger scale. The current study used morphology and DNA sequences from mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I) and nuclear (internal transcribed sp...
Mehwish Faheem1,*, Saba Khaliq2 and Khalid Parvez Lone2
...nol-A, juvenile Catla catla was exposed to graded concentrations of bisphenol-A (10,100,1000μg/l) for 14 days. BPA exposure strongly elevates vtg mRNA level in fish exposed to 100μg/l but at 1000 μg/l exposure of BPA, vtg level decreased compared to 100µg/l exposed fish. These results showed that BPA has estrogenic action and cause endocrine disruption in juvenile C. catla at enviro...
Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
...se these substances to locate their prey. Twelve-arm olfactory apparatus was used to evaluate the response of C. septempunctata toward aphids and different host plants of aphids. Different horticultural plants and field crops were used singly or in combination with prey as a host. An increased numbers of C. septempunctata was observed when host plants were added with aphids. But was no significant difference in most of the combinations except whe...

Shahid Iqbal Khattak1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Khalid Naveed2 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan1

...B design with three replications. Fertilizer applications (foliar and soil) were assigned to main plots, while nitrogen levels 0, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 were kept in sub plots. Results revealed that foliar application of N significantly (P≤0.05) affected plant height (89 cm), tillers m-2 (313), grains spike-1 (48), 1000-grain weight (43.0 g) and economic yield (3760 kg ha-1). Fo...

Khurram Shahzad and Mohammad Akmal*

...he world, the split application of N is beneficial to the crops in terms to avoid N-mobility in the soil and improve its use efficiency for crops. This study, therefore, aimed to identify split applicarion of N rates and timings for wheat performance in recent weather condiction. Experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar in 2015-16 in a randomized complete block (RCBD) design with four repli

Naveed Muhammad, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Ibrahim and Salman Khan

...rried out to examine allocative efficiency among tomato growers in Mohmand Agency, Pakistan. The study is based on primary data, collected through a well designed questionnaire from a sample of 115 tomato growers. A Cobb-Douglas type production model is used to estimate tomato yield and identify important factors affecting yield. Ordinary Least Square estimates for the model indicate that machinery, seed quantity, labor, num...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Amanullah1, Zafar Islam2*,Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Umair4, Mehmood Ayaz5, Asghar Ali Khan6, Muhammad Asif2 and Ya Sakina3
... ha-1 at 12 locations across country, with highest grain yield of 3620 kg ha-1 at Agricultual Research Station ARS, Mingora, Swat, Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa. Again in NUYT-2008, Inqalab Mung outclassed among 13 candidate lines across 13 locations. It gave the highest grain yield of 1560 kg ha-1 at NIAB, Faisalabad. Provincial Seed Council (PSC), Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa, approved Dera Mu...

Furukh Faiz1,2, Muhammad Issa Khan2, Masood Sadiq2 and Haq Nawaz3

... 5 treatments and 3 replications of each treatment having 15 birds in each replication. The chicks were being provided with the standard conditions for light, water, vaccination and experimental feed for 42 days. The body weight gain, feed intake and the feed conversion ratio was observed weekly. After 42 day of the growth, the birds were slaughter with the Islamic Halal Method and the blood samples of the birds were preserv...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...uilding. Fertilizer application was the major skill stated by overwhelming majority of (95%) respondents followed by improved agricultural technology (94%) and sowing methods (93%) learned through FSC. Mass contact method was rarely used in the study area as only 10% of the respondents ranked it very high and 28% respondents reported it very low on likert scale. It can be concluded that FSC had developed the linkages of the respondents with agriculture researc...
Madiha Hashmi1, Abid Hussain1, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Farida Ahmed2, Shahbaz Aslam3,Nadeem Afzal4 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
...(HLA) genes are located on the short arm of the chromosome number 6 and position 21 and the allele frequency is associated with allergy. The study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the aero-allergens and the frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 and HLA-DRB1*12 allele in aeroallergen sensitized individuals. Blood samples of aeroallergen sensitized individuals were collected at the Allergy Centre, NIH, Islamabad. Then samples were an...
Wu Yi-qun* and Xu Xiu
...iver and the Luo River located at the middle reaches of Yellow River basin of China. The results showed that standing accounts for 32.75 % of wintering behaviors for Great Bustard, followed by the feeding behavior (27.55 %) and walking behavior (16.69 %). Alert and lying behavior account for a small proportion – 8.45 % and 7.49 %, respectively; the rest behaviors take the least proportion. With respect to rhythm, feeding and walking behavior account for ...
Noor Islam1, Muhammad Amjad2, Ehsan ul Haq3, Elizabeth Stephen1 and Falak Naz4
...84.33% up to fourth application of treatment. High mean value for honey yield (9.3 kg) was recorded by formic acid, followed by lemongrass (8.8 kg), thyme (8.5 kg), lemon (8.5 kg), basil (7.7 kg) and oregano (7.6 kg) per colony as compared with control colonies (3.8 kg) per colony.
...
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
... citrus. Average age, education and experience of the citrus growers were estimated 43.92 years, 9.74 schooling years and 17.72 years respectively. The awareness and adoption of recommended citrus practices was generally good. The results of the logit model for adoption of recommended irrigation practices however postulate positive and significant impact of citrus producing experience and family income on adoption of recommended number of irrigation and hoeing...
Koksal Karadas1* and Ibrahim Hakki Kadırhanogullari2
...ge of beekeeper (AB), education level (EL), number of full beehives (NFB), bee race (BR), the time spent in plateau (TSP), feed of autumn and spring (FAS), working period in apiculture during year (WPA), frequency of changing queen (FCQ), and controlling beehives in summer (CFB), respectively. Minimum beekeeping farm numbers for parent and child nodes were arranged as 8:4 in CART, CHAID and Exhaustive CHAID for attaining the best predictive performance in AHY....
Hassen Allaya1,2,*, Abderraouf Ben Faleh1, Manel Rebaya1, Sonia Zrelli3, Abdallah Hattour2, Jean-Pierre Quignard4 and Monia Trabelsi1
...mponent analysis (PCA), scatter plot of individual component score between PC1 and PC2 showed two morphometric groups. The linear canonical variate analysis (CVA), the overall assignments of individuals into their original groups was 95.13%. The morphometric and meristic analysis were fully congruent and confirm the occurrence of two potential differentiated groups. This variation of morphometric and meristic characters in specimens from two populations could ...

Aftab Wajid1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Awais2, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman3*, M. Aown Sammar Raza2, Usman Bashir2, Muhammad Naveed Arshad1, Sana Ullah4, Muhammad Irfan5 and Umair Gull1
 

...on yield beyond the application of 200 kg N ha-1. It is predicted that seed cotton yield increased with additional increment of nitrogen (>200 kg ha-1) but it is not significant change in yield per unit increment as compared with previous ones. 

...

Niamatullah Khan1*, Najeeb Ullah2, Inam Ullah2 and Asif Imran Shah1

...and DNH-57). Results indicated that earlier sowing produced extra vegetative growth rather than seed cotton yield while late planting induced flowering and boll formation when temperature was much cold that adversely affected cotton yield. The results further illustrated that, genotype DNH-105 ranked first for plant population, sympodia per plant, bolls per plant, weight per boll and seed cotton yield when sown on April 01. CIM-616 was the 2nd suitable variety...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...encies regarding identification of input supply dealers’ malpractices and evaluation of pesticide companies activities. Timely appointment and delegation of authorities to subordinate staff were the top two utmost possessed competencies to perform efficiently and effectively of their assigned responsibilities followed by the third top ranked competency of helping field assistants to plan extension activities. The lowest competencies of AEOs reported were...
Shuangye Wang1, Yunlin Zhao1, Zhenggang Xu1,2,*, Li Li3, Liang Wu1, Choucang Duan1 and Jiao Peng1

 

...ere classified into nine categories: resting, feeding, moving, excreting, parental behaviour, embellishing, rutting, vigilance and social behaviour. This study analyzed the time-allotment and behavioural rhythms for resting, feeding, moving, and excreting categories. The result showed that before 9:00 and after 18:00 hours, the Miluwere almost always resting. Resting behaviour was exhibited and maintained at a high frequency...

Murad Ali1, Farmanullah Khan1, Wiqar Ahmad2* and Imran Khan1

...ustify;">Fertilizer application from integrated organic and inorganic sources is universally accepted agronomic practice for improved yield and soil properties. However, determination of a suitable dose from either source that could beneficially and easily combine to give maximum output still needs lots of research. The experiment was conducted during wheat season 2014-15 on a selected water eroded site in District Swabi. Fourteen treatments viz the control (T...
Muhammad Hanif1,*, Naureen Rana1, Muhammad Akbar Khan2, Muhammad Javed1 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1
...h; Early Pliocene) are located in district Attock, Punjab, Pakistan. The recovered material comprises isolated premolars and molars. The identified species of hipparionines include Hipparion sp. small, Cormohipparion sp., Sivalhippus cf. nagriensis, and Sivalhippus cf. theobaldi. These specimens provide additional information about the recorded species and contribute to recent work of Perissodactyla from the Middle Siw...
Ghulam Abbas1,Asif Nadeem1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Muhammad Sajid Tahir3, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3, Muhammad Tayyab1 and Maryam Javed1
...A extraction and quantification, amplification of gene was done by polymerase chain reaction. PCR products were sequenced bi-directionally, aligned and single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Bioinformatics tools were applied for construction of phylogenetic tree and genetic diversity analysis. Lower genetic diversity was observed. The finding of this research is prerequisite for future research.
...

Muhammad Ibrahim and Ahmad Khan*

... emergence m-2, the application of 50% FYM had increased plant at harvest (2%) over control (no-fertilized) plots. In conclusion, the plastic mulching had increased emergence. Thus a more optimum source of 50% N from farmyard and 50% from urea would be more suitable for appropriate phenological stages and improved crop stand.

...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Tasneem Hameed1, Muhammad Afzal2, Arshad Javid3, Nosheen Aslam4, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah6, Majid Hussain5, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1 and Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1
...in the diets. Three replicate groups of 15 fish (Average weight 5.05±0.013 g fish-1) were fed at the rate of 5% of live wet weigh and feces were collected twice daily. The results of present study showed improved growth performance of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings in response to phytase supplementation. Maximum growth performance was observed by the fish group fed on test diet-III having 1000 FTU kg-1 level. Similarly, nutri...
Ali Karabacak1, Senol Celik2, Adile Tatliyer3, Ismail Keskin1, Yakup Erdal Erturk4, Ecevit Eyduran5, Yasir Javed6 and Mohammad Masood Tariq7,*
...ya province conditions located in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. For measuring the predictive performance of three algorithms in Models I and II, goodness of fit criteria (coefficient of determination (R2%), adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R2%), coefficient of variation (CV%), SD ratio, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Relative Approximation Error (RAE), and Pearson correlation coefficient between actual and predicted val...

Attaullah Khan1, Muhammad Shafi1*, Jehan Bakht2 and Shazma Anwar1

...gn (CRD) with three replications. The response of fourteen wheat varieties at two seed treatments (primed with 50 mM CaCl2 and un-primed) with four salinity levels (0, 45, 90, 135 mM) was studied in sand as growth media. The results revealed that incremental increase of salinity stresses had decreasing effect on growth parameters compared with control. Highest germination (85.42% and 84.31%) was recorded from wheat varieties (Lalma-2013 and Pirsabak-2005). Min...

Sania Shaheen1*, Hina Fatima2 and Muhammad Azeem Khan3

...is 86 percent, which indicates that rice farmers in selected areas can increase the production of rice 14 percent only by managing efficiency level, without increasing input quantities. Hence, it is possible for rice farmers to increase rice output without increasing the level of inputs by using efficient management practices. 

...
Netti Aryani1, Azrita2, Ainul Mardiah3 and Hafrijal Syandri2*
... weight, with three replicates per treatment. Fish were fed three times per day at 09:00, 14:00, and 18:00. The experiment was carried out for 120 days. Each month, 30 fish were removed from each of the floating net cages to be measured and weighed. The biomass of fish was calculated, and the amount of feed was adjusted. The feeding rate significantly (p< 0.05) influenced the final fish weight, net weight gain (NWG), average daily growth (ADG), specific gro...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,Waqas Wakil2 andMuhammad Hussnain Babar3

 

...;1.66%) in combined application of NPV and flubendiamide. Dose of flubendamide was the key factor for type of interaction, its combination with NPV at lower dose showed synergistic interaction (CTF≥20). While rest of the combination showed additive effect (CTF≤20). Integration of NPV and flubendiamide proved more fatal at higher concentrations than the individual application at lower concentration for pupation and adul...
Talha Nazir1,2,*, Muhammad Dildar Gogi2, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Waheed ul Hassan2, Abdul Hanan2 and Muhammad Jalal Arif
...te block with three replications for each treatment. Transgenic (Bt) cotton variety (FH-118) was sown. Insecticide formulations were applied according to their field recommended dose rates upon attainment of ETLs of most of the sucking insect pests. Data regarding insect populations were recorded 3 and 7 day post treatment. Results revealed that Confidor proved to be most effective systemic insecticide against all insect pests, followed by Pouch, Senator, Blas...
Mehran Kausar1,2, Naveed Ashraf3, Farzana Hayat4, Asraf Hussain Hashmi1, Saima Siddiqi1,* and Mariam Anees2
...he clinical findingsimplicated CTSK and the use of direct sequencing provided a precise molecular diagnosis. Theidentification of the same variant in CTSK as identified in other families from Pakistan suggests that it is common due to a founder effect.
...
Tiansen Li1, Meiling Huang2, Zhen Wang1,Fei Guo3,Hui Zhang1,* and Chuangfu Chen1,*
...sed to 2308. Results indicate that Δomp10 mutant would affect its survival and pathogenicity.
...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

... in northwest Pakistan located close to the center of diversity of P. striiformis f.sp. tritici. Around 1600 wheat fields were sampled covering a geographical area of little less than 5000 acres in the southern, central and northern zones located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. Yellow rust occurrence was distributed over an area of 463 acres in all three wheat production zones. Maximum yellow rust impact values (es...

Raza Ullah1*, Qaisar Shah Safi2, Ghaffar Ali3 and Irfan Ullah

...d using proportional allocation method. The findings revealed that majority of the farmers sold their orchards to the pre-harvest contractors. The most widely used marketing channel was producers selling their orchard to pre-harvest contractor who then harvest the orchard, pack the produce and transport it to the market where the produce is handed to wholesalers. Wholesalers then channel the produce to retailer from where the ultimately consumers buy the produ...
Kadir Karakuş1, Bahat Comba2, Abuzer Taş3, Tunahan Sancak3, Arzu Comba2, Devrim Saripinar Aksu4, Hasan Koyun5 and Mohammad Masood Tariq6,*
...2015 from Livestock Application and Research Directorate of Yuzuncu Yil University. The sheep were randomly allocated into three groups each of which contained 10 sheep. The groups were formed as; Group 1 The Control Group (No castration), Group 2 (Surgical castration group) and Group 3 (Chemical castration group), respectively. Blood sample was taken from vena jugularis of the animals before the appli<...
Kulsoom Akhter1, Tahseen Ghous1,2,Saiqa Andleeb3,*, Faiz-ul-Hassan Nasim4, Samina Ejaz5, Zain-ul-Abdin1, Bilal Ahmed Khan1 and Muhammed Naeem Ahmed1
... with isolation, identification and characterization of some indigenous heavy metal resistant bacteria isolated from rhizosphere of Tagetes minuta, growing in soil adjoining automobile workshops to investigate their bioaccumulation capacity for three selected metals Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II). The plant was selected due to its natural abundance in the climate of Kashmir and also in the area of study. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, 16S rRNA g...

Kamran A. Awan1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal3

... plots having three replications. Sowing dates were assigned to main plots and wheat varieties (i.e. Shahkar-2013, Atta-Habib-2010, Pakhtunkhwa-2015, Hashim, Dharabi, Chakwal-50, Pakistan-2013 and Ghanemat-2015) to sub plots. Results revealed that sowing dates and varieties significantly affected yield and yield related traits. Sowing made on November 25 showed higher yield than the expected early sown on November 15 or late sown thereafter on December 5 in se...

Fawad Ali1*, Hidayat Ullah2, Ikhtiar Khan1

... regression analysis indicates that concentration of the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn) in vegetables are significantly correlated at R2 value of 0.956 at P≤0.001 with their extractable concentration in soil. Health risk index (HRI) has been found>1 for Pb in Abelmoschus esculentus while rest of the heavy metals have been noted less than 1 indicating relative absence of risk concerned with ingestion of adulterated ve...
Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Rashid A. khan2, Muhammad Rafay3, Tanveer Hussain3, Tahira Ruby4,Fariha Rehman5, Sangam Khalil3 and Sohail Akhtar6
Hameeda Kalhoro1, Abdul Malik2,Ghulam Abbas2,*, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Sajjad Ali Shah4and Haleema Kalhoro3
... tested following 2 replications i.e. first treatment (T1, Squid feed), second treatment (T2, Tubifex feed) and third treatment (T3, pellet feed). Juveniles were fed with 5% of total biomass twice in a day. At the end, higher growth increments were found such as length and weight in average, T1=15.01±0.33cm and 15.80±0.01g, T3=14.13±0.76cm and 13.35±0.67g whereas in T2
Tanveer Ahmad1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Azeem Khan2 and Shahid Zia3
...le portable sisal decorticator for extracting fibre from sisal leaves. A prototype of sisal decorticator was designed and fabricated at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. The prototype machine was tested for fibre extraction. Results indicated that sisal fibre production capacity of this m...
Lu Liu1, Sher Khan Panhwar2, Tianxiang Gao3, Zhiqiang Han3, Chunhou Li4, Dianrong Sun4 and Na Song1,*
...NA barcoding for identification.
...

Sadia*, Abdur Rab, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Irfan Ullah, Farida Bibi and Islam Zeb

...eblossoming and GA3 application on fruit drop and growth of winter guava was carried out in Horticulture Farm at The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during 2016. RCB Design was used for this experiment with three replications i.e. factor A was Deblossoming Time (Control, May, June, July, August and September) and factor B was GA3 application (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm). Res...
Saleem Khan1, Amir Hamza2, Farhadullah Khan3, M. Subhan4, Aziz Khan1, Irfan Ali Shah1, Shakirullah Khan Shakir3*
...ign (RCBD) in three replicates in the green house. Radiation effects were observed on some agronomic traits like Plant height, Number of branches plant-1, number of bolls plant-1, Fiber Fineness and yield of seed. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences for radiation treatments, genotypes and interaction for treatments × genotypes regarding plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of boll...
Zuhao Huang*, Meifang Li, Rujue Ruan and Jiawei Qin
...rdeidae species had duplicate control regions, except four species having only single region. The control region spans the region between the genes for tRNAGlu - tRNAPhe in the most Ardeidae species. The length of the control region sequences ranged from 1427 bp (Ixobrychus flavicollis) to 3871 bp (Botaurus stellaris). The average genetic distances among the species varied from 5.39% (between Egretta sacra and Egre...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...t difference in their education (p-value 0.0002). The prevalence of C allele was 13.5% in disease, 5.83% in controls and found significant with p-value 0.007. These findings suggest that c.G745C in COMT gene has a significant association and a possible role in the OCD development in Pakistani patients.
...

Syed Tanveer Shah* and Muhammad Sajid 

...pre-harvest calcium application on the post harvest life of peach. The research was laid out in Randomized Complete Block (RCB) Design with three factors replicated three times. Peach fruit trees at berry stage were sprayed with three sources of calcium (calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and calcium sulphate) at three calcium concentrations (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0%) stored for 30 days at 10 days interval. The experimental results...

Abdur Rab1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Naveed Ahmad1, Khalid Nawab2, Syed Ghias Ali3

...e of foliar calcium application on tomato crop grown in saline conditions was investigated by exposing tomato plants to 0, 75 and 150 mM salinity; and foliar application of 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25% calcium solutions. Salinity stress increased leaf Na+ and Na+/ K+, fruit firmness and blossom end rot (BER) incidence but significantly decreased the leaf K+ and Ca content of the fruit and yield. The foliar calcium appli...

Mian Ahmad Raza*, Ghulam Hassan and Naqib Ullah Khan 

... design using three replications in the subsequent wheat growing season of 2012-13. For days to maturity, F1 cross combination PS × FS among the F1 hybrids showed earliness (160.7) whereas F1 cross combination BST × SRN and JNB × BST ranked first among the crosses for spike length (15.9 cm). Among the F1 hybrids, FS × SRN and TTR × BST displayed maximum spikelets spike-1 (24.3) whereas for F1 cross combinations, FS × SRN and...
Furqan Sabir1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Bushra Muneer2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Sehrish Firyal1
...R resulted in the amplification of 1.8 kb phytase gene. SDS-PAGE confirmed the size of recombinant protein as 70 kDa. The optimization studies demonstrated the maximal production of recombinant phytase, when the recombinant cells were induced with 1.4 mM IPTG with the post induction time of 6 hours. PHYTN showed maximal activity at 80°C in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 6. Presence of Fe3+ or Cu2+ showed an enhancing effect...
Asad Abdullah1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Waqar Hassan2,    Samina Khalid3, Yasir Iftikhar4, Muhammad Arshad1 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa5,6
...n cultivars. Foliar application of neem seed, Azadirachta indica extract was applied upon reaching economic threshold levels of B. tabaci and A. biguttula. The insect pest population was recorded 24 hours before and 24h, 72h and 168h after spray. Maximum reduction of 60.20% of B. tabaci on Bt cotton was recorded at 6% NSE while at 2% concentration of NSE after 148 hrs, 39. 16% reduction was observed. While maximum reduction o...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos1,*, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Elsayeid O. Swilam1 and Mu’ath Q. Al-Ghadi3
...idiosis. The results indicated that feed intake and production efficiency factor (PEF) did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between Elancoban and natural products. However, treatment had a significant effect on BWG and FCR (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively), chicks which had received Elancoban had the highest BWG (327.9 g) and converted the feed to gain with highest efficiency (1.444 g: g). Challenged birds had longer small intestines and heavier liv...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Arshad1, Mubasshir Sohail1,2 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa3,4
... measures including application of chemicals are adapted to resistor the influx of mites in hives of honey bee. The indiscriminate use of pesticides involve many problems; cause resistance in mites, residual in honey, wax and potentially hazardous to man and environment. Plant-derived mixtures are normally more easily degradable and could show a minor undesirable impact on environment with respect to synthetic compounds. This study was planned to check the eff...

Muhammad Sohail1, Muhammad Nauman-ul-Islam1, Hayazuddin2*, Imtiaz Ali Shah1, Abdur Raziq1, Subhan Ullah3 and Arsalan Ali Shah1

...ilk composition of Achai cattle. A total 24 lactating Achai cows of first parity were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups viz. A, B and C on the basis of physiological and productive status (n= 08). Experimental animals were allocated to diet containing zero (control), 12 and 18 percent MSC. All the three rations were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogeniuos. Each cow was given a daily feed ration according to NARC standards...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...of two hundred and fifty cattle and one hundred and fifty buffaloes. Descriptive statistics with Pearson’s Chi-square test and regression model were applied to analyze the data. The results of study found Rhepicephalus the most prevalent genus followed by Heamaphysalis, Hyalomma, Dermacenter and Amblyomma with the prevalence of 78.50%, 10.33%, 10.08%, 0.67% and 0.42%, respectively. On species basis, R. (Boophilus) annulatus, <...
Aqsa Qayyum1*, Masooma Munir1, Saeeda Raza1, Mussarat Gillani1, Saima Kanwal1, Nouman Rashid1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Zarmina Gillani2
...ative study. Results indicated rheological parameters including water absorption, dough development time, dough stability, gluten content and falling no. values differed significantly (p < 0.01) among all the treatments of composite flour. Wet and dry gluten content decreased from 22.16 ± 1.58 % (T0) to 16.43 ± 1.32 % (T3) and 7.46 ± 0.47 % (T0) to 5.03 ± 0.38 % (T3) respectively. With ...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...to both pre-harvest application of salicylic acid and drought treatments. The design of the experiment was a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five water regimes (150ml, 175ml, 200ml, 225ml, 250ml) and five levels of SA at (0.0mML-1, 0.5mML-1 1mML-1, 2mML-1, and 3mML-1) as the main factors and four replications. The experiments were conducted in the ...
Aqsa Mehboob1, Noor Khan1,*, Usman Atiq1, Khalid Javed Iqbal2, Rafia Tayyab1, Syeda Suhaira Batool1, Hafiza Saleha Batool1, Sana Amjad1 and Mehwish Tanveer1 
...y composition of striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus. The experiment was conducted in fiberglass tank having capacity of 18 L water with a stocking density of 25 fish fry per aquaria. There were two treatment groups; T1, T2 and a control (T0) each was replicated twice. Fenugreek as an additive was added in experimental feed at the rate of 0.5% in T1 and 1.0% in T2
Nasira Kazi1, Muhammad Israr2 and Shahina Fayyaz1,*
...ale body, lip region truncate, offset by weak depression, odontostyle 21.4-23.2 µm long is and 2.8-3 µm wide, twice as long as the lip region width; vulva longitudinal; female tail 5.9-6.6 anal body diameter long, dorsally curved; prerectum 1.7-2.6 anal body diameter long.Plectus (Ceratoplectus) armatus (Butschli, 1873) Andrassy, 1984 is recorded for the first time in Pakistan and is briefly described and illustrated.
...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Wasiullah1 and Wiqar Ahmad

...gn (CRD) with three replications. Six treatments consisted of a control (no strains) and 5 different strains of cyanobacteria i.e Oscillatory-MMF-1 (Oscillatoria princeps), Leptolyngbaya-MMF-2 (Lyngbya mucicola), Leptolyngbaya- MMF-3 (Lyngbya Phormidium), Gloeobacter-MMF-4 (Gloeocapsa) and Microcoleus-MMF-5 (Cryophilus) were applied randomly to flooded rice in pots. Rice seedlings were transplanted to each pot on July 18, 2016. The data were recorded on agrono...

Abdus Subhan1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2 and M. Jamil Khan

...clude compost @5 t ha-1, cattle manure @ 5 t ha-1, compost + cattle manure each @ 2.5 t ha-1, NPK @ 150:120: 90 and control (without amendments), replicated four times. The results revealed that organic and inorganic amendments, irrespective of their kind and combinations, exerted significant (p≤0.05) variation in plant growth, yield parameters of wheat and water use efficiency. The ino...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali

...nerated. The results indicated that optimal embryo physiological age is 15 and 18 days after pollination and transient transformation efficiency decreased at 22 days after pollination. Enhanced transient beta glucuronidase (GUS) expression with average frequency of 40.56% was noticed with three days of co-cultivation period while two days of co-cultivation period resulted 24.07% transient GUS expression. Addition of 100 mgL-1 L-cysteine in co-cultivation mediu...

Ghani Akbar1, Steven Raine2, Allen David McHugh3, Greg Hamilton4 and Qurban Hussain5 

...ed existing average application efficiency of low quarter (AE lq) 71%, 87%, distribution uniformity of low quarter (DU lq) 70%, 80% and adequacy of low quarter (AD lq) 100 %, 90% for NB and WB, respectively. Majority (67%) of WB irrigations monitored were under irrigated while large number (50%) of NB irrigation were over irrigated. Simulation modelling showed that achievement of above 90% Potential Application Efficiency...
Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Atif Prince3, Naimat Ullah Khan1 and Mumtaz Ali Khan1
...ne. Thirty-five pregnant cattle were selected and seven groups were made consisting five cattle. Group A was controls: Animals in Group B and C were at 45 days prepartum with and without VES: animals in D and E were at day 60 prepartum with and without VES: animals in F and G were at 75 days prepartum stage with and without VES: respectively. At day 0 of experimental trial VES was given to animals in group C, E and G. All gr...
Habibun Nabi1, Saher Islam2, Amna Arshad Bajwa2, Imran Rashid1,*, Haroon Akbar1, Wasim Shehzad2, Kamran Ashraf1, Nisar Ahmad1 and Aneela Durrani3
...ater. Fecal samples from cats at Pet center of UVAS (Lahore, Pakistan) were screened for coccidian parasites through microscopy examination. DNA was extracted from positive fecal samples for coccidian parasites and a T. gondii PCR was performed. Five sets of primers were designed using PrimerSelect tool for PCR to amplify SAG2 gene 5’ and 3’ regions. Sequences of 5 fragments of SAG2 were annotated and analyzed using DNASTAR Lasergene. After ...
Zia-ur-Rehaman1, Naila Chand1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Rifat Ullah Khan2,*
...ubdivided into four replicates having ten chicks per replicate. Blood was collected on weekly basis from day 21 to 42. Mean serum antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND) and serum paraoxonase (PON1) were significantly higher (P< 0.05) in TN zone, while serum malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly (P< 0.05) higher in HAT zone. No significant differences were recorded in serum antibody titer against ND, PON1 and M...

 Zabih Ullah*, H. Rahman and Niaz Muhammad

...ts in the geographical location of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The experiment was conducted at The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during the cropping season of 2016. Randomized complete block design was used, having two replications and 35 genotypes, comprised of 33 hybrids and two local checks. Data were recorded on days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% anthesis, days to 50% silking, anthesis silking interval, plant height and ea...
Rehmat Ullah1*, Kalim Ullah2, Inam Ullah3, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Asif Nawaz1 
...ents demonstrate that education, frequency of FAs visits, accessibility of FAs office and establishment of demonstration have highly significant association with provision of new knowledge at (P≤0.01) level of probability. Analysis of variance confirms that most of the farmers with more than 20 hectare land visit the offices of FAs more frequently. Rank Based Quotient technique depicted that the top priority problem identified in the study area was the scar...
Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Shahid, Abdul Shakoor*, Muhammad Safeer, Imran Khan, Ayesha Farooq, Iftkhar Ali and Usman Nazir
...methods of B and Zn application in maize and ultimately enhance profitability. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement during autumn 2015. Treatments were replicated three times. The treatments were comprised of C = no Zn and B (Control); Zn (S) = soil application of Zn @ of 12 kg ha-1; B (S): soil appli...

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...st important factor implicated in the angiogenic processes is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and its family of ligands and receptors (VEGFRs). Survival, proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells which give rise to the vascular network, is mediated through VEGF/VEGFR activation of the signal transduction pathways. Thus blocking VEGF is an efficient strategy for blocking tumor angiogenesis. Several anti-VEGF drugs have been de...
Naheed Bano* and Muhammad Afzal
...sh were used. The acidification levels were (0, 1.5 and 3%) whereas the phytase levels were (0, 500 and 1000 FTU). The addition of 3 % citric acid and 1000FTU phytase produced significant interaction effect on calcium and phosphorus digestibility and different body contents of L. rohita. Phytase and citric acid increased the digestibility of calcium and phosphorus with improvement in body dry matter, protein, fat, energy and ash contents of L. rohita...

Akerele Dare*, Ashaolu Olumuyiwa Fowowe, Sanusi Rahman Akintayo and Egbetade Adedolapo 

... amounts of the fund allocated to each subsector from 1982 to 2013 were subjected to econometrics (time series) analysis. Results established positive and statistically significant influence of the amount of fund apportioned to crop (p<0.01) and livestock (p<0.05) subsectors on output growth in the respective subsectors. Likewise, the amount of the fund allocated to fishery subsector on fish output has positive influen...

Trinh Thi Viet Ha1, Pham Duy Liem2 and Li Shuang1* 

... upward trend, which indicates Sino-Vietnam have a potential trade cooperation 

...
Nosheen Rafiq1, Asmatullah Kakar2,*, Arshad Ghani3, Asim Iqbal2, Wali Mohammad Achakzai2, Shagufta Sadozai2, Mohammad Shafiq4 and Mohammad Alam Mengal5 
...s permiginu s cattlewas conducted in farm houses at three main regions (Western by-pass, Spiny village, and Sariab region) of District Quetta from March, 2013 to March, 2014.   Around 1649 ticks were captured from six main body parts of 404 cattle. Of these 346 (65.96%) were observed to be plagued by one or more tick infestation. Compositions of tick species captured from the host were Hyalomma anatolicum ...
Shengyan Su, Zaijie Dong*, Wenbin Zhu, Lanmei Wang and Jianjun Fu 
... produced to explore the catch-up like growth from diallel cross-breeding due to its similarity with high growth speed in the later period for common carp Cyprinus carpio L cross-breeding. A compensatory index matrix for 3×3 full diallel cross combinations used for selection was built to investigate compensatory like growth of each combination. Yes/No(Y/N) effect was determined for specific combination dyads, which there were significant differenc...

Amjad Ali1*, Sher Aslam Khan2, Abid Farid2, Ayub khan2, Shah Masaud Khan2 and Naushad Ali2 

...k design with three replications at Sugar Crops Research Institute Mardan during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The studies were conducted in two plant crops to calculate broad sense heritability (repeatability), genetic gain and correlations among the parameters, and establish selection criteria.Highly significant (p ≤ 0.01) differences were found among the genotypes for number of tillers, plant height, cane length,number of nodes, internodes length,number of millab...

Arshad Iqbal1*, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil1, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1 and Muhammad Sharif Kakar

...k design with three replications was used in the experiment. Data were recorded on yield and some other important plant traits like days to heading (days), days to maturity (days), flag leaf area (cm2), spike length (cm), grains spike-1 (no.), grains weight spike-1 (g), biological yield (kg ha-1) and grain yield (kg ha-1). Mean performance of genotypes showed that all the spring wheat genotypes performed well for all the traits. Spring wheat cultivar Tatara sh...

Sikandar Hayat, Khalid Usman* and Muhammad Tahir Amin 

...priate N fertilizer application method may be a possible solution. Field trials were carried out to explore suitable row spacing and N fertilizer application method for zero tillage wheat at Agronomic Research Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (D. I. Khan), Pakistan in 2015-2016 wheat growing season. The experimental design was randomized complete block with split plot arrangement repli
Jiandong Wu, Miao Ye and Zaigui Wang*
...ive extraction and purification of total flavonoids from corn silk, and the anti-hyperlipidemic activities was analyzed in rabbits by feeding experiment. Firstly, the high extraction yield (5.32 mg·g-1) of total flavonoids were obtained under the optimal extraction conditions, which are 80°C for 3 h with corn silk over 60% ethanol ratio of 1:30. Then, the AB-8 resin was selected for the purification of ...
Prof. Dr. Saira Afzal
...s have far reaching implications especially in health and medical publications. The quality assurance mechanism in medical journals has to be stringent and flawless. The peer review systems are continuously being criticized, debated and updated. It may be open peer review or blind peer review, both have advantages and disadvantages. Open peer review is performed for scientific quality after publicat<...
Ayesha Aihetasham1,*, Muhammad Saeed Akhtar1, Maryam Umer1, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Muhammad Imran Din3
...hyl ester, 9,12,15 Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, 8, 11, 14-Eicosatrienoic acid and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester. Extracts of both the plants were found repellent to this termite. LT50 values of O. basilicum and F. vulgare against Heterotermes indicola were 60.91 and 115.9 h, respectively.
...
Müge Aliye Hekimoğlu*, Cüneyt Süzer,Şahin Saka andKürşat Firat
...oil. For short-term application the safe dose for clownfish was 0.4 ml/l phenoxyethanol and 1 ml/l clove oil. For swordtail fish, the ideal amount of phenoxyethanol was 5 ml/l and 6 ml/l clove oil. These safe doses reduce handling stress and mortality.
...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
...ani-08 variety. Two applications of insecticide, (imidacloprid @ 625 ml/ hectare), significantly controlled the aphid population and enhanced the yield of all wheat varieties. The higher aphid infestations in untreated plots resulted in less chlorophyll content and reduced photosynthetic activity. Photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll contents were significantly higher in insecticide treated plots. Maximum cost-benefit ratio was found (1:9.2) in NW-1-8183-8 when...
Mubashir Hussain1,Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Ijaz Ahmad2*, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3 and Sohail Latif4
...k extraction methods indicated that sieving was cost-effective, less time consuming, more user friendly with higher accuracy over seedling emergence method. 
...
Tahira*, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan and Mubashar Ahmad Khan
...coefficient analysis indicated that in both years, the direct effects of pod length and number of pods per plant on grain yield were positive and of high magnitude. Finally, it was concluded that the trait pods per plant can be exploited for the improvement of seed yield in rapeseed.
...
Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz
...howed that nitrogen application @ 150 % N of recommended dose with drill sowing proved to be the most cost effective technique for fodder oat production in salt affected soil as compared to other treatments.
...

 Zeenat Bano1,*, Sajid Abdullah1, Waqas Ahmad2, Muhammad Anjum Zia3 and Wardah Hassan1

...eroxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in vital organs (gills, liver and kidney) of fish, Cirrhina mrigala. The 3 different representative water samples and 60 fish samples (20 fish from each site) were collected from three sites i.e. fish-farm, hatchery and Indus River of Punjab, Pakistan. The results showed differences in physico-chemical parameters of...
Carolina A. Bonin1,2, Eric A. Lewallen2,3, Andre J. van Wijnen3, Marta Jussara Cremer4 and Paulo C. Simões-Lopes5*
...stal dolphin species indicate that marine mammal populations are susceptible to rapid decline. Yet, effective conservation efforts depend on population-level ecological data. To obtain principal baseline data that will inform management efforts, we characterized the habitat and recorded the behaviour of a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) population within one of the most well-preserved estuaries off southern Brazil. Monthly surveys were conducted for...
Zhenyu Chang1, Hui Zhang1, Khalid Mehmood1,2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman1, Xiaodan Yuan1, Zhaoyang Li1, Fazul Nabi1, Xiaoxing Wu1, Xinxin Tian1, Xueting Liu1, Jingen Xu3 and Donghai Zhou1,*
...ment. These findings indicate that TFF3 attenuates LPS-induced cell damage, and TFF3 mRNA expression is influenced by LPS and rhTFF3 in intestinal mucous epithelial cells in piglets.
...
Minmin Chen1, Xiaoke Zhang1, Kexiong Wang2, Zhigang Liu1, An Wan3, Daoping Yu1,*, Hong Ji3 and Fangzhen Peng1
Farid S. Ataya,1,2,* Dalia Fouad,3,4 Ajamaluddin Malik,1 Nikolaos E. Labrou,5 Mohamed S. Daoud1,6 and Hesham M. Saeed7
...protein and showed to be catalyticly active towards the model substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. The results of the present study provide new information into camelid evolution and give further insights into the diversity and complex enzymatic functions of GST superfamily.
...
Jianping Li1, Qian Jiang2, Wei Chen2, Yumei Li3, Huaizhi Jiang4, Jinlong Huo5 and Qiaoling Zhang2*
...tant role in the multiplication, migration and survival of melanophores. As of yet, no studies have addressed the diverse expression of the KIT gene and its protein ingoats of different fur colors. The effect of KIT mutations on KIT protein expression was examined in white cashmere and black cashmere goats. A single A→G missense mutation in exon 13 differentiated cashmere goats with different colors. Only a histidine (H)→arginine...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Madeeha Khalid1, Rehman Shehzad1, Sana Mughal1 and A.R. Shakoori2 
...sed to monitor the purification steps, and protein band was located by immunoblotting technique. Bubaline placental lactogen was purified to homogeneity and showed a molecular weight of about 30 kD. Purified placental lactogen was administered to male albino mice for up to eight weeks for growth promoting activity. Increased mammary growth was observed in test female non lactating mice, as compared to controls when placental...
Teresa Napiórkowska* and Julita Templin
...riment based on the application of temperatures of 14 and 32°C changed every 12 h for the first ten days of spider embryogenesis.
...

Muhammad Anas1, Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar2*, Raza Ullah1, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Sohail Latif5 

...in RCB design with triplicate run. The treatments included viz. Four sunflower plants m-2 + 30 mungbean m-2, 6 sunflower plants m-2 + 30 mungbean plants m-2, 8 sunflower plants m-2 + 30 mungbean plants m-2, 4 plants m-2 of sunflower alone, 6 plants m-2 of sunflower alone, 8 plants m-2 of sunflower alone and 30 plants m-2 of mungbean alone. Plant population was maintained by keeping 75 cm apart single rows of sunflower and 50 cm apart double rows of mungbean bo...
Sher Khan Panhwar1,2,3, Zhou Yong Dong1,4,*, Gao Tianxiang1,3, Wang Ping5, Han Zhiqiang1, Wang Zhongming1,4 and Wang Yang1,4
... 2004, 2009 and 2013 and catch and effort data from 2000~2012. Length frequency data for 8,350 individuals were collected using pair trawl nets. The predominant size classes in the catch comprised of 130−374 mm in 2001, 83−360 mm in 2004, 53−355 mm in 2009, and 23−389 mm in 2013. Growth parameters of asymptotic length ranged from 515.6 to 768.6 mm in 2004 and 2009, growth coefficients ranged from 0.23...
Jing Xin Mao1,2, Guo Wei Wang2, Yuan She Huang3, Rui Wang2, Guo Ze Wang4, Bing Zeng1 and Fu Yuan Zuo1,*
... a pluripotent protein located in neutrophils and tissue that likely plays a vital role in host defense against GNB (gram-negative bacteria) and their endotoxin by means of its antibiotic and endotoxin neutralizing and disposing functions. BPI has several biological functions in mammals such as human, bovine, pig and rabbit, it also has major influence in the natural defense of the animal body. In this paper, by comparative study on BPI gene expression in vari...
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
...identified proteins were categorized into 16 classes, which are mainly including energy metabolism, gene expression regulation, oxidation-reduction reaction, cellular component and stress responses, and the stress proteins including Mn-superoxide dismutase and thaumatin-like protein. The results means that mulberry young fruits can regulate the expression levels of multiple proteins to reply popcorn disease and these pathogenesis-related proteins provide ...
LX Ye1,2, JX Wang1,2,*, P Li1,2 and XT Zhang1,2 
...aped. These findings indicate that ghrelin may participate in the spermatogenesis in the African ostrich. Further studies into this regulation will help clarify the physiological roles played by this hormone in the African ostrich.
...

Shaista Naz* and Noor Paio Khan 

...ong the livestock types, cattle were the major one followed by goats and sheep. Livestock was found significant at household level in two aspects of income provision and of lowering household and farm budget. Livestock income was derived from the sale of milk, milk products (such as yogurt, butter and butter oil), other products (like farm yard manure and dung cakes) and animals which included calves, goats and sheep mainly. The major share of livestock income...

Muhammad Asad1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Ramzan Ansar2, Ijaz Ahmad3*, Muhammad Suhaib4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

...gn (RCBD) with four replications, with a plot size of 06 x 04 m2. Four different herbicides were applied as post emergence with three different doses each viz:,Ally max @ 34.58, 46.11 and 23.04 g ha-1, Lihua @ 53.34, 72.4 and 36.23 g ha-1, and Wheat Star @ 370.5, 494 and 247 g ha-1 and Buctril super 60% EC @ 741, 988 and 494 ml ha-1. An untreated control and hand weeded plot was also included in the trial. Wheat variety AUR-2009 was sown as a test crop and the...

Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Muhammad Tahir2, Abid Ali3, Manzoor Hussain3, Muhammad Waheed Anwar4, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 and Ijaz Ahmad

...lot arrangement in triplicate run. Results from the experiment revealed that both the factors significantly affected all the parameters under study while their interactive effect was non-significant. Among green biomass incorporation treatments, maximum plant height (168.34 cm) cob length (16.32 cm), number of grains per cob (410), 1000-grain weight (200.22 g), biological yield (16.63 t ha-1) grain yield (5.75 t ha-1) harvest index (34.22 %) and grain protein ...

Ehtisham Shakeel Khokhar1*, Amir Shakeel1, Muhammad Amir Maqbool1, Muhammad Waheed Anwar1, Zoraiz Tanveer1 and Muhammad Fahad Irfan2 

...ign (RCBD) in three replications to assess the genotypes for plant height (cm), number of sympodial branches, number of monopodial branches, seed cotton yield (g), number of bolls, boll weight (g), lint percentage (%), fiber strength (g/tex), fiber length (mm) and fiber fineness (µg/inch). Analysis of variance revealed significant differences at 1% level of significance for all traits except fiber fineness. The mean performance of F1 populations were bet...

Haidar Ali* and Malik Muhammad Shafi 

...ts of household size, educational level of the sampled respondent, age of the sample small farmer, were positively related to the off-farm employment. While farm area operated was negatively but significantly related to off-farm employment. Similarly the small farm households of developed villages perform more off-farm employment than the small farm households of underdeveloped villages. This could be associated to the developed means of transport and communi<...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Yue-Hui Ma2, Ming-Xing Chu2, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Hui-Jiang Gao2, Huai-Zhi Jiang3, Di Liu4, Li Liu5, Yan-Bin Zhu6, Wang-Dui Basang6, Luo-Bu Danjiu7, Tian-Wu An8, Xiao-Lin Luo8, Shi-Cheng He7 and Yong-Fu Huang1,*
...he DEGs related to 56 GO categories, and pathway analysis revealed that these DEGs were significantly enriched in 41 of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including signaling pathways regulating the pluripotency of stem cells, the p53 signaling pathway, and oxidative phosphorylation. The results of the present study confirmed that the selection of the dominant follicle involved the regulation of various physiological systems. These re...

Imran Ali Rajput1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Imran Khatri1 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi2 

...cides at repetitive application have increased the input cost of local farmer and similarly aroused the serious problem of pest resistance. The introduction of transgenic cotton since last decades has played a significant role in suppressing the pest population of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund) which is the main pest of cotton in all over the world. Nevertheless, the indigenous botanical extracts have been used effectively against various sucking p...

Imtiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Abbas Khan, Noorullah Khan, Naveed Ahmed, Abdul Waheed, Fazal Yazdan Saleem, Sajjad Khan and Sohail Aslam 

...B design with three replications; garlic cultivar (china) and three levels of intra-row spacing (10, 15 and 20 cm) were included in the study. Data regarding disease occurrence, disease severity, plant height (cm), bulb weight (g), bulb diameter (mm), clove weight (g), number of cloves bulb-1 and yield (t ha-1) was measured. The result of the study reveals that plant spacing had significant impact on the occurrence of rust disease and its severity, yield and y...
Fahad Tanveer1, Adnan Afzal2, Muhammad Adeel3*, Sana Shahid4 and Maham Masood5
...iteria were randomly allocated to three groups; group 1 received SNAGs, group 2 Maitland mobilization and group 3 conventional treatment. Baseline, post-intervention and follow up readings were taken through numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) for pain intensity, neck disability index (NDI) for functional status,goniometer for range of motion and manual muscle testing for muscle strength of neck. The subject in each group were given twelve sessions, with three se...

Bibi Haleema1*, Abdur Rab1 and Syed Asghar Hussain2 

...on, and zinc foliar application on growth and fruit production of tomato was investigated during the year 2013 at ARI Tarnab, Peshawar to optimize calcium, boron and zinc concentration for enhancing the growth and fruit related attributes of tomato. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block (RCB) Design with 3 factors, replicated 3 times. Calcium (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9%), Boron (0, 0.25, 0.5%) and Zinc (0, 0...
Temel Gokturk1, Elif Tozlu2,* and Recep Kotan2
...58%-42.08% in nymph applications, and between 6%-18% in adult applications.
...
Falah Baiee1,3, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff1, Ariff Omar,2 Nurhusien Yimer1, Salman Hammadi1, Tarig Ahmedeltayeb1, Asmatullah Kaka4
Ibrar Muhammad Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan1,*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Tahir Usman2, Adnan Khan1, Zakir Ullah1 and Hamid Rehman1
... compared with the other cattle bulls. High dead sperm percentage (51.87 ± 0.50%), deterioration of plasma membrane integrity (38.29 ± 0.45%), pH (6.83 ±0.01) and DNA integrity (92.45 ± 0.28%) were observed in frozen semen in cross-bred bulls, which showed significant (P < 0.01) differences with the other cattle bulls. The results imply that Sahiwal bulls showed the best semen qualitativ...
Quang Minh Dinh
...e increased and avoiding catch fish during the recruitment period for sustainable fishery management.
...

H.I. Hosein1, Sherin Reda Rouby1*, Ahmed Menshawy1 and Ahmed E. AbdAl-Ghany2 

...or isolation and identification of Brucella organisms. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 could be recovered from 64 (61.5%) tissue specimens and 28 (60.9%) milk samples. Brucella cultures were further identified on molecular basis using universal and Bruce ladder PCR. 

...
Qunhua Han1,2, Meiwen Zhang1,*, Cong Guo2, Xunjun Zhou1, Bo Li1 and Yong Wang1
...rom day 4 to day 58, indicating that HFL reaches mature size ahead of BW, BL, and TL.
...
Anan Kenthaoand Pornpimol Jearranaiprepame*
...of variance (MANOVA) indicated highly significant differences in morphometric characters between populations (p <0.01). The first three principal axes of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 49.29% of total variance. The PCA also revealed that morphological variations related to the characters of head depth, body length, body depth, caudal peduncle length and depth. In discriminant function analysis (DFA), the first two discriminant functions...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Aly Khan3
...infection in farmers, education concerned and shepherds of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. One hundred and fifteen (11.04%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal protozoans. Forty one (35.6%) of the participants were infected with single parasite and seventy four (64.3%) with multiple infections. En...
Ümit Kumbıçak, Zübeyde Kumbıçak* and Gülnare Huseynli
...s of the chromosomes indicated no significant difference between autosomal pairs, however, X3 was the smallest chromosome but X1 and X2 were intermediate in the karyotype.
...
Muhsan Ali Kalhoro1,2, Danling Tang1,*, Ye Hai Jun1, Morozov Evgeny1, Sufen Wang1 and Muhammad Aslam Buzdar
...ration.
...
Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Abdul Majid Khan1,*, Ghazala Roohi3 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...ntologists as stress indicator in evaluation of palaeo-environments. The present study involves the analysis of enamel hypoplasia in seven extinct giraffid species to determine and compare stress periods during the early Miocene to Pleistocene ages of the Siwaliks of Pakistan. Enamel hypoplasia is a tooth malady which is caused by the deficiency of food/nutrients. The feeding deficiency is directly linked to the physiological or environmental stress. In this s...
Saswati Roy1, Rakesh Pashi2, S. Dey3 and Shantanu Jha
...lassified into two major categories: agricultural fields and non-agricultural areas. Observations on birds were taken twice a week, at early morning, starting from just after the sunrise around 7a.m and till before sunset up to 5.30 pm. Data were collected by using the line transect method. Total 74 number of bird species were recorded which belonged to 18 orders. Out of 74 bird species 23 species (31.08%) were recorded as insectivorous, 16 species (21.62%) as...
Pan Hong, Ruonan Li, Yumeng Li, Hainan Lan* and Xin Zheng*
...that pGH could be translocated into cell nuclei in a time-dependent manner. In addition, the subcellular localization, according to immunoelectron microscopy, showed that pGH was localized in cytoplasmic organelles, e.g., the mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. The present study shows the first exploration of the behaviour of pGH in a somatic cell model of a domestic animal (pig), providing a basis for further studies on the physiological function of pGH ...
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Muhammad Shahzad2, Xiaokang Wu3, Chaofeng Ma4 and Jiru Xu1,*
...robiota. The results indicated that a significant diversity difference between asthma and healthy groups (*P< 0.05), was shown in DGGE profile. Similarity index was found to be lower in inter-group than intra-group that indicated a change in composition of gut flora in asthma patients. Sequencing results also indicated a change of bacterial composition between both groups. qPCR r...
Jarosław Pytlewski1, Ireneusz Antkowiak1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*
...-White Holstein-Friesian cattle. The analysis included 1024 cows and 3663 calves of the Polish Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian breed (phf). The study included an analysis of one polymorphic place PIT-1 (c.1178G>A). The source data used to calculate the indicators of reproduction were collected from cows inseminated by semen of Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian bulls and giving birth to single calf. The following informa...

Rafiullah*, Muhammad Jamal Khan and Dost Muhammad 

...R design with three replications. Plant height, shoot and root dry biomass of 6 weeks old seedling were significantly increased with each increment of foliar P suggesting effective absorption through leaf stomata and translocation to other parts of the plant body. The plant height, shoot and root dry biomass yield increased by 55, 40 and 35%, respectively, at 144 mM KH2PO4 solution over control. The shoot and root [P] as wel...
Hayat Badshah1, Farman Ullah1, Paul-André Calatayud2, Hidayat Ullah3 and Bashir Ahmad1
...l. The current study indicated that hibiscus is, among those tested in this study, the best plant species to mass rear the mealybug and its associated parasitoid in a context of biological control program. However, additional research is needed to assess the properties of hibiscus to attract the parasitoid.
...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
...t. After the direct application of Huwa-San TR50, N. cucumeris could also sustain its population on treated and/or dead T. urticae, under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Statistically, the difference between laboratory and greenhouse conditions was insignificant (P > 0.5, using F-test Graphpad prism 7). Up to 3000 ppm of Huwa-San TR50 reduced the population of N. cucumeris by 11.83 and 17.66% under greenhouse and laboratory condit...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...ed in two different applications. A foliar application by spraying and watering application by adding the to the irrigation water. After 2 days of applications, daily monitoring was conducted for 10 days to record any dead or paralyzed adults and/or larvae. Dead and paralyzed adults or larvae were found particularly in foliar appli<...
Xiaoting Zhang1,2, Jiaxiang Wang1,2,*, Peng Li1,2,* and Lixun Ye1,2
...emistry. The results indicate that the lung of African ostrich was composed of interstitial tissue and parenchyma. The interstitial tissue formed a layer of serosa on the surface of the lung. The parenchyma of the lung consisted of bronchial levels, atria and respiratory capillaries. The bronchi were divided into the primary, secondary and tertiary bronchi. The wall of the tertiary bronchus had openings for the atria and respiratory capillaries. The respirator...
Wen-Feng Li, Xiao-Yan Wang, Ying-Kun Huang*, Rong-Yue Zhang, Jiong Yin, Zhi-Ming Luoand Hong-Li Shan
...14-2016. The results indicated that the in untreated areas, percent dead-heart was 8.30% - 58.83%, the percent stalk injured was 26.73% - 96.67%, the percent internodes bored was 4.40% - 25.87%, and the effective stem number was reduced by 4440-21900 stalk/ha. Measured yield and sugar yield loss results showed cane yield was reduced by 5.32-44.53 T/ha; the yield loss percent was5.92% - 44.53%; the sugarcane juice yield decreased by 1.73% - 3.28%;...
Rana Fartab Shoukat1, Shoaib Freed1,*, Kanwar Waqas Ahmad1 and Ateeq-ur-Rehman2
... was observed after application of Ma-11.1(LC40) + nitenpyram (LC40) mixtures under laboratory and field conditions (71.5 ± 7.4). The results showed a significant effect of binary treatments of fungi and chemical insecticides on biological parameters of C. pipiens and its progeny (P<0.05). The insect pathogenic fungi showed compatibility with insecticides and the combined application ca...

SHARIF UDDIN, MD. HASIBUL HASAN, MOHAMMED MAHBUB IQBAL, MOHAMMAD AMZAD HOSSAIN

...respectively which indicate that with the increase of body and gonad weight, fecundity was also increased. Microscopic observation of matured female ovary during June to July revealed group asynchronous development. Microscopic observation on matured testes found spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa stages during the month of June and July.

Safdar Ali1*, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Shahid Mehmood2, Asim Gulzar3 , Ijaz Ahmad4 and Bashir Ahmad Khan5 

...l followed by twice application of glyphosate herbicide (NT + GH), (iii) Once Mould board plowing followed by twice application of glyphosate herbicide (1 MBP + GH), (iv) Once Mould board plowing followed by 4 cultivations with planker (1 MBP + 4 CS), (v) Once disc harrowing followed by twice application of glyphosate herbicide (1 DH + GH), (vi) Once disc harrowing followed by 4 cultivatio...
Tariq Mahmood*1, Syed Wasif Ahmed Shah1, Muhammad Rais1, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
.... Nest composition and location are important factors in studying utility of plant material by avifauna. The current study investigated nesting use of tree species by avifauna at Pabbi Range Forest Kharian (32.811°N and 73.865°E), District Gujrat, from September 2013 to June 2015. Data were collected from five selected sampling sites by searching and identifying nests of different bird species in various vegetation types and observing birds on the nest...
Ghazala Saeed1, Rabia Wajid1* and Ayesha Yousaf Dar2
...maternal and fetal complications. Eclampsiais an obstetric emergency and quick decision making is required to save lives. The objective of the study was to compare the maternal mortality after cesarean section versus vaginal delivery among eclampsiapatients.It is a descriptive case series conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lady Willingdon Hospital, from December 2014 to June 2015. In our study, 62.86 % (n=88) patients were between18-25 years...

Naila Riaz1 , Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2* , Khizar Samiullah3

...reatment of topical application, respectively. It is concluded that oral treatment of venom was more efficient compared to its topical treatment with same doses of treatment.

 

...

Warda Fatima1 , Shahida Hasnain1 , Saqib Mahmood2

 

... is an urgent need to educate general population about the consequences of disorder so that people take it cautiously and it may treated early and its bad consequences be reduced.
...

Haji Muhammad1, 2, Zafar Iqbal1, Qamar Bashir2, Muhammad Amir Hanif3

...d condition factor of 18 cat fish species belonging to five families of Indus River in Taunsa barrage from Punjab, Pakistan. The value of length weight relationship (LWR) equation and condition factor (K) ranged W= -0.249 TL0.79 – W= -2.803 TL3.55 and 0.07 – 1.69 respectively. The objective of this study was to determine LWR and condition factor of cat fish species of Indus River that could help in
conserv...

Gamalat Osman1, Mansour Galal1, Abbas Abul-Ezz2, Ahmad Mohammed1, Mohammed Abul-Ela3 and Asmaa Mostafa Hegazy2

...tus was tested as bioindicator to assess water quality and identify exposure to oil contaminants. L. carinatus was chronically exposed to crude oil at intervals of 24 hours, 15 days and 30 days. The LC50 of crude oil for L. carinatus was 700 ppm. HPLC analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the flesh demonstrated that PAHs accumulation in the treated snails was fluctuated with time. The accumulation is due to their biotransformation process d...
Muhammad Iqbal Anjum*, Shahbaz Javaid and Mukhtar Ahmad Nadeem
...nt groups with five replicates in each treatment group having 13 chicks per replicate per pen. Three iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric rations were prepared as: R-I served as control with 0.83% di-calcium phosphate (DCP); R-II contained 50% less DCP (0.41%) than R-I and R-III contained R-II plus phytase Quantum® Blue @ 100 g/ton feed. Daily feed intake and weekly body weight gain per replicat

Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain1, Farhat Jabeen1, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain 2,Sajjad Ahmad3, Abida Ashraf4,Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan1

Naeem Iftikhar1, Qamar Zaman Qamar2, Usman Ali3, Muhammad Siddique Awan4, Syeda Shaista Bibi4, Riaz Aziz Minhas4*

 Maleeha Manzoor1*, Madiha Manzoor2, Qurat-ul-ain Ahmed3, Sobia Ahmed4, Shazia Manzoor5

...ies. Additionally low educational status and poor dietary habits showed high risks of anemia among the pregnant women.

...

 Maryum Fakhar, Iqra Jabbar, Anjum Nasim Sabri*

...employed in
urification of waste waters and treating contaminated soils.

...

 Asma Akhtar, Abdul Rehman

...e respective control indicating the ability to tolerate tellurite tress. Differential pattern of bacterial proteins in tellurite stress was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Both bacterial strains can be utilized to convert toxic tellurite into its elemental form from the contaminated sites.

...

Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1, Khanum Zahra2, Arooj Zaheer2, Khizar Samiullah3

...justify;">Spider silk is categorized as fibrous protein. Spiders produce several types of silk. Spider silk is important because of its maximum mechanical strength, biocompatibility and biodegradability, pore filling ability and very low immunogenicity. In this review structure and types of silk producing gland, spinning process, chemistry of spider silk fiber, mechanical properties and applications of silk in health, milita...
Rabia Qurashi, Qurat ul Ane Gillani* and Furhan Iqbal*
 
... remained unaffected indicating that CGP55845 can be injected intraperitonially for the treatment of neurological ailments.
...
Qingying Jia1, Hui Wang1, Tianhong Wang1, Na Dong1, Shuguang Ren1,2, Xiaolong Yang1, Jingze Liu1,* and Zhijun Yu1,3,*
...icornis, results indicated that the engorged H. longicornis could survive all treatments at 0°C and 4°C, and pre-ovipositon periods were prolonged after 0°C, 4°C and 40°C treatment, whereas it was shortened after 37°C stress (P<0.05). The oviposition periods were varied among different temperature treatments, and the 0°C and 4°C treatments showed no influences, whereas the prolonged exposure to high temperatures (3...

Sajid Muhammad* and Fida Mohammad 

...align: justify;">Identification of high yielding stable genotypes is always on the agenda of cultivar development programs. Testing of genotypes across environments is required to determine yield stability of genotypes. The specific objective of the current study was to analyze genotype by environment interaction (GEI) of grain yield for 50 genotypes using GGE model. Germplasm was field-tested using alpha lattice design in two replicat...
Rimsha Nawaz1, Muhammad Javed1, Sidra Abbas1* and Safina Kousar2
... aquaria with three replications for each treatment. After 30-day exposure of iron chloride, the fish organs viz. kidney and liver were isolated and the peroxidase enzyme activity was analyzed. Activity of peroxidase was assessed by measuring the conversion of guaiacol to tetraguaiacol, spectrophotometrically, at a wavelength of 470 nm. The peroxidase activity was measured in the selected organs exposed to various sub-lethal concentrations of iron chlor...
Ikramul Haq1, Aneela Zameer Durrani*1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Imtiaz Ahmad3, Amjad Khan2 and Mehboob Ali1
Abu ul Hassan Faiz1,*, Fakhar-i-Abbas2 and Lariab Zahra Faiz2
...ely. The PCA results indicate loam as a preferred soil type for N indica and T. indica). The species G. elliotti and M. meltada prefer soil containing silt and clay (silty clay loam). The species M. musculus and M. booduga prefer sand and positively correlated with two soil type (sandy loam and sandy clay loam). The present study provides baseline abiotic soil data for conservation needs and harboring of studied specie...

Niamat Ullah Khan1*, Abdul Aziz Khakwani2, Sami Ullah2, Najeeb Ullah2, Abdur Rauf3 and Inam Ullah2

...t plot arrangements replicated thrice. Tillage methods were allotted to main plots while nitrogen levels were kept in sub plots. Results showed that RT produced higher bolls per plant, weight per bolls, lint yields, earliness % and benefit cost ratio (BCR) than FT. Ridge tillage gave lower percent of lodging. Results for nitrogen indicated that bolls numbers per plant, bolls weight, lint yield, earliness, lodging, BCR, fibre...

Soraya Khosravian Dehordi*, Abdolnaser Mohebbi and Kahin Shahanipour

...one peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) values in spleen were measured. An increase in TBARS and PC levels was obtained in rats' spleen of the Cd-group than controls and nano-Se decreased this effect close to the control. The CAT values of all groups did not differ significantly. The values of SOD and GPx were reduced ...

Phong Huy Pham*

...gment. The total time of catching the prey is about four minutes. A green worm, one of mainly insect pests on sesban, is one of the preferred prey of D. esuriens. 

...
Syed Kashif Nawaz*, Faiza Zubair and Sidra Kanwal
...p viewer for the identification of exact loci of overlapping genes. It was noticed that maximum number (635) of overlapping genes were present on chromosome 1. Chromosome 21 carried the minimum number (85) of overlapping genes. Overlapping genes were further categorized on the basis of their orientation. It was found that the human genome has 62% embedded genes, 17% convergent genes, 16% divergent genes and 5% uni-directiona...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4 and Lorenzo Gallus
...in each tank with 2 replications. Fish were fed with commercial floating pellet (35% protein) at 3% body weight per day for 40 days. Results showed that fish growth was significantly (P<0.05) higher in term of weight gain, WG % of initial weight, mean daily WG, SGR, feed conversion and survival rate from 15‰ to 30‰ salinity than those reared in 35‰ and 40‰ salinity. Condition factor was found to be significantly higher on 40&perm...
RuiHua Zhang, YongFang Jia, TingTing Liang, QianWen Yang, QiYan Du and ZhongJie Chang*
...r family, have been implicated in the developing nervous system. Their expression has been seen in neural stem cells as well as differentiating neurons. However, despite their importance in development, a relatively low number have been characterized for freshwater fish. In this study, we were able to gain three full-length SoxD sequences from transcriptome sequencing data of carp: CcSox5, CcSox6 and CcSox13 (Cyprinus carpio SoxD...
Yakut Gevrekçi* and Çiğdem Takma
...ee analysis with Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) algorithms. A total of 1912 EP records of layers which hatched at four different periods were collected from a commercial flock in west of Turkey. The analysis performed with cathegorical (cage and line) and continuous (hatch, age at sexual maturity and body weight of sexual maturity) predictors and a continuous...
Muhammad Usman Saleem1, Saima Masood1,*, Hafsa Zaneb1, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Asim Aslam3, Kamran Ashraf4, Habib-ur-Rehman5, Muti-ur-Rehman3 and Muhammad Shabir Shaheen6
...each group having 4 replicates. The number of birds per group were 32 whereas the number of birds per replicate were 8.The first group was kept as control (CONT) whereas, the second (MOSG) and third (OABG) groups were given MOS (2g / kg of feed) and OAB (3g / kg of feed), respectively. The fourth group (MOS+OAB) was given combination of MOS (2g / kg of feed) and OAB (3g / kg of feed). Birds were given ad-libitum feed and wat...
Abd El-Nasser Ahmed Mohammed*
...ovaries. Similar classification was done using eighteen female mice and sex young females. The females of mice or rats were anesthetized for ovarian transplantation using (6.2 and 13.2 mg/kg BW) and (13.3 and 26.6 mg/kg BW) diazepam and xylazine, respectively. The female of control group was subjected to sham operation whereas the other two groups were subjected to ovarian transplantation from adult to adult and (adult-adult) and from young to adult (young-adu...
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 

Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Khawar Hussain1, Zilakat Khan Malik2 and Noor Jehan1 

...382 producers 176 were located in Tebana Dhere and 206 in Sarkai village. It is find out that 47% of land area was under the cultivation of strawberry with average production of 2898 kilogram per acre. The per acre average values of land preparation, NPK fertilizer, labor, seedling, farm yard manure and pesticides were recorded 6.00 hrs, 248 kgs, 143 man days, 24413 seedling, 1.48 trollies and 1.21 litres respectively. The results also showed that strawberry p...
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
...heavy economic losses in cattle and buffalo. So rapid and accurate diagnosis of FMD is uttermost need of this time. Several lab.techniques are developed for rapid detection of FMD but these are expensive and time consuming. Elisa, cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase (RT-PCR) and real time PCR need specific high quality equipments in lab. Whereas Lamp PCR is simple and accurate test for the rapid diagnosis of FMD. This study has been done initially with FMD kno...

Waqas Liaqat1, Mohammad Akmal1* and Jawad Ali 

...plit plots in three replications. Factor one was sowing dates (June 18, 30, July 15, 29 and August 5) as main plot treatment. The second factor was maize selected varieties (i.e. Azam, Jalal, Babar, CS-200, CS-220, SB-92K97, SB-909, SB-989, and SB-292) as subplot treatment. Experimental unit was 3.5 m x 3.6 m accommodating 5 rows at 0.7 m distance. Fertilizer was applied 200, 120, 80 kg ha-1 (N, P and K) to Hybrids and 120, 90, 60 kg ha-1 (N, P, K) to open pol...
Ann Milliken Pederson
...Peters’ new book locates the vocation of humankind within their cosmic home, brings together the disciplines (humanities, social sciences, natural sciences) into a holistic integration of knowledge, places the quest and the question of God within the historical narrative of the natural and cultural history of the entire cosmos, and offers a vision of hope and action to create a sustainable and wholesome view for the fu...

Muhammad Zamin* and Abdul Mateen Khattak 

...versity of Sporobolus spicatus and its suitability as turf grass needed to be assessed for conservation and to combat salinity problem. For this purpose, various ecotypes of Sporobolus spicatus were investigated by conducting mowing tests in the year 2013 under UAE climatic conditions. Fifty ecotypes of Sporobolus spicatus were cut at various heights, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm. Significant ...

Ayesha Bibi*, Musharaf Ahmad and Shaukat Hussain 

...rial growth. For identification of the characteristic bacterial colonies Cmm-specific primers CMM-5 and CMM-6 were used for amplification of 614bp product from pat-1 gene of bacterial plasmid. The whole bacterial DNA was used as template, extracted with standard procedures using commercially available kit i.e. protinase-K (sigma). 27 out of 34 isolates were confirmed as Cmm having 614bp band. Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum...
Shahid Mehmood1,*, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Hassan Raza1, Rida Ahmad1, Azhar Muhammad3, Zulfiqar Ali2, Farhan Abid1, Fehmeeda Bibi4 and Syed Maviz Ahmed5
... E and elevation 208m) located in district Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. In total, 5456 birds belonging to 71 species, 40 families and 12 orders were recorded. Bird species distribution was: year round residents 50 (70.4%), winter migrants 12 (16.9%), summer breeders eight (8) (11.3%) and passage migrant one (1) (1.4%). More birds were observed in winter season compared to summer season. The most dominant species were house crow, Corvus splendens (n=2518), ...
Jo Ik-Hwan1, Choi Kwang-Won1 and Muhammad Fiaz2,*
... legumes under different cattle manure levels for optimum forage yield and organic Hanwoo cattle carrying capacity from 2012-13 to 2014-15. Experiment was conducted under split plot arrangement having 3 main plots (Sole Rye, Rye with hairy vetch and rye with pea) and 4 sub-plots (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha). Findings showed if rye was mixed cropped with hairy vetch, dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) yield w...

Syed Asif Imran Shah1*, Shah Jehan Khan2, Kalim Ullah1 and Obaid Ullah Sayal

...uring 2014-15. The triplicated randomized complete block design was followed and attributes of interest were plant height, monopodia plant-1, sympodia plant-1, bolls plant-1, plant population, seed index, boll weight, lint index, staple length, lint %, fibre fineness,staple strength, uniformity ratio and seed cotton yield. The analysis of variance depicted significant (P>0.01) genetic variability among cotton germplasm. Highest and close symmetry between ph...
Muhammad Abubakar,1,2,* Aamer Bin Zahur,1,3 Khalid Naeem1,3, Muhammad Azeem Khan1,3 and Subhan Qureshi
...he phylogenetic tree indicated that all Pakistani PPRV strains, regardless of the gene used either F or N, clustered in lineage IV which is the most prominent and prevalent lineage of Asia. The distribution of Pakistani strains of PPRV was more dispersed as the isolate collected from Taxilla was clustered slightly distinct compared to rest of the isolates collected from Pakistan. Our findings are indicative of PPR endemic st...

Muhammad Luqman1,3, Raheel Saqib2*, Xu Shiwei3 and Yu Wen3 

...ricultural extension, education and other farm advisory services. The study was conducted in district Sargodha located in the central Punjab, Pakistan. Personal interviews were conducted from male head as well as spouses of each selected farm family. The total sample size of the study was 300 (150 male and 150 female spouses). A designed structured questionnaire was prepared for the data collection as the research instrument...

Imran Khan*, Zahir Shah, Wiqar Ahmad, Farmanullah Khan and Muhammad Sharif 

...organic fertilizers application to wheat crop on organic matter, micro-nutrient status and physical properties of soil at the NDF Farm, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2015-16. The study was planned in RCB split plot design with fertilizers; control (Farmer’s practices, FP, 60-45 N-P2O5 kg ha-1), NPK recommended dose (RD, 120:90:60 N:P2O5:K2O kg ha-1), 5, 10, 15 and 20 t FYM alone (FYM5,10,15,20) and 5, 10 and 15 t ha-1 FYM in combination ...

Ronaq Zaman*, Shahid Ali and Inam Ullah 

...oiler farms. Results indicated that there were significant structural breaks across the sampled farms. Based on these findings three different model was estimated for small, medium and large farms, respectively. The mean calculated technical efficiencies for small, medium and large farms were respectively 0.76, 0.96 and 0.92. This implies that the medium size farms in the study area were the most efficient in resource utilization as compared to small and large...
Senol Celik1,* and Orhan Yilmaz2
...Here, we applied classification and regression tree (CART) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) approaches to estimate the most important variables in predicting the body weight of Turkish Tazi dogs. Using various body measurements, the CART algorithm proposed that withers height (WH), abdominal width (AW), rump height (RH) and chest depth (CD) can significant effect the body weight. Quantitatively, it was identified that values of WH > 62.50...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Dastagir4, Sara Ferrando5, Lorenzo Gallus5, Asad Ali Muhammad1,6, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khalil-ur-Rehman2 
...re stocked with two replications. Fish were fed with commercial floating pellet (35% protein) with 3% of total biomass day-1 for 50 days. Results showed that the growth increment reared on 10‰ - 20‰ salinity were significantly highest in term of weight gain, WG % of initial weight, daily weight gain, specific growth rate, condition factor and survival rate than those reared on 25‰ and 30‰. Feed conversion ratio was found ...

Muhammad Ijaz Khan* and Amanullah Jan 

...it plot arrangement replicated thrice. Experimental site was Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar. Irrigations regimes were subjected to main plots while soil conditioners to subplots. Results of the two years study indicated that most of the yield and soil parameters were affected by irrigation regimes significantly. Higher crop growth rate, leaf area plant, plant height, biological yield (above gr...

Wang Jian1, Abdur Rehman2*, Noor Khan3, Wang Zhengjia4, Ji Peng-fei5, Xie Cong6, Muhammad Niamatullah Khan Babar7 and Raheel Saqib8 

...results of the study indicates that all the rural households consumption have the increasing trend except the Engel coefficient shows the declining trend from 39.508% to 29.355%.The study of regression analysis, MPC (marginal propensity to consume) and APC (Average propensity to consume) clearly shows that in the study area with the rise of rural households income, their consumption demand also increases. The relative co relational analysis shows, that the foo...

Afsheen Masood1*, Rubab Musarrat2, Shama Mazahir3 and Adeela Ashraf4  

...hort. Further it was indicated by the correlation analysis that better greater satisfaction was associated with better quality of life. The findings carry significant implications for clinical professionals, health psychologists, community workers and the future researchers. 

...

Aneeza Jamshed1* and Syed Amir Gillani2 

...based intervention to educate students about the transmission, prevention and management of hepatitis C, which may help in declining the disease burden. Hepatitis C, Unsterilized syringes, Hepatitis C Awareness, Prevention of Hepatitis C. 

...

Arooj Fatima1* and Ashfaq Ahmed

...cluded in study were allocated randomly into; Group-A: This group was treated with routine physiotherapy treatment. Group-B: In this group, subjects were trained with eccentric loading exercises along with routine physiotherapy treatment. The outcome measures were pain intensity measured by using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and functional outcome measured by quick Disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire. The p-values were found to be signif...

Uzma Zahid 

...dership, achievement, educational) and their relationship with life-satisfaction in final year medical school students of both genders. This cross-sectional study was carried out in final year students of a medical college in Rawalpindi, Pakistan using 24 items revised English Version of Career Aspiration Scale (CAS) and 5 items Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). This study was conducted on total 88 final year medical school students, among them 44 were male...

Shahid Iqbal1*, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon3 and Intikhab Alam3 

...fter resolving land demarcation issue and revival of water channels along with introduction of micro credit schemes. 

...
Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1,Farzana Abbas2,Ghulam Abbas3,*, Arshad Javid4, Ali Hussain4, Syedah Andleeb5,Khalid Javed Iqbal6 and Muhammad Akmal1

 

... control with three replicates in each group. Control group was exclusively fed on natural food composed of tilapia fry while fish in T1 was fed on 30%, T2 on 35% and T3 on 40% protein diet, respectively. A total of 240 Channa marulius (945 g) were arbitrarily stocked in 12 earthen ponds (90 ft × 70 ft × 4 ft) @ 20 fish per pond. Fish were fed at 5% of their wet body weight two times per day. The net weight g...
Kashif Prince1,*, M. Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Muhammad Asad Ali2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Nisar Ahmad3,Rais Ahmed2, Aamerzish Mushtaq4, Sajid Umar4 and Yung-Fu Chang5
...n of its risk factors in cattle and buffaloes of district Kasur, Punjab. Selenium status was evaluated by Atomic Absorptions Spectrophotometery (AAS) with respect to sex of animals, geographical area, age of animals, herd size, stage of animals, production level and concentrate feeding. Selenium deficiency was also evaluated as a risk factor of mastitis and repeat breeding. About 48.43% cattle and 72.39% buffaloes were found...
Samra Imran1,* and Afifa Tanweer2
...articipants. Results indicated that participants aged less than 18 years and those diagnosed within first year of life, had significantly healthier body dimensions. Higher family income, female gender and greater meal satisfaction was found to be associated with better biochemical indices. Most participants reported partial compliance to GFD. Compliant participants reported an increased consumption of junk food whereas, non-compliant patients, consumed signifi...
Alptug Sari*, Ahmet Arpacik and Sagdan Baskaya
...ined. Erzurum Marshes, located in the northeastern part of the country, host almost half of the bird species of Turkey of which many bird species are under threat both at national and international level. In all 239 bird species were identified. Among these species, 10 species were found to be under threat of extinction at national and international (IUCN) scale. Deterioration of habitats of birds as well as other forms of life has been considered to be the mo...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz3
...ctions among farmers, education concerned and shepherds of Swat, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. Two hundred and twenty one (21.2%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal tapeworms. Seventy seven (7.39%) of the participants were infected with single parasite and one hundred forty four (13.8%) with multiple infections. Taenia ...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...ment by using three replications. Treatments included different fertilizers combinations i.e (F1) control, (F2)100% recommended dose of NPK, (F3) 75% recommended dose of NPK + 1.5 t ha-1 poultry manure(PM), (F4) 75% of recommended dose of NPK +3 t ha-1 farmyard manure (FYM) and(F5) 75% of recommended dose of NPK + 4.5 t ha-1 press-mud (PrM) along with seed inoculants (I
Alim-un-Nisa1*, Sajila Hina1, Sania Mazhar1, Imran Kalim1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Naseem Zahra1, Shahid Masood1, Muhammad Khalid Saeed1, Qurat-ul-Ain Syed1 and Maida Asif2

Noreen Rasul1*, Madeeha Rashid2, Aqeela Abbas1 and Rubina Sohail

...ogether, the results indicate that prolonged skin-to-skin contact and exclusive breast feeding reduces neonatal mortality and morbidity in birth weight 1.5 to 2.5 kg in stable neonates in hospital. However KMC is limited to SHL at present. Workshops are being conducted to teach other doctors and nurses for early essential newborn care and kangaroo mother care. They are still facing controversies and challenges in initiation of KMC in many hospitals. However it...
Muhammad Naeem1, Bushra Sadia1,2,*, Faisal Saeed Awan1and Muhammad Anjum Zia3
... agent having broad applications in treatment of various diseases like ischemia, Budd-Chiari syndrome, myocardial infarction, brain stroke and myocardial infarction. Strain improvement is an important approach for its hyper production. In this connection, wild bacterial strain Streptococcus equisimilis was mutagenized using ethidium bromide and UV radiation. The colonies (15 each) showing > 1% survival rate at 150 min of UV exposure and 12 % survival...
Bashir Ahmad1, Muhammad Idrees1,*, Kafeel Ahmad1, Dawood Ahmad2, Sajid Ali3 and Shumaila Bashir4
... the strains and authenticated the high molecular diversity. PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) profiles of all isolates and reference strains were found to be the same. PRA is a valid alternative to phenotypic identification in a routine diagnostic laboratory. High diversity values were found in the studied area implying high population diversity of M. tuberculosis that’s being prevalent in Khyber Pakhtunkhw...

Ayesha Saeed*, Mobina Naqvi and Ahsan Javed 

...100+4.824 years, mean education was 12.400+2.138 years, mean BMI was 29.420+5.075 and mean household income was PKR 25641+16251.543. With these characteristics, the mean birth weight of2.814+0.551 kg was recorded. Four percent (n=2) had very low food security and 34% (n=17) women had low food security. Importantly, food unsecured women had a 5.439 times increased risk of delivering a low birth weight neonate (RR=5.439, CI=1.710-17.296, p=0.002). Regression ana...

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid 

...between maternal age, education and socio economic status. Anemia in pregnancy nowadays is still a common problem in adolescent and young primigravida and associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Prompt measure should be taken by the stake holders at local and national level to prevent and treat this problem in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with it. 

...

Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Khalid Naseem, Muhammad Amjad, Amer Mumtaz and Saeeda Raza*

...Pakistan standard specifications revealed good quality wheat.

...

A. R. Rattu, M. Fayyaz, I. Ahmad, M. A. Akhtar* A. A. Hakro and K. A. Khanzada**

... and leaf rust at multilocations in different agro-ecological zones of the country presenting hot spots for leaf and yellow rust along with artificial inoculation with prevalent pathotypes. These candidate lines were undergoing mandatory testing to develop varieties for irrigated and rainfed areas of Pakistan. Out of these 29 candidate lines, 9 were common to NUWYT 2003-04 and 2004-05. Three candidate lines namely, V-00125, 99B2278, 99B4012 from seeding date w...

Naheed Akhtar, Azra Nasim*, Ata ul Mohsin**, Muhammad Ashfaque, Shaheena Yasmin, Ghulam Jilani, Afzala Tashfeen, Waseem Ahmed Gilani, Irshad Begum* and Muhammad Munir***

...y was grouped into three categories i.e., resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible. Data from seedling bulk tests showed that five wheat lines namely V- 01078, V-00055, KT-7, V-01180 and DN-47 were resistant with damage rating of 2- 3. Twelve wheat lines/varieties, 99B4012, 99B2278, V-9021, V-002493, Wafaq 2001, PR-84, TW0135, CT-00062, 7-03, PR-86, V-02192 and Chakwal 97 were found moderately resistant. Three wheat lines/varieties namely RWM-9313, V-00...

Naheed Akhtar, Noreen Moin, Ghulam Jilani*, Ata ul Mohsin**, Shaheena Yasmin, Afzala Tashfeen*, Munir Goraya**** and Irshad Begum*

... of Antixenosis Test indicated