Submit or Track your Manuscript LOG-IN

Keith Ward

 

Science, Religion and Culture
... agrees that we should attempt to answer the questions ‘Why is there something rather than nothing? Why do we exist?’ and ‘Why this particular set of laws and not some other?’ (p. 19). In his book he proposes to answer those questions, from a purely scientific point of view (‘Philosophy is dead’, he announces on p. 13, even though the whole book is an exercise in scientifically informed philosophy). But there is something ve...

Francisco J. Ayala and John C. Avise (eds.)
Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 547 pp., $47.64 (hbk),
ISBN 1421413051.

Reviewed by David Pindel

 

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...yala and Avise’s attempt to address a serious oversight in the scientific literature – no volume of essential readings in evolutionary biology exists, despite the fact that evolution remains central to and is the unifying principle of the biological sciences. To remedy this, they have put together an impressive collection of classical papers, encompassing virtually all aspects of evolutionary biology and including all of key figures in the developm...

Timothy Helton

In a Mirror Dimly: Anthropology and Restoring a Sense of Presence to an Empty World
...s and methods made by contemporary thinkers. Next, taking the work of E. B. Tylor as an example, I demonstrate the validity of such criticisms. Then, I offer two examples of alternatives to objectifying ethnography before tracing developments in anthropological method in the last decades that have greatly improved the lens used for the anthropological gaze. Finally, I conclude by suggesting the collaboration between anthropology and theology in the restoration...

Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
... hierarchical ordered system of fields within fields at all levels of existence and activity within nature. In the final part of the article, I indicate how this new field-oriented understanding of the relation between the One and the Many may help to solve controversial issues in natural science and Christian systematic theology.

...

David N. Livingstone, Dealing with Darwin. Place, Politics, and Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with Evolution, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 265 pp., ISBN 13: 978-1-4214-1326-6

Reviewed by Francisco J. Ayala, University Professor & Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, email: fjayala@uci.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
...ecies received by his contemporary scholars, particularly by theologians and religious authors? That is the subject of the thoroughly researched and elegantly written book by David N. Livingstone, Dealing with Darwin. Place, Politics, and Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with Evolution.

...

H. Bruce Rinker

...ur survival. One such system of consilient valuing is presently available for our consideration as stewards of the planet: Gaia theory. Under the guidance of such “big picture” thinking, we may be able to unify the sciences, indeed all human belief, into an ecological and cultural equilibrium as encompassed by Gaia theory.

...

Yanina Panzera1*, Nicolas Sarute1, Lucia Carrau1, Jaime Aldaz2, Ruben Perez1

...strains.

...

Justin P. McBrayer

...asons for belief are epistemic in nature. Some of our reasons for belief are prudential in the sense that believing a certain thing advances our personal goals. When it comes to belief in God, the most famous formulation of a prudential reason for belief is Pascal’s Wager. And although Pascal’s Wager fails, its failure is instructive. Pascal’s Wager fails because it relies on unjustified assumptions about what happens in the afterlife to thos...

Justin P. McBrayer

...asons for belief are epistemic in nature. Some of our reasons for belief are prudential in the sense that believing a certain thing advances our personal goals. When it comes to belief in God, the most famous formulation of a prudential reason for belief is Pascal’s Wager. And although Pascal’s Wager fails, its failure is instructive. Pascal’s Wager fails because it relies on unjustified assumptions about what happens in the afterlife to thos...

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...l anatomy, and immune system, pig is particularly a suitable animal species for the modeling of human enteric pathogen infections, immune responses and for vaccine evaluations. These are the basis for the successful establishment of the infection and disease models for human rotavirus, human norovirus and human enterovirus 71 using neonatal gnotobiotic pigs. The differences between germ-free and normal animals in the maturation status of immune sys

Khalid Usman, Aziz-Ur-Rehman

...oil type and cropping system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of spring wheat seeded in three tillage systems viz., zero (ZT), reduced tillage (RT), and conventional tillage (CT) to split application of N fertilizer [50 kg N at sowing + 100 kg N ha-1 at first irrigation (T1); 50 kg N at first irrigation + 100 kg N ha-1 at second irrigation (T2); 50 kg N at sowing + 50 kg N at first irrigation + 50 kg...

Muhammad Arif1, Fazal Jalal1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Dost Muhammad2

...r C in agricul- tural systems. Two years field experiments were conducted on corn crop at the research farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2011-2013. Wheat-maize-wheat cropping pattern was followed with the adjustment of legumes in summer gap (land available after wheat harvest till maize sowing). Legumes i.e. mungbean, cowpea and sesbania with a fallow were adjusted in the summer gap with and without biochar application. Biochar was applied...

Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

...for 7 to 15 days at room temperature (20oC) and then applied to appropri- ate pots. The treatments of farm yard manure (FYM) @ 10 t ha-1, press mud @ 20 t ha-1, compost @ 0.7 t ha-1 and poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1 were applied with half of the recommended dose of NPK @ (75:60:30 kg ha-1) with or without EM. In 2009-10, the application of EM with Press mud @ 20 t ha-1 significantly enhanced spinach growth by exhibiting higher average spinach plant height (35 cm),...

Farhad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ashfaq

... of mean maximum average temperature at the time of maturity, ceteris paribus with one oC increase in temperature the average wheat yield increased by 56.64 kg per hectare in the study area. It was deduced from the economic variable that the level of input used was less than optimum. The negative coefficient of the location variables revealed that increasing the area virtually decreased the yield. It was concluded...

Sajid Ali1, Nouman Badar1, Hina Fatima2

E-mail | sajid_economist@yahoo.com

...: justify;">This study attempts to forecast production and yield of two main cash crops namely sug- arcane and cotton crops of Pakistan by using Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) and Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models of forecasting. Using data for 1948 to 2012, productions and yields of both crops were forecasted for 18 years starting from 2013 to 2030. ARMA (1, 4), ARMA (1, 1) and ARMA (0, 1) were found appropriate for sugarcane pro...

Frank Griffel

... after the attacks of September 2001 and to what took place in Britain after July 5, 2005. The gut-reaction of nations struck by such horrific acts of terrorism is to say: We have done nothing wrong. In fact, the collective wearing of signs with “Je suis Charlie” (“I am Charlie”) says: We would do it all over again. Last week, almost a whole nation lined up at French newsstands to buy the first issue of “Charlie Hebdo” after...

Ghazalah Yasmin1*, Mir Ajab Khan2, Nighat Shaheen3, Umbreen Javed Khan4


E-mail | ghazalahrizwan@yahoo.com

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 31, Iss. 1
...>To better understand systematic characters of Aconogonon (Polygonaceae), we studied pollen morphology in three (A. alpinum, A. rumicifolium and A. tortuosum) of five species distributed in Pakistan using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that Aconogonon is characterized by tricolpate pollen with microspinulose type of exine ornamentation. One distinctive pollen type was recognized on the basis of aperture number and sc...

Yashab Tur

 

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2
...al with a science that attempts to extract God from the explanatory hypothesis.

 

...

Thomas J. Coleman III

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2, Pages 39-41
...k this position, as he attempts to reclaim Darwin from the grasp of the New Atheists by charging him with uncovering “[t]he truth about religion.

 

...

Rashid Saleem1*, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmad2, Muhammad Abbas Anees2, Abdul Razzaq3 and Ashiq Saleem1

 

...ungbean intercropping systems under different fertility treatments at National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Cropping systems were kept in vertical blocks and fertility treatments in horizontal blocks replicated thrice with RCBD strip block system. Sole mungbean and intercropped mungbean with maize were treated with five fertility treatments (T1, control; Phosphor...

Suresh V Kuchipudi* and Kin-Chow Chang

 

...f influenza and other systemic viral infections which warrants further in-depth investigations.

 

...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

...y such as plant height, stem diameter, leaf area plant-1, leaf area index, chlorophyll content, green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein, crude fiber and ash percentage were significantly increased with increase nitrogen levels (200, 240, and 280 kg N ha-1). However, highest benefit-cost ratio was estimated when 240 kg N ha-1 was applied which was found best compromise between forage yield and quality for maize cultivar Kissan under the agro-climati...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

...ers. The current study attempts to analyse the impact of credit on wheat productivity in district Jhang. Furthermore, study explores the purpose of farmers for acquiring loan and major sources of credit in district Jhang. This study is based on primary data collected in 2013 from eight villages in district Jhang – Punjab, Pakistan. The district was divided into four zones and two villages were selected from each zone. An equal number of beneficiaries and...

Aqeel Ahmad, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Irfan Aziz*

 

...naris) based cropping systems field trials were conducted at University Research Farm, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi during 2007-2009. Lentil was planted in winter and during summer sorghum (sorghum bicolor) and mung bean (vigna radiata) followed lentil. Five different fertilizer treatments i.e. farmyard manure (FYM) 30 tons ha-1, NPK 35-40-20 kg ha-1, poultry manure 20 tons ha-1, compost (press mud)...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

... of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immune dysfunction. Studies of the innate immune responses to HP-PRRSV infection are crucial to gaining insight into HP-PRRSV-induced pathogenesis and for the development of novel protective vaccines. In this review, we discuss the in...

Hai-Bo Wang, Qiu-Hua Mo, Ze Yang*

... sensitive diagnostic system, which combines nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) and molecular beacon technique. Recently there have been two major progresses in the field, in which RT-NASBA technique was applied for the detection of diarrhoea related viruses. This mini review overviewed the basic principle of RT-NASBA and discussed the significance of these new findings.

...

Hina Fatima1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2

...is the main staple food item of the country’s population and the largest grain crop as well. Pakistan has been regularly importing wheat, except for the few years. Wheat’s domestic production has remained short of its domestic demands. To estimate the wheat varietal effect on wheat production and technical efficiency, a Cobb-Douglas Translog frontier analysis has been done. A primary research is conducted in the area of Rahim Yar Khan. Adoption of ...

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

...ice-chickpea cropping system. Integrated nutrient management is important for higher crop yields and sustainable agriculture. A field experiment was conducted to study the residual effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of chickpea crop. The treatments included control (no organic or inorganic fertilizer), NPK (36-72-0 kg ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1), Farmyard Manure (20 t ha-1), Poultry Manure (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + FYM (...

Jonathan Jong

...y prefaced by sheepish attempts to define these terms, followed by apologies for the inevitable inadequacy of the proposed definitions. This paper argues that scholars of religion and nonreligion should accept the fact that “religion” and “nonreligion” are, like all social scientific concepts (and some biological ones), fuzzy categories. There is no such thing as religion, such that the term “religion” picks out all and only...

Ethan G. Quillen

...straction, a scholarly attempt at theorizing a general interpretation. This is evinced not just by the way the term has been contrarily defined, but by a number of novel approaches, such as the creation and use of umbrella terms such as ‘non-religion,’ or the precarious notion of a division between ‘positive’ and/or ‘negative ‘Atheism. This article will attempt to assuage this issue by m...

Ryan T. Cragun1*, Joseph H. Hammer2, Michael Nielsen3

...tial validation of a 17-item Nonreligious-Nonspiritual Scale (NRNSS) across three studies. The NRNSS exhibited high internal consistency (α > .94) and high test-retest reliability (r = .92). Two exploratory and one confirmatory factor analysis of the NRNSS supported the hypothesized two-factor solution: (a) institutional religiousness and (b) individualistic spirituality. The NRNSS also demonstrated convergent validity through theoretically-expected c...

Marcus Mann

...es, on the morning of September 12, 2001, Sam Harris, a graduate student in neuroscience at the University of California – Los Angeles, woke up with an itch. He had been shaken to his core by the events of the previous day and found himself drawn to his computer, relating his thoughts on the 9/11 terrorist attacks’ implications to a word processor. What started as an itch evolved into his first book, The End of Faith: a scathing indictment of relig...

Rabnawaz1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Tahir Sarwar2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3

...nbsp;canal irrigation systems in Peshawar Valley. For this purpose, 18 farms were selected under public canal system and 13 under civil canal systems. Results revealed that average CWP of wheat, maize, sugarcane and tomato was 0.96, 1.11, 3.31, 3.61 kg m-3 under public and 0.90, 0.77, 2.36, 2.98 kg m-3, under civil system, respectively. In...

Guoyi Li1, Haiyan Tong1, Jiansheng Chen2, Jinliang Wei2, Xiaoming Zhao2, Guoping Zhang2, Zixue Shi2*

E-mail | shizixue@gmail.com

...adful central nervous system signs and high mortality in adults and children. It is caused by the JE virus (JEV), which belongs to the family Flaviviridae. JEV is endemic to many parts of East Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia, where periodic outbreaks take thousands of lives. With rapid globalisation and climatic shift, JEV has started to emerge in previously unaffected areas. Scientific evidences show that JEV would remain a global pathogen and mig...

Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

...ation of
spatial, temporal, and demographic inference into intra-host evolutionary analysis using Bayesian phylogeography allows for inference of pathogen migration between infected tissues and cell types, provides valuable insight into immunopathological processes, and ultimately paves the way for a better understanding of the interplay between viral evolution and pathogenesis.

...

Rick Repetti

...ll skepticism in contemporary analytic philosophy: Peter van Inwagen’s consequence argument, which asserts that if choices are lawfully necessary consequences of prior events, then they are unfree; Derk Pereboom’s two arguments for hard incompatibilism: the manipulation argument, which asserts that manipulated choices are unfree, determinism is functionally equivalent to manipulation, and thus determined choices are unfree;...

Reviewed by Dr William Patterson

...y opposed and that all attempts to reconcile them must result in failure. Coyne has much of use to say on the topic and many of his points are powerfully made. His case is weakened, however, by his incoherent treatment of epistemology. This problem is serious in that it lies at the heart of the matter and serves to undermine, at least to some extent, parts of Coyne’s main argument.

...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...a period of 4 months (September – December, 2014). The mean age and mean CD4+ count of the subjects were 40.14±0.47 years and 387.28±18.91 cells/mm3 respectively. Out of 275 subjects tested, 15(5.45%; 95% confidence interval) were positive for anti-HEV IgM. Anti- HEV IgM was highest among the age group 11-20 (9.09%), female (7.83%), civil servant (7.37%), > 500 CD4/ mm3 (7.89%). The multivariate analysis between age and CD4 count shows h...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

...o study i.e. whole ecosystems. Basically, the metagenomics approach is similar to well-known shotgun-sequencing, though on a much bigger scale. For instance, the metagenome of a lake would include all the fish, ducks, plants, fungi, bacteria and everything else that belongs to the lake. If we apply this approach to clinical samples we can identify the community of etiological pathogens, without any knowledge on the targets in advance. However, clinical specime...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...anti-oxidative enzyme system and MDA, but provoked oxidative stress when applied at high dosages. Therefore, pesticide application at high concentrations can be considered as a kind of stress, similarly to other stresses such as salt, drought and low or high temperatures.

...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

...e parameters except the stem diameter. Minimum days to flowering (118.1), maximum plant height (45.83 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (54.1), fresh flower weight (44.29 g) and dry flower weight (5.12 g) was obtained with the application of 200 mg K2O pot-1. In case of maleic hydrazide, the plants grown under control treatment took minimum days (112.9) to flowering, maximum plant height (47.06 cm) and number of leaves (57.89) plant-1. Maximum fresh flower weight ...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1, Faizah Abood2, Yusof Bin Ibrahim3

...gree correlation between temperature and B. bassiana infectivity was analysed. Beauveria bassiana infection was in range of 27-30ºC. Based on these findings, it is concluded that B. bassiana has promising potential as microbial control agent against A. sciodoxa and should be exploited under field conditions.

...

Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi

...neSpring knee implant system was designed for young subjects with knee OA to reduce knee pain, improve stability and knee function. The aim of this review article is to screen for the available information on knee implant system and to propose a suitable remedy for effective management of such ailments. Out of the available and applied implants, none of them was evaluated by motion analysis sys

Fatemeh Kheiri

...f the motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate. The stability of subjects during standing and their energy consumption while walking were analyzed by the use of a Kistler force plate and a polar heart rate monitoring. The difference between the kinetic and kinematic between sound and prosthetic sides was evaluated by two sample t-test. The physiological cost index of amputees varied between 0.42 and 0.74 beats per minute. there was no signi cant di ere...

Seyed Mohsen Mirbod

...se of motion analysis system and a force plate (Kistler). The mediolateral excursion of the knee joint decreased while walking with the knee orthosis in contrast to normal walking. Moreover, the mediolateral moment applied on the knee joint decreased significantly. This new design of the orthosis improves the performance of the subjects during walking. It carried same performance as that of the knee cage, and additionally is more cosmesis, ease in use and...

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

...e prevailing cropping system may increase crop productivity and net profitability through improving soil physico-chemical properties and fertility. Two years field experiments were conducted at the Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar- Pakistan (semiarid conditions) to investigate the effect of two green manuring crop species (guar and millet), their incorporation age (40, 70 and 100 days after sowing, DAS) and parts (whole plants incorporation and ...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...ludes that irrigation system is a catalyst for appreciable rice yield in this area. However, proper application of fertilizer and expansion of existing farmland should be adopted among the rice farmers in the study area and other related environment.

...

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...say) system was recently evaluated. However, such estimations of disease progression are commonly based on single sampling occasions and it is essential to know if estimated antibody levels vary over a period of weeks or months. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the short term stability and the long term consistency of the antibody levels to Aleutian disease virus (ADV). When evaluated in the short term, i.e. between consecutive...

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

...e fit in the cropping system as spring or summer season crop. However, its planting in summer is at risk of the moon-soon outbreak duration in the season. Present study was aimed to quantify delay-sowing response with increasing N-rate on crop productivity at Agronomy Research Farm, University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan. Sunflower (cv. Hysun-33) was planted on different dates i.e. Jul. 1, 11 and 21 treated with different N-rates starting from 40 kg ha

Moustafa Kardjadj

...a robust surveillance system to detect and respond effectively to exotic infections. Emergence and re-emergence of FMD virus genotypes/lineages has been detected necessitating frequent replacement of the vaccine strains. The present review summarizes the knowledge generated in epidemiology, diagnosis and surveillance of the disease in the Maghreb countries.

...

Shahida Bibi* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...nent in intercropping system involving maize crop, based on our results.   

...

Nazish Huma Khan*, Mohammad Nafees and Adila Bashir

...-orchard field with an attempt to know about the soil and wheat crop contamination caused by heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Ni). Soil samples were collected from both orchard and non-orchard fields and were extracted with Aqua-regia and Mehlich-3 extracting solutions for total and available metals respectively. Wheat crops from both fields (orchard and non-orchard) were collected and analyzed with aqua-regia for heavy metals contents. Results showed that the average...

Mukhtarullah1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal1*

... crop in the cropping system, however, average yield differs by 100% from the national average yield due to rainfed planting (67%). Sowing of wheat in the area starts in October subject to onset of winter rains which delays its planting in the season. This study aims to compare yield performance of newly released varieties of wheat by delay in sowing in the season under rainfed condition. Field experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Farm, Ahmad Wala ...

Imtiaz Hussain, M. Sajid, Noor ul Amin, Abdul Mateen Khattak, Abrar Hussain Shah, S. Mussarat       Hussain, Sayed Hussain and Nagina Zeb

...1"> during January to September, 2011. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plots arrangement was used for the experiment. The experiment was replicated four times. The Silvery softwood cuttings were planted in two different growing conditions i.e. under plastic tunnels and open field growing conditions, on five different planting dates with the regular interval of 15 days such as January 15th, January 31st, February 15...

Nadeem Khan1*, Arshad Ali Khan1, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Nouman2 and Badshah Islam1

...mlin showed the highest stem girth (9.90 cm) and number of branches (66.53). The internode length was the greatest in Kinnow cultivar (2.66 cm). In case of disease incidence maximum lesion on leaves were found in Kinnow (14.2) while in Cara Cara, Salustiana and Arnold Blood, lesser lesions were found. On the basis of results and overall performance Tarocco and Hamlin performed best in all aspects while Arnold Blood and Cara Cara revealed poor growth.  

Ashley C. Banyard1* and Satya Parida2

...tools are available to attempt eradication there are a number of factors that will influence the strategy taken to progress with the aim of eradication. Here we describe current areas where knowledge improvement is required to shape our understanding of the disease and its distribution alongside areas of investigation that require consideration in any viral eradication campaign. 

...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...expand or improve the systems, and inadequate supply of quality vaccines and the problem of delivery to maintain cold chain, there is need for a very strong regional coordination for effective and sustainable control of PPR in Africa. The African continent is currently divided into 57 countries (or independent territories), many of which rely heavily on livestock for fuel, motor power and sustenance with many also endemic to the disease. PPRV continues to deci...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

...ers. In this study, an attempt has been made to estimate the economic losses based on the annual incidence, morbidity, mortality levels etc. derived from literature, discussion with experts, and based upon scientific facts. Different mathematical models were used to assess the losses due to mortality in young and adult sheep/goats, body weight loss in young and adult sheep/goats, milk loss, loss due to increased inter-lambing/kidding period, loss due to increa...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

... various heterologous systems across the globe for development of vaccines and/or diagnostic antigens. The recombinant viral proteins, virus like particle based vaccines, bivalent/multivalent vaccines, recombinant viral vectored vaccines, RNA interference as a therapy, suicidal DNAs, synthetic epitopes and peptides, reverse genetics, anti idiotypic antibody based vaccines and helper cell dependent diagnostics represent the present vaccine/diagnostic developmen...

Neil Levy

...ntribute to valuable epistemic diversity. 

...

Neil Levy

...ntribute to valuable epistemic diversity. 

...

Keyvan Sharifmoradi1*, Nader Farahpour2

...dy. A motion analysis system (Vicon Motion Analysis System) and two Kistler force plates were used to measure forces applied on the legs. Data were evaluated using independent t-test with significant point set at p< 0.05. There was no difference in cadence between left and right of normal subjects and those with PD. However, there was a significant decrease in walking speed and stride length in both sides of PD pat...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

...ly detected from post mortem samples (lymph node, spleen and trachea) of goats and a sheep during the year 2008-2012. The partial N gene of ten isolates and partial F gene of eight isolates were amplified by RT-PCR, and were sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that PPRVs circulating in Bangladesh belonged to Lineage IV and they formed a separate sub-cluster along with recent isolates from Nepal, Bhutan and China. On genetic analyses, it appeared that...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

... ocular discharges, high temperature, diarrhea and ulcerative lesions in the oral cavity. A total of eighteen goats from a herd of sixty, were affected and two goats succumbed within two weeks. Interestingly, the disease was exclusively observed in goats and all sheep kept in the same herd were serologically positive but did not show any clinical signs of PPR. The active PPR virus (PPRV) infection was confirmed by antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR in both swab ...

Muhammad Siddiq1* and Hamid Ullah Shah2

 

...amples stored at ambient temperature. Storage conditions increased PV from 218 to 27.82, FFA from 0.88 to 1.47, AV from 1.02 to 1.56, while decreased IV from 63.38 to 58.05, CI from 0.392 to 0.337 and BC from 27.87 to 3.46. It was concluded that olive:palm oils mixed at a level of 10:90% and 20:80% ratios have the best quality stricture, which are more acceptable and better than other blends when mixed together that will achieve better strength as well as fina...

 Zar Muhammad and Mohammad Tariq Jan

...ction in agricultural system. Two years field trials were carried out during 2011-12 at New Developmental Farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. Thirteen compost treatments including control as main plot treatment and two fert-N levels (0 and 75 kg N ha-1) as subplot treatments were used. Compost materials i.e. farmyard manure (FYM), cereal residue (CR) and legume residue (LR) were composted as sole or in various combinations six weeks befo...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

...ted to the ecological systems, evolutionary rate, adaptation of the species, gene flow, epidemiology and control strategies. Our study observed that the two laboratory grown species of tsetse flies may be genetically related.

...

Jannatul Noor, Md. Ahaduzzaman, Mir Md. Afzal Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Sardar Abdur Rahim and Md. Samun Sarker

... under semi intensive system (63.33%) than free range (20.0%) and the intensive system (16.67%) (P=0.00). Ticks were found mostly around the ear (66.67%) than the other body parts. The most abundant ticks were identified as Boophilus sp. (61.67%), followed by Haemaphysalis sp. (30.0%) and Hyalomma sp. (8.33%) (P=0.00).

...

 Ian von Hegner

...h the ontological or epistemological question of whether the gods exist, whereas heroical apatheism concerns itself with the primary component missing so far, namely democratic rights and dignity. This is a discussion that I consider as having been overlooked in modern philosophical discussions.

...

Yingbin Wang*, Ting Ye, Xiaogang Wang and Congyu Zhou

... (RELE), and sea surface temperature (SST). The results showed that the interpretation ratio (IR) of the 6 factors reached 83.76%, within which the IR of the RELE is the largest (26.02%). The IRs of NMV and PTV also exceed 20% (20.21% and 20.10%, respectively). The IRs of SST, PMV and NTV are similar, and all are between 5.6% and 6%. The catch of P. trituberculatus positively correlated with the fishing efforts of main catch vessels, but showed negative correl...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

... orbital shaking at room temperature. The same procedure was performed for commercial dyes. The dye was removed due to the interaction with the polysaccharide starch and flocculation phenomenon. Chitosan starch based polymer composites can be used as an efficient and cost effective method to treat waste water polluted with carcinogenic dyes by coagulation-flocculation. Moreover this method is beneficial over other methods that employ toxic polymers or mineral ...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

...ional mobile pastoral system. This study was carried out in Naran valley in 2015, to understand the agriculture land use changes during the past three decades and its impacts on traditional mobile pastoral system. For this purpose, participatory discussions, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to identify and...

Wan-Long Zhu* and Gao Wenrong 

...ammals. Ambient cues, as temperature and photoperiod, play important roles in animals’ physiological adjustments. In order to determine the contributions of temperature and photoperiod to seasonal changes in body mass and thermogenesis in Apodemus chevrieri, we examined seasonal-acclimatized and lab-acclimated animals on several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical markers indicative of thermogenic capa...

Muhammad Aslam

...esearch and extension systems, accelerating diffusion and adoption of latest agriculture technologies and inputs, enhancing good quality seed production, improving irrigation water management and improving reclamation and drainage.

...

Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

...: justify;">This study attempts to measure the economic benefits of milk marketing cooperatives working in two districts (Vehari and Muzzafargrah), geographically located in the southern region of Punjab province of Pakistan. The study analyzed the significance of milk marketing cooperatives by revealing and evaluating possible returns to smallholders in dairy sector. The hypothesis that milk marketing cooperatives are beneficial for milk producers was tested ...

Gerald E. Marsh

...s essay explores the epistemological basis of this lament.

...

Ghani Akbar, Muhammad Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Hassan, Qurban Hussain3 and Greg Hamilton

...d bed farming (CTRBF) system, which may be helpful for agriculture sustainability and food security.

...

Mehreen Zaidullah and Hina Fatima

...c Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) is employed to estimate the budget shares and test for these shifts. The results confirm for the significance of the quadratic variables in the model except for the Oils’ group. The presence of these shifts have been proved in Pakistan and hence there are other factors as well like urbanization that causing these shifts in food demand, apart from the changes in expenditures and the relative prices. Hence, agricultura...

Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

...is article presents a systematic integration of complex biological interactions of 226 mammary gland genes to uncover underlying regulatory networks. Data were collected from various databases after having an exhaustive literature study. Network, functional and pathway analysis of the mammary gland genes were performed to find mastitis resistant genes, which helped us to identify prime genes of mammary gland that are more resistant to mastitis, and analysis of...

Haji Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal* and Saira Saleemi

...ey was conducted from September 2013 to August, 2014 at eight sampling sites to ascertain fish diversity and their distribution pattern. A total 2249 fish specimen were collected using a variety of fish nets and identifications of these fishes were made by using standard taxanomic keys on the basis of morphometric characters. Seventy species belonging to 43 genera and 17 families were recorded from the study area of Indus River. Thirty two species were commerc...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

...e Almost Ideal Demand System model is used to estimate food demand patterns using the Household Integrated Economic Survey of Pakistan for the year 2011-12. Food products are categorized into fourteen groups including milk, meat, fruits, vegetables, sugar, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats, tea and coffee, backed products and other food. Economic factors such as food commodities price and household’s income and t...

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

...actors in our agro-ecosystem. Among many pest management approaches, biological control is considered as the main strategy to address these issues including sucking pests. Different biocontrol agents are being used for the management of these sucking insect pests. Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been proved as an efficient acarine predator of sucking insect pests of different crops. This predator has also been reported from different localities of...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...ocess known as “Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX)” technique. Among the receptors available for biosensing, aptamer exhibit the advantages of high specificity, selectivity, stability, facile labelling and modification, which makes them ideal candidates for development of new biosensing applications for detection of specific target molecules. In the present review, we concentrate on the recent advances in the developm...

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

...ators in sunflower ecosystem. The data revealed that B. tabaci and Empoasca spp were present throughout the cropping season. Their average maximum populations (5.65 and 3.20 individuals / leaf) were recorded during 3-week of May 2009. Aphis gossypii was recorded during the month of March and its maximum population (28.3 individuals / leaf) was observed during 2-week of March 2009. Likewise, Nysius inconspicuous was observed during seeds development and its ma...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...les and eggs per root system, and reproduction factor. Four initial populations (Pi) (500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 eggs) mixed with antagonistic fungal conidia levels (1×103, 1×104, 1×105, 1×106) were used during the experiments. The roots were stained with Phloxine B, the egg-masses were quantified, the root systems were rated for galling, and the egg masses were measured on a 0 to 5 scale, where 0 = no...

Afzaal Ahmad Naseem1*, Maleeha Akram1, Sarwat Jahan2, Kiran Afshan2, Zubaria Iqbal1, Faheem Tahir3, Mazhar Qayyum1 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1

... using specific ELISA systems and LGV was calculated for each age/stage group. Pearson correlation r and ANOVA were employed. GH and LGV exhibited age related positive correlations from 1 to 20 years and developmental stage dependent positive correlations during infancy, pre-puberty, early, mid and late puberty/adolescence. T and LGV were positively correlated from 1st to 16th year and negatively correlated from 17th to 20th year. T and LGV exhibited positive ...

Adedeji A.J, Sati N.M, Pewan S.B, Ogbu K.I, Adole J.A, Lazarus D.D, Ijiwo S.J, Okpanachi A, Nwagbo I.O, Joannis, T.M and Abdu P.A

...asted for 6 days. Postmortem findings include ecchymotic hemorrhages in the breast and thigh muscles, mucosa of the junction between the proventriculus and gizzard, severely enlarged and hemorrhagic bursa of Fabricius (BF) and splenomegaly. The bursa of Fabricius was harvested for laboratory investigation using AGID for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). As part of investigation to screen for co-infection of CIA and IBD in the flock, the BF was also scree...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...t the community level. Attempts will be made to isolate Leptospira bacteria from urine, soil and water samples. Antibody detection in animal and human serum samples will utilize Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Study outcomes will include (i) geo-referencing of adverse environmental attributes that support Leptospira growth, (ii) animal and human seasonal public health burden of Leptospirosis, (iii) seasonal variation in the distribution of Leptospira det...

Wenmin Cheng1,2*, Weirong Pan1,2, Yubo Qing1, Yingchao Liu1, Xingqin Zha1,2, Yan Huang2, Jige Xin1,2, Hongjiang Wei1 and Yangzhi Zeng2

...rokaryotic expression system and compared the difference on the developmental effects between exogenous Npm and its structural analog, polyglutamic acid (PGA). We chose the pMD18-T vector for Npm expression and transformed E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells to construct a prokaryotic expression system. The results showed that the recombinant Npm protein of 32 kDa could be obtained. Recombinant Npm or PGA was injected into porcine oocy...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...ression of the immune system during the acute disease, which favours the establishment and exacerbates the progression of secondary infections. This review gives an overview of the known immunosuppressive strategies of PPRV, among the Paramyxoviruses, as well as the strategies developed by this virus to evade the immune system, focusing on the newly identified factors involved. In the last years substantial progress has been...

Sabri Unal1, ASır Er2, Erol Akkuzu1* and Lubomir Salek3

...e predator Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and to evaluate its efficacy on Macrosiphum rosae (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Kastamonu, Turkey. Rearing of C. septempunctata was carried out at 21.3±4.00ºC and 78.8±9.44% relative humidity. The first, second, third and fourth larval instars of C. septempunctata consumed 20.3, 54.3, 108.2,...

Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud1,2, Fathy A. Abdel-Ghaffar2, Azza El-Amir2, Gamal Badr3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy1*

...ng malaria infection. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that affects many body organs including spleen. However, the effect of Plasmodium chabaudi infection on the spleen of the murine lupus model BWF1with the comparison between live and gamma irradiated parasite was not studied before. A total of 30 female BWF1 mice were randomly divided into three groups as follows: group (I) control group (lupus uninfected); group (II) live P. chab...

Marryam Bakhtawar1, Qamar Saeed1* and Naeem Iqbal2

...friendly pest control system.

...

Muhammad Raheel1,*, Nazir Javed2, Sajid Aleem Khan2, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3 and Sohail Ahmed4

...e influence of different temperature ranges on the reproductive potential of native and exotic species of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) was checked on Galleria mellonella larvae. The native species included Steinernema asiaticum and Heterorhabditis indica whereas exotic species were S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. G. mellonella larvae were exposed to 300 IJs of each species. After inoculation at different temperatures, ...

Nighat Sultana1,2,*, Shazia Iftikhar1, Nafeesa Qudsia Hanif2 and Iffat Tahira2

... a model fermentation system and raw materials from different areas of Punjab, Pakistan. A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus were the most dominant followed by A. terrus and A. ochraceous in fresh and ensiled maize fodder. Total fungal counts ranged from 1×103 to 4×103cfu/ml for all species in both fresh and ensiled maize fodder. Total aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) analysis showed that AFB1was present with high freq...

Wang Tian1, Huayong Zhang1,*, Jian Zhang2, Lei Zhao1, Mingsheng Miao3 and Hai Huang1

...CCA) revealed that water temperature, Secchi disk depth (SD), total phosphorus and phytoplankton biomass were the most significant factors that influenced zooplankton. Strong correlations between SD and Brachionus leydigi, Chrysophyta and Diaphanosoma leuchtenbergianum, Cryptophyta and Theopilium, Ascomorpha ovalis, Hexarthra mira were observed during the CCA. These zooplankton species may be used as indicators of relevant variables. Results in this resea...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

...alian central nervous system (CNS), perform many important neurobiological functions. Although a large number of transgenic mouse models carrying astrocyte-specific transgene expression of transgene have made significant contributions to understanding astrocytic structure and function in vitro and in vivo, evidence suggests that mouse models are limited and sometimes do not fully replicate the complete spectrum of neurological phenotypes seen in human diseases...

Bahattin Cak1, Orhan Yilmaz1, Siddik Keskin2, Tahir Bayril3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4*

...y of the goat farming system.

...

Bin Wang, Bo Zhang, Nan Yang, Liang Dou and Jianghong Ran*

... cooperative breeding system is a facultative breeding strategy in both natural and habituated buff-throated partridge, and suggest that variation in food resources might cause variation in demography and the frequency of cooperative breeding among populations.

...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...a. Present study is an attempt to determine the impact of Palai dam on the land use and cropping pattern, crop production and revenue of mouza Qilla, Tehsil Tangi, district Charsadda in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Secondary data was collected from revenue office Tangi, and was geospatially analyzed in ARC GIS 10.1. Geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based set of procedures used to store and analyze ...

Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed and Dilnawaz Ahmed Gardezi

...r number of tillers and stem girth, whereas S-05-FSD-307 revealed maximum values for plant height and number of nodes. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences for plant height, number of tillers, leaf area, brix percentage, reducing and non-reducing sugar. A total of 79.75% cumulative variance was estimated in genotypes with PCA analysis at eigenvalue >1 and grouped 20 genotypes into five clusters at Euclidean distance (ED) 7. Cluster a...

Hina Fatima, Lal Almas and Bushra Yasmin

...cotton-melon cropping system under tunnels. The data were collected from 150 farmers; those were cultivating cotton-melon crops in combination under tunnels. The study area was Punjab, Pakistan. The stochastic cost frontier analysis was used to estimate the allocative efficiency of cotton-melon cropping systems efficiency. The result illustrates that none of the farmers to be optimally using their inputs. The average allocat...

Aqila Shaheen and Nadia Sabir

... wheat-maize cropping systems in the erosion-vulnerable sub-humid area. Treatments included tillage levels i.e. ST (shallow tillage), STR (shallow tillage with residues), DT (deep tillage) and DTR (deep tillage with residues). Sub plots had three fertilizer’s levels viz. F1 (control), F2 (inorganic fertilizers) and F3 (farm yard manure; FYM+ inorganic fertilizers). Deep tillage increased wheat yield by 60%, 37% and 29% over ...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...ared to WT, both at room temperature and at 42°C. The above results showed that HsfA1d positively regulates thermotolerance in tobacco plants and can be used as target gene for engineering thermotolerance in crops.  

...
S. Bushra1,*, M. Tariq1, M. Naeem1, M. Ashfaq1, I. Bodlah1 and M. Ali2
... pests of plant crops in temperate areas of the world. They are monophagous as well as polyphagous and damage wheat, oilseeds, vegetables and fruit crops. This study was carried out to observe the effect of plant extracts and semiochemicals on physiology and performance of endoparasitoid of aphids, Diaeretiella rapae. Seven different treatments of semiochemicals and plant extract were applied on aphid pests, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum p...
Muhammad Arshad1*, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2*, Faisal Hafeez3, Ravaid Sherazi1 and Naeem Iqbal4
...beetle (Coccinella septempunctata L.) and four different aphid species (spinach aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli; coriander aphid, Hyadaphis coriandri (Das); cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L.;pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was evaluated in the laboratory in no choice and free choice feeding assays. In the no choice feeding assay, the stages of beetle (adults, 3rd and 4th instar) consumed more aph...
Ahmad Kamran Khan1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1,*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Nazir Javed2
... mites within soil ecosystems, involved in maintaining the soil health. Biodiversity of Mesostigmata can be used to access the soil health within a geographical region. Family richness, diversity, abundance and evenness of soil inhabiting Mesostigmata mites in cultivated and undisturbed soil were estimated from five different localities of Punjab, Pakistan in 2014. Family richness, abundance and Shannon diversity indexes were higher in undisturbed soil as comp...
Naime Zülâl Elekcioğlu*
...">The effect of constant temperatures on developmental time and parasitization rate of Citrostichus phyllocnistoides was evaluated on Phyllocnistis citrella at nine constant temperatures ranging from 15ºC±1 to 35ºC±1 in 2.5ºC increments in the laboratory. Developmental periods of immature stages ranged from 34.98 days at 15ºC to 9.15 days at 35ºC. The lower developmental t...
Farkhanda Manzoor1, Iram Amin2,*, Muhammad Shahid2,Samia Afzal2,Hania Ramzan1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah2 and Muhammad Idrees3
... Lahore during May to September of 2012 to 2014. RNA extracted from each mosquito larvae pool was tested by nested PCR for detection of dengue virus. Out of total 50 pools of Aedes aegypti larvae, DV-2 was the most prevalent serotype. DENV-1 was not found in any pool. While all pools of Aedes albopictus were negative for dengue virus. Our study showed that the main cause of spreading of dengue virus was Aedes aegypti. Serotype DENV-2 was d...

Pam D Luka, Frank N Mwiine, Bitrus Yakubu, Joseph Erume, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez, Hermann Unger and David Shamaki

...he Nigeria’s ecosystem. This finding provides a guide for further studies to establish their role in the epidemiology of ASF and additional effort towards understanding the ecology of Ornithodoros ticks in Nigeria.

...
Abida Butt,* Imtiaz Alam and Rabia Naz
...d in the number of prey items intercepted by decorated and non-decorated webs. The results of this study showed that stablimenta did not increase prey interception efficiency of the web. However, web design of A.trifasciata showed plasticity that can be explained on the basis of studied body measures.
...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...oxygen (5.6 to 7.5ml/l), temperature (25°C to 28°C). pH (7.6-7.8), ammonia (NH4-N) and `nitrites (NO2-N) less than (0.001mg/l), Secchi’s disc visibility (8 cm to 46 cm). Higher percent weight gain (2665 g), specific growth rate (2.76±0.5 % day-1), best feed conversion ratio (0.14), condition factor (4.1), viscerosomatic index (7.1), hepatosomatic index (1.4) were significantly (P< 0.05)...
Jun Cui, Xiaoxu Zhou, Zhicheng Wang, Derong Kong, Xuemei Qiu, Hongdi Wang and Xiuli Wang*
...fy;">The Wap65 is a warm temperature acclimation-related protein, and it plays an important role in adapting temperature shock. But the research about Wap65 in crucian carp is very limited. In this study, the CDS of Wap65 was firstly cloned and characterized from crucian carp (Carassius carassius). This sequence is 1338bp that encodes a polypeptide of 445 amino acids. The calculated molecular weight of crucian ...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Ehsan Kamrani1, Narges Amrollahi Biuki1 and Hossein Zamani2
...monthly from March to September 2014 in the intertidal zones of Bandar Lengeh in the Persian Gulf. The numbers of males, females, unsexual samples were counted for 71, 126 and 20, respectively. Females were totally 1.77 times heavier than males. Wet weights of gonads were nearly 8.25% of the mean total wet body weights. Only females were observed by gonad wet weights more than 12 g. The gonad wet weights of females (3.74±3.26) was heavier than males (3....
Mürşide Dartay*, Tuncay Atessahin and Erdal Duman
...nd multifilament), water temperature, and water depth. CPUE values were found to be higher at 24.5 °C water temperature and 13.7 m water depth with multi-monofilament gillnets with a result of 15.23 g/m, and the lowest was with multifilament gillnets with a result of 3.95 g/m (0.5); however, multi‑monofilament gillnets had a result of 23.28 g/m and multifilament gillnets 14.58 g/m (0.67) in July, respectively. Depe...
Fermín Lopez-Uriostegui1, Jesús T. Ponce-Palafox2,*, Fabiola Lango-Reynoso1, María del Refugio Castañeda-Chavez1, Virgilio Eugenio Arenas-Fuentes3 and Fernando Vega-Villasante4
...lum in caged-pond system were studied. A total of 120 caridean shrimp (60 M. americanum and 60 M. tenellum) had their stomach repletion analysis. Samples were taken four-hly over a 24 h cycle. In general it was found that stomach repletion index showed both species feed 24 h, but forage activity differs in intensity in the two species. In M. tenellum repletion index was greatest during the day and M. americanum in the night.
Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed
...logical factors, such as temperature, relative humidity and sunshine. The highest mean population of fruit fly remained at 499 in the month of August. It started to decline afterwards and remained at 348 in the month of September. The lowest population was recorded at 26, 3, 2 and 1 for November, December, January and February, respectively. The optimum monthly average temperature and rela...
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
... range and daily minimum temperature may be related to energy requirements or prey activities. The average group size of the scaly-sided merganser was 3.91 ± 2.94 individuals, and extremely significant differences existed at different time of day (F = 25.540, df = 11, P < 0.01). The largest group size (5.22 ± 5 individuals) appeared at 16:00–17:00, and the smallest at 08:00–09:00 (2.6 ± 1.12 individuals), similar resu...

 Nosheen Noor Elahi* and Misbah Mughal

...;A comparative study of stem epidermis of fourteen sugarcane varieties (i.e., L-l18, CP72-2086, CP43-33, HSF-240, CPF-237, SPF-213, COjv-84, CO-1148, COL-54, COL-29, CO-975, BL-4, Triton and BF-162) was carried out using Schultz’s maceration method followed by staining with chloloiodide of Zinc. The results indicated substantial differences among the sugarcane varieties for various stem epidermal cell combinations and ...
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
...y parameters remained as temperature (28.1±0.2°C), dissolved oxygen (6.10±0.1 ml/l), pH (6.6±0.1 ml/l) and ammonia (0.02±0.004 ml/l) throughout the study period. Taking into consideration the number of fertilized eggs and survival of fry data attained in the present study, a salinity level of 20% is suggested for red tilapia breeding in concrete tanks.
...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...ngustifolia and Artemisia scoparia @ 0.5 and 1.0% respectively, control (basal diet), and a positive control (Oxyfeed® @ 2g/kg). In the study, the treatment groups, which were given diet supplemented with herb and antibiotic, exhibited improved weight gain, average daily gain, and feed conversion (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed in feed intake (P>0.05). The treatment groups supplemented with Allium sativum

Mohammad Raoofi and Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim

...vels (20, 40, 60 and 80 stems per square meter). The results obtained in two cuttings in the third year of established alfalfa showed that the weeds caused quantitative and qualitative reduction in alfalfa. Alfalfa in the second cutting had better growth compared to the first cutting, so that the plant produced the highest fresh and dry yield in the second cutting. However, weed non-interference increased the levels of superior morphological traits of alfalfa,...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

... ecology, chemical ecosystem, economic significance, and management. Beetles in the Cerambycidae family have implicit increasing importance as pests of green forest in addition to shade trees, shrubs, and pink wood products as well as vectors of tree ailments. The alien species related to hardwood packing substances have been remarkable tree destroyers in the urban and semi-urban areas of China. In forests flora and fauna inhabitant species take action against...
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...ell growth and immune system. Thus, results from our current study indicate that DEG analysis of RNA-seq data help us better understand the precise mechanisms of PEDV in pig PBMC. 
...

John G. Bruno

... sequences or secondary stem-loop structures of these aptamers were observed, 3-dimensional computer models of these top ten anti-idiotypic aptamer candidates showed some topological similarities which suggest common binding motifs. Unfortunately, without knowledge of the hypervariable region amino acid sequences of the target antibodies, no docking simulations are possible to test this topological hypothesis, but the present work illustrates feasibility of th...
Syed Ishfaq Ali Shah1,*, Tassawar Hussain Malik2, Imran Rafi Khan1 and Zahid Hussain
...ies. Maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and wind velocity were negative and non-significantly correlated while, % relative humidity (%R.H) was found non-significantly and positively correlated both with USDA accessions and local varieties. On overall basis, during the course of the season, lowest number of jassid/leaf was recorded on USG-12-8 (1.7) followed by USG-12-44 (3.2) and USG-12-24 (3.3) while, number of whiteflies/leaf on USG-14-2460 (11.6) fo...
Maoying Zhu, Yuntao Ji, Xiaoyu Wang, Junying Pu and Changqing Qu*
...porcine adipose-derived stem cells. Four different combinations of cryoprotectants with and without hydrogen gas (H) (purified H2 was dissolved into normal cryopreservation solution for 2 hrs under 0.6 MPa were tested including the following groups: control (CK), 100µm GSH, 10µm fasudil hydrochloride (FH) and a combination of the two (GSH + FH). A solution of 10% (v/v) Me2SO + 20% FBS was used as the standard cryopreservation ...
Muhammad Qadir Ahmad¹*, Farheen Ashraf Raza¹, Abdul Qayyum¹, Waqas Malik¹, Rao Wali Muhammad2, Muhammad Asif Saleem1, Amir Hamza2, Ahmad Baksh Mahar3
...s a balance between leaf temperature, leaf energy exchange and photosynthesis. The experiment was undertaken to study the association of leaf related traits i.e. leaf area (LA), leaf angle position (LP), number of lobes per leaf (NL), leaf chlorophyll contents (SV), relative water content (RWC), leaf hairiness (HL), leaf color (LC) and yield related traits i.e. boll weight (BW), number of seeds per boll (NS), number of locules per boll (NLB), seed index (SI) a...

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...">Pastoral production system remained a central component of mountain subsistence economy in the Hindu Kush- Himalayan (HKH) region of Northern Pakistan. However, the growing trends of crops cultivation in the high mountains of HKH region have largely transformed this subsistence livestock production in to commercial agricultural system and shaped an uncertain environment that is not suitable for both landless nomadic pastor...

Wazha Mugabe1,2, Lawrence Akanyang1, Mackenzie Nsinamwa1, Batanani Moatswi1, Naledi Matthews1, Kealeboga Dipheko1, Imtiaz Ahmed Ujjan3 and Assar Ali Shah2*

... sizes 10m x 10m were systematically placed along each transect at intervals of 50m for the first 500m and the last 500m the spacing interval was increased by 100m. The botanical composition (P<0.05) of fodder trees along grazing gradients was composed of 20 and 12 species for fenced and unfenced areas, respectively. The grazing gradient in fenced area recorded the highest mean density (P<0.05) of tree species (1928 units ha−1) as compared to ...
Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3
...torage intervals at room temperature” was conducted at post harvest laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during the year 2015. The research work was conducted in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications and two factors i.e. guava varieties (Safeda and Karela) and storage intervals (0, 3, 6, and 9 days). The data was recorded onfirmness (kg/cm2), weight loss (%), moisture contents (%), ...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

...heric CO2, variations in temperature and precipitation are helping tools to forecast scenarios for the climate in an area. Changes in these tools from the past due to any unavoidable circumstances for today and in the future is refers to climate change (CC). Besides other living being, crops are either benefited or adversely affected by these changes in the climate of an area. Maize is one of the widely grown crops in the world and even in Pakistan has also in...

Zain-ul-Aabdin Abro1*, Naheed Baloch1, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2, Waseem Akbar Qazi2, Noor Abid Saeed3

...vely correlated with the temperature while negatively correlated with relative humidity.

...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
... reduced infestation of stem borer,leaf hoppers of rice; shoot & fruit borer of brinjal and fruit flies of vegetables.Biopesticides (formulated trichoderma) and bio-agents (bracon,trichogramma, ladybird beetle) and sex pheromone are in the pipeline for commercial use.

...

Honnur Basha, Vinaya Hemannavar, B.Ramanujam, R. Rangeshwaran and S.Sriram 

Screening of chilli microflora and other biocontrol agents for their antagonistic effects on Colletotrichum spp. infecting chillies
...cosphaerella, Phoma and Stemphylium and the other 24 isolates of fungi belonged to Aspergillus, Acremonium, Chaetomella,Cunninghamella, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Monodictys, Mucor, Myrothecium, Penicillium, Periconia and Pithomyces. One-hundred and thirteen isolates of chilli microflora and 49 isolates of Trichoderma, 19 isolates of Bacillus sp., 34 isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens and 29 isolates of yeasts from NBAII germplasm collection of biocontrol agent...

A. K.Bhattacherjee and B. K. Pandey

Dissipation of carbendazim in mango after pre- and post-harvest treatments
...um gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Lasiodiplodia theobromae). Carbendazim dissipated to 1.01 and 2.14 mg kg in mature whole fruit after harvest (12 days after second spray) at 0.05 and 0.1 per cent concentrations, respectively, following first order rate kinetics. The corresponding values in fruit pulp after 12 days were 0.57 and 1.26 mg kg . In another experiment, cold water dip treatment in carbendazim solution @0.05 and 0.1 percent was given for 10 min t...

Wajid Hasan1 and C. P. Singh2

Relationship between the population of mustard aphid,Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and weather parameters on different cultivars of Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.)
...with maximum and minimum temperature,rainfall, wind velocity, evaporation and positive with afternoon and morning relative humidity. The values of coefficient of determination (R ) were high (0.92 to 0.99), indicated that the population of L. erysimi governed significantly with the weather parameters. It concluded that the temperature (max. 18.7 and min. 5.0 C), relative humidity (morning 91.5 and afternoon 50.5 percent), ra...

S. K. Mukhopadhyay and M. V. Santha Kumar

Studies on the biosafety of botanical insecticides to native natural enemies of mulberry ecosystem
...in IPM in mulberry ecosystem.

...

M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal
...ation with max & min temperatures, min relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy days. Step down multiple regression analysis revealed that the forecasting of BLS could best be done from min temp, minimum relative humidity and number of rainy days.

...

1N. Johnson Singh, 2Amitava Konar and 3Palash Mondal

Incidence of aphids in different traps on potato in Gangetic plains of West Bengal
...he abiotic factors viz., temperature (maximum & minimum), relative humidity% (maximum & minimum) and bright sunshine hour had significant effect on aphid population. The same abiotic factors were quite different between the first and second year. This was due to the fact that the climatic conditions in second year varied distinctly from the first year.

...

1Parvin Noor and 2Md. Nashir Uddin

Morphological changes of different castes of the subterranean termites (Odontotermes proformosanus) in fungus combs of termitophiles
... the termitophiles, an attempt has been made to observe the morphological changes of nymphs while they stayed within the fungus comb. Biological attributes indicated that Odontotermes proformosanus are polymorphic in nature and have exopterygote post-metamorphic development. During the period of study, eggs and nymphs were collected in different seasons from the fungus combs of termite mounds. Eggs of O. proformosanus were found profusely in fungus comb in the...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
... days at an average room temperature of 28 ± 2ºC and 70-75% RH during September, 2009. Male mealybug has a short life span of 3.0 ± 0.21 days. Females live for nearly 80.7 ± 10.43 days with an oviposition period of approximately 21 days. This mealybug is capable of active movement throughout its adult life. The stripped mealy bug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) was found to infest the leaves of differ...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...weather factors, such as temperature, total rainfall, number of rainy days and relative humidity on the development of diseases like canker (Pestalotia psidii), anthracnose and die back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), stem canker and dry fruit rot (Botryodiplodia theobromae) and Phytophtora fruit rot (Phytophthora nicotianae var parasitica) of guava were analysed for predictive purpose from regression equations. The simple...

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
...occur in betelvine ecosystem which dwindle betelvine yield potentiality. Among these, the polyphagous betelvine blackfly, Aleurocanthus rugosa Singh (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) is a major pest causing severe damage to the foliage in the conservatories (borojas) of West Bengal. The seasonal incidence of A. rugosa in boroja was recorded during 2003-2004. A. rugosa adults were active in the boroja throughout the year with two peaks, one in pre-monsoon and another in...

S. Subharani, S. S. Thorat, N. Abem, L. Amit Kumar and T. K. Singh 

A database on parasitoid of insect pests of crops in Manipur, India
...hered by conducting a systematic survey of parasitoids on insect pests of crops in different localities of Manipur was developed by using MS-Access. The database is for academic purpose and it includes the taxonomic details of the parasitoid, host insect, host plant, morphological characters, geographical distribution, period of activity, parasitoid behavior and its biology etc. Image of the parasitoid species are also provided for helping in easy identificati...

S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
...m. It was observed that stems of som plant (specifically the pollarded plants) were generally infected with rot disease when it grows older. Phellinus contigus (under Polyporaceae), a white rot fungus, causes heart rot disease and Biscogniauxia mediterranea (= Hypoxylon mediterranea) (under Xylariaceae) causes canker rot disease of Som plant. A survey was conducted to study the infection of rotting pathogens on Som plants at Regional Muga Research Station (RMR...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...ommon and established system of biocontrol of plant diseases.

...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Population proliferation and spread of Trichoderma spp. in soil under two different delivery systems
...two types of delivery systems, through organic based (vermicompost + neem cake (90% + 10% w/w)) and seed based (sterilized wheat seed) inocula. The population proliferation and spread of the antagonists were faster when they were applied through organic based inoculums over that of seed based inoculums from the point of application. Similarly population proliferation and spread of the antagonist was more rapid in sterilized soil followed by solarised soil and ...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
...l as into the fruit and stem. In doing so, it injects a toxic substance into the leaves. The result is chlorosis, plant stunting, leaf deformation, early dropping of the leaves and fruits, a heavy accumulation of honeydew and death of the host plants. Heavy infestation is capable of making fruits inedible due to the deposition of thick white waxy material by this mealybug. Five biopesticides i.e., tobacco medicine (100 %), tobacco leaf extract (20 % ), mehgoni...

P. Barma and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal activity of fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq.) on pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) and weather relations
...h of maximum and minimum temperature had significant positive correlation (r = +0.386 and +0.501, respectively) on the population build up of the pest. The relative humidity % of morning hours had significantly negative correlation (r = -0.451) and that of evening slightly positive (r = +0.284). Rainfall had insignificantly positive (r = +0.195), soil temperature significantly positive (r = +0.555) and the bright sun shine h...

SK Fashi Alam, Atanu Seni and Ajoy K Sahoo

Biology of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) on sprouted potato and brinjal plant
... plant at 20-36.2° C temperature and 15.1±1 days and 18±0.82 days respectively on sprouted potato. The ratio of the male: female were 1:1.75 and 1:1.87. The duration from nymphs to adult female was 28 days on brinjal plant and 25 days on sprouted potato tubers. The pre-¬oviposition period was 6.37 ± 1.29 days and 6.89±0.84 days on brinjal and sprouted potato respectively. The average oviposition period was 5.89±0.89 d...

Madhuban Gopal, Rajesh Kumar and Arunava Goswami 

Nano-pesticides - A recent approach for pest control
... agriculture and food systems. We utilized nano-technological interventions for developing nanopesticides with potent fungicidal and miticidal properties. Nanosulphur and nanohexaconazole were prepared using encapsulation technique. The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) studies, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies confirmed the nano-structure ...

M. A. Al-Helal, K. N. Ahmed, N-E-P. Khanom, and S. Bulbul 

Observations on papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) damag-ing some crops in Bangladesh
... days at an average room temperature of 25 ± 1ºC and 67 ± 5 % RH. The adult life span for male and female were 29 and 27 days, respectively. P. marginatus is a devastating insect pest causing immense damage to the field crops, vegetables and ornamental plants of economic importance in Bangladesh perspectives.
 

 

...

A.A. Oyerinde, P.Z. Chuwang, P.Z. and G.T. Oyerinde

Evaluation of the effects of climate change on increased in-cidence of cowpea pests in Nigeria
...e to rise in atmospheric temperature and carbon dioxide differ from one region to the other. The latest assessment report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts an increment in mean atmospheric temperature from 1.1 to 6.4°C toward the year 2100 with equally increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Such climatic changes could profoundly affect insect’s population on essential crops. T...

S. Patra, V.W. Dhote, SK F. Alam, B.C. Das, M.L. Chatterjee and A. Samanta

Population dynamics of major insect pests and their natural enemies on cabbage under new alluvial zone of West Bengal
...Both maximum and minimum temperature had major role to build up the population of diamond back moth, C. plutellae and coccinellids beetle while aphid population was enhanced only by maximum temperature. Relative humidity and rainfall had negative influence on pests and natural enemies during the study period. 

...

Lakshman Chandra Patel and Chandan Kumar Mondal

Management of causal agents of chilli leaf curl complex through bio-friendly approaches
...li leaf curl virus. An attempt was made to find out the cost effec-tive management schedule to minimize the crop loss. Seven treatments were taken up for study including two chemicals i.e. profenophos and diafenthiuron, three ecofriendly approaches i.e. garlic extract, spirit and alternate use of garlic with spirit, one predator insect Chrysoperla carnea and untreated control. The lowest population of thrips, mites and white fly was recorded with application o...

Dinesh Kachhawa and Sahidur Rahman

Factors influencing incidence of red spider mite of tea, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) in Assam
...orological factors viz., temperature (maximum and minimum), relative humidity, total rainfall and bright sunshine hours were collected for the entire period of study from the Department of Agrometeorology, AAU, Jorhat.The incidence of red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae on tea leaves was maximum during month of April to May-June and September-October (2011). The minimum number of mites was recorded from July- August and Nov...

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
... nematode diagnostics. Attempts have also been to made to understand the molecular signaling events during compatible plant nematode interactions by identifying the genes during the transition from preparasitic to parasitic stage in ear cockle nematode and molya disease of wheat. Currently attempts are being made to utilize RNAi technology to identify the genes targets for the management of root knot and cyst nematodes. In t...

Goutam Samui and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal incidence and management of Apsylla cistellata Bucton. on mango in West Bengal
...rt from first week of September. Nymphal period lasted from mid of August to end of February. Adult emergence occurred from fourth week of February and continued up to third week of March. Nymphs initially fed from midrib of leaf and then entered into the gall which they formed on the emerging vegetative buds resulting in total failure of such buds to put forth inflorescence properly. Repeated spraying without proper knowledge on the life cycle did not give go...

Amitava Konar and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of aphids on various potato germplasms in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal
...and increasing effect of temperature. It is also concluded that K. Chandramukhi was susceptible to aphid, and K. Jyoti and K. Jawahar were tolerant to aphids while K. Chipsona-1, K. Chipsona-2 and Atlantic germplasms of potato were quite resistant. Therefore, it may be inferred that Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chopsona-2 and Atlantic needed only one or two insecticide application at 15 days interval during late January to protect the crop against the aphids while ...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...) applied to cropping system management with geoinformatics and agriinformatics as may be available of land, soil, including its nutrient content and availability of requisite water, meteorology, agrometeorology and forecasting inputs and outputs by marketing, production, protection and processing, and other essential information provided through a decision support system (DSS), in an agriinformatics networking such that is ...

Shrinivas Mudigoudra and Shekharappa

Evaluation of plant products aganist sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani
...oot fly in sorghum ecosystem. The results clearly indicated that NSKE (5%) recorded less eggs of shoot fly (0.40egg/plant), per cent dead heart (14.97%) and maximum grain yield of 13.22 q.ha-1 among different plant products. The next best plant product was found to be V. negundo @ 5% in recording less incidence of shoot fly and obtaining higher grain yield. However, both the treatments were found next best only to carbofuran 3 G.

...

Shekharappa

Biological control of earhead caterpillar, Helicoverpea armigera Hubner in sorghum
...migera) in sorghum ecosystem of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The mycoinsecticide N. rileyi was highly infective at both the dosages 1x108 conidia per litre & 2x108 conidia per litre against H. armigera as compared to Ha NPV 250 LE per hectare and chemical control in mitigating the pest population as well as in obtaining the higher yield.
 

 

...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
...text-align: justify;">Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with characteristic organ involvement and autoantibodies production. The pathogenicity and etiology of the disease has yet to be elucidated. It is presently accepted that environmental factors trigger the disease in genetically sensitive individuals. Gluten, a protein fraction commonly found in wheat grains, associated with food related disorders and a number of autoimmune...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
.../sup> node (crop 1), at stem elongation (crop 2) and at end of tiller (crop 3). Maximum aphid infestation was recorded in all crops in the 3rd week of February when crops were at booting stage (crop 1), at flag leaf stage (crop 2) and at 2nd node stage (crop 3). Decline of aphid population was observed in mid March. The highest aphid population was recorded in mid-Dec sown crop followed by end-Nov and mid-Nov sown crops. Two applications ...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi2
... 1 m) during March to September, 2014. Their genders were obtained by dissection. The aim of this study was to determine the sexual ratio in their population and to see if they effect the operational sex ratio (OSR). The number of males and females were 71 and 126, respectively. Twenty samples by the total wet weights less than 12 g were non-sexual. The wet weight of the gonads was ~8.25% of the mean total wet body weights. The most distribution of gonad wet w...
Madeeha Arshad1, Naveed Ahmad2,*, Muhammad Khalid3, Asmatullah1, Mohammad Tahir2, Khadija Naveed1 and Asia Iqbal4
...umentary and skeletal systems against control. Exencephaly, Omphalocoel, hygroma and limb abnormalities were recorded. It is shown that Cr VI causes teratogenic effects in mice embryos.
...
1Sitesh Chatterjee, 1Chirasree Gangopadhyay and 2Santosh Kumar Roy
...inst white heads due to stem borer followed by chlorantraniliprole granule application in seedbed or the same granular application in the main-field along with spraying of chlorantraniliprole/flubendiamide in the main-field. The highest grain yield of rice was obtained from plot receiving granule application with spraying of chlorantraniliprole in transplanted field followed by chlorantraniliprole granule application in seedbed along with spraying of chlorantr...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...tivated during May to September under the rainfed unbunded uplands of Purulia, West Bengal and the produces are stored by farmers under homestead condition for the purpose of consumption and seed for the next year sowing. Callosobruchus sp.(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the major stored grain pest of blackgram under homestead condition resulting 15 – 30% grain damage during storage. An attempt was made to identi...
Obaidullah1, Zafar Ali Shah1* and Sami Ullah2
...achol was isolated from stem heartwood of heterophragma adenophyllum seem through column chromatographic technique. Characterization of Lapachol was carried through melting point assessment and running its comparative TLC against standard, added with structure elucidation by FT-IR spectrum. Silver nanoparticles of Lapachol were  synthesized by treating 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution with 1 mM solution of Lapachol in the presence of sodium hydroxide ...

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

...s like infected leaves, stems, root and floral parts on different fungal growth media. The diagnostic characteristic features of each isolate were critically studied using relevant literature. The pathogenicity of the isolates was examined to select biocontrol agent against host weed. 
...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...om April 2013 through September 2014. Pooled morbid material and fecal samples from 600 different locations across the region were analyzed for isolation. Isolation was carried out on embryonated chicken eggs. Identification of H protein was undertaken through hem agglutination Inhibition (HI) test while N typing was done using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure. Out of 600 examined locations twenty two (22) H9N2...
Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
... beetle Coccinella septempunctata L. is a generalist predator and prefer soft bodied insects. Semiochemicals released by the plants in response to herbivorous attack influences third trophic level and natural enemies use these substances to locate their prey. Twelve-arm olfactory apparatus was used to evaluate the response of C. septempunctata toward aphids and different host plants of aphids. Different horticu...

Khurram Shahzad and Mohammad Akmal*

...cereal based cropping system i.e. maize-wheat in rotation. The results concluded that wheat crop fertilized with 140 kg ha-1 preferably in three splits for sustainable farming system for Peshawar climate and surroundings.

...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...ts had joint families system. Almost (60%) respondents had landholdings up to five acres and majority (77%) respondents were involved on full time basis in agriculture whereas 80% of the respondents reported agriculture as their major source of income. FSC was the major source of agricultural information followed by agriculture extension department. More than half of the respondents (i.e. 60%) reported that FSC arranged trainings for them regarding their capac...
Hazrat Ali1,*, Wajid Ali1, Karim Ullah1, Fazle Akbar1, Sher Ahrar1, Irfan Ullah1, Irum Ahmad1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Ikram Ilahi2 and Muhammad Anwar Sajad3 
...ination of aquatic ecosystems with heavy metals leads to accumulation of these elements in aquatic biota including fish. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish is of public health concern because fish are an important part of human diet. The present study was conducted to investigate the bioaccumulation of two heavy metals, Cu and Zn, in muscles of two economically important fish species, an herbivorous fish Schizothorax plagiostomus and a predatory fi...

Dilshad Ahmad*, Muhammad Irfan Chani and Asad Afzal Humayon

...aspirations. The study attempted to forecast major crops area, production, yield and per capita food availability using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Sixty-seven years annual time series data from 1947-48 to 2013-14 was obtained to forecast major crops and per capita food availability for 21years from 2014-15 to 2034-2035. Findings of the study pointed out increasing trends; major crops area, production, and yield except the sugarcane...

Aftab Wajid1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Awais2, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman3*, M. Aown Sammar Raza2, Usman Bashir2, Muhammad Naveed Arshad1, Sana Ullah4, Muhammad Irfan5 and Umair Gull1
 

...Cotton-Wheat cropping system of Punjab under arid climate of Multan and response of different nitrogen (N) increments (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha-1) for efficient and effective resource (nitrogen) utilization. The study was conducted in Multan during cotton growing season in 2014. Cultivars as well as nitrogen increments significantly contributed to the related traits of cotton growth, seed cotton yield and yield attributes. Increasing N increments reveals a...

Niamatullah Khan1*, Najeeb Ullah2, Inam Ullah2 and Asif Imran Shah1

... and boll formation when temperature was much cold that adversely affected cotton yield. The results further illustrated that, genotype DNH-105 ranked first for plant population, sympodia per plant, bolls per plant, weight per boll and seed cotton yield when sown on April 01. CIM-616 was the 2nd suitable variety under April 01 sowing. Earlier and later planting produced lower cotton yields due to unfavorable environment and shorter growth duration, respectivel...
Shuangye Wang1, Yunlin Zhao1, Zhenggang Xu1,2,*, Li Li3, Liang Wu1, Choucang Duan1 and Jiao Peng1

 

...iours were influenced by temperature.
...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Tasneem Hameed1, Muhammad Afzal2, Arshad Javid3, Nosheen Aslam4, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah6, Majid Hussain5, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1 and Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1
...s into the aquatic ecosystem.
...

Sania Shaheen1*, Hina Fatima2 and Muhammad Azeem Khan3

...he direct seeded rice system is introduced in some of the rice cropping districts of Pakistan. The current research estimate the technical efficiency of conventional and dry rice farmers and also determine the factors which significantly contribute to increase the rice output. Moreover, this study estimated the sources of inefficiency. Data collected from 300 sample rice farmers into the Kharif cycle (2013-14) at five main rice growing districts of Punjab name...
Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Fatima Sellami3 and Muhammad Afzal1
...es viz; Coccinella septempunctata (Linnaeus 1758), Hippodamia variegata (Goeze 1777), Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius 1781), Micraspis allardi (Mulsant 1853) and Propylea dissecta (Mulsant 1850) belonged to tribe Coccinellini (Latreille 1807) of subfamily Coccinellinae (Latreille 1807). Two species belonged to tribe Chilocorini (Costa 1849) of subfamily Chilocorinae (Mulsant 1846) i.e. Brumoides suturalis (Fa...
Talha Nazir1,2,*, Muhammad Dildar Gogi2, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Waheed ul Hassan2, Abdul Hanan2 and Muhammad Jalal Arif
... to be most effective systemic insecticide against all insect pests, followed by Pouch, Senator, Blaster, Bugatti and Jozer. However, Confidor, Jozer, Bugatti, Blaster and Senator showed a top-down effect on beneficial insects causing 50–90% reduction in their populations, while Pouch showed minimum effect (< 50% reduction) on the population of beneficial insects and proved to be relatively safe. All insecticide formulations tested exhibited ≥ 50% ...

Raza Ullah1*, Qaisar Shah Safi2, Ghaffar Ali3 and Irfan Ullah

...trus. This study is an attempt to examine the marketing margins of the intermediaries involve in the value chain of sweet oranges of citrus group. Three villages in Bunir district are randomly selected and a total of 120 sampled respondents are selected using proportional allocation method. The findings revealed that majority of the farmers sold their orchards to the pre-harvest contractors. The most widely used marketing channel was producers selling their or...
Usman Waheed1,*, Humayoon Shafique Satti2, Muhammad Arshad3, Ahmed Farooq3, Abdul Rauf4 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer1,5
... During a period from September 2015 to February 2016, community-based sampling was done from 134 Hijra sex workers (HSW), 101 female sex workers (FSW), 104 jail prisoners and 48 intravenous drug users (IDUs) through community outreach, peer referring and field sampling. Blood samples were tested for syphilis and HIV infections after pre-test counseling and receiving informed written consent. Initial testing was performed by rapid devices approved by World Hea...

Kamran A. Awan1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal3

...expected to decrease and temperature has to rise for wheat growth in Pakistan. Wheat crop is planted on more than 52% area as rainfed crop in the providence Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa (KP). The study, therefore, aims to plant wheat in season from early to late i.e. November 15 to December 25 with about 10 days intervals. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar in winter season 2015-16. Experiment was in a rando...
Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Rashid A. khan2, Muhammad Rafay3, Tanveer Hussain3, Tahira Ruby4,Fariha Rehman5, Sangam Khalil3 and Sohail Akhtar6
...n our agricultural ecosystem. To analyze this activity present work was planned to collect the preliminary information about habitat requirements and different breeding aspects of Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis). The fieldwork was performed for two years (2012, 2013) at three different stations in the surrounding area of Faisalabad. Based on results it was concluded that Cattle egrets are colonial breeders and colonies were monospecific with no other ardei...
Hameeda Kalhoro1, Abdul Malik2,Ghulam Abbas2,*, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Sajjad Ali Shah4and Haleema Kalhoro3
...ater quality remained as temperature (25.2 ± 0.20 °C), dissolved oxygen (5.2 ± 0.11mg/L), pH (6.9 ± 0.15), ammonia (0.48 ± 0.02 1mg/L) and hardness (118 ± 2.4 mg/L). Our results indicated that better growth increment can be achieved on squid or pellet feed and so it is suggested that in similar culture conditions of Snakehead will be more profitable on pellet feed followed by squid feed.
...

Jawad Anwar* and Zafar Iqbal 

...flask culture, 25 °C temperature, media of pH 5 and light fermentation.The EtOAc extract exhibited the minimal value of MIC (10.41±4.50 µg/mL) against gram negative E. coli, while its acetonitrile fraction yielded (6.50±2.25 µg/mL) of MIC against S. aureus. Hence, it is revealed from the results that T. harzianumis a potential source of antibiotic drugs as it showed a wide range of bioactivity against both phyto and human pathogen...

Sadia*, Abdur Rab, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Irfan Ullah, Farida Bibi and Islam Zeb

...une, July, August and September) and factor B was GA3 application (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm). Results demonstrated that minimum fruit drop (5.95%), fruit density (0.80gcm-3) with maximum number of new shoots (55.7), number of new flowers (225.3), fruit weight (197.5g), and fruit volume (245.5cm3) were recorded in plants deblossomed in September treated with 50 ppm of GA3. While maximum fruit density (1.13gcm-3) was recor...
Mushtaq Ahmad1,*, Mehboob Ahmed1,2 and Nasim Ahmad1
...in tampon either at room temperature or at 60oC, Protocol III (concentration of dye in staining solution); slides were stained with 1, 5, 200, 500, or 1000µg/mL solution. The slides were observed, intensity of staining and debris presence in samples. The debris presence was reduced (P<0.05) due to washing of semen sample. Intensity of staining increased (P<0.05) due to washing and heating during incubation in tampon solution. However, si...

Syed Tanveer Shah* and Muhammad Sajid 

... storage with an average temperature of 8±2°C and relative humidity of 50%, hence recommended for the grower of Peshawar valley.  

...
Muhammad Hannan Ahmed1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Abu Bakar M. Raza1, M. Afzal1, A. Khaliq1, Yasir Iftikhar2 and Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3
...ical factors (especially temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) also play vital role in the population dynamics of sucking insect pest complex like jassid, aphid, thrips and mites. The present study was conducted on six cotton cultivars (3 Bt and 3 non-Bt) to monitor the population dynamics of thrips in relation to abiotic climatic factors. Interaction effect was found significant in Bt varieties but not for non-Bt cultivars. ...
Furqan Sabir1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Bushra Muneer2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Sehrish Firyal1
...nzyme at a wide range of temperature and pH makes it a potential candidate to be used in the poultry feed industry.
...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
...using VITEK 2 compact system. Carbapenamase and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production by these isolates was confirmed by modified Hodge’s test and disc potentiation method, respectively. The blaNDM-1genewas amplified by PCR and sequenced. MIC of different antibiotics were determined by VITEK 2 system and antibacterial activity, MIC and MBC of manuka honey was performed by agar well diffusion assay...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...vine from three distinct temporal zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Twelve hundreds ticks were collected from four hundreds animals comprising of two hundred and fifty cattle and one hundred and fifty buffaloes. Descriptive statistics with Pearson’s Chi-square test and regression model were applied to analyze the data. The results of study found Rhepicephalus the most prevalent genus followed by Heamaphysalis, Hyalomma, Dermacen...
Rana Muhammad Aadil1,2*, Xin-An Zeng1, Saqib Jabbar3, Akmal Nazir2, Abid Aslam Mann2, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan2, Abdullah2, Amna Ramzan2
..., 150, 200 and 250 MPa), temperature (40, 50 and 60 oC), for processing time of 3 minutes and thermal treatment was done in a water bath at 70 oC for 90 seconds. In HPP treatment (250 MPa/60 °C/3 min), significant reduction was observed in microorganisms, PME and PPO whereas improvement was observed in cloud value, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins, DPPH activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total flavonoids (TF) and total f...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...ferently in different systems. Drought stress is a major restraint for crop production in arid and semi arid states such as Pakistan. In this study experiments were conducted against the responses of strawberry plant to both pre-harvest application of salicylic acid and drought treatments. The design of the experiment was a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five water regimes (150ml, 175ml, 200ml, 225ml, 250ml) and five levels of SA at (0....

Zahid Mehmood*, Alam Zeb and Muhammad Ayub 

... ) and stored at ambient temperature (22-320C). The jam was studied for physicochemical attributes (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid) and organoleptic characteristics (flavor, color, texture and overall acceptability). The results revealed decrease (P<0.05) in pH, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity while increase in acidity, total soluble solids during six months storage. Dec...

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

...to investigate impact of temperature and rainfall on wheat growers’ net-return in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan. Data for this purpose are collected from 255 wheat growers, selected from Southern, Central and Northern climatic zones of KP. Results from descriptive statistical analysis demonstrate that net-return per acre from wheat crop is highest in the Central zone because of conducive agro-climatic conditions. The estimated Cross-sectio...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali* 

...oducible regeneration system from coleoptilar node of elite maize inbred line was developed. Regeneration from coleoptilar node circumvented tedious procedures of raising the immature embryos as a starting material for genetic transformation. Unlike immature embryos, the development of coleoptilar node is seasonal free and green house independent which would accelerate the work relevant to genetic transformation of maize. MS medium fortified with 3 mgL-1 BAP a...
Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Atif Prince3, Naimat Ullah Khan1 and Mumtaz Ali Khan1
...ve and passive immune system if given before 75 days of parturition.
...
Zia-ur-Rehaman1, Naila Chand1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Rifat Ullah Khan2,*
...al (TN) and high ambient temperature (HAT) on immune response and oxidative status of four broiler strains. Day old broiler chicks (n=242) of four different commercial strains (Ross, Hubbard, Cobb and Arber Acer) were placed in brooding room in first two weeks and then chicks were divided into two groups: TN and HAT zones. Chicks in TN group were housed at constant room temperature, while chicks in HAT zone were kept at...
Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Shahid, Abdul Shakoor*, Muhammad Safeer, Imran Khan, Ayesha Farooq, Iftkhar Ali and Usman Nazir
...ght, cob length, girth, stem girth, shelling percentage, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, harvest index, grain and biological yield. Maximum marginal rate of return was obtained with foliar application of both Zn and B and using foliar Zn alone. Integrated B and Zn application produced more marginal rate of returns both in soil and foliar applications. Use of foliar Zn application also depicted promising results while foliar or soil B application w...
Mahmood-Ul-Hassan*, Naeem Fiaz, Muhammad Akhlaq Mudassir and Muhammad Yasin
...p is essential since low temperature severely effects the sprouting of subsequent ratoon in cane growing areas. A field study was conducted on loamy soil during 2011-2013 at Sugarcane Research Institute (SRI), Faisalabad to explore the ratooning ability of five sugarcane varieties/clones under varying harvesting dates of plant crop using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangements. The cane genotypes viz. S2003-US-704, S2006-SP-...

Attaullah Ansari* and Nasreen Memon 

...n of hoverflies whereas; temperature had a strong negative and significant correlation with the abundance of hoverflies. Moreover relative humidity, rainfall and cloudiness were also negatively correlated with hoverfly population but their correlation was not significant. Habitat wise variation in average population size, species richness, evenness and diversity index were also calculated. The highest and lowest degrees of population size, richness and evennes...
Jiandong Wu, Miao Ye and Zaigui Wang*
...V·h-1; temperature was 25°C. For desorption, elution solvent ethanol-water (95%, v/v) solution was 4.5 BV; flow rate was 2.0 BV·h-1. Flavonoids with content of 68.3% were obtained with a flavonoid recovery of 93.7%. The results showed that AB-8 resin revealed a good ability to purify total flavonoids. Lastly, feeding experiments results indicated that flavonoids had significant anti-hyperlipidemic activities to rabbits b...
Prof. Dr. Saira Afzal
...less. The peer review systems are continuously being criticized, debated and updated. It may be open peer review or blind peer review, both have advantages and disadvantages. Open peer review is performed for scientific quality after publication. It is also known as transparent peer review and public peer review. 
...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
... all wheat varieties at stem elongation stage and increased gradually with the growth of plants. Three aphid species were recorded i.e., Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), Schizaphis graminum (R.) and Sitobion avenae (F.). Mean seasonal aphid population (no. of aphids/tiller) on wheat plants during the whole season was the highest in NW-1-8183-8 and NW-3-3341-7 and the lowest in Faisalabad-08. However, grain yield was the highest in Galaxy-13...

 Zeenat Bano1,*, Sajid Abdullah1, Waqas Ahmad2, Muhammad Anjum Zia3 and Wardah Hassan1

...city, the antioxidant system can be useful as an early warning tool in natural monitoring studies.
...
Liushuai Hua1,3, Shiping Gong1,*, Xiangjing Zhong2, Jun Tao2, Yu Chen2 and Jieming Deng2 
...; 0.01) when the ambient temperature is not cold enough for normal hibernation. These findings can provide technical guidance for safe overwintering of big-headed turtles in captivity, and will help facilitate conservation of this endangered freshwater turtle species.
...
Minmin Chen1, Xiaoke Zhang1, Kexiong Wang2, Zhigang Liu1, An Wan3, Daoping Yu1,*, Hong Ji3 and Fangzhen Peng1
...of the local spatial and temporal distribution dynamics can help establish better conservation strategies. In order to understand the characteristics of habitat chosen, a continuous 15 months observation on the distribution patterns of the Yangtze finless porpoise at the confluence of Yangtze and Wanhe rivers was conducted. The results showed that the distribution of the porpoise changed seasonally. From October 2013 to March 2014 and from December 2014 to Jan...
Saba Khalid*, Muhammad Saddique Awan, Riaz Aziz Minhas, Nasra Ashraf, Khawaja Basharat Ahmed, Nuzhat Shafi and Sajid Abassi
...into six study sites; systematic surveys were conducted at each site. Direct sighting and indirect evidences were collected from all these sites. Seventy eight bird species were recorded that belonged to 34 families and 11 orders. Passeriformes was the dominant specie. The habitat destruction due to deforestation, agricultural activities, infrastructure and land sliding and disturbances by the increasing human population were major threats to the avian fauna o...
Teresa Napiórkowska* and Julita Templin
...ed on the application of temperatures of 14 and 32°C changed every 12 h for the first ten days of spider embryogenesis.
...

Muhammad Anas1, Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar2*, Raza Ullah1, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Sohail Latif5 

...cenario, the cropping systems which can meet the increasing demand of food, feed and forage are needed. Intercropping is an eco-friendly option for sustaining and increasing the productivity of farmlands. Therefore, a field study relating to sunflower-mungbean intercropping intensities under irrigated conditions was conducted at Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the spring season, 2014 in RCB design with triplicate run. The ...
Semra Benzer1,* and Recep Benzer2
...species in biological systems. Another outcome of this study is that crayfish of Uluabat Lake well accommodates itself to the ecologic features of the environment and so its growth features are similar to the values of other water systems.
...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Yue-Hui Ma2, Ming-Xing Chu2, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Hui-Jiang Gao2, Huai-Zhi Jiang3, Di Liu4, Li Liu5, Yan-Bin Zhu6, Wang-Dui Basang6, Luo-Bu Danjiu7, Tian-Wu An8, Xiao-Lin Luo8, Shi-Cheng He7 and Yong-Fu Huang1,*
...ing the pluripotency of stem cells, the p53 signaling pathway, and oxidative phosphorylation. The results of the present study confirmed that the selection of the dominant follicle involved the regulation of various physiological systems. These results provided helpful data to understand on the molecular mechanisms of dominant follicle selection in goats.
...

Imran Ali Rajput1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Imran Khatri1 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi2 

... few studies have been attempted to observe their action against bollworms. Therefore, the present study has been designed to observe the dual action of transgenic cotton and botanical extracts against pink bollworm during two consecutive growing years (2015 and 2016). The three local extracts such as tobacco (Nicotiana tabacium), neem (Azadirachtin indica) and datura (Datura stramonium) were used in traditional method. The o...

Riaz Alam* and Muhammad Sajid 

...31; August 15, 30 and September 14 in plants of olive cultivars Frontoio, Manzanilla, Ottobratica, Pendolino and Picual. Significant variations were recorded among olive cultivars regarding asexual propagation through air-layerage. The daughter saplings of cultivar Manzanilla took less number of days (47.94) to root appearance, produced more rooting percentage (38.89%), number of roots (4.31), root length (4.61 cm) and root weight (1.77g) with more number of r...
Medeni Aykut
... was carried out from September 2013 to August 2015 in Bingöl and Diyarbakır provinces in the Eastern and South-eastern Anatolian regions of Turkey. A total of 3,990 dysticid specimens were collected from 118 different localities and identified. In total, 40 species in 17 genera of family Dytiscidae were recorded, of which 37 were new to the study area. Eretes sticticus (Linnaeus, 1767) is the second record for Turkish fauna. Furthermore, H...
Muhammad Siraj-ud-Din1,2, Riaz Aziz Minhas1, Usman Ali3,*, Mayoor Khan2, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Nuzhat Shafi1 and Basharat Ahmad1
...b zone (13.41%), and dry temperate coniferous forests (8.54%). On the other hand, agricultural lands (3.24%) and dry alpine zone/permanent snowfield (3.66%) were the least preferred habitats of urial in Gilgit Baltistan. Thirty-six (36) plant species were recorded to be consumed by the Ladakh urial in Gilgit Baltistan. Ladakh urial used Artemisia maritima (n=53) with 18.34% of observations followed by Olea ferrugin...
Wen-Feng Li, Xiao-Yan Wang, Ying-Kun Huang*, Rong-Yue Zhang, Jiong Yin, Zhi-Ming Luoand Hong-Li Shan
....87%, and the effective stem number was reduced by 4440-21900 stalk/ha. Measured yield and sugar yield loss results showed cane yield was reduced by 5.32-44.53 T/ha; the yield loss percent was5.92% - 44.53%; the sugarcane juice yield decreased by 1.73% - 3.28%; the sucrose content reduced by 0.33% - 5.63%; sugarcane brix dropped by 0.70-6.36 BX; the fibre and reducing sugar increased by 0.22% - 0.98% and 0.11%-1.58%, respectively. It was confirme...
Lihong Qin1, Guoliang Zhang1, Chaojie Zhu1, Jian Wu1, Zhihui Zhao2,* and Yumin Zhao1,*
...iferase reporter gene system were used to predict and verify the target relationship between miR-122 and DUSP4/PDK4, miR-449a and FKBP1B. Thereafter, comparison analysis was done on miR-122, miR-449a, DUSP4, PDK4 and FKBP1B mRNA expression levels in different bull testes tissues (1-day, 12-months-old and 24-months-old). In addition, genes mRNA and protein levels were detected after bull testicular Sertoli cells were tr...
Wanrong Wei and Weiguo Zhang* 
...l dimension of tunnel systems, number of nesting chambers and surface holes) by excavating the tunnels of 24 burrow systems of the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae). Pikas have two types of burrow systems, namely temporary and permanent burrows. The number of surface holes and length of tunnels were significantly different between the

Safdar Ali1*, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Shahid Mehmood2, Asim Gulzar3 , Ijaz Ahmad4 and Bashir Ahmad Khan5 

... of different tillage systemscombined with glyphosate herbicide on soil moisture content,bulk density and porosity associated with wheat grain yield were evaluated. Seven tillage treatments were applied in the fallow periods (summer seasons) of both years before sowing of wheat crop. These tillage treatments were (i) Once Mould board plowing followed by 8 cultivations with planker (1 MBP + 8 CS) as a check, (ii) No-till followed by twice application of glyphos...
Tariq Mahmood*1, Syed Wasif Ahmed Shah1, Muhammad Rais1, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...District Gujrat, from September 2013 to June 2015. Data were collected from five selected sampling sites by searching and identifying nests of different bird species in various vegetation types and observing birds on the nest. The nests were monitored for breeding activity of the particular bird species through clutch size, incubation period, and hatching success. Sixty-two active nests of various bird species were recorded; common myna Acredotheris tristis...
Faiza Ambreen*1 and Muhammad Javed2
...oticusin a static system and then four sub-lethal concentrations viz. 1/3rd of LC50, 1/4th of LC50, 1/5th of LC50 and 1/6th of LC50 were calculated and fish were exposed to these concentrations, separately in glass aquaria for 70 days at constant laboratory conditions. Peripheral blood erythrocytes were taken on 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 day of exposure for the DNA d...

Irfan1* , Arshad Javid2 , Muhammad Altaf3 , Muhammad Shahbaz3 , and Khalid Javed Iqbal4 

...and effect of rearing systems i.e. free range, semi-intensive and confinements were also assessed from 1st to 6th month of age. Total sixty (n = 60) experimental birds were divided in to three groups i.e., poults having age 4-8 weeks (10 and 10

Manzoor Hussaina,b

...t which autosomal STR system fails to generate the DNA profile the semen donor in the post-coital vaginal swabs. Sixty two post coital vaginal swabs (x3) were collected from six volunteers at different TSI (time since intercourse). Out of these, 42 post coital vaginal swabs (up to TSI 5 days) were used to generate the autosomal DNA profile of the semen donor and twenty of the post coital vaginal swabs obtained at the TSI of 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 days were not test...

 Bushra Mazhar1, Nusrat Jahan1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa andleeb2, Shaukat Ali2*

...hormaechei was 7 and the temperature was 30°C. Using optimum growth conditions and suitable fermentation medium, E. hormaechei can be used at an industrial level as producer of vanillin. Bioconversion of waste residues of rice bran oil to vanillin by bacterial strains is of greater interest nowadays. Bioproduction of vanillin is not only considered natural but also safe for human health.

...
Telat Yanik1,* and Irfan Aslan2
...nd to maintain the ecosystem of the planet.
...
Qingying Jia1, Hui Wang1, Tianhong Wang1, Na Dong1, Shuguang Ren1,2, Xiaolong Yang1, Jingze Liu1,* and Zhijun Yu1,3,*
...estigated the effects of temperature on reproductive fitness of the engorged H. longicornis, results indicated that the engorged H. longicornis could survive all treatments at 0°C and 4°C, and pre-ovipositon periods were prolonged after 0°C, 4°C and 40°C treatment, whereas it was shortened after 37°C stress (P<0.05). The oviposition periods were varied among different temperature trea...

Niamat Ullah Khan1*, Abdul Aziz Khakwani2, Sami Ullah2, Najeeb Ullah2, Abdur Rauf3 and Inam Ullah2

...stify;">Ridge tillage system is one approach to ensure better plant population, save irrigation water, cut cultivation costs and increases cotton yield and quality on sustainable basis. Field trial was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to study the effect of tillage systems [ridge tillage (RT) and flat tillage (FT)] and 5 nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 20...

Farah Rauf Shakoori, Momina Shokat, Faiza Saleem and Tanzeela Riaz

...gh stability at elevated temperatures and in alkaline conditions. The present study was aimed to isolate and screen xylanase producing bacteria and to optimize cultural conditions for maximum production of enzyme from locally isolated bacteria and to optimize the assay conditions under which enzyme possessed maximum activity. Two bacterial isolates XPB-GS02 and XPB-CW01 with maximum activity ratio showed 18.3 and 12.2 U/ml xylanase activity, respectively. Maxi...
RuiHua Zhang, YongFang Jia, TingTing Liang, QianWen Yang, QiYan Du and ZhongJie Chang*
...he developing nervous system. Their expression has been seen in neural stem cells as well as differentiating neurons. However, despite their importance in development, a relatively low number have been characterized for freshwater fish. In this study, we were able to gain three full-length SoxD sequences from transcriptome sequencing data of carp: CcSox5, CcSox6 and CcSox13 (Cyprinus carpio SoxD
Zia ur Rehman1, Naila Chand1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3
...strains in two different temperature zones i.e., thermoneutral zone (TN) and high ambient temperature zone (HAT) group. Day-old broiler chicks (n=242) of four different commercial strains (Ross, Hubbard, Cobb and Arber Acer) were placed in brooding room for the first two weeks and then chicks were divided into two groups: TN and HAT. Chicks in TN group were housed at constant room tem
Ozgur Altan*
...redient by means of a system called flash dryer has been researched. Before being subjected to drying and grinding in the flash dryer system, the FBP have been passed through the press and decanter, and it has been endeavored to separate the liquid part to the extent possible and to store them separately. At the end of the study, the fatty acids content in the liquid part, the nutrient content, amino acid and fatty acid prof...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
...in Pakistan. We hereby attempted to determine the seroprevalence, investigating the EI outbreak 2015-16, and describing the demographic and management risk factors associated with seroprevalence of EIV. Using ELISA kit and HI as serological methods for diagnosis, we found a 24.13% (168/696) overall seroprevalence, where the seroprevalence for H3N8 was 14.51% (101/696), for H7N7 6.03% (42/696), and 3.59% (25/696) as mixed infections, suggesting EIV current and ...
Yunjun Yan, Zhenming Lü, Tianming Wang, Yongjiu Chen, Jingwen Yang, Baoying Guo, Lihua Jiang, Changwen Wu and Liqin Liu*
... protein synthesizing system. Seven of thirteen proteins, eight tRNAs are encoded by the plus strand, while the other proteins and tRNAs, as well as two rRNAs are encoded by the minus strand. Two (ND4 and ND4L) of the 13 protein coding genes of O. dollfusi began with the unorthodox translation initiation codon ATA and all others use the standard ATG. Ten protein-coding genes use TAA as the termination codon and the rest share the termination codo...
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
...ed in 1 hr and 10 min at temperatures 600C. It was also tested in hot water bath on same temperature. Results were same in both techniques. Results showed that LAMP was more sensitive for FMD strain O (positive reaction upto -4 dilution) than others strains A and Asia -1 (positive reaction upto -3 dilutions). Further studies will be conducted to develop LAMP PCR as field test that does not require RNA extraction.<...
Ann Milliken Pederson
...ultimate and this book attempts to satisfy the thirst or at least provide the water to drink. In a world where fragmentation, brutality, and chaos mark the lives of so many, it is no wonder that people long for wholeness, healing, transformation, and an encounter with the ultimate. Ted Peters’ new book locates the vocation of humankind within their cosmic home, brings together the disciplines (humanities, social sciences, natural sciences) into a holisti...
Francisco J. Ayala
...; (2) self-regulating systems; and (3) the function of organs and limbs. On the other hand, the natural history of evolution does not require a Creator or a planning agent external to the organisms themselves. There is no scientific evidence of any vital force or immanent energy directing the evolutionary process toward the production of specified kinds of organisms. Even if a scientific account of natural history is open to the God question, it will take a th...

Ayesha Bibi*, Musharaf Ahmad and Shaukat Hussain 

...acterial DNA was used as template, extracted with standard procedures using commercially available kit i.e. protinase-K (sigma). 27 out of 34 isolates were confirmed as Cmm having 614bp band. Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L) was the only weed from which pathogen was consistently isolated. From Northern KP, a total of nine weeds including; Solanum nigrum L., Solanum americanum Mill., Solanum Sarrachoides Sedntner, Amaranthus blitoides S. Wats, Amaranthus alb...
Shahid Mehmood1,*, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Hassan Raza1, Rida Ahmad1, Azhar Muhammad3, Zulfiqar Ali2, Farhan Abid1, Fehmeeda Bibi4 and Syed Maviz Ahmed5
... from October 2014 to September 2015 at Safari Zoo Lahore (31°2257 N, 74° 12 47 E and elevation 208m) located in district Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. In total, 5456 birds belonging to 71 species, 40 families and 12 orders were recorded. Bird species distribution was: year round residents 50 (70.4%), winter migrants 12 (16.9%), summer breeders eight (8) (11.3%) and passage migrant one (1) (1.4%). More birds were observe...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4, Lorenzo Gallus4 and Syed Sajjad A. Shah2,3
...ermil;-15‰. Water temperature (28.02±0.12°C), dissolved oxygen (6.4±0.02 mg/L), pH (7.47±0.04) and ammonia (less than 0.022±0.001 mg/L) were monitored throughout the study period. Water quality parameters remained within the recommended range. Our results suggest that Nile tilapia, O. niloticus may give maximum eggs up to 15‰ salinity with 92% survival of fry.
...
Tasleem Akhtar*, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Sheraz Ahmedand Imran Bodlah
...c environmental factors, temperature had a strong, significant and positive correlation with the foraging activity of A. mellifera on B. napus (r= 0.766; P= 0.0037 **), whereas relative humidity and rainfall had significantly negative correlation (r= -0.759; P= 0.0041 **, r= -0.715; P= 0.0089 **).
...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Dastagir4, Sara Ferrando5, Lorenzo Gallus5, Asad Ali Muhammad1,6, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khalil-ur-Rehman2 
... for tilapia i.e. temperature 28.42±0.08°C, dissolved oxygen 7.48±0.06 mg/L, pH 7.64±0.04 and ammonia 0.022±0.004 mg/L. Relationship between log body weight and log total length of the the fish shows that Nile tilapia fingerlings reared from 10‰ - 20‰ was significantly (P <0.05) higher than 25% and 30% salinity levels. Present study suggests that Nile tilapia can be reared up to 20% salinity to get...
David P. Hunt
...ntributed more to the contemporary debate over this problem than John Martin Fischer. The volume under discussion collects eleven of Fischer’s previously published essays on the problem—five earlier papers, and six that appeared just within the last eight years. It also opens with a substantial overview, itself worth the price of admission, written specially for the book.
...
Katherin Rogers
...d Anselm’s more systematically worked out version of this solution. (My interpretation of Anselm is not universally accepted, but here I am more concerned with the philosophical plausibility of the proposed solution.2) I will explain why the Anselmian does not find Pike’s version of the “Basic Argument” for the incompatibilism of divine foreknowledg
...

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

...ter adaptation to higher temperatures and countries closer to the equator. Crop damages can reach 50 - 100%, due to infected plants and shriveled grain. These problems can be overcome by knowledge about the disease, identifying resistance lines and subsequently develop resistant varieties with an aim to shorten the disease cycle. One of the quickest ways in this direction is the designing molecular markers for non-race-specific resistance genes. Use of molecul...

Wang Jian1, Abdur Rehman2*, Noor Khan3, Wang Zhengjia4, Ji Peng-fei5, Xie Cong6, Muhammad Niamatullah Khan Babar7 and Raheel Saqib8 

...nd Linear Expenditure System (ELES) model, Gray relational analysis and the residual test have been used in this study.The results of the study indicates that all the rural households consumption have the increasing trend except the Engel coefficient shows the declining trend from 39.508% to 29.355%.The study of regression analysis, MPC (marginal propensity to consume) and APC (Average propensity to consume) clearly shows that in the study area with the rise o...

Uzma Zahid 

...indi, Pakistan using 24 items revised English Version of Career Aspiration Scale (CAS) and 5 items Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). This study was conducted on total 88 final year medical school students, among them 44 were males and 44 were females. Findings show significant correlation of career aspiration with life satisfaction, as well as of its educational subscale and life satisfaction. There was a non-significant ...
Richard Swinburne
...urporting to show that a temporal God (that is, one who exists at all moments of time), could not have infallible knowledge of any future causally undetermined contingent event, and so – if there are any such events - could not be essentially omniscient, in the sense of having infallible knowledge of all true propositions. Given the assumption that human free actions are causally underdetermined, this entails that such a God cannot at any time have ...

Bashir Ahmad1*, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Hayad Zada2, Shahid Sattar1, Toheed Iqbal3, Saddam Hussain1 and Muhammad Saeed4 

...nd observe the impact of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on population of Plutella xylostella (L.) in Cauliflower, Brassica oleracea crop at District Haripur of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Field studies results showed that the population of P. xylostella gradually increased from mid of July where the population was 2.1 and 2.0 larvae and pupae per plant in the year 2012 and 2013 respectively. The population increased in Septem

Fazal Ullah1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Syeda Leeda Gul2, Bibi Zainub1 and Maaz Khan

...water treated (Hot water temperature: 45 °C) sweet orange fruits can be stored commercially up to 60 days at room storage conditions (Storage Temperature: 12 ± 2 °C and RH: 70 - 80%). HWT can serve as a dynamic means of maintaining the postharvest quality of sweet orange fruits during long term storage with economic benefits. 

...
Kashif Prince1,*, M. Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Muhammad Asad Ali2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Nisar Ahmad3,Rais Ahmed2, Aamerzish Mushtaq4, Sajid Umar4 and Yung-Fu Chang5
...dder and reproductive system health (P<0.05). Dairy animals at milk producing stage, high milk producers, and animals that are not supplemented with extra concentrate were found to be at higher risk. Males are more at risk than the females. Present study concludes that almost half of the animals surveyed were deficient in selenium. Milking animals with high production levels and older animals require selenium supplementation.

 

...
Alptug Sari*, Ahmet Arpacik and Sagdan Baskaya
...ortance of wetland ecosystems is well known, no remarkable effort for saving the Erzurum Marshes, was observed.
...
Alim-un-Nisa1*, Sajila Hina1, Sania Mazhar1, Imran Kalim1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Naseem Zahra1, Shahid Masood1, Muhammad Khalid Saeed1, Qurat-ul-Ain Syed1 and Maida Asif2
... concentration at higher temperatures i.e. 25oC and 45oC. The microbiological study of the extracted color and candies prepared in laboratory and dyed with T. erecta extract color showed that the color extracted from T.erecta itself do not promote microbial growth rather it has antibacterial activity. The lethal dose and toxicity determination of the color extracted from marigold showed that it is safe for consumption as no ...

Noreen Rasul1*, Madeeha Rashid2, Aqeela Abbas1 and Rubina Sohail

... and maintenance of body temperature at 37 degree centigrade is the discharge criteria. During the period of six months, total number of deliveries was 6459, out of them spontaneous vaginal deliveries were 52.2% (3372) and caesarean sections were 47.7% (3087). In 55.4%neonate’s(both preterm and term)early essential newborn care was practiced.Total preterm were 290 (4.5%), out of them 121 (2%) neonates were kept in Kangaroo Mother Care position and 129 (4...
Bashir Ahmad1, Muhammad Idrees1,*, Kafeel Ahmad1, Dawood Ahmad2, Sajid Ali3 and Shumaila Bashir4
...roscopy and GeneXpert system during the study period (2015-2016) at the Provincial TB Reference Laboratory, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Among the 794 patients studied, 170 samples gave positive results. Fifty-two Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates were randomly selected for RAPD-PCR and PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and M. tuberculosis H37Rv were used as reference strains. R...
Yanjie Guo1, Weini Wu1, Hongmei Wang2, Xiao Guo2 and Yongping Xu2,*
...e female reproductive system is regulated by the coordinated integration of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. The nerves that branch from the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) are a major source of sympathetic nerves, which dominate the immune response of the female reproductive system. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an important Th1 cytokine and plays an important role in pregnancy. ...

Ayesha Saeed*, Mobina Naqvi and Ahsan Javed 

... was assessed through 6-items Version of U.S. Household Food Security Survey and cohort was followed until delivery, and birth weight was recorded. Follow up could be completed for 50 women only and response rate was 49%. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and relative risk and multinomial logistic Regression were applied using SPSS version 22. Mean maternal age was 28.100+4.824 years, mean education was 12.400+2.138 years, mean BMI was 29.420+5.075 and m...

Parvez Khaliq*, Muhammad Azim Malik** and M. Aslam Gill***

EFFECT OF CROPPING SYSTEMS, TILLAGE PRACTICES AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON WHEAT STAND ESTABLISHMENT UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...lock design (cropping systems x tillage practices x fertilizer treatments) under rainfed condition, during 2000-01 and 2000-02. On the basis of wheat emergence (m-2) and emergence rate index, wheat stand establishment was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the fallow-wheat cropping system compared to maize-wheat, mungbean-wheat, and cowpea-wheat system. Tillage practices (shallow and deep...

Saeeda Raza, Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Amer Mumtaz, Nouman Siddiqui, Khalid Nasim and Muhammad Amjad*

...ethylene bags at ambient temperature (20-25 ºC).

...

 Z. A. Soomro, M.B. Kumbhar, A.S. Larik*, M. Imran** and S.A. Brohi***

...owever, hybridization system, which exploits both fixable and non-fixable components, simultaneously, could be useful in the genetic improvement of yield and yield components in upland cotton.

...

 Muhammad Asim, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Munir* and Muhammad Aslam**

...ninoculated plants. The stem and roots of Williams-82 plants had a percent distribution of ABA that was higher than NODI-3. The phloem sap of Williams-82 had higher accumulation of 3H-ABA at all stages after treatment. The basal levels of ABA in phloem sap were lower in NODI- 3 than in Williams-82. Inoculation further accentuated this difference. The major changes in ABA level in phloem sap and leaves occurred between 48 to 96 h after inoculation.

...

 Aneela Afzal, Tanvir Ali, Munir Ahmad, Humera Amin and Samina Saki*

...iving in joint family system and having small land farms. A large proportion of the respondents reported that they remained engaged in cleaning of seeds, sowing, harvesting, weeding, etc. for corn, rice, wheat, sugarcane, and vegetables’ production. It is concluded that women’s participation in crop production extracted more vital role than their counterparts in rural areas.

...

 R. Hussain* and A. N. Naqvi**

...en have brown strip from temple to nostrils on both sides. It is a pashmina bearing breed. The breed was studied for morphological characteristics, somatometric measurements, growth, productive and reproductive traits. Somatometric measurements indicated the average height 70.41±0.837 cm vs. 57.91±0.342 cm, heart girth 83.58±0.628 cm vs. 70.42±0.702 cm and body length 78.18±0.355 cm vs. 70.10±2.160 cm in males vs. fema...

 Abid Hussain*, Imdad Hussain Mirza and Muhammad Azeem Khan**

...usehold and sedentary system of goat production is practiced. The availability of feed varies according to the season. Goats in the region are under nourished and producing less than potential. This study was conducted to find out the feed supplementation practices of goats in the Pothowar region. Data for this study was collected for the complete calendar year 2008. Data sheets were prepared in Urdu and provided to 100 literate female household members belong...

 Sumia Bint Zaman, Sidra Majeed and Shahid Ahmad*

 Rahila Nazli, Tehmina Sohail, Bushra Nawab and Zahra Yaqeen*

...the present work is an attempt in this regard, Ethanolic extract of Gliricidia sepium in different concentration was used to investigate its antimicrobial activity against gram +ve and gram-ve bacteria. The study was also extended to some species of fungi. Results showed that the activity was more pronounced against gram +ve organisms and fungi. Maximum inhibition activity was calculated against all the groups of organisms, which was between 0.5 and 1mg ml-1 a...

 Muhammad Azeem Khan*, Abid Hussain, Irfan Mehmood and Sonila Hassan **

... increase in mean annual temperatures and irregular rain patterns, area under major crops at Kohat and productivity of major crop at Attock decreased. Bivariate correlations between mean seasonal rainfall, area and production of major crops were moderately positive and statistically significant (except for wheat crop at Attock). This means that an increase in rainfall contribute positively towards area under major crops and their production and vice-versa. Far...
Abul Hassan Faiz*, Fakhar-i-Abbas and Lariab Zahra Faiz
...ng-term effects on ecosystem sustainability and productivity of vegetation.
...
Nazish Shaukat1, Muhammad Javed1,Faiza Ambreen2* and Fariha Latif1
...pollutants in aquatic system. These are important inducers of oxidative stress in aquatic animals, promoting the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which ultimately leads to tissue damage and oxidation of biomolecules. Aquatic organisms possess antioxidant system to cope with the oxidative stress. This research was conducted to see the effect of lead on peroxidase activity (antioxidant enzyme) in the gills and liver ...
Asad Sultan1, Sahal Ahmad1, Sarzamin Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Naila Chand1, Muhammad Tahir3 and Shakoor Ahmad2
... groups in thermoneutral temperature (TN) and three dietary groups under high temperature. One group of birds received a basal diet only (control group), second group of birds received a diet supplemented with silymarin at the level of 10g/kg and third group of birds received a diet supplemented with ZnO at the level of 60 mg/kg in both TN and HS birds. It was found that supplementation of ZnO significantly (P<0.05) impro...
Xia-Lin Zheng1, Pan Wang2, Jun-Yan Liu1, Yu-Jing Zhang1, Jun Li1 and Wen Lu1,*
...s are lower than the air temperature during the winter, which suggested that these stages are the potential overwintering stages of this species in Wuhan City.
...
Qin Liu1,2, Feiwei Liu1, Xiuyue Zhang1, Nan Yang1 and Jianghong Ran1,*
...derstand the breeding system and protection manage of this species.
...

Imtiaz Hussain*, Hassnain Shah, M. Azeem Khan, Waqar Akhtar**, Abdul Majid*** and M. Yaqub Mujahid*

Corresponding author:izhussain@yahoo.com

PRODUCTIVITY IN RICE-WHEAT CROP ROTATION OF PUNJAB: AN APPLICATION OF TYPICAL FARM METHODOLOGY
...of the most extensive systems in Pakistan and nearly three-fifth of this area falls in the Punjab province. The continuous sequential cropping has observed problem of stagnation of the rice-wheat productivity. The rational thinking urges to diagnose the problems of the area explaining the cause and effect scenario of the system. Descriptive analysis is conducted on the data collected from 29 representative farms, from 10 Teh...

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah and Shahid Masood**

Corresponding author: shazia_rm@yahoo.com

PHENOTYPIC VARIATION AMONG MENTHA SPP.
...riation was observed in stem length with the coefficient of variation of 198.7% and standard deviation of 14.1. Among the 17 mint collection, nine special aromas was smelled including mint gum, strong camphoraceous, mint like, spicy, lemon, pungent, musky and acrid due to the presence of diverse bioactive compounds and essential oils. The present study may help to patronize the essential oil industry on latest scientific techniques. Like other herbs Mentha hav...

 Muhammad Arifullah, Muhammad Munir*, Abid Mahmood**, Saifullah Khan Ajmal and Ghulam Shabbir*

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS OF SOME YIELD ATTRIBUTES IN INDIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L.)
...ing 8×8 diallel system for combining ability analysis. Data was recorded for seed yield and some important yield attributes. The results for combining ability analysis indicated significant general combining ability for most of the traits except plant height and siliqua length. UCD-8/4, KJ-119 and BRS-2 were good general combiners for yield related traits. A cross BRS-2 × UCD-8/4 showed best desired SCA for number of primary branches and siliquae p...

 Mazher Abbas*, Tahir Mehmood**, Arshed Bashir*, Muneeb Zafar*** and Aneela Afzal****

ECONOMICS OF LALLEMANTIA ROYLEANA (TUKHAM-EBALANGOO) PRODUCTION IN THE LOW INTENSITY CROPPING ZONE OF THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...lation. This medicine system originated in Greece and was brought to the subcontinent by Muslim scholars. However, the unani medicine currently practiced in Pakistan is vastly different from its Greek roots The study was conducted to assess the economics of medicinal crops in the low intensity cropping zone of Punjab. Therefore 80 respondents were taken from Karror Laal Eson and Layyah tehsil of Layyah in Punjab. Percent area allocated to Lallemantia royleana ...

 Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Fakhar ul Hassan, Qamar ul Hassan, Usman Shaukat Qureshi, Saman Chughtai and Adnan Saleem*

IMPACT OF CULTIVATION SYSTEMS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA ANANASSA) CV. “CHANDLER”
...Different cultivation systems were adapted i.e., standard growing media in polyethylene bags (T ), soil less media (T ), high tunnel (T ), green house (T ), 1 2 3 4 including open field condition on ridges (T ) by keeping plant to plant 5 distance of 30 cm and row to row distance of 60 cm. The study was conducted to evaluate the effects and suitability of different cultivation systems for better vegetative growth, production...

 Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Mike Copland**

INFLUENCE OF THREE CONSTANT AND TWO RHYTHMICALLY FLUCTUATING TEMPERATURE REGIMES ON THE LIFE-TABLE PARAMETERS OF BROWN LACEWING SYMPHEROBIUS FALLAX
... in many agricultural systems. Life tables of S. fallax were constructed at 20°C, 24°C, 28°C and rhythmically fluctuating temperature regimes from 16°C to 24°C and 24°C to 32°C. Studies were carried out describing survival, reproduction and development of S fallax. Survival was positively temperature dependent. Sex ratio was not affected by constant

 Parvez Khaliq*, Azim Malik**, Nasir Mahmood Cheema* and Muhammad Umair***

ECONOMICS OF WHEAT BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
...heat (W-F-W) cropping system was evaluated with the improved wheat-maize fodder-wheat (W-MF-W) and wheat-mungbean-wheat (W-MB-W) cropping systems. Two tillage practices, i.e. shallow tillage with cultivator and deep tillage with moldboard; and four fertilizer treatments viz., control (C), recommended dose of fertilizer for each crop (F), farmyard manure (FYM) @ -1 5 tha . The recommended doses of fertilizer for individual cr...

 Gulzar S. Sanghera and Wassem Hussain*

HETEROSIS IN RELATION TO COMBINING ABILITY PER SE PERFORMANCE IN TEMPERATE RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
... commercialization under temperate conditions. 

...

 Safdar Ali, Sahiba, M. Azim Malik, Fayyaz-ul-Hassan and M. Ansar*

GROWTH OF RAINFED FODDER MAIZE UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
...ters like plant height, stem diameter and leaf area. It was concluded that fertilizers combination of -1 180:90 NP kg ha was recommended for obtaining higher maize fodder yield under rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai, Saeeda Raza* and Shahzad Arshad Saleem**

MICROBIAL COUNT AND SHELF LIFE OF STRAWBERRY JUICE
...pt for two weeks at room temperature to check its shelf life. Total plate count (TPC), pH, flavor, color, yeast and moulds were checked weekly. Quality changes of strawberry juice during storage can be caused both by microbiological and physiological processes. At day 0; pH 3.2, color bright 2 -1 red, excellent flavor, TPC 2.7 x 10 cfu g were recorded, while no yeast or mould were found. After one week, the pH 3.6, dull red color, TPC 2 -1 3 -1 5 -1 2.25x10 cf...

 Javed Khan, Ehsan-ul-Haq, Naheed Akhtar, Waseem Ahmad Gillani*, Naila Assad**, M.Asif Masood and Irum Raza*

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF IMMATURE STAGES OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON RICE MEAL MOTH, CORCYRA CEPHALONICA EGGS
...a eggs at three constant temperatures 24 ±1 ºC, 28 ±1 ºC and 32 ±1 °C were studied. The results indicated that incubation period was 4.9±0.08, 3.8±0.08 and 3.0±0.06 days at three temperatures, respectively. Developmental duration of first instar were 3.6±0.07, 3.0±0.11, 2.0±0.06 days, second instar were 3.4±0.11, 3.0±0.07, 2.8±0...

 Munir Ahmad* and Asif Ali Mirani**

HEATED AIR DRYING OF GROUNDNUT
...intaining the drying air temperature above 49°C. The cost of drying one kg of groundnut was estimated as Rs 1.45 (1.7 US cents), which was very reasonable for the groundnut growers.

...

 Muhammad Zubair Anwar, M. Azeem Khan, Ikram Saeed, Akhtar Ali*, Shafique Zahid and Abdul Majid**

SMALL FARMERS PERCEPTIONS REGARDING IMPROVED FODDER AND FORAGE VARIETIES: RESULTS OF PARTICIPATORY ON FARM RESEARCH
...nt of rainfed farming system. Livestock rearing is also a substitute of crop farming and provide security against crop failure in uncertain weather conditions. Estimates reveal that livestock contribution into an average annual income of a farmer is about 40% of the total household income. Livestock feeding is a critical component of livestock management in the rainfed farming systems. The most binding constraints are: persi...

 A.A. Mengal* , M. U. Mallah, Z. A. Mirani* and B. N. Siddiqui**

AN ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
...nts were taken with a systematic sampling procedure. The response rate was 82.67%. A detailed and comprehensive questionnaire was used for measuring the effectiveness of extension activities performed by public and private sector extension field staff. The results revealed that a number of farmers received visits from private extension field staff on a fortnightly, monthly and quarterly basis, but not from public extension staff during these periods. When publ...

 Asrar Ali*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Abdul Rehman***, Javed Khan, Waseem Ahmad Gillani** and Maria Rauf*

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF MENOCHILUS SEXMACULATUS FAB. (COLEOPTERA:COCCINELLIDAE) AT VARYING TEMPERATURE ON RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI L.
... influenced by different temperature regimes and host were studied at Insectary-Biological Control Laboratories, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The results revealed that there was a significant effect of different temperature regimes on the development and predatory potential of M. sexmaculatus reared on Rhopalosiphum padi. The egg incubation period of predator beetle was 4.16, 3.66 and 2.24 days at...

 Sajida Taj*, Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan**, Mazher Abbas and Arshed Bashir***

PRICE SPREAD AND MARKETING MARGINS OF CUT ROSE IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... the flower marketing system in Punjab, Pakistan. Based on cross sectional data collected from 34 farmers, 13 wholesalers-cum-commission agents and 20 retailers from main flower producing areas of Kasur and Faisalabad districts from Punjab province, the structure and marketing margins of producers and other marketing intermediaries are quantified along the existing two marketing channels for cut flowers. In the first channel the main players were producers, wh...

 Rizwana Sultan*, Javed Khan, Ehsan ul Haq, Tariq Mehmood**, Roshan Zada Khattak***, and Naheed Akhtar**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF TRICHOGRAMMA CHILONIS ISHII (TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) FEEDING ON SITOTROGA CEREALELLA EGGS AT THREE CONSTANT TEMPERATURES
...a eggs at three constant temperatures and five different ages of host eggs at Insect Pest Management Programme, National Agricultural Research Centre, (NARC) Islamabad. The results revealed that maximum rate of parasitism was 95.70 ± 1.94 at 28 ± 1 °C while minimum was 61.30 ± 1.70 at 32 ± 1 °C. Maximum adult emergence and female ratio from parasitized eggs were 96.30% with 59.2± 5.83 female ratio at 28 ±1 °...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-din*, Syed Haider Abbas*, Maqsood Qamar* and Muhammad Noman*

EFFECT OF SPLIT N FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON PHYSIOAGRONOMIC TRAITS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...at tiller formation and stem elongation stages. Maximum grain yield -1 -1 (5.20 t ha ) was achieved when N was applied @120 kg ha in three equal split doses at planting, tiller formation and stem elongation stages. N application in 2 and 3 split doses resulted in 25 - 50% grain yield advantage at all N rates as compared to single basal N dose. Split N application was -2 associated with significant increase (P<0.05) in spi...

 Sajida Taj*, Akhter Ali*, Nadeem Akmal*, Shujaat Yaqoob** and Mubarik Ali***

RAISED BED TECHNOLOGY FOR WHEAT CROP IN IRRIGATED AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...The national research system is now putting their focus and efforts to manage the precious water through various modern/latest water saving models to draw some solid method of irrigation with less wastage. Raised bed planting method is also one of the modern methods of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted by the Social Sciences Research Institute, Faisalabad in 2011-12 to assess the determinants of the adoption of th...

 Rabeea Tariq*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Imran Hassan*, Muhammad Rasheed* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY AND GROWING MEDIA ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY
... openfield production system. Planting density can be increased thrice by using different production systems. Studies were conducted to see the impact of different planting densities and media on growth and yield of strawberry. The treatments were T = Control, with normal planting distance of 30 cm x 1 60 cm and growing media silt, sand and farm yard manure (FYM); T = 15 cm 2 x 30 cm and silt, sand and FYM; T = 30 cm x 60 cm...

 Maria Rauf*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Javed Khan**, Abdul Rehman***, Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Asrar Ali**

BIOLOGY AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTATA LINN. ON SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM APHID UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS
...tential of Coccinella septempunctata (Linn.) were studied on aphid, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) at three constant temperatures 20±1 °C, 25±1 °C and 30±1 °C in Insectary-Bio Control Laboratories, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The results revealed that incubation period of C. septempunctata was 5.12, 3.62 and 3.20 days with 75.6%,...

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Sonila Hassan**

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF CAMEL PRODUCTS IN SEMIDESERT AND DESERT AREAS OF PAKISTAN
...t of proper marketing system and structure for camel products by involving camel farmers and other local stakeholders is recommended to benefit the local communities by ameliorating supply of camel products in local markets.

...

 Hafiz Sultan Mahmood*, Munir Ahmad**, Tanveer Ahmad*, Muhammad Azhar Saeed* and Muhammad Iqbal***

POTENTIALS AND PROSPECTS OF PRECISION AGRICULTURE IN PAKISTAN - A REVIEW
...ricultural production system by emergence and convergence of several informationbased technologies for enhancing profit and reducing environmental risks. These technologies have demonstrated to provide benefits to farmers as well as reduced environmental stresses in the developed world. Present paper provides an overview of precision agriculture and examines the potentials, prospects, implications, issues and relevance of precision agricultural applications in...

 Md. Nazirul Islam*, A. K. Azad**, Leon O. Namuco***, Teresita H. Borromeo***, Maria Lourdes O. Cedo*** and Edna A. Aguilar***

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF A MAKAPUNO COCONUT POPULATION IN U.P. LOS BANOS
... pigmentation, shape of stem base, fruit characteristics, and leaf structure was observed in the population of 52 palms. Yield of makapuno was estimated as 88%. Simultaneous occurrence of male and female phases allows self-pollination, which favors higher yield of makapuno. The principal component analysis revealed that fruit, nut and husk weight accounted for 99 % of the observed variation. Twelve morphological variables, grouped the population into 6 cluster...

 Muhammad Tayyab Mudassar*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Muhammad Naeemullah**, Muhammad Shakeel*, Muhammad Ashfaque*, Asmat un Nisa* and Javed Khan*

ECONOMIC REARING OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (STEPHENS) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) IN INSECTARY
...ting the worth of the system. The goal of a mass production programme is to produce the maximum number of quality insects with minimum labour and cost. The maintenance cost of 100 Chrysoperla carnea adults was Rs. 192.38 per month, which included the labour cost of Rs. 152.38 and diet cost of Rs. 40. Approximately 4000 eggs per month were obtained from the C. carnea adult culture and the cost per egg was Rs. 0.04. This study also revealed that the diet consump...

 Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Maqsood Ahmad*, Gulshan Riaz* and Sartaj Khan*

PERFORMANCE OF SUMMER FORAGE LEGUMES AND THEIR RESIDUAL EFFECT ON SUBSEQUENT OAT CROP IN SUBTROPICAL SUBHUMID POTHWAR, PAKISTAN
...me sequenced cropping system gave overall higher yield of the cropping system. Inclusion of tropical forage legumes into the current cereal based farming system of Pothwar would not only increase forage availability to the underfed livestock of the area resulting in the increased livestock production but will also improve the N fertility of the soil. Potentially higher production of the su...

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Sonila Hassan**

ECONOMICS OF COW MILK PRODUCTION IN SINDH AND AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR
...eeding is the main cost item for cow milk production in irrigated areas of Sindh and constitutes more than half (54 %) of the total feeding cost per annum. While, in coastal and desert areas of Sindh, and mountainous - AJK wheat straw is the major cost item and shares more than half of the total feeding costs per annum (51 - 58 %). Mean milk productions per lactation of Red-Sindhi breed were 1845 lit and 1590 lit in the irri...

 Ali Ahsan Bajwa*, Ehsanullah*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Wahaj Nafees*, Mohsin Tanveer* and Hafiz Salman Saeed*

IMPACT OF FERTILIZER USE ON WEED MANAGEMENT IN CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE - A REVIEW
...oductivity of agro-ecosystems. Fertilizer use can influence weed emergence, weed persistence, weed dormancy, weed dynamics, weed growth and weed dispersion attributes. The rate, timing, type and method of fertilizer application affect biological trends of weeds. In conservation tillage systems, the interaction between fertilizers and weeds is very complex, and there are reports of positive as well as negative correlations wi...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-Din*, Sikandar Khan Tanveer*, Maqsood Qamar* and Syed Haider Abbas*

EVALUATION OF ADVANCE WHEAT LINES FOR AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN RAINFED ENVIRONMENT
...y growth period and high temperature stress during reproductive growth stage. Better yield under stressful environment is the main objective while evaluating genotypes for rainfed ecologies. A field study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan to evaluate the agronomic traits of three advance lines (NR-397, NR-379 and NR-400) in comparison to released variety (NARC-09) under rainfed conditions during crop season 2010...

 Asghar Ali*, Muhammad Tahir**, Shahid Riaz Malik* and Muhammad Hanif Munawwar*

EVALUATION OF PRE AND POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.)
...ha can be used pre or postemergence in lentil fields to control the weeds without causing injury to lentil plants.

...

 Nazir Ahmad*, Sultan Ayaz*, Sumaira Shams**, Karimullah*** and Riaz Ahmad****

PREVALENCE AND MORPHOLOGY OF HELMINTH PARASITES OF FISH FROM RIVER SWAT, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...at was conducted from September, 2012 to August, 2013. A total of 250 fish belonging to five genera and six species were examined. The parasites collected were Diplozoon khyberensis, Bathybothrium rectangulum, Bothriocephalus, Nippotaenia, Cucullanidae, Proteocephalus, Rhabdochona charsaddiensis, Rhabdochona schizothoracis and Neoechynorhynchus devdevi. They were identified by morphological characteristics through microscopic techniques. Overall prevalence of ...

 Muhammad Ali*, Ghulam Mustafa Sajid**, M. Faisal Anwar Malik*** and Kalimullah****

ESTABLISHMENT OF IN VITRO CULTURE OF GRAPES
...shoot tip explants (meristemetic tissue) of grapes was investigated through tissue culture technique. These explants were collected from gene bank of Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources (IABGR), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. Fifteen accessions of grapes were surface sterilized and tested on 75% MS media for germination and initial growth parameters. Accession No. 020017 (Dakh-1) exhibited highest v...

 Naheed Zahra*, Hassnain Shah*, M. Azeem Khan* and M. Zubair Anwar* 

LIVELIHOOD ASSETS AND POVERTY NEXUS: A CASE STUDY FROM RAINFED POTHWAR AREA OF PAKISTAN
...efficiency irrigation systems, other water harvesting techniques being demonstrated in the watershed project could also improve livelihood in the area. Better utilization of available resources would also improve livelihood and decrease poverty in the area. 

...

 Munir Ahmad*, Asif Ali Mirani**, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood**, Tanveer Ahmad** and Muhammad Azhar Saeed**

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CROSS-FLOW RICE DRYERS
...ndicated that drying air temperature of the gas-fired and rice husk-fired dryers was 54° and 66°C, respectively. However, the average air flow rate was 6.24 and 3 -1 2.60 m s of gas-fired and rice husk-fired cross-flow dryers, respectively. -1 The drying rate of gas-fired dryer was 2.0 percentage point h , whereas the -1 drying rate of rice husk-fired dryer was 1.0 percentage point h . The drying costs of gas-fired and rice husk-fired dryers were about...

 Muhammad Tahir*, Muhammad Irfan* and Aziz-Ur-Rehman*

EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ZINC ON YIELD AND OIL CONTENTS OF FLAX
... improved plant height, stem 4 -1 length, fruiting zone length, fruiting branches, number of capsule plant , -1 number of seed capsule , 1000-seed weight, straw yield, seed yield, and seed oil contents compared to control. Therefore, for producing a higher seed yield and oil contents of flax, it is suggested that 3.00% zinc at bud initiation and after capsule filling stage of flax should be used.

...

 Gul Zamin Khan*, Imtiaz Ali Khan**, Inamullah Khan* and Mian Inayatullah**

OUTDOOR BREEDING OF MOSQUITO SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...ages, pots, vase, tyres, temporary containers stagnant flood waters, etc. Ovitraps were used as monitoring tools in urban areas of the selected sites. Results showed that mosquitoes are active throughout the year with their most active season during May, September and October. The mean relative abundance of Culex species in different districts were: Peshawar (32.3), Nowshera (18.8), Mardan (20.3) and Charsadda (21.0). Higher...

 Usman Shakoor*, Abdul Saboor*, Irfan Baig*, Anila Afzal** and Abdul Rahman***

CLIMATE VARIABILITY IMPACTS ON RICE CROP PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...that rising mean maximum temperature would lead to reduction in rice production while increase in mean minimum temperature would be advantageous towards rice production. Variation in mean minimum temperature brought about seven percent increase in rice productivity as shown by Variance Decomposition. Mean precipitation and mean temperature would increase...

 Arshed Bashir*, Fatima Ahmad**, Irfan Mehmood*, Muhammad Qasim*, Mazher Abbas* and Sonila Hassan*

ECONOMICS OF RED MEAT PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB
...erent meat production systems namely subsistence rural farms, small sized specialized farm and commercial farms. Four districts of Punjab (Gujranwala and Sialkot from rice-wheat zone and Chiniot and Faisalabad from mixed cropping zone) were selected for data collection and 76 red meat producers were interviewed. The results showed that commercial farms were dominated by cows while the small sized specialized farms were dominated by buffaloes. The mean age, sal...

 Syeda Aimen Hadi*, Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry*, Aftab Ahmed** and Shaheer Ellahi Khan***

PERCEPTION, APPROACHES AND PRACTICES OF LOCAL FARMING AND DEVELOPMENT: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH
...omical, and political system, shaped by the constraints and opportunities associated to the area. Effective and successful development projects must include the local perceptions, their approaches and practices, as the locals are the ones most representative of their issues and have the most workable solution to them. The traditional agriculture has completely been clutched into the nexus of modern farming methods, due to which they are being abandoned by the ...

 Anum Fatima*, Saleem Abid* and Sobia Naheed* 

TRENDS IN WHOLESALE PRICES OF ONION AND POTATO IN MAJOR MARKETS OF PAKISTAN: A TIME SERIES ANALYSIS
...two essential household items will be difficult to manage by the consumers. Hence, the government has to make some measures, rules and regulations regarding control of prices. 

...

 Quratulain*, Muhammad Aslam**, Muhammad Khalid Rafique*, Mian Atiq Ahmad* and Rashid Mahmood***

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF ROSE APHID MACROSIPHUM ROSAE L. ON DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF ROSA INDICA L. IN PAKISTAN
... decline with decline in temperature in December. While its population started rising again at the end of February. Significantly more aphid populations were observed on Perfecta than other varieties; however, significantly few aphids were observed on Christan Diar. These studies revealed that farmers growing roses on a commercial scale should grow Christan Diar to avoid aphid attack. Maximum average number of aphid nymph, winged and wingeless adults on leaves...

 Muhammad Mohsin Raza*, Muhammad Aslam Khan*, Irfan Ahmad**, Ali Ahsan Bajwa***, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam*, Badar Ahsan Ullah****, and Kashif Riaz*

FOREST PATHOGENS AND DISEASES UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE -A REVIEW
...ltering the forest ecosystems. The present review covers the relationship between climate and diverse cases of forest diseases and potential shocks of climate change on pathogens and diseases. Biotic diseases, cankers, decays, declines, foliar diseases, root diseases and stem rust of pine have been reviewed with some illustrations of potential disease effects with predicted changing climate. The impact of changing climate on...

 Ali Raza Shah**, Muhammad Saffar Mirjat**, Abdul Quadir Mughal***, Inayatullah Rajper** and Asif Ali Mirani****

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS IN A CLAY LOAM SOIL*
... of different tillage systems in a clay loam soil. A completely randomized block design with four treatments i.e., conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT), zero tillage (ZT) and controlled traffic farming (CTF) was carried out to evaluate the performance of tillage systems. Results indicated that the soil pulverization was higher (P<0.05) under MT and lower under CT treatments while, it was nonsignificant between ...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai*, Amer Mumtaz*, Saeeda Raza* and Shahzada Arshad Saleem** 

MICROBIAL COUNT AND SHELF LIFE OF PHALSA (GREWIA ASIATICA) JUICE
...ped phalsa juice at room temperature. Phalsa was purchased from local market, juice was prepared and kept in sterilized bottles at room temperature. Physicochemical and microbial and oragnoleptic quality of the juice was examined till two weeks. Microbial activity in phalsa juice increased while organoleptic attributes such as texture (mouth feel), flavour, taste, colour and overall acceptability of phalsa juice were decreas...

 Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Tariq Hassan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saleem Abid*, Irum Raza* and Saqib Shakeel Abbasi*

ASSESSMENT OF THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING COURSE UNDER WATERSHED PROJECT AT FATEHJANG FIELD STATION, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ar powered irrigation system, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, micro catchment, rooftop rainwater harvesting and irrigation scheduling. Therefore, the project activities also include the training of the professionals from the line departments for the demonstrated technologies to foster the process of adoption. For this purpose Climate and Alternate Energy Water Resources Institute, NARC, organized a professional training on “Water Rehabilitation an...

 Hafiz Saqib Habib*, Arshad Mahmood Malik*, Abid Ali** and Muhammad Aamir Khan***

SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF RURAL HOUSEHOLD FOOD EXPENDITURES IN RAWALPINDI
...ecessities such as food items was confirmed by the food expenditures value of 0.20. The study provides important food policy tools reducingnegative impacts ofhigher food expenditures on ruralhouseholds.

...

 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

MARKETING SYSTEM OF LIVE CAMELS IN THE DESERT ECOLOGIES OF PAKISTAN
...he existing marketing system of live camels in the desert ecologies of Pakistan. Out of 220 camel farmers that were randomly interviewed for the study, during past one year sale of live camels was reported by more than half of the camel farmers. On an average two camels per farm mainly to meet urgent family cash needs. Mean ages of adult males, milking and non-milking females, male and female young stocks at the time of sale were 8.3, 10.8, 12.3, 1.8 and 2.3 y...

Sumia Bint Zaman*, Waqas Farooq*, Sidra Majeed*, Hasnain Shah*, and Abdul Majid**

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICE PROVIDERS' TRAINING ON WATER CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES IN POTHWAR REGION
...Efficiency Irrigation Systems (HEIS) remained unpopular due to absence of service sector for these technologies despite of the efforts being carried out since long. Therefore, a training component to prepare a cadre was included in the USDA funded 'Watershed Rehabilitation' project being implemented in collaboration with ICARDA and other NARS partners. The prime objective of these training programmes was to impart training based skills on water conservation te...

 Muhammad Mansoor*, Noman Latif*, Zafar Islam**, Sher Muhammad**, Amanullah* and Muhammad Umair***

IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AMENDMENTS ON SOIL CAPPING IN MUNGBEAN PRODUCTION USING CENTRAL PIVOT IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN CLAYEY SOILS
...tral pivot irrigation system using different soil amendments. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design, replicated thrice. Mungbean (Vigna radiata L ) variety “Dera Mung” was used as test crop. Soil amendments were carried out through pure sand and farm yard manure (FYM) in equal proportions and in three different application rates viz., 60:60, -1 45:45 and 30:30 kg plot and an un-amended soil plot was kept as control. The si...

 Abdul Razaq*, Muhammad Jamal Khan*, Tahir Sarwar* and Mohammad Jamal Khan**

EFFECT OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION, SOWING METHODS AND MULCHING ON WHEAT YIELD AND NITROGEN UPTAKE
...o farm lands, increasing temperature with high evaporation rate and poor sowing, an experiment was conducted at the research farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2011-12. In the study three factors were studied i.e., sowing methods, mulching and deficit irrigation with four levels viz: full irrigation (DI ), 20% deficit irrigation (DI ), 40% deficit irrigation (DI ) and 60% deficit irrigation (DI ). Soil moisture was continuously monitored an...

 Abdul Haq*, Anjum Shehzad**, Muhammad Ilyas**, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**, Abdul Rauf Bhatti** and Mian Inayatullah*

DIVERSITY AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF CITRUS POLLINATORS IN DISTRICT HARIPUR, PAKISTAN
...bundant species in ecosystem followed by sp. and . All calculated values of diversity indices except Shannon-H does not show significant difference. Shannon's diversity shows that Naseem Town is most diverse locality then Nikrian B with relative values of 2.213 and 1.136.

...

 Dilawar Khan*, Abid Saeed*, Junaid Ahmad*, Imtiaz Qamar**, Fazal Yazdan**, Saleem ud Din** and Muhammad Tariq**

ASSESSMENT OF RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN DHRABI WATERSHED AND CHAKWAL REGION IN PAKISTAN
...ion for that land use systems. Dhrabi watershed is one of the areas where, there is a high potential for forage and livestock production. The analysis includes assessment and role of this riparian vegetation which is very helpful for integrated watershed management in different watershed areas. Dhrabi watershed is a catchments area of Dhrabi reservoir and lies in district Chakwal. There were 88 species reported in the study area. The five plant communities rec...

 Ummad-ud-Din Umar*, Muhammad Aslam Khan**, *Ateeq-urRehman*, Abdul Hannan***, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi*, Azhar Ali Khan****, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar****

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF POTATO LEAF ROLL VIRUS DISEASE PREDICTION MODEL BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS FOR FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN
... Maximum and minimum air temperatures, relative humidity and rainfall were employed as independent variables while PLRV disease incidence served as the response variable. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to select potentially useful predictor variables for model development. In stepwise regression analysis minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall emerged as the main contributing environmental variables f...

 Muhammad Tahir* and Neelam Yasin*

EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS FOLIAR APPLICATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF MAIZE
... 1250 and 1500 ml ha at stem elongation stage of maize. All micronutrients treatments significantly improved plant height, cob length, number of grains rows cob , cob weight, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, grain protein and grain oil contents. However, micronutrients application at stem elongation stage showed non-significant effect on plant papulation and number of cobs plant . Therefore, f...

 Arshia Naeem*, Maria Anjum*, Mariam Rehman*, Zahid Mahmood** and Muhammad Asif Kamran**

AN INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM TO FACILITATE FARMERS IN WHEAT, SUGARCANE AND OTHER CROP DISEASES IDENTIFICATION
...ts. The study is first attempt in terms of practical usage of ICT tools to bridge research and extension gap and can be used by agricultural policy makers to support agricultural services for farming communities who are otherwise deprived of extension services due to large number of farmers and their huge spread throughout the country.

...

 Abdul Rehman Khan*, Muhammad Mahmood–Ul-Hassan**, Rizwan Ahmad** and Anjum Munir ***

ARSENIC III TOLERANCE POTENTIAL OF FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLLUTED AND NON-POLLUTED SOILS OF PAKISTAN
...l growth was observed at temperature of 30 to 35 C and pH 6 to 7 under incubation period of 96-120 hrs. The isolated strains were capable of growing over a wide range of pH and temperatures and at high Arsenic concentrations. These findings show that the isolated strains are quite suitable for use in bioremediation under field conditions.

...

 Zafar Islam*, Abdul Ghafoor Mangrio*, Muhammad Munir Ahmad*, Ghani Akber*, Sher Muhammad**, Muhammad Umair*** and Yaskina****

APPLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF IRRIGATION WATER UNDER VARIOUS SIZES OF CENTER PIVOT SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
... sprinkler irrigation systems for their water distribution, uniformity and tendency to recommend changes in system maintenance or repair. The main objective of this study was to evaluate existing central pivot sprinkler irrigation systems under field conditions at different locations in the country. The study was carried out to evaluate water distribution under central pivot irrigation sys...

 Asif ullah Khan*, Faizan Ullah*, Sultan Mehmood*, Muhammad Irshad* and Farhat Ullah Khan**

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF L. PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS
...ion into agroforestry systems. During present investigation, allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous extract was investigated on seed germination and seedling development of L. Extracts were applied at 25%, 20%, 15%, 10% and 5% as seed soaking for 8 hours prior to sowing. Phenolics compounds were found in aqueous extracts and were higher in 25% extract (52.72 mg gallic acid eq. / gm of extract). Higher concentration of the extract (25%) significantly decreased ...
Muhammad Sharif1*, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz2, Muhammad Ansar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Syed Abdul Sadiq5
... conservation tillage systems for reducing input cost of small holder farming community of Pothwar, Pakistan. A two-year field study was carried out with a split plot design, having conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT), reduced tillage (RT) and zero tillage (ZT) systems in main plots,while residue retained (R+) and removed (R-)in sub-plots.The results showed that seedling emergence, wheat bio...
Waqar Islam*
...d disease forecasting systems via inclusion of various models being utilized worldwide.  
...
Niamat Ullah Khan1*, Farkhanda Khan2, Muhammad Kashan3, Qadir Ullah4 and Abdur Rauf5
... in zero tillage (ZT) system is a highly resourceful mean of managing nitrogenous fertilizers and optimizing the nitrogen (N) use efficiencies, lint yield and fiber quality in wheat-cotton system. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted during 2014, 2015 and 2016 at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan to explore N management practices for ZT cotton grown into standing wheat straw. The trial was conducted ...
Anum Rafique, Sajid Abdullah, Khalid Abbas, Huma Naz* and Wardah Hassan
...ainst different range of temperature and pH. As a result of ion exchange chromatography enzyme from kidney of control and Pb+Cr treated fish had highest activity as 508.33 and 427 UmL-1 while highest specific activity was 1105.06 and 1055.55 Umg-1 with 1.98 and 2.70 fold purification, respectively. Recovery was 70% and 68% in kidney of control and Pb+Cr treated fish, respectively. After characterization it was observed that SOD had wide r...
Youbao Zhong1, Xianlai Zhang1, Xiaofen Hu1 and Yong Li1, 2,*
...dgehog’s immune system.
...

Hina Zubair1, Saima Perveen2, Saeed Alam3, Akkad Rafiq4* and Sara Ejaz 

... 92% individual utilized temporary methods and only 8% utilized permanent methods. Regarding temporary solutions, a total of 299 (33%) selected intrauterine device, 233 (25%) had used injectable, 191 (21%) adapted oral contraception pills and 121 (13%) selected Barrier methods (condoms). Among permanent solutions, a total of 76 (8%) had bilateral tubal ligation and no vasectomy. Investigations highlighted that males were not...

Anza Zahid*, Muhammad Ali Ayub, Mujtaba Saeed, Nasir Pasha, Abdul Jabbar Dar, Huzaifa Javed, Aimen Shakeel, Amna Nasir, Ana Akbar, Zainab Tarrar and Ayesha Humayun 

...rages our health care system to provide more awareness and obtain a deeper understanding of factors causing non-compliance. A positive relationship between patient and practitioners would positively impact on the clinical outcome of the ailments and their therapies. 

...

Jesse M. Smith

...ant to its success in contemporary American society. This case study will be useful to future research in drawing connections between the discursive response of American conservative Christianity broadly, and modern secular forces. I also argue sociologists of religion should investigate more directly religious leaders’ rhetoric to better understand the relationship between religious and secular spheres.
...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2,*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza2, Muhammad Afzal2,Hafiz Salah-ud-Din2, Imtiaz Sarwar2, Muhammad Yahya2 and Khurram Shehzad3
...s, different land-use systems have different community assemblages of macroinvertebrates. This study was conducted to determine the impact of different land-use types viz. natural (grassland, forest/silviculture, barren) and agricultural (lemon, guava, lychee orchards, rice-wheat crop) lands on soil macroinvertebrate fauna. Random sampling was done in winter 2015 and summer 2016 using monoliths and pitfall traps. Results revealed that land-used types ex...
 Nazia Qamar1, Sher Khan Panhwar1,* and Ralf Riedel2,*
... most important dietary item for juveniles and adults. Adults secondarily preferred crustaceans. Fish was predominant for S. commersonnianus and crustaceans, especially of the genus Acetes sp., was equally important for S. tol. Acetes sp. was more important during the dry season for both, S. commersonnianus and S. tol. Adults of both species showed a higher feeding activity. The IRI showed fish, followed by crustaceans...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos*, Abdullah N. Al-Owaimer, Elsayed O.S. Hussein and Mutahar H. Ali
... levels of environmental temperatures: normal (22°C) and high (32°C) and two levels of vitamin C in drinking water (with and without) were arranged in a factorial arrangement resulted in four dietary treatments for the period from 15 to 30 days of age. Results revealed a significant two way interaction for body weight gain (BW) and feed intake (FI) (P<0.01) for the first week of the trial (15-22 day). The effect of treatment in the second week (23-3...
Abdul Nabi Jatt1,*, Sarfraz Ali Tunio1, Shaista Bano Memon1, Abdul Sattar Qureshi2 and Muhammad Aqeel Bhutto
...IM using API-ZYM test system. Out of nineteen different enzymes, S. dysenteriae IM strain was capable to poroduce nine enzymes, i.e., alkaline-phosphatase, acidic-phosphatase, lipase, valine arylamidase, cystine arylamidase, napthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, β-galactosidase, leucine arylamidase, and trypsin. While, esterase, esterase lipase, α-chymotrypsine, α-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosi...
Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska1,*, Magdalena Skibicka1, Barbara Cioch-Szklarz1, Jolanta Karakulska2, Karol Fijałkowski2 and Sonia Hiller3
... in different housing systems with regard to the assessment of microbial flora taken from the nasal cavity of animals. The study was performed on 28 calves of Polish Holstein-Friesian Black-and-White variety (PHF HO). The average weight of calves at the age of three months differed depending on the housing system. Individuals in igloo type booths were heavier as compared to the traditionally reared calves. The differences re...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
...e, relative humidity and temperature in Nsukka, Nigeria. Hospital records from three hospitals in Nsukka town: Bishop Shanahan Hospital, University of Nigeria Medical Centre and Sadiq Hospital were examined for malaria prevalence and intensity from January to July 2015. Indoor biting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected by standard procedures within the study duration. Meteorological data on relative humidity and tempe...
Wei Dang1, Ning Xu1, Wen Zhang1, Jing Gao2, Handong Fan1 and Hongliang Lu 1,*
...tures.
...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khuram Sharjeel1, Raheel Babar2, Muhammad Junaid1, Qamar Iqbal3, Rabia Rasheed1 and Nosheen Fatima1 

...ures behind extension system and to suggest recommendations for improvement in extension approaches and performance of EFS through census study. The total EFS population consists of 155 people and 121 respondents appeared for interview. The non response rate was 21.94%. The analysis showed that training and visit program and demonstration methods were dominant approaches used in technology transfer. The mean of the results showed that low allocation of budget,...
Mubashar Hussain, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Sehreen Siddique, Muhammad Umar, Tamkeen Zainab, Fatima Zafar
...ced for Coccinella septempunctata (19.63 %) followed by Coccinella undecimpunctata (14.70 %), Coccinella transversalis (11.14 %) and Coccinella sexmaculata (10.29 %). Greater diversity (H´: 2.481), dominance (1-D: 0.8964) and evenness (J´: 0.7474) of coccinellid beetles were recorded from under-study sites. However, variations in the abundance of species were observed i.e. Cocinella was the most abundant genus wit...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
...cked at different pH and temperature conditions. Best growth was observed at pH 7 and at 37ºC.
...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
...cked at different pH and temperature conditions. Best growth was observed at pH 7 and at 37ºC.
...

Ikramullah Khan1,2*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Sohail Akhtar2, Ijaz Ali3 and Ghufran Ullah4 

...sampled at environmental temperature 18, 32 and 42 °C in February, April and June, respectively. The physiological parameters recorded were rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR) and pulse rate (PR) whereas biochemical parameters determined from blood serum were glucose, cortisol and Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70). Thermal stress increased all physiological parameterssignificantly (P < 0.001). Holstein Frisian...
Zahida Parveen1, Safdar Sidra1*, Bushra Nisar Khan2
...he availability of food items, were selected and fed to the birds over duration of one week each. During the fourth week, all three diets were combined and offered to the peafowls. The feed was pre-weighed and the leftover feed was collected and weighed the next day before offering the new feed. According to previous reports at site, the peafowls were preferred to poultry feed but in present research, the diet preference was in order of maize >millet >po...
Shahzad Mahmood1, Memuna Ghafoor Shahid1, Muhammad Irfan2, Muhammad Nadeem3*, Quratulain Syed3
...ange of 4.0-6.0. Optimum temperature of enzyme was 40oC and attained 96% activity at 40oC for 70min. Metal profile showed that α-amylase activity was enhanced in the presence of Ca2+, Cs1+, Mn2+ and Co2+, whereas inhibited in the presence of Na1+, Mg2+, Ag1+ and Cu2+. Enzyme kinetics revealed that crude enzyme exhibit Km and ...
Ambreen Asghar, Tasleem Akhtar, Nadeem Sheikh*
... metabolic and immune system. Present work was designed to evaluate the variations in serum protein level induced by fat rich diet. For this purpose, two groups of Wister rats were fed with diets carrying difference in percentage of fats. Protein profiling of treated groups indicated a marked increase in serum protein (related to iron metabolism and immune response) level compared to low fat-fed rats. Additionally, a decreased level of serum proteins was obser...

Muhammad Suleman Bacha1*, Mohammad Nafees1 and Syed Adnan2
 

...°C/year) and minimum temperatures (0.024 °C) and decrease in the mean annual precipitation (-0.73 mm per year) favors the local community perceptions about climate changes. To offset such worsening situation, future planning is vital to keep the natural resources intact while minimizing the risks in the years ahead. 

...
Song Jiang1,2, Fa-lin Zhou3, Jian-hua Huang1, Qi-bin Yang1, Li-shi Yang1 and Shi-gui Jiang1,*
...cultivated under a water temperature of 27.0±1.5 °C, salinity of 30–32, pH of 8.0–8.3, and light intensity of 1000 lx. Results showed that food consumption and feeding intensity of the eyestalk-ablated broodstock were higher than those without eyestalk ablation. The night-time feeding intensity was 1.46-fold and 1.31-fold higher than the daytime feeding intensity in the treatment and control groups, respectively (P<0.01). Food ...
Farhan Ahmad1,*, Muhammad Waris Sanjrani1, Shah Nawaz Khuhro1, Asif Sajjad2, Abid Ali3, Rashad Rasool Khan3, Farooq Ahmed3 and Junhe Liu4,*
...v>Among abiotic factors, temperature and relative humidity are important factors for higher cotton yields in all cotton growing regions. Cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci G.) being vector of CLCuV in Pakistani cotton crop is responsible to cause an economic damage. A survey of whitefly populations and its parasitism with connection to temperature and relative humidity was conducted in fourteen cotton growing districts o...
Jun-Ying Liu, He-He Liu*, Jie Kou, Yang-Mei Zhao, Ji-Wen Wang, Liang Li and Xiao-Hui Du
...esponse in the immune system may contribute more to the TLR4 signaling cascade.
...
Abdul Majid Ujjal2, Sharmin Akter1* and Suman Paul1 
...ses and to determine the temporal distribution of important infectious diseases of buffalo like as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) at Upazila veterinary hospitals of Jaintapur, Gowainghat and Kanaighat upazilas of Sylhet district. From October, 2015 to September, 2017 a total of 1057 cases of buffalo diseases were recorded in the hospital record books. Among all diseases, the overall hospital p...

Hamza Khan1, Safdar Ali1, Ijaz Ahmad*2, Ihsanullah Khan3, Shujaat Hussain1, Bashir Ahmad Khan4 and Muhammad Suhaib5  

...s to flower completion, stem diameter, number of leaves per plant, plant height, head diameter, days to maturity, 100 seed weight, number of seeds per head and seed yield per hectare. Quality parameters were consisted upon oil content (%), protein content (%) and Fatty acid profile. Results showed that SMH-1001 and SMH-1215 hybrids performed best for yield and quality parameters, whereas, SMH-1006 and SMH-0909 were considered best for early maturing traits. &n...
Lotta Wahldén1, 3, Ulf Emanuelson1, Torsten Møller2 and Jonas Johansson Wensman1*
... conservation. Canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) are two infections threatening the survival of this species. Based on a limited number of animals, live attenuated vaccines have been suggested to provide protective immunity in the African wild dog; however, their use has been hampered by the fear of vaccine-induced disease. Kolmården Wildlife Park in Sweden has used a live attenuated vaccine without any apparent cases of vaccine-in...
Waqas Ali1,*, Arshad Javid1, Syed Mohsin Bhukhari1, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Hira Rafique1
... in any particular ecosystem. During past few years, a decline in amphibian and reptilian species attracted attention of the conservation biologists worldwide to monitor herpetofunal diversity for effective conservation planning and management. Different sampling techniques are applied during herpetofaunal surveys and some of them might be expensive, time intensive and their effectiveness in different regions of the world are still debatable. Moreover, data re...

Azhar Mehmood1,2,*, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem2, Muhammad Tahir2, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3, Tasawer Abbas4, Ali Zohaib2, Hafiz Tassawar Abbas

...ents like plant height, stem diameter, head diameter, achene and biological yield were significantly affected by varying levels of nitrogen and boron fertilizers. Results revealed that boron/nitrogen synergetic effect additively increased yield and yield components in sunflower plant. The oil and protein contents of sunflower were significantly affected by varying levels of both nitrogen and boron and maximum oil contents were observed when boron was applied @...
Noor Fatima1, Muhammad Irfan2,*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
...f fermentation period at temperature of 50oC. Results showed that cellulase production was greatly affected by the thermochemical pretreatment as compared to the chemical pretreatment. At the pretreatment condition of 1% H2SO4 conc, 6h residence time, 15% substrate concentration maximum CMCase production (0.858 IU/ml/min) was obtained while at pretreatment conditions of 1% H2SO4 concentration, 8h residence...

Muhammad Iftikharul Husnain1, Aneel Salman1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Tahir Mahmood3 

...nvestigate the impact of temperature on agriculture controlling for potential endogeneity by using locality as an instrument. Unsurprisingly, the magnitude of temperature coefficient increases substantially when endogeneity is controlled and becomes significantly higher (6 percent to 13 percent) than the previously reported findings in the literature. The findings suggest that endogeneity is a crucial issue and must be contr...
Archana Naithani, Pongthep Suwanwaree* and Bartosz Nadolski
...ch is an important ecosystem for the conservation of avian biodiversity. Many other areas adjacent to the campus also require attention for the inventory of avian communities. Therefore, a long-term database on exhaustive and intensive study of the North East Thailand is required.
...
Nanjing Zeng1, Guanhua Liu1, Sibiao Wen1 and Feiyun Tu2,*
... checked according to systematic analyses of species records from multisource. Fifty-seven species were newly recorded based on the previous study of 330 bird species. Six previously reported species were removed. We finally recorded 381 bird species, belonging to 18 orders 64 families, accounting for 27.8% of bird species in China; 205 species (53.8%) are Palearctic, 83 (21.78%) Oriental and the rest 93 (24.42%) are cosmopolitan. Ten species are listed in gra...
Leila A. Kaimbayeva1,*, Elena S. Malysheva2, Rashit Kazikhanov3 and Saule R. Kazikhanova4
...as observed that post-mortem changes were characterized by multiple destruction and disintegration of fibers in the muscular tissue, and lysing of cores and their structures. Collectively, these results clearly articulate the irreversible destructive changes in the lean tissue. The data presented in this study highlight the mechanisms of the autolytic process and its influence both on the morphological composition of the lean tissue and on the shelf life of th...

Muhammad Waqar Yasin*, Mobushir Riaz Khan and Muhammad Amin 

... changes in rainfall and temperature of Punjab, Pakistan on the production of five major crops viz. wheat (triticum), maize (zea mayes), cotton (gossypium), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and gram (Cicer arietinum). Firstly, changes in mean temperature and rainfall from 1951 to 2015 were assessed at district level. Secondly, the changes in crop performance were computed through remote sensing and crop reporting data obtai...

Abdur Rehman1*, Wang Jian2, Noor Khan3 and Raheel Saqib

...arket risk management system to monitor the risk of major crops by introducing various kinds of products. This ensures the competency, accuracy and decreases significantly the cost of market risk management.  

...

Sher Nawab Khan* and Ghulam Hassan 

... was recorded on average temperature of 24.8˚C. On the basis of field scoring resistant genotypes were identified which are prerequisite for further molecular and biochemical study to explore resistance pathway. These lines could be used as a source of aphids resistance in future wheat breeding program 

...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Zahir Shah1 and Farmanullah Khan1 

... have complex agro-ecosystems, difficult to manage. In early stages, the salinity affects the germination and emergence of the young seedlings and then the growth and yield of various crops and ultimately disturbing the socioeconomics of the farming community. Among the microbes, cyanobacteria are known as photoautotrophic, blue green algae which is not a truly eukaryotic algae and grown in different and such complex habitats freely and symbiotic association w...
Ghulam Muhae-ud-Din1,4, Anam Moosa1, Umer Farooq Ghummen1, Muhammad Jabran1, Amjad Abbas1, Muhammad Naveed2, Abdul Jabbar1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1,3,*
...F. elastica, Artemissia stelleriana and Duranta repens were highly susceptible to M. incognita infection according to a well established 0-4 galling scale.  The highest galling index and reproductivity of nematodes, i.e., total number of egg masses, juveniles and females, were observed in highly susceptible plants. The values of canopy length, dry root weight, fresh root weight, root length, dry shoot weight and shoot he...

Madeeha Alamzeb1, Shazma Anwar1, Asif Iqbal1,2*, Song Meizhen2, Mazhar Iqbal3, Sara4, Muhammad Ramzan2 and Afza Tabassum1
 

...f wheat under tillage systems (conventional and deep tillage). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement, having three replications. Tillage systems and organic sources were used as main plot factor, nitrogen levels as subplot factor. The results revealed that organic sources, nitrogen levels and tillage system significantly affected dry ma...

Qasim Iqbal1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Obaidullah Shafique1, Bashir Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Ihsanullah Khan4  

...ight, days to maturity, stem diameter, head diameter, number of leaves, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per hectare. Quality parameters were consisted upon oil content (%), protein content (%), and fatty acid profile. The results showed that significantly highest seed yield (2187.3) kg ha-1 was produced by SF 16003 followed by SF16010 and SF 16002 having (2016.2) kg ha-1 and (1888.2) kg ha-1 seed yield respectively. The Cluster analysis also determined SF 1600...
Arshad Mahmood Malik1, Khalid Mahmood Mughal2, Sarfraz Ahmed Mian2 and Atta Ullah Khan2
...ydroponics production system is state of the art technology, ensuring round the year high quality vegetables free from any residual effects and multiple time productivity in specially developed glasshouses under controlled weather conditions during summer and winter. Rising population and stagnancy both in yield of vegetables and cultivated area of the country, are negatively affecting food supply in Pakistan. Supply of hydroponics products provides solution t...
Ayesha Munir, Hafiz Muhammad Umer, Anjum Nasim Sabri and Imran Sajid*
...icity assay against Artemia salina showed the cytotoxicity of the extracts in the range of 10-35%. The chemical profiling of the extracts was done by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) to get the indication of the identity of the compounds responsible for antimicrobial activity and biofilm dispersion. Overall the results indicated that natural extracts from these Streptomyces strains and their act...
Hongqun Li1, Xiaoli Liu2,*, Zhenmin Lian3,RenheWang4, Yongbin Wang4, Yongyao Fu1 andDingyi Wang5
.... We monitored nesting attempts of the “Vulnerable” brown-eared pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) to compare microhabitat characteristics of successful and unsuccessful nests in the Huanglongshan Nature Reserve, Huanglong County, Shaanxi Province, China, from 2006 to 2014 except for 2008. Forty (62.5%) of the 64 nests that we monitored were successful. Successful nest sites had greater tree cover, increased cover and density of shrubs, an...
Huma Naz1,*, Sajid Abdullah2, Sidra Naz3, Sidra Abbas2, Wardah Hassan2, Shakeela Perveen2, Moazama Batool1, Laiba Shafique2
...pollutants in aquatic systems. 
...
Muhammad Shahbaz1,*, Muhammad Anwar Iqbal1, Arshad Javid2, Abu ul Hassan Faiz1, Irfan3 and Muhammad Irshad Arshad4

Usman Shakoor1, Ali Nasir2, Mudassar Rashid1, Muhammad Iftikhar-ul-Husnain1, Nabila Khurshid1 and Zuhair Husnain

Muhammad Waheed Mushtaq1,*, Jamil Anwar2, Omara Naeem3,Farah Kanwal1 and Waheed-uz-Zaman1
...tamination in aqueous systems. After complete freezing, the samples were collected from various sections of the frozen mass and bacterial colonies were counted after proper Gram staining. It was found that more than 90% bacteria were separated along with freezing front and were concentrated in the centre in the case of radial freezing and at the bottom in case of vertical freezing.
...

Samiullah*, Mohammad Aslam Khan and Atta-ur-Rahman  

...tify;">This paper spatio-temporally analyses the nexus of landholdings and farm fragmentation (FF) in Peshawar City District, Pakistan. In order to achieve objectives of the study, data were collected from revenue department and field survey. For micro level analysis, five villages were randomly selected for detailed and intensive study. In addition to questionnaire survey, detailed focused group discussion was also arranged with the key stakeholders. The anal...
Gulnaz Malik1, Abdul Qadir1 and Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,*
...prevailing environmental temperature since it has a significant effect on the toxicities of insecticides. The focus of the present study was to evaluate the effect of post-treatment temperature on the toxicity of four insecticides viz., spinosad, emamectin benzoate, lufenuron and thiamethoxam. For this purpose, toxicities of insecticides were tested at three different temperatures 2...
Muhammad Asim Khan1,*, Shahid Niaz Khan1, Sanaullah Khan2, Abdul Jabbar Khan3, Muhammad Adnan4, Nawab Ali5 and Ijaz Ali6
...ugust and (68.52%) in September, while the lowest prevalence of malaria infection was found in the months of December (7.93%) and in February (12.62%).
...
Abdul Samad1, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Olena Pokryrshko2 and Tauseef M Asmat1,*
...n various types of food items consumed locally. Total of 800 most common food samples such as chicken, beef meat, raw milk, vegetables and salad samples were collected from retail market, the overall contamination of food samples with infectious agents was 48.37%. Campylobacter jejuni was recorded much higher (28.99%) compared to other foodborne pathogens. Food samples were also found positive for Salmonella spp. (19%), E. coli (O15...
Jun Chen1, Shuai Shang2, Xiaoyang Wu1, Jiakuo Yan1, Huaming Zhong1, Huanxin Zhang2, Weilai Sha1, Wanchao Zhu1 and Honghai Zhang1,*
...frica has a digestive system that allows it to absorb and digest large amounts of plant material through microbial fermentation in the hindgut. So far, there has been no study of the gut microbiota of the cape oryx. Here, we provided the first description of the fecal bacterial populations of the cape oryx by using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology. We analyzed 100,180 high-quality sequences of the 16S rRNA gene obtained from fecal samples from th...
Tengfei Lu1, Wenhua Pei1, Shuang Zhang2, Yangnan Wu1, Fenghao Chen2, Xiao Han2 and Weijun Guan1,*
...ing into various cells, stem cell is a prospective source for tissue engineering. Amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) obtained from amnion do not evoke ethical issues, as they do with the embryonic stem cells. However, a good many experimental tissues and organs were obtained from model animals but rarely from livestock. In this study, AMSCs were obtained from aborted sheep fetuses (1-...

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Irshad Khan Abbasi2, Muhammad Tariq2, Jawad Ali3, Melad Karim4 and Rizwan Ahmad1 

...d that increasing global temperature will result in waning glacier based freshwater availability in future. River Indus fed by glaciers is critical for Pakistan as it is irrigating its 80% of agricultural land. Shigari Kalan watershed is one of the water sheds located in Skardu, Northern Pakistan, which also contributes to River Indus flowing to Pakistan. The aim of instant research is to evaluate the correlation amid temper...
Mingming Ning1,2, Yanjie Zheng1, Yuanyuan Dun1, Weijun Guan2 and Xiuxia Li1,*
... chicken amniotic fluid stem cells (CAFSCs) in vitro, characterizing CAFSCs and inducing CAFSCs to differentiate into three layers. Methods and results include that more CAFSCs are gained via thermoelectric method with lower cost. Groping and optimizing culture system abiding by the idea of simulating the chicken body environment, involving adding proportion of chicken serum and some growth factors. CAFSCs can be tran...
Nadeem Munawar, Iftikhar Hussain and Tariq Mahmood*
...roy the rodent burrow system and may expose animals to increased predation by raptors and other predators.
...
Ali Zaman1,*, Abdul Haleem1, Sajjad Ur Rahman2, Adnan Amin3 Asma Saeed1, Sana Ullah4 and Naimat Ullah4
... vaccination, housing system, biosecurity and housing zones and non- significant (P>0.05) association with rearing system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first sero-prevalence report of avian influenza (H5) in broilers in these districts of the province. Necessary measures are required to overcome the situation and improve vaccination and hygiene.
...
Bin Wang1, 2, Qianji Ning1,*, Qian Wang2, Wei Peng2, Tong Hao2,*and Jinsheng Sun2,*
...n this work, with the systematic point of view, the subcellular location of 830 unidentified proteins were annotated based on the previously reconstructed protein-protein interaction network (PIN) of E. sinensis using the bioinformatics analysis method, which accounts for 91.9% of all un-localized proteins in the network. Subsequently, the molting interaction network was extracted from the global PPI, which contains 35 proteins and 32 interactions. By a...
Wael S. El-Tohamy1,*, Russell R. Hopcroft2 and Nagwa E.M. Abdel Aziz3
...05) related to salinity, temperature, phosphate concentration and phytoplankton biomass. The main spatial gradients along the estuary were associated with salinity. The high salinity zone in the estuary downstream was dominated by the calanoid paracalanidae and the harpacticoid Euterpina acutifrons. In the lower salinity transects, the tintinnid Favella serrata dominated the estuary midstream, together with several rotifer species in the estuary ...
Xi-wen Chen1,2, Qian Wang1,3, Miao Yin1, Zhong-hui Pu1,2, Ai-wei Guo3, Lian Li 1,3, Wen-tao Luo1,3 and Xiong-qing Wang1,*
...as optimal at a constant temperature of 65 °C. The output of the RT-LAMP assay was visualized using 1% agarose gel electrophoresis or color change after the addition of the SYBR Green I dye. The RT-LAMP method was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than RT-PCR for PRRSV detection. The assay was also specific for PRRSV and did not cross react with CSFV, PCV-2, PPV or PRV. In clinical samples (n=5) RT-PCR and RT-LAMP both identified the same 2 PRRSV infec...
Yang Yang1,2, Yun Liu1, Mingxu Zhou1 and Guoqiang Zhu1,*
...f quorum sensing (QS) systems I and II (QS-1 and QS-II) on Escherichia coli flagellin expression, E. coli F18ab strain 107/86 was modified to either express acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase (QS-I) or deleted for autoinducer 2 (AI-2) expression (QS-II). AHL expression and deletion of luxS (AI-2) both inhibited flagellin expression, as measured by motility assays, bacterial gene expression, and host responses to infection. The QS sys
Qaisar Jamal1, Muhammad Idrees1, Saif Ullah2, Muhammad Adnan1, Farrah Zaidi1, Qaiser Zaman1,3 and Syed Basit Rasheed1,*
...es than the mountainous, temperate Upper Dir.
...
Muhammad Shahid Saeed1, Adeela Shahid2, Samia Jawed3, Muhammad Akram4, Irshad Hussain Qureshi5 
... general physical and systemic examination was conducted and all parameters were recorded. Modified Borg scale was used to determine the grade of dyspnea from 0-10. A total of 2ml of venous blood was taken to determine the serum magnesium levels. All patients were given Salbutamol inhalation and intravenous (I/V) Hydrocortisone. The study group was given 2gm of MgS04 intravenously in 20 minutes in a burette and Placebo group was given placebo (...

Rizwana Qamar1, Maria Ghias1, Fida Hussain1, Sajida Habib1, Muhammad Khuram Razzaq2*, Muhammad Aslam1 and Imran Habib3 

...phyll fluorescence, leaf temperature (°C) and relative water contents (%). Results indicated the presence of significant genetic variability among hybrids and inbred lines. Hybrids had more tolerance to drought conditions on both levels of water stress treatments. With the increase in stress, root length and leaf temperature increased, while shoot length, plant fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll fluorescence and relative ...
Ayesha Iftikhar1,*, Muhammad Asif Aziz1, Muhammad Naeem1, Munir Ahmad1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...erstanding the effect of temperature variations on its demography and predation rate is necessary to predict the population dynamics of this beetle against cotton mealy bug. Age-stage, two sex life tables of zigzag beetle were constructed at three different temperature regimes: 24 ± 0.5 °C and 27 ± 0.5 °C with 60-70% R.H. and ambient condition (32 ± 4 °C; 16-50% R.H.) with 14:10 h (L:D) photo...
Amna Waseem, Sikander Ali* and Syeda Wajiha Khalid
...m conditions at 30°C temperature, pH 7, and incubation period 64 h, the lipase activity was increased up to 124±2.48 U/g. The crude enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation method at 40 %. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 33 kDa. The results showed that the enzyme produced from mutant strain gave significantly higher (p≤0.05) lipase activity than the wild-type. From the results presented in the study, it was observe...

Syed Muhammad Hassan Raza1*, Syed Amer Mahmood1, Veraldo Liesenberg2 and Syed Shehzad Hassan1  

...ign: justify;">The spatiotemporal changes in temperature are a main cause for a shift in crop phenology as well as failure of crop calendar. Yellow stem borer (YSB) is an insect pest of rice crop that may reduce rice yield about 20% due to the use of insecticide at inappropriate times and unsuitable locations following the crop calendar. The purpose of this research was to delineate the vu...
Maaz Ahmad1*, Mussab Ahmad2 and Tehreem Munir3
...linical trial through systematic random sampling was conducted in Lahore urban community.After initial diagnostic investigations in 200 patients diagnosed as cases of FD fulfilling Rome III criteria were recruited after taking written consent and randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment groups (CP extract group or placebo) in equal number. A 7 days medication free period was observed before the start of trial. Each patient received the treatment for 6 weeks. Th...
Taimoor Akram Khan1*, Anam Farooq2, Amna Farooq3, Muhammad Nasir1, Gohar Khan4 and Ali Akram Khan1
...ed to different organ systems presenting at first tier of primary healthcare system
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using Basic Health Unit’s (BHU) Outdoor Patient Department (OPD) database retrospectively in order to determine the age, gender and organ system wise distribution of various diseases. Secondary data was collected from standard OP...
Xia Lin Zheng1, Zhen Hua Xian1, Zhen De Yang2, Xiu Hao Yang3 and Wen Lu1,*
...tarinia sp. damaged stems and leafstalks. The damage ratio and the index of Jaapiella sp. in December 2012, March, July and December 2013 were 9.7±2.0%, 14.8±1.9%, 24.1±1.5%, 12.3±0.6% and 25.6%, 31.3%, 35.6%, 26.2%, respectively, while those of Contarinia sp. were 33.2±3.4%, 38.4±4.3%, 43.2±3.1%, 31.6±3.5% and 29.6%, 30.9%, 36.0%, 30.9%, respectively. The results will provide essen...
Irshad Ali1, Mohammad Masood Tariq2,*, Abdul Waheed2, Ferhet Abbas Yousafzai1, Farhat Abbas Bokhari1, Majed Rafeeq1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Adnan Attique1, Shahid Amin3 and Tahir Hameed1
...eters, its production system, and survival in the existing habitat. The data on morphology and performance of 1020 Bhag Nari (BN) cattle were collected from Bhag Nari cattle Farm, Usta Mohammad Baluchistan during 2015-16 and its surrounding areas. Some distinct characteristics have been found exclusively in Bhag Nari breed. These characters are rare in other local breeds of the area such as tick resistance, tolerance against > 50oC
Laiba Shafique1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2, Mehroze Fatima3, Huma Naz4, Qaisra Saddique1
...dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature) were checked daily throughout the trail. Results concluded that the body mineralization in L. rohita was increased by supplementation of organic acid. The maximum body mineralization was noted in fish fed with the dietary group OA3 that contain citric acid and minimum mineralization was noted in the diet OA5 containing lactic acid when compared with other dietary treatments. In conclusion, citr...
Muhammad Sarfraz*, Shahida Hasnain
...to June 2016. API 20E system has been used to identify K. pneumoniae and E. coli; preliminary screening for AmpC beta-lactamase production was done by cefoxitin disc followed by inhibitor based confirmatory method. Antibiogram was performed following CLSI guidelines 2013. Of 11,725 clinical specimens, 29 % were culture-positive. 80% K. pneumoniae and 70% E. coli showed resistance to cefotaxime or ceftazidime. Only63% K...

Muhammad Khalid1,2 and Muhammad Naeem2* 

... species from farming system of southern Punjab, Pakistan is provided. 

...
Md. Abu Affan1,*, Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani1, Adnan Jaman Turki2 and Mohammed S.B. Hariri3
...w dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, salinity, pH, ammonia, turbidity, pesticides, toxins, and diseases. The study was carried out to find out the reasons of sudden fish killing. Therefore, physico-chemical and biological parameters, and postmortem, especially the gills and gut content of dead fishes were studied. The dead Tilapia tilapia (Tilapia), Chanos chano (Milkfish) and Parapriacanthus ransonneti...
Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek
...es, and eggs per root system, the root weight, the final population of the second stage juveniles, and the reproduction rate were detected at the highest levels in untreated soil, whereas low numbers were encountered in soils initially treated with the fungus, L. muscarium. Meloidogyne incognita and other plant parasitic nematodes multiplied significantly more in untreated soil than in treated soil, which clearly indicated that L. muscarium effec...
Wei Meng1,3, Tianyan Yang2,*, Yunguo Liu1, Mahmut Halik1 and Tianxiang Gao2
... from Tarim River system (16, 677bp) and Ili River system (16, 667bp) were sequenced. Besides, their genetic characteristics were also identified and compared simultaneously. Genetic distance and sequence differentiation suggested that great genetic variation existed within species and the sample from Kaidu River in South Xinjiang might be a cryptic species or subspecies of G. dybowskii. The phylogenetic analyses ...

Fazal Munsif1, Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Arif2, Kawsar Ali3 and Ijaz Ahmad

...n winter season (20th September, 10th October, 30th October and 20th November) and spring season (20th February, 10th March and 30th March). Randomized complete block design was used having four replications. The sub-plot size was kept 5m × 5 m having six rows with length of 5 m. The effect of different planting dates revealed that planting dates had significant effect on tillers m-2, plant height, number of leaves tiller-1, mean leaf area, leaf area ind...

Mohammed Zaki Fathy* 

...ratory rates, and rectal temperature were recorded. Blood samples were collected at 0, 20, 40, 80 minutes and 12 hours after administration for detection the hematological changes. Results showed that the onset, duration and total recovery times of anesthesia were 7.33±3.05 min and 3.33±1.53 min, 26.33±3.51 min and 45±3.00 min and 64±4.58 min and 86.67±6.11 min in G1 and G2 respectively. In G1, presence of a signifi...

Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde, Adeyemi Esther Omoniwa and Miriam Ukemenam 

...nt of mechanized farm system thus reducing the need for manual labour and improving the children’s opportunities of schooling. 

...

Ansaar Ahmed1, Imtiaz Hussain2*, Ibni Amin Khalil3, Subhanulla3, Gulzar Ahmed3, Imtiaz Ahmad3 and Muhammad Imtiaz2  

...ted maize–wheat system of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province that requires skilled labor, intensive tillage and more water for irrigation. In this study, zero tillage and bed planting effect in comparison with farmer practice on maize-wheat system productivity was evaluated at five sites in district of Nowshera, KP province during 2014-2016. Maize grain yield with bed planting and manual planting on flat surface were non...

Muhammad Haroon Hullio1,4, Abdul Ghani Lanjar2, Abdul Rahman Dhuyo3, Imran Khattri4 and Agha Mushtaque Ahmed4* 

...fect of abiotic factors (temperature and relative humidity). In last, the varietal screening of 30 local rice varieties in term of pest population was observed. The data were collected for two rice growing seasons 2012 to 2013. In results, the maximum mean population of 15.25 WBPH/25 hills at 38 0C with 50% relative humidity was observed in district Badin in the first week of August, 2012. The correlation results regarding mean population of WBPH also indicate...
Azmat Hayat Khan Khattak1, Abdul Wasay2, Tariq Ali1,*, Muhammad Iqbal1, Khisrao Kalim1, Mohammad Farooque Hassan3, Muhammad Mobashar2, Nazir Ahmad2, Abid Iqbal2 and Muhammad Nauman ul Islam1
... livestock production system of Pakistan. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of different weaning ages on the growth performance of cattle calves to reduce ECM. Nine calves (Achai crossed Jersey) were randomly distributed into three weaning age groups viz., A = 90, B = 70, and C = 110 days. In group A, calves were fed with whole milk at 10% of live body weight (LBW) for 4-7 days after initial colostrum feeding at 10% of LBW. Fr...
Safia Rehman1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1,*, Gerald B. Pier2, Iram Liaqat1 and Bushra Mazhar1
...re needed, along with contemporary information about antibiotic resistances that are present in isolates from different environments. In the present study 72 samples from blood, 43 from sputum, and 19 were obtained from tracheal aspirates patients suffering from chronic and acute lung infections admitted to a local hospital in Lahore. Susceptibility of 134 isolates of P. aeruginosa was tested against selected antibiotics (meropenem, imipenem, piperacill...
Hafiz Manzoor Ahmad1,*, Hamad Bin Rashid1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Asim Khalid Mahmood1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Muhammad Rafi Ullah2 and Usman Ghani1
...al parameters like; body temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate with normal averages 105.02±0.12ºF, 103.75±3.18 beats/min and 19.2±1.62 breaths/min, respectively. All the physiological parameters varied significantly (p<0.05) between the two groups with exception of body temperature, which varied non-significantly (p>0.05). The post drug administration onset of sedation in ...
Gokhan Sahin1, Ecevit Eyduran2,*, Mete Turkoglu3 and Fatma Sahin2
...(estimated losses due to temperature and low irradiance), ESTLOSANGREF (estimated loss due to angular reflectance effect), and COMPVLOSS (Combined Photo Voltaic system losses) were calculated. Estimation of global irradiation parameters was made through multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) data mining algorithm for multiple responses (Hd and Hm) with the support of R software program and the utility prediction equ...

Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus1*, Olabode Mayowa Peter2, Muhammad Adamu Abbas3 and Mohammed Dauda Goni

...egration of a complex systems that included the efflux pump, alteration of drug target site, enzymatic inactivation and, mutation in drug target site and gene acquisition of resistance determinants through horizontal gene transfer. This review focused on the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus. Understanding the concept of resistance development and transfer will immensely help in curtailing the global rise in antimicrobial resistance in bacter...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2 and Mujahid Iqbal3  

...rmers was selected by systematic sampling technique using the available list of the farmers provided by Agricultural Extension Department. The respondents were than randomly assigned into two groups, one group was comprised of experimental group (to whom a set of advisory instructions were sent by mobile phone) and other was control (face-to-face). Two- population independent t-test was applied for comparison of the two methods of instructions. The results of ...

Aftab Khan, Shahid Ali, Syed Attaullah Shah and Muhammad Fayaz 

...forecasted the effect of temperature and precipitation on net revenue of maize growers across Northern, Eastern, Central and Southern zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. 200 maize growers were randomly selected through multistage sampling technique. Primary data on net revenue from maize crop was collected through an interview schedule and secondary data on temperature and precipitation was collected from Regional Metrolo...

Saif Ullah and Mohammad Akmal*

... well in the cropping system of environment. Combined effect of N, P and S on sunflower is essential to review. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar during summer 2016. Nitrogen (40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1), P (30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) and S (10, 20 and 30 kg ha-1) were compared in a randomized complete block design in three replications. Plot (4m x 4.2m) with six rows were made and planted at 0.7m spacing ...

Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali, Liaquat Ali Jamali, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro*, Shakeel Hussain Chattha, Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto, Naseer Ahmed Abbasi and Noor Mehdi Qumi  

...ient and safe storage system

...
S. Jalbani1, P. Khan2 and N.T.Narejo2,*and Y.M. Jalbnai3
...among the treatment. The temperature 28.1-30.7°C, pH 7.0-7.60, DO 3.9- 4.9 (mg/L), alkalinity 155-175 (mg/L), ammonia 0.37-0.52 (mg/L) and nitrate 0.168-0.174 (mg/L) were found to provide optimum condition to the fish. 
...
Iqbal Ahmad Alvi, Muhammad Asif, Rabia Tabassum, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*
..., and IttPL, at distinct temperatures for complete one year is described. Our results indicated that storage of bacteriophages at 4oC was most appropriate, followed by storage at -20oC and -80oC as no drop in viral titer was witnesses in bacteriophage samples stored at 4oC for up to one year. The results of this research indicated, that a standard refrigeration is suitable and economical means of long term storage wi...
Rahim Dad Brohi1,*, Amir Bukhsh Kalhoro1, Allah Bux Kachiwal1, Illahi Bux Kalhoro1, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro1, Sarfaraz Ahmed2, Farhan Anwar Khan3, Hira Sajjad Talpur1, Zia-ur-Rehman1 and Dinesh Bhattaria4
...spiratory rate. The body temperature decreased (P<0.01) with all the three anesthetic regimens. The means of safe induction of anesthesia (propofol, 14.00 ± 0.2582; and thiopentone sodium, 14.83 ± 0.1667 seconds) and duration of anesthesia (thiopentone sodium, 14.50 ± 0.2236 and propofol, 13.22 ±0.1014 min), and a full recovery from anaesthesia (thiopentone sodium, 13.67 ± 0.4216; and propofol, 12.45 ± 0.2432 min) w...
Lamiaa Elsayed Mokhtar Deef
...-based identification system which aids in identifying species. 
...

Sana Rana1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2* and Khalid Abbas1 

...against different pH and temperature. CAT activity was measured spectrophotometrically at A240 nm. Results showed that highest CAT activity was noted from the crude extract of control fish gills (140.66±0.71UmL-1) as compared to DM+END exposed fish (99.23±0.71UmL-1). After desalted the CAT activity in gills of both control and insecticides exposed fish was calculated as 73.45±0.71 and 42.77±1.36UmL-1, respectively. The highest speci...

Yasir Ali1*, Muhammad Aslam Khan1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Muhammad Hussain2

...sed by leaf, stripe and stem rust have significant threat to agro-ecosystems and worldwide food security. Semi-dwarf wheat varieties with major gene resistance could not continue for longer period due to emergence of new rust races. However, genotypes such as Inqilab-91, Bluebird, Kenya Plume and Hope developed in early part of green revolution retained their resistance for longer period due to presence of non-specific rust ...
Yang Liu1,2,3, Baimei Liu1,2,3, Chenchen Li1,2,3 and Meiwen An1,2,3,*
... on scaffolds to form systems as: keratinocytes monoculture (KM), fibroblasts monoculture (FM), co-culture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts (KM&FM). Systems was treated with 3.4 kPa pressure for 1 day, systems without pressure was considered as control groups. The mRNA expression and protein secretion of supernatant were tested using Q-PCR and ELISA method, respectively. Co-culture K...
Qiang Li1,2, Guo Qiao2, Li Wang1, Jipeng Zhang1, Ruijun Li1, Ping Ni1, Yi Guo1 and Shigen Ye1,*
...were obtained in May, September and December. The isolates were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and Vibrio spp.-specific PCR amplification, followed by pathogenicity determination. Results showed that the isolates belonged to 10 genera, including Vibrio (72%), Staphylococcus (9%), Pseudomonas (4%), Bacillus (4%), Vagococcus (3%), Shewanella (3%), Planococcus migula (4%), Exiguobacter...
Peng Xu1, Bin Liu1,2, Yongqiang Zhao3, Shicheng Lv3 and Changhu Lu1,*
...lts showed that mean air temperature in wintering period showed a linear upward trend. Annual maximum wintering crane population was 623±33. Fitting the population size and the climate variables in the same year with GAMs indicated significant correlations between population size and mean maximum air temperature in November, mean minimum air temperature in December, mean air

Amar Razzaq1, Abdur Rehman4*, Abdul Hassan Qureshi2, Iqbal Javed3, Raheel Saqib5 and Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal6 

...efficiency irrigation systems (HEIs). The present study aimed to conduct the economic analysis of high efficiency irrigation systems in Punjab province of Pakistan. We also measured and compared the water productivity of modern and conventional-irrigated farms. We used primary data collected from 120 farmers located in Nurpur Thal, Bhalwal, Sargodha and Lodhran districts of Punjab province. These areas were purposively selec...

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

...ndus river irrigation system across nearly three million/ha and recognized as the backbone of the economy for the country. Despite the fact that Pakistan is overwhelmingly an agricultural based economy. Cotton cultivation is mainly focused on its fiber but cotton seed oil is significantly used as a comestible vegetable oil and makes major contribute in the national oil industry. According to an estimate per capita usage of edible oil in the country is 15 kg, t...

Bushra Qadir1, Muhammad Asim2 and Mohammad Akmal1* 

...usted in the cropping system for supplying green forage around the year. Nonetheless, its initial growth for stand establishment is a major issue. Treatments of the experiments were four alfalfa varieties (i.e. UCD, Dura, Vernal and Cuf 101) whose seed were treated with overnight in bio-extracts solution made of perennial tree leaves. The study compares early growth performance of alfalfa varieties for forage biomass production. The seed was soaked overnight (...

Abid Hussain1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2, Muhammad Anjum Ali Buttar3, Umar Farooq4, Muhmmad Islam5 and Zahid Ullah Khan1 

...iversify the cropping systems. 

...
Neelima Gupta

 

... worm during movement. Attempts to develop the larvae in ducks Anas platyrynchas by feeding were unsuccessful up to 17 days post infection suggesting that ducks were not the final hosts of the worm. Channa punctatus serves as a paratenic host for Eustrongylides.
...

Shaista Naz1*, Noor Paio Khan1, Naveed Afsar2 and Ashfaq Ahmad Shah3

...inary services and feed items, credit need for feed and livestock purchase, and training in animal health care were the major reported constraints in livestock management. Provision of credit, training in animal health care, and increasing women’s livestock possession are suggested not only for the increased participation of women in livestock management but also for the development of domesticated livestock enterprise in the study area 

...
Tahira Jamil*1, Mohammad Asghar1, Fatma Husain1, Haq Nawaz Bhatti2
...cal parameters including temperature, pH, inoculums size and fermentation time (each at five levels) were optimized using central composite design (CCD) design in 30 triplicate experimental runs. The maximum statin formation (19 mg/g) was achieved at 25oC, pH 5.5, inoculums size 3.5 mL and fermentation time 144 h on wheat straw as a growth substrate. The growth medium has an important effect on lovastatin production. Effect of carbon and nitrogen su...
Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi2*, Zillay Mariam1, Nadeem Sheikh1,2*
...changes in biological systems so there is a need of proper waste treatment prior to its disposal.
...
Muhammad Zahid1, Aneela ZameerDurrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1, KhushiMuhammad1,Muhammad Usman1,*, Muhammad Husnain1 and Nadeem Kamal2

 

...als in closed housing system were more affected as compared to open housed animals. When comparative efficacy of diagnostic tests was done then the results of RT-PCR was found significant (P>5), than complement fixation test.
...
Mouslim Bara1,2,* and Luciano N. Segura3
...ee consecutive years (September 2012 to August 2015). We studied the effect of air temperature and water depth on bird abundance and two ecological diversity indices (Shannon and Shannon E). Significant inter-annual fluctuations in bird abundance were recorded. Maximum values were always recorded during autumn. Water depth correlated positively with bird abundance and Shannon index. Field samplings indicated that bird abunda...
Tahira Batool1*, Nabila Roohi1, Athar Mahmud
... statistical analysis system (SAS, 9.1) software through factorial Analysis of Variance technique (ANOVA) and means were compared by Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) test. The findings of this study revealed L3 lysine regimen to be the best for improving the slaughter characteristics including weight of head, shanks, lungs, liver, gizzard, heart, and carcass yield comprising percent weight of breast and thigh. 
...
Ejaz Mahmood Ahmad Qureshi1,*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Seemal Vehra3 and Atif Yaqub4
...>2 of MIR with air temperature in all seasons, strongest in early post-rainy season while with humidity and rainfall; these were significant in only early rainy and early post rainy seasons. It was concluded that higher MIR in mosquitoes indicated increased infectivity in them.
...
Ghazunfar Rashid1, Muhammad Avais1, Syed Saleem Ahmad1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Rais Ahmed3,*, Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Naveed-ul-Haque4, Mehtab Ahmad5Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Naimat Ullah Khan6
...re crops as compared to stem parts, immature plants, and in samples collected from plants during morning hours. The nitrate concentration was lower in samples collected from Ravi area, as compared to samples collected from villages of Pattoki and Okara. Blood samples were collected from animals feeding on above fodders; Spectrophotometry analysis of blood samples from these animals showed abnormally high levels of nitrite. In conclusion, nitrate contents were ...
Tariq Mahmood1,*, Ijaz Ahmad1, Faraz Akrim1, Abdul Hamid1, Muhammad Waseem1, Abid Hussain1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...wa (KP) province from September 2016 to August 2017. Results show that breeding season of the species starts from February: peak breeding months being March and April, during which frequent breeding calls were heard. The calling frequency ranged from 0.15 per minute to 0.3 per minute. Six active nests of Chukor were found at five different sampling sites; nest location was mostly on sloping areas under sanatha Dodonaea viscosa shrubs. Nesting material c...
Amjad Islam Aqib1,*, Shagufta Nighat2, Rais Ahmed3, Saba Sana3, Muhammad Ameen Jamal4, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar2 , Naimat Ullah Khan5, Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Muhammad Asif Hussain5, Asadullah5, Attaur Rahman5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman5,*
...Finally, age, grazing system, use of beta-lactam antibiotics, parity, and poor hygiene were potential risk factors. Altogether, the study concluded high incidence of SCM and isolation rate of staphylococci that were found resistant against most of the commonly used antibiotics.
...

*Nageen Fatima1, Sadia Murawwat1 and Syeda Ameena Rizvi1

EVALUATION OF IMAGE COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES: AN IMPLEMENTATION OF TRUE COMPRESSION ON 2-D IMAGE
...ication and graphical systems is used to minimize storage requirements and transmission cost. It increases transmission rate by decreasing redundancy of image data in either lossy or lossless compression means. In this research work, comparison of compression techniques is done using Compression Ratio (CR) and Bit-Per-Pixel (BPP) ratio as performance parameters. Image compression by Huffman encoding, Embedded Zero tree Wavelet (EZW) and Set Partitioning in Hie...

 *Muhammad Waseem1, Dost Mohammad Baloch1, Ghulam Khaliq1,
M. Rashid1, Qurban Ali2 and Mustajab A. Khan3

INTENSIFICATION IN BAMBOO (Bambusa bambos L.) TRAITS IN RESPONSE TO ORGANIC AND CHEMICAL NITROGEN ALONG THE COAST OF ARABIAN SEA
...gn (RCBD) with square system of transplanting which was consist of 3 repetitions contained a net field size of 4.5m to 4.5m. Experimental sites were 20 km away from the Arabian Sea with an altitude of 2m. The bamboo (Bambusa bambos L.) plants were grown with four fertilizer sources i.e. S = Control (0) kg N ha-1, S = urea (120 kg N ha-1), S = Farm Yard Manure (FYM 1% N), S = 0 1 2 3 Combination {50% N from urea (the recommended dose) + 50% N from Farm Yard Man...

 *Irum Javed1, Muhammad Asgher2, Sadia Noreen1, Humara Naz Majeed1 and Tanzila Sahar1

SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING AGRICULTURE RESIDUE AS SUBSTRATE
...g inoculum size and 30oC temperature, are the initial requirements for maximum production of citric acid. It was also observed that Yeast extract in 1% concentration was the best nitrogen source. Surfactants like Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulphat (SDS) showed no effect on the citric acid.

...

 Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa Andleeb2, Bushra Mazhar1, Anum Imtiaz1, Shaukat Ali2*

Assessment of antibiogram and resistogram of pathogenic bacteria isolated from irrigated wheat field water
...rious parameters such as temperature and pH on growth of pathogens were also studied. Antibiogram and resistogram analysis were carried out through agar disc and agar well diffusion methods. Optimum temperature for growth of all bacterial strains was 37oC and pH 7 except Salmonella which had pH 6. Among all the antibiotics Oxacillin was less potent as three bacterial strains showed resistance against it while others antibiot...

 Sumera Siddique1,†, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Muhammad Irfan1

Screening of some agri-wastes for economical cultivation of Candida tropicalis SS1
...ro Kjeldahl digestion system) followed by bagasse, mango, and apple peels with respective values of as 13.38%, 3.20%, 2.69% and 2.58%. Best growth of C. tropicalis SS1 was obtained in aqueous extracts of 2% WM peels and the yeast cells attained up to 33% protein content on dry weight basis. In 2% aqueous extract of WM, the yeast strain yielded maximum biomass up to 6g/L with corresponding absorbance(600 nm) of 3.49±0.05 after 48 h of incubation at 37 &o...

 Tahir Abbas*1, Khawaja Raees Ahmad2, Asmatullah3, Khalid Pervaiz Lone4, Muhammad Ali Kanwal2, Sadia Suleman2

Reno-hepatic protective effects of Jambul against chromium induced anomalies in mice
...enhance the endocrine system and metabolism but its ridiculous use and bio-accumulation through food chain might be causing oxidative stress. That study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of Jambul (Syzygium cumini) against Cr induced reno-hepatic anomalies. Male albino mice (Mus musculus) were equally divided (n=10) as C; control, Cr-treatedandCr-JgroupsreceivingCr+6 in the form of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) 50ppm for 10days ad-libitum while...

 Saiqa Andleeb* , Shaukat Ali

RNA interference; A tool for treatment of human diseases
...vectors and inducible systems are available now to treat numerous disorders. This review paper provides the basis for further development of RNAi technology as a drug therapy against various human disorders.

...