Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

 

Life Sciences International Journal Issue 7 Volume 1
...bstract | Foot and mouth disease (FMD) remained an endemic disease in Pakistani livestock population during 2011 and 2012. To ascertain the genetic nature of circulating FMD virus, samples were collected from suspected outbreaks in Southern Punjab. The virus was primarily detected with RT-PCR with P1/P2 and 1F/1R universal primer pairs directly from field samples including tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencin...

Sehrish Kanwal, Ali Saeed, Muhammad Munir, Memoona Arshad

 

British Journal of Virology
...justify;">Foot and mouth disease (FMD) remained an endemic disease in Pakistani livestock population during 2011 and 2012. To ascertain the genetic nature of circulating FMD virus, samples were collected from suspected outbreaks in Southern Punjab. The virus was primarily detected with RT-PCR with P1/P2 and 1F/1R universal primer pairs directly from field samples including tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequenci...

Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
... quoted as important for disease emergence. Several of the mechanism by which urban disease emergence is promoted also increase the risks of vector-borne diseases, and the mosquito-borne Dengue virus is one of the pathogens benefitting from this. The related virus Japanese encephalitis virus is the most important cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in the world, and is maintained in avian...

Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

British Journal of Virology
...on.

...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...ationwide to control the disease in poultry. Meanwhile, the viruses accumulated several point mutations in the HA immunogenic epitopes resulting in antigenic drift and the establishment of infections in vaccinated poultry. The Egyptian H5N1 viruses remain susceptible to oseltamivir, but genetic markers indicating resistance to amantadine have increased dramatically. In this mini-review, we discuss recent findings on the H5N1 viruses endemic in poultry and huma...

Muhangi Denis

...highly infectious, viral disease affecting domestic pigs with mortalities approaching 100%. The disease severely impacts on the socio-economic status of farmers. The disease is endemic in a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, in Sardinia (Italy), the Russian Federations, the Caucasus and it has shown possibilities of spread within Eastern Europe. Involvement of all stakeholders in t...

Yanina Panzera1*, Nicolas Sarute1, Lucia Carrau1, Jaime Aldaz2, Ruben Perez1

...t significant infectious disease among carnivores worldwide. Herein, we present the state of the art of CDV dynamics in South America, by means of a detailed analysis of the genetic diversity, evolution, and epidemiology of the virus in several countries. Our study allowed us to establish the presence of four genetic lineages in South America, being the continent with more lineages described to date, underscoring the high genetic diversity of the circulating s...

Nicola J. Stonehouse

...merase of foot-and-mouth disease virus. The aptamers are able to inhibit the function of the enzyme both in vitro and in the context of a sub-genomic replicon and highlight the future potential of this technology in many aspects of virus research as well as in diagnostics and therapeutics.

...

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...tudies of the infection, disease and immune responses caused by a specific pathogen in the absence of interfering maternal antibodies, other maternal immune regulators, and intestinal and environmental microbes. Due to the similarities between pigs and humans in terms of genetics, physiology, intestinal anatomy, and immune system, pig is particularly a suitable animal species for the modeling of human enteric pathogen infections, immune responses and for vacci...

Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

...vine viral diarrhea is a disease caused by viruses of the genus Pestivirus in cattle worldwide. Herein, we present the current status of the disease in Brazil showing its nation-wide distribution. In Brazil, BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and ‘HoBi’-like viruses are frequently reported whereas BVDV-2 has a higher frequency when compared with other continents. It is important to reinforce that currently Brazil has no official con...

Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

...ly as 1995, the clinical disease was observed later in 2006 following dramatic and devastating PPR outbreaks in Turkana County. In this context, an outbreak of PPRV was observed in Tukana County in 2011 and the current study detail the clinical, pathological and laboratory findings of this outbreak. The disease was clinically manifested by the depression, diarrhea, difficult breathing, muco-purulent ocular-nasal discharges w...

James Ayukepi Ayukekbong1,2

E-mail | james.ayukekbong@microbio.gu.se

...ant mosquito-borne viral disease but there are currently no licensed vaccines or specific therapeutics. The virus and its vector are widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics regions of the world. Dengue and malaria are endemic in Nigeria. Two independent studies among febrile patients revealed dengue IgG seroprevalence of 73% and malaria prevalence of 80% in some areas of the country. The diagnosis of the disease...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

...uses a highly contagious disease in both domestic and wild small ruminants, and in camels. Based on sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) gene, the PPRV has been classified into four lineages. Serological investigations in Tanzania indicate that peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was introduced in 2004 in Ngorongoro district bordering Ken- ya before official confirmation of the disease in most districts of Northern Tanzan...

Paulo Eduardo Brandao

...obtained for other viral diseases. This review is intended to present the current situation of RNAi against rabies, as well as insights into the future on the field.

...

Nayle Maria Oliveira da Silva1*, Ricardo do Carmo Zanella2

 

...CV induces chronic liver disease, which is characterized by a persistent hepatic parenchyma inflammatory process that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Viral clearance occurs in a minority of patients with viral hepatitis C, whereas chronic infection is established in 60 to 80% of all cases, 20 to 40% of which may evolve to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Genetic differences among infected hosts can determine the progression and outcome of the viru...

Qingzhong Yu

 

...ication of the Newcastle disease virus. Recently, inserting a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene upstream from the GE sequences of the viral genes and subsequent quantitative measurements of the GFP fluorescence intensity, we have concluded that the P and M junction region is the optimal insertion site for a high level of foreign gene expression by a NDV vector.

...

Suresh V Kuchipudi* and Kin-Chow Chang

 

...hysical demands, age and disease. The contributions of skeletal muscle to immune response and virus pathogenesis are increasingly recognized. Recent evidence strongly indicated that skeletal muscle cells fully support productive replication of influenza A virus (IAV) and could play an important role in disease outcome. We are of the opinion that skeletal muscle could be a key innate immune tissue/organ in the pathogenesis o...

Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

...thogenicity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the major determinants for the clinicopathological manifestations in infected hosts. Recent studies showed that the host innate immune responses to infection play important role in the pathologenesis of NDV, and correlate with the severity of the clinical disease. Virulent strains of different genotypes induce distinct pathological manifestations in chicken organs, espec...

Leonard Izzard1, 2, John Stambas1, 2*

...ty and as biomarkers for disease severity.

...

Josef D. Jarhult1, 2

...ors for severe influenza disease as well as an important part of pandemic preparedness plans. Resistance development is a potential problem both in treated humans and in the environment. The use of oseltamivir for treatment of uncomplicated influenza in otherwise healthy patients should be questioned.

...

Guoyi Li1, Haiyan Tong1, Jiansheng Chen2, Jinliang Wei2, Xiaoming Zhao2, Guoping Zhang2, Zixue Shi2*

E-mail | shizixue@gmail.com

...E) is an arthropod-borne disease causing dreadful central nervous system signs and high mortality in adults and children. It is caused by the JE virus (JEV), which belongs to the family Flaviviridae. JEV is endemic to many parts of East Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia, where periodic outbreaks take thousands of lives. With rapid globalisation and climatic shift, JEV has started to emerge in previously unaffected areas. Scientific evidences show tha...

Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco1*, Gaby Dolz1, Danilo Montero-Caballero2, Juan Jose Romero-Zuniga2

...e with this insect borne disease. The results of this study indicate that BTV is endemic in sheep herds from Costa Rica, and animals seem not show clinical signs. We recommend carrying out further studies, to determine the presence of BTV in goats and wild ruminants, and to identify serotypes present in the country.

...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...ms along with infectious diseases including avian influenza (AI). Biosecurity measures, controlling poultry movements and inactivated vaccines were devised to combat the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1. HPAIV are highly susceptible to all disinfectants because they are enveloped viruses. Disinfection against avian influenza viruses at the poultry farms would significantly reduce and/or limit the chance for its trans...

Shumaila Manzoor1, Afshan Ahmed1 and Muhammad Abubakar2*

...SPCE) for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) structural antibodies detection in terms of their sensitivity and specificity. These methods were performed by using set of sera collected from cattle with foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. The pattern of antibody titers in animals of different age groups was observed as less than 1 year, 1-2 years and more than 2 years for both ELISA and SNT. The peak immun...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...ted control measures and disease risk analysis, this entomological survey was performed on the risk of transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and identification of the main breeding sites of Culicoides. From April 2009 to March 2010, the study was carried out at 14 sites distributed across the country. Results indicated that the two most abundant Culicoides species were Culicoides imicola (94.2-95.85%) and Culicoides newsteidi (2.21-2.72%)....

Tomas Jinnerot1*, Karin Malm1, Erik Eriksson1 and Jonas Johansson Wensman2

E-mail | Tomas.Jinnerot@sva.se

...e infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) in dogs. Other disease agents include various respiratory viruses and co-infection can exacerbate the clinical signs. CIRD is highly contagious and can spread rapidly, especially among dogs in close quarters. Fast and accurate diagnostics enables the selection of proper management. Our objective was to develop a sensitive and specific real-time PCR for detection of ...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

... yet unknown, infectious diseases and etiologies.

...

 Shubhada K Chothe, Bhushan M Jayarao and Suresh V Kuchipudi

... (ncRNAs) to a number of disease processes including viral infections. Cellular and virus encoded lncRNAs are emerging as novel regulatory factors which can escape the anti-protein environment in the virus infected cells and are likely to be conserved across the species. Here, we summarize our current knowledge about the role of lncRNAs in influenza virus infection and the exciting prospect of exploiting lncRNAs as targets to develop novel anti-viral therapies...

Kang-Seuk Choi

...tify;">Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus-like particles (VLPs) comprising only viral capsid proteins mimic the naive configuration of authentic IBD virus particles. The VLPs show intrinsic immunogenicity and a high safety profile.  Thus, VLPs are considered one of the most promising approaches to vaccine development and are an alternative to inactivated IBD vaccines. In addition, VLP technology has many applications. This paper reviews the potential o...

Seyed Mohsen Mirbod

...osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease which influences the performance of the joint during walking. Various types of knee orthosis have been designed to improve the performance of the subjects, however, such cases are often associate with post-operational complications. The aim of this study is to design an orthosis which is easy to use, economical and effective. A new knee orthosis was designed to improve the performance of OA patients during standing and walking....

Rongfei Lu1, 2, Zhiyang Liu1, Peng Fang1, Guangyi Chen1, Feng Sun1, Yongjian Fan1, Yijun Zhou1, Tong Zhou1*

...d of virus detection and disease dynamics.  The validity and the reliability of generated data can be enhanced significantly appropriate measures. As a standard for the relative expression of target genes, the selection of reference genes is crucial. This review describes the history of the RT-qPCR technology, emphasizes the importance of reference genes and enumerates several algorithms to screen reference genes to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Additionall...

Jonas Johansson Wensman1*a, Karl-Johan Leuchowius2,3 a, Jiting Yan1, Anna-Lena Berg4, Liv Bode5, Hanns Ludwig5, Sandor Belak6, Ulf Landegren2, Ola Soderberg2, Mikael Berg6

...t-align: justify;">Borna disease virus type 1 (BDV) comprises highly conserved neurotropic non-segmented negative strand RNA-virus variants causing neurological and behavioral disorders in a wide range of mammalian animals, possibly including humans. Viral persistence in the brain has been frequently observed, however, the exact mechanisms behind BDV’s ability to establish persistence despite a prominent immune response are not known. Here we have used i...

John G. Bruno

...r pandemic or infectious disease doomsday scenario. 

...

Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

...an emerging deadly viral disease in Pakistan and is becoming endemic in many regions. The first case of CCHF was reported in 1976 in Rawalpindi and after that, multiple sporadic cases and outbreaks have occurred in subsequent years and till today. CCHF outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 40%, which is alarming. It is a zoonotic disease and the virus is transmitted mainly to the humans through hard tick bite and dire...

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...span class="s1">Aleutian disease virus (ADV) infection in mink typically cause hypergammaglobulinemia, plasmacytosis and immune complex disease. Due to lack of success in eradicating Aleutian disease (AD) by stamping out, a new strategy for disease control with focus on evaluation of disease progression has been propos...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...lass="s1">Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious transboundary animal disease and one of the most economically devastating diseases that affect cloven-hoofed livestock including cattle, goats, sheep, pigs and wild ungulates. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic losses to livest...

Nadeem Khan1*, Arshad Ali Khan1, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Nouman2 and Badshah Islam1

...ar (2.66 cm). In case of disease incidence maximum lesion on leaves were found in Kinnow (14.2) while in Cara Cara, Salustiana and Arnold Blood, lesser lesions were found. On the basis of results and overall performance Tarocco and Hamlin performed best in all aspects while Arnold Blood and Cara Cara revealed poor growth.  

...

Ashley C. Banyard1* and Satya Parida2

...n economically important disease of small ruminants that causes extensive livestock losses across areas where it is endemic. Further the recent description of the disease in naïve populations of animals have demonstrated an expansion of the distribution of the disease. Having been in the shadow of rinderpest virus for decades little is understood regarding factors that influence the o...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...tant transboundary viral disease of sheep and goats. PPR is enzootic in India as more number of outbreaks have occurred in the past and now occurring regularly, round the year and most frequently during the lean period throughout the country. In some Indian states viz. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Chhattisgar h the PPR outbreaks in sheep and goats have declined after implementing the strategic mass vaccination programme. The decreased number of outbreaks in ...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...ed to be a transboundary disease of great significance through its effect on the development and maintenance of sustainable agriculture in developing countries, most notably in Western Africa and South Asia. Here, we review, using available data in research papers and reports of international organizations and databases, the factors that enables the spread of PPR in Africa and the required countermeasures that are required to control and eradicate it. However,...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

... highly contagious viral disease in small ruminants causing huge loss to farmers. In this study, an attempt has been made to estimate the economic losses based on the annual incidence, morbidity, mortality levels etc. derived from literature, discussion with experts, and based upon scientific facts. Different mathematical models were used to assess the losses due to mortality in young and adult sheep/goats, body weight loss in young and adult sheep/goats, milk...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud1, Muaz Abdellatif 2, 3*, Luai Shazali1

...ess the situation of the disease in the region.

...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...nants (PPR), a viral disease of goats and sheep caused by a morbillivirus of the family paramyxoviridae is a major threat to small ruminant farming. Global announcement of PPR eradication by 2030 has opened lot of research gaps for the development of vaccines and diagnostics for differentiating infected and vaccinated animals. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, recombinant protein based vaccines and/or diagnostics are being tested...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

... highly contagious viral disease of sheep and goats. Domestic sheep and goats are important species for the livelihoods of poor people in many developing countries. Within societies where PPR is now spreading, poverty is widespread and the disease is expected to have significant negative impacts on livelihoods. In resource-constrained marginalised societies, it is often difficult to collect disease

Keyvan Sharifmoradi1*, Nader Farahpour2

...s with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to compare with healthy age group. A total of 14 patients with PD and 16 normal elderly subjects with matched age and gender were included in the study. A motion analysis system (Vicon Motion Analysis System) and two Kistler force plates were used to measure forces applied on the legs. Data were evaluated using independent t-test with significant point set at p< 0.05. There was no difference in cadence...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

... highly contagious viral disease of small ruminants. The disease is endemic in Bangladesh and causes considerable economic losses due to its high morbidity and mortality. The study was undertaken to detect and characterize the PPR virus (PPRV) circulating in Bangladesh. Twelve local isolates of Bangladeshi PPRV were successfully detected from post mortem samples (lymph node, spleen and trachea) of goats and a sheep during th...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...eeks. Interestingly, the disease was exclusively observed in goats and all sheep kept in the same herd were serologically positive but did not show any clinical signs of PPR. The active PPR virus (PPRV) infection was confirmed by antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR in both swab and body tissue samples. The molecular characterization revealed clustering of the PPRV within lineage IV with significant substitutions in the nucleoprotein (NP) gene. Genetic variations ...

Neha Singh and Anjana Pandey

...s, and to discover novel disease biomarkers to facilitate early detection of the disease and for therapeutic purposes.

...

Hassan Tarik Atmaca

...ically devastating viral disease of small ruminants and camels, and thus is negatively affecting the livelihoods of poor people in many developing countries. Efforts are being made to advance our understandings on different aspects of molecular biology of the virus and to consolidate national and international strengths to eradicate the disease from the planet. This Editorial highlights recent research articles and reviews t...

Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

...ne of the most important diseases causing economic losses to dairy farm owners. In order to develop new strategies to prevent mastitis, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the host immune response to the infectious agents is necessary. Identification of the genes, and their variants, involved in innate immune responses is essential for the understanding of this inflammatory disease and to identify...

Adedeji A.J, Sati N.M, Pewan S.B, Ogbu K.I, Adole J.A, Lazarus D.D, Ijiwo S.J, Okpanachi A, Nwagbo I.O, Joannis, T.M and Abdu P.A

...A) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) and co-infection of CIA and IBD. Infectious bursal disease was tentatively diagnosed in 5,000, 5 weeks old Hy-Line and ISA Brown pullets in a commercial poultry farm in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria with mortality of up to 79.12%. The clinical signs observed were prostration, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, anorexia, trembling and mortality that lasted for 6 days. Postmortem findings include ...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...t of a highly contagious disease that affects domestic and wild small ruminants, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Due to the important economical losses caused by this virus in Africa and Asia, the development of more effective, targeted and successful treatments for the disease are necessary. Like other Morbilliviruses, PPRV induces a suppression of the immune system during the acute disease...

Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud1,2, Fathy A. Abdel-Ghaffar2, Azza El-Amir2, Gamal Badr3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy1*

...s (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that affects many body organs including spleen. However, the effect of Plasmodium chabaudi infection on the spleen of the murine lupus model BWF1with the comparison between live and gamma irradiated parasite was not studied before. A total of 30 female BWF1 mice were randomly divided into three groups as follows: group (I) control group (lupus uninfected); group (II) live P. chabaudi infected group (lupus + live P. chabaudi inf...

Abdul Sattar Baloch1*, Abdul Rasheed1,2, Rahmatullah Rind1, Jam Kashif Sahito1, Rehana Buriro1, Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1 and Parkash Dewani1

...e antibodies against the disease, however, none of the sample was found to be positive for brucellosis. It was concluded that the brucellosis is prevalent among camels of studied areas.

...

Hussain Ahmad1, Inamullah1, Ijaz Ali2, Tauseef Ahmad3, Muhammad Tufail4, Kabir Ahmad5 and Bibi Nazia Murtaza3,6*

...rucellosis is a zoonotic disease affecting several animal species and human beings. It is caused by Brucella abortus in animals and Brucella melitensis in human. The current study aimed to find out the prevalence of Brucella and active brucellosis in the human population of district Swat. Total 300 individuals (both female and male of all ages, meeting our inclusion/exclusion criteria) with informed consent were included in the study. Blood samples were collec...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole, Oloke Julius Kola and Awoyelu Hilda Elukunbi

...dditional EBV-associated diseases may occur and some forms of malignancies. This study was designed to determine the incidence of EBV in Human immune-deficient virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Two hundred and seventy eight HIV-infected individuals were screened for EBV antibodies over a period of four months (August to November, 2014). The sera of individuals were subjected to serological assay for IgM using enzyme-linked immun...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...0%.

...

Jixue Hou1,2, Xueling Chen3, Jing Wang4, Hongwei Zhang2, Yu Xi2, Jie Xia2, Xinyu Peng2,* and Xiangwei Wu2,5*

...rocess of cardiovascular disease, but for a long time it is just limited to large animals, like pigs, rabbits, and big rats. The mice with reproduction fast cycle, lower costing, and close to human genes, can be showed about some phenomenon quickly, also more easy to form model of atherosclerosis. Thus, a mouse model of vascular injury is vitally important for researching the pathophysiological mechanisms to restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary ...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

...phenotypes seen in human diseases. On the contrary, pigs, especially mini-pigs, show exciting potential for modeling human CNS diseases due to similarities in body size, anatomy, life span, CNS structure and neurobiology. Previously, via the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique, we successfully generated transgenic Guangxi Bama mini-pigs carrying a fluorescent protein (DsRed) reporter gene regulated by the 2.2-kb human gl...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...n economically important disease of small ruminants that causes extensive livestock losses across areas where it is endemic. A serological survey on the prevalence of antibodies to PPRV was carried out in sheep and goats of Jatoi and surrounding areas in Muzaffargarh districts South Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 965 serum samples were collected from sheep and goat’s farms from January to December 2015 with no history of vaccination. Haemagglutination in...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

...uses a highly contagious disease in both domestic, wild ruminants and camels. Sera from non-vaccinated sheep (n=683), goats (n=624) and camels (n=155) of all ages and sexes were collected in a cross-sectional study in Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah. Saudi Arabia. The seroprevalece was determined by NP-epitopes based competitive ELISA. The overall prevalence was 59.9%, goats had a significantly higher sero-prevalence of 75.3% compared to 59.4% obtained from s...
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
...l measures for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) requires continuous disease surveillance and understanding of field NDV strains. The NDVs, a prototype of Avian Paramyxoviruses (APMV-1), have been reported previously both in chicken and feral birds (natural reservoirs) in Pakistan; however, their molecular characterization is largely inadequate and requires continuous evaluation. In this study, sequencing and molecular analysis ...

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

...tify;">Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus, a dsRNA virus that causes an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The first line of defence against the virus is innate immunity whose activation is independent of the antigen and depends on the ability of the host to recognize pathogens by means of specific pattern recognition receptors. This interaction in...

Pam D Luka, Frank N Mwiine, Bitrus Yakubu, Joseph Erume, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez, Hermann Unger and David Shamaki

...F) is a contagious viral disease of pigs with severe consequences and a growing transboundary potential. The disease is caused by ASF virus (ASFV), the only DNA virus with an arthropod vector of the genus Ornithodoros, involved in its transmission. Tick involvement has been reported in Europe, East and Southern Africa to be part of ASFV transmission cycles. Ticks in an ASFV infected area have been reported to influence the e...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
...res in Shuba Bazaar. The disease burden in Pakistan is critical requiring large-scale molecular epidemiology and entomological surveillance. Moreover, transportation of mosquitoes via tyre trade necessitates more conservative mosquitoes control strategies in Pakistan especially in the unrestricted transport of tyres from southern part of the country to the northern parts.
...
Muhammad Luqman Sohail1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor2, Omer Naseer1 and Muhammad Usman Saleem3
...globally spread zoonotic disease effecting a wide range of animal species and humans. 18 Leptospira positive horses based on ELISA and 9 healthy horses were included in the study. Blood profile, serum biochemistry and mineral profile were analyzed at day 0, 7 and 21 of infection. Results showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and platel...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...earch findings regarding disease resistance against viral diseases and concludes via shedding light upon the future prospects in this exciting field of research.
...
K.N. ArulJothi1, M. Abinaya1, B. Suruthi Abirami1, Melvin George2, S. Elangovan3 and A. Devi1*
...opment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in different populations. In this study, we investigated the association of rs5888 polymorphism with serum lipid levels and CVD risk in an Indian population. A total of 412 samples which included 148 myocardial infarction survivors, 162 Normolipidemic healthy controls and 102 patients with hypercholesterolemia in a   Indian Tamilian population were included in the study. Genotyping of SCARB1 genetic polymorphi...
Akbar Ali1,*, Khalil Mohamed2 and Fawzia Toulah3

 

...stify;">Toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii parasite, is one of the most worldwide parasitic infections of warm-blooded animals including man. In most adults it does not cause serious illness, but it can cause serious health problems in infants, pregnant women and immune compromised patients. Abortion is one of the most serious outcomes in pregnant women. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 162 women of child bearing age were incl...

Tuli Dey, Sonnet Poddar and Mukti Barua

...d important reproductive disease of dairy cattle. A crossbreed cow of 3rd lactation came to Madras veterinary college with the clinical sign of complete uterine prolapse which calved one day before. The cow was handled and the prolapsed mass was corrected so carefully that there could be saved the life without any complication. The prolapsed mass of cow was managed with lukewarm water and manual pressure replacement in non-raising condition of hindquarter. Vul...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
...nculiasis or guinea worm disease causes severe morbidity and disability among effected populations. Pakistan was declared dracunculaisis-free in 1996. The present study is a follow-on to the declared eradication of dracunculiasis in Dera Ismail Khan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province, Pakistan through investigating disease recurrences and Cyclops species in drinking water sources. A cross-sectional household...
Syed Ishfaq Ali Shah1,*, Tassawar Hussain Malik2, Imran Rafi Khan1 and Zahid Hussain
...f curl virus (CLCuV) disease with promising local varieties tolerant to the disease. After screening, the most resistant accessions of USDA were USG-14-2464 and USG-14-2478. However, USG-14-2481 and USG-14-2484 were recorded as partially resistant to CLCuV disease. Among the local germplasms, all accessions screened were found extremely susceptible. Disease
Yi-qiang Ouyang1, Zhen-xin Liang1, Shi-wen Huang2, Ying Zhang3, Shao-shi Luo1, Jin-ning Liang1, Jia-fu Li1, Yu He4 and Song-chao Guo1,*
...ies of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involve rats and mice, yet the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is in many respects more similar to primates than rodents are. To demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of using the tree shrew as an AD model, we examined how well the model recapitulates features of the disease. Injecting animals intraperitoneally with d-galactose to induce acute senility, and then injecting them ...

Zia Ur Rahman1*, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1, Hidayat Ur Rahman1, Fida Mohammad1, Mian Ahmad Raza1 and Ijaz Ahmad Khan2

...st bacterial leaf blight disease at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar-Pakistan during 2011 rice crop growing season. On artificial inoculation with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae, the fundamental agent of bacterial leaf blight, most of the studied rice accessions and the two commercial rice cultivars displayed susceptible reactions. Seven rice accessions viz. UoA-2, UoA-5, UoA-11, UoA-48, UoA-53, UoA-102, and UoA-123 showed moderate levels of resistance w...
Ahmed Mujtaba1, Tariq Masud1, Asif Ahmad1, Waqar Ahmed3, Saqib Jabbar3* and Robert E. Levin2
...pplemental treatment for diseases associated with these pathogens.
...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
... their vectors, menacing disease epidemics caused by newly emerging or reemerging begomoviruses are becoming frequent and appearing even in new regions, previously free from such diseases. Techniques for geminivirus detection include biological indexing, electron microscopy, antibody-based detection, including ELISA, nucleic acid hybridizations like dot blot, squash blot and Southern blot techniques, polymerase chain reactio...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...ly controlled soil-borne diseases including root-knot nematode. Mahogany oil spray reduced infestation of stem borer,leaf hoppers of rice; shoot & fruit borer of brinjal and fruit flies of vegetables.Biopesticides (formulated trichoderma) and bio-agents (bracon,trichogramma, ladybird beetle) and sex pheromone are in the pipeline for commercial use.

...

A. K.Bhattacherjee and B. K. Pandey

Dissipation of carbendazim in mango after pre- and post-harvest treatments
... to control post harvest diseases viz., anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Lasiodiplodia theobromae). Carbendazim dissipated to 1.01 and 2.14 mg kg in mature whole fruit after harvest (12 days after second spray) at 0.05 and 0.1 per cent concentrations, respectively, following first order rate kinetics. The corresponding values in fruit pulp after 12 days were 0.57 and 1.26 mg kg . In another experiment, cold water dip treatment in ...

M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal
... one of the major foliar diseases in mulberry at farmers field in Birbhum district.BLS incidence appeared in May and continued up to November. The correlation coefficient between disease severity and meteorological parameters revealed that BLS disease severity showed significant positive correlation with max & min temperatures, min relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy days. ...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...ol of several soil-borne diseases of some field crops. Similarly, seedlings of horticultural crops and rice are treated by dipping the roots in Trichoderma suspensions before planting. Granular or pellets preparations and Trichoderma enriched FYM have been used for soil application directly and have provided effective control of diseases both nurseries and field conditions. To ensure that the products of Trichoderma do not a...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...n root knot and root rot disease and promote plants growth as the length and weight of root and shoot in pot trials on tomato plants. Keywords: Antagonistic fungi, root knot nematode, wilt fungus, bio-management
 

 

...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...ty on the development of diseases like canker (Pestalotia psidii), anthracnose and die back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), stem canker and dry fruit rot (Botryodiplodia theobromae) and Phytophtora fruit rot (Phytophthora nicotianae var parasitica) of guava were analysed for predictive purpose from regression equations. The simple correlation coefficient matrix showed significantly positive correlation of canker severity with maximum relative humidity at 1% ...

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
...ity to several pests and diseases, aggravated by the nature of the plantation. A good number of hemipteran insect pests occur in betelvine ecosystem which dwindle betelvine yield potentiality. Among these, the polyphagous betelvine blackfly, Aleurocanthus rugosa Singh (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) is a major pest causing severe damage to the foliage in the conservatories (borojas) of West Bengal. The seasonal incidence of A. rugosa in boroja was recorded during 200...

Bushra Afreen, Geetesh Baghel, Akil A. Khan and Q.A. Naqvi

Virus- vector relationship of yellow vein disease of calendula and the whitefly
...irus causing yellow vein disease on Calendula officinalis L. was transmitted from naturally infected C. officinalis to healthy seedlings of C. officinalis through whiteflies not through sap inoculation. A single whitefly could transmit the virus and showed 20.55% infection and fifteen whiteflies were required for 100 percent transmission. The minimum acquisition access feeding period and minimum inoculation access feeding period for the present virus were 10mi...

S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
...erally infected with rot disease when it grows older. Phellinus contigus (under Polyporaceae), a white rot fungus, causes heart rot disease and Biscogniauxia mediterranea (= Hypoxylon mediterranea) (under Xylariaceae) causes canker rot disease of Som plant. A survey was conducted to study the infection of rotting pathogens on Som plants at Regional Muga Research Station (RMRS), Boko, Assam...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...logical control of plant diseases seems to be the best alternative for plant disease control. It is ecofriendly, reliable, cost effective and is an integral component of integrated plant disease management framework for sustainable crop production. A considerable number of biocontrol agents have been established successfully for their bioconrol potential including strains belonging to bact...

Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
...ed that minimum foot rot disease occurred where four drenching and eight sprayings of BM at monthly and fortnightly intervals respectively were applied in the 1st year. In the 2nd year, the minimum foot rot disease was recorded in the treatment where four applications of the Trichoderma preparation ha-1 at quarterly intervals were given. The maximum foot rot disease was recorded in control...

Debjani Chowdhury, P. C. Paul and B. Dasgupta

Management of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola
... that the lowest percent disease incidence (PDI) of leaf spot of Thankuni caused by Alternaria sp. and highest yield in number of leaves per sq.M was recorded where carbendazim was sprayed. The highest yield in fresh weight, dry weight of leaves, fresh weight and dry weight of 1000 leaves was recorded. Application of mancozeb resulted in the lowest PDI of target spot of Sarpagandha, increased the yield (both fresh weight and dry weight of the plant per sq.M) a...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...sects, mites, nematodes, diseases and weeds. Globally 1034 species of arthropods and 82 species of nematodes are associated with tea plants. Among them 25 species of insects, 4 species of mites and 10 species of nematodes are recorded from Bangladesh. Enormous crop loss was incurred due to the attack of these pests and largely responsible for the declining productivity of tea. Extensive use of chemical pesticides began only a few decades ago with tremendous im...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Control of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) root and collar rot (Rhizoctonia solani) with some organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum under field condition
...suffer from a variety of diseases. Among those root rot and collar rot are important and R. solani has been an important factor behind these two main diseases. A field trial was conducted during pre-kharif season of 2011 to control root and collar rot of cowpea caused by Rhizoctonia solani with two organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum along with other treatment combinations. It was observed that seed priming with my...

Sunita J. Magar and D.D. Nirmal

Effect of plant spacings and cultivars on spread of Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) disease
...vein mosaic virus (YVMV) disease in different plant spacing 30 x 30 cm, 50 x 30 cm, 60 x 30 cm, 60 x 60 cm and 60 x 40 cm and using two cultivars, i.e., cv. Parbhani Kranti and Local indicated that the first appearance of symptom was earlier in cv. Local and late in cv. Parbhani Kranti. The rate of infection was higher at 45 to 60 days after sowing in both kharif and summer while in cv. Local it was higher at 30 to 45 days after sowing. Less infection rate was...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...ponsible for anthracnose disease in bell peppers (Capsicum frutescence L.). The results showed that all the selected plants have potential to inhibit the radial mycelial growth of C. capsici in-vitro. The plant extract from C. aromaticus at 50% concentration showed 42% radial mycelial growth inhibition in poisoned food technique, whereas 15% increased seed germination and 26% reduced disease incidence is recoded when compare...

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...educe rice sheath blight disease incidence (46.32% to 70.54%) over check plot significantly. Again, the efficacy of the biocontrol agents was significantly greater in the block with green manured than the block without green manured. Application of hexaconazol 5% EC@ 2.0 ml litre-1 and carbendazim 50% WP @ 1.0 ml litre-1 also reduced the sheath blight disease incidence by 53.25% and 56.86% over the check plot respectively. I...

M.S. Islam, M.Ali, and I. Ahmad

Efficacy of sedomil 72WP and recozeb 80WP to control die-back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of tea in Bangladesh
...l) to control of dieback disease (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of tea in Bangladesh. The pathogen, C. gloeosporioides was isolated from the dieback infected tea twigs on PDA medium. Mycelial blocks of the isolated pathogen were transferred to PDA plates amended with sedomil 72WP (mancozeb) @ 720, 1080, 1440 and 1800 ppm and recozeb 80WP (mancozeb + metalaxyl) @ 800, 1200, 1600 and 2000 ppm concentrations. Sedomil 72WP and recozeb 80WP caused colony growth i...

M. S. Joshi , D.M. Sawant and A.P. Gaikwad

Isolate variations in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting pomegranate

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
...ockle nematode and molya disease of wheat. Currently attempts are being made to utilize RNAi technology to identify the genes targets for the management of root knot and cyst nematodes. In this paper some of the success stories of the technology developed by the scientists at IARI are discussed.
 

 

...

Partha Pratim Ghosh and 2N. C. Mandal 

Some disease management practices for bacterial wilt of potato
...f the threatening potato diseases. To study the effect of some disease management practices in potato, an investigation was conducted in slightly acidic (pH 5.62) loamy sand soil with medium fertility status in a Randomised Block Design with three replicates and seven treatment modules, as described in Materials & Methods. Investigation revealed that T1 (TPS whole tuber planting) and T4 (supervised management - cowdung @...

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
...dia, to study the fungal diseases of some commercial ornamentals. The leaf spot of Ficus religiosa (c.o. Alternaria sp.) is the first record. Fifteen fungal diseases have been formally described from West Bengal for the first time on these twelve ornamentals. Monthly dynamics was determined for occurrence, intensity and severity of these diseases. The disease

Shyam Singh and L.P. Awasthi

Plant products for the management of yellow mosaic disease of mungbean and urdbean
...an. Maximum reduction in disease incidence recorded were 66.70 and 63.65 percent in mungbean and Urdbean, respectively by eight sprays of Clerodendrum aculeatum. Whereas, eight sprays of Boerhaavia diffusa root extract could reduce the disease incidence by 60.27 and 58.20 per cent followed by Azadirachta indica leaf extract by 42.43 and 42.92 percent in mungbean and urdbean, respectively. Maximum plant height (70.90 and 56.2...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
... field infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The Bursa of fabricius was collected from poultry flocks of Punjab Pakistan for isolation of IBD virus by inoculating in embryonated chicken eggs through chorioallantoic membrane. The two hundred birds were divided into 4 groups A, B, C and D). The birds in group A were commercial broiler chicks having maternal derived antibodies and were challenged with IBDV field isolate at the rate of 0.1ml of EID50 (virus tite...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
... is a chronic autoimmune disease with characteristic organ involvement and autoantibodies production. The pathogenicity and etiology of the disease has yet to be elucidated. It is presently accepted that environmental factors trigger the disease in genetically sensitive individuals. Gluten, a protein fraction commonly found in wheat grains, associated with food related disorders and a numb...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...oting and destruction of diseased plants (farmers’ practice). Results indicated all the management approaches under study performed significantly superior to farmers’ practice in terms of reduction in disease severity (32.8-43.6%), yield increase (20.9% - 26.8%) and benefit-cost ratio. Integrated approach was the best approach followed by prophylactic and curative soil disinfestations. Thus, for the present micro...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

...ign: justify;">Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza viruses (AIVs) H5N1 are endemic in Egypt and extensive vaccinations are being applied for chicken flocks, which have maternal derived antibodies (MDA) for these viruses. To understand the interference of maternal derived immunity impact of maternal derived immunity interference in vaccination regimen in poultry, a total of one hundred day old commercial broiler chicks were vaccinated with LaSota....

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...ansmission of lumpy skin disease (LSD), which is an economically important disease of cattle and is caused by the LSD virus (LSDV). LSD is endemic in most countries of Africa and Middle East and can be transmitted either by mechanical as well as intrastadial and transstadial routes. Since capripoxviruses are serologically identical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. In this study...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Sultan Ayaz2, Sajid Umar4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Muhammad Shafee6, Ikramullah Khan7, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Azmat Ullah Khan8Naimat Ullah Malik1 and Abdul Razzaq9
... age groups with highest disease prevalence in children of less than 5 years of age (21.40%) and lowest in children of 11-15 years of age (15.99%). Cryptosporidium was significantly higher (P<0.05) in study subjects having livestock animal contact and persistent diarrhea, highlighting its zoonotic potential from livestock animals to human beings in the study area. This is first study addressing the one of the main cause of neonatal mortality in South...
Viram Kumar1,*, Moolchand Malhi1, Saeed Ahmed Soomro1, Toufique Ahmed Qureshi2, Muhammad Nawaz Sanjrani3 and Khushal Das Malhi1
...o evaluate the health or diseased conditions in the same species.
...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2,*, Tanveer Hussain2, Rashid Saif2, Sadaf Rashid3, Hanan Sarfraz4, Abbas Ali Shah3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...d to detect the possible disease causing effect of genetic variants with OCD. Sequencing of BDNF gene showed one change G>A at position c.196 (rs6265) resulting in a nonsynonymous change from valine to methionine. We found only one homozygous and heterozygous carrier for this polymorphism. Healthy siblings of the carrier individuals and control group were screened and found as negative for this polymorphism. In-silico analysis through mutation taster...
Madiha Hashmi1, Abid Hussain1, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Farida Ahmed2, Shahbaz Aslam3,Nadeem Afzal4 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
...ce of different allergic diseases in Pakistan is about 66.1% and every year, almost 2.4 million people get vaccine for allergy from Allergy Centre, National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad. Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) genes are located on the short arm of the chromosome number 6 and position 21 and the allele frequency is associated with allergy. The study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the aero-allergens and the frequency...
A. Hamid1,*, M. Ilyas2 and S. Kalsoom3
...eading to cardiovascular diseases are very common problem in Pakistan and in most cases it is caused due to insufficient intake of dietary fiber.A study was conducted to evaluate the role of dietary fiber and ß-glucan from major food grains used locally on plasma cholesterol level of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Insoluble dietary fiber (lignin and cellulose) was extracted from wheat and maize, while ß glucan was extracted from barley ...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

... treatment of many viral diseases because of its ability to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against antigens encoded by recombinant DNA. The goal of this study was to construct Egy-H5 plasmid DNA-based vaccine against a currently circulating avian influenza virus H5N1 strain in Egypt targeting the HA gene. The HA gene of AIV Egyptian strain H5N1 was codon optimized for chicken biased codon and sub-cloned into pCAGGS mammalian expression vecto...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...minants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry. Clinical investigation was carried out during the suspected outbreaks of PPR/FMD in sheep and goats in Hail. Saudi Arabia. During the outbreaks 271 (20.6%) died out of 648 (49.3%) of affected animals, the overall morbidity in goats (33.3%) was higher as compared to sheep (12.3%), with a case fatality rate in goats reached 74...
Mehran Kausar1,2, Naveed Ashraf3, Farzana Hayat4, Asraf Hussain Hashmi1, Saima Siddiqi1,* and Mariam Anees2
... k) responsible for this disease. Mutations in CTSK result in impaired bone resorption consequently leading to short stature, increased bone density, recurrent fractures, stubby hands and feet with dystrophic nails, unossified fontanels, and an obtuse mandibular. The present study was conducted to determine the underlying genetic cause of Pycnodysostosis in a family from Azad Kashmir, Pakistan presenting with symptoms of multiple recurrent fractures, sh...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

...ne of the most important diseases of wheat in many parts of the world including Pakistan. Surveillance for yellow rust occurrence, distribution and impact on wheat landscape was carried out along with recent deployment status of cultivars during 2012 in northwest Pakistan located close to the center of diversity of P. striiformis f.sp. tritici. Around 1600 wheat fields were sampled covering a geographical area of little less than 5000 acres in the southern, ce...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...Root rot is very drastic disease prevalent in major cotton producing areas of Pakistan. Complex nature of disease due to root rot fungi and root-knot nematode cause huge losses to cotton. Experiments were conducted to assess the role of fungi and root knot nematodes in root rot disease complex of cotton and to optimize their control. For this purpose fifteen cotton growing areas in Souther...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...ed it to be damaging and disease causing. Screening of case and control group data showed no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with p-value 0.879 and 0.32, respectively. There was no significant difference in age (p-value 0.081), employment status (p-value 0.34) and matrimonial status (p-value 0.28) but there was a significant difference in their education (p-value 0.0002). The prevalence of C allele was 13.5% in

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

... associated with enteric diseases in avian species, causing decreased growth performance and mortality. In this study, 59 pools of intestinal content of layers, broilers, and breeders were investigated from different Brazilian regions for the presence of rotavirus (RVA, RVD, and RVF), avian coronavirus (ACoV), and avian astrovirus (AAstV), using PCR reactions followed by nucleotide sequencing and analysis. Twenty-nine pools (29/59; 49%) appeared positive for A...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...eir impact in health and disease

...

Lucas Pedroso Colvero1, Paulo Eduardo Brandão2*, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales2, Hanny Swam3 and Laura Yaneth Buitrago Villarreal1 

 

...ly used to control viral diseases in poultry, however, the interference of physico-chemical properties of the emulsions are overlooked when compared to antigenic properties. This study was designed to assess the effect of two different commercial inactivated water-in-oil multivalent vaccines; vaccine A contains IBV (Massachusetts M41 and D274 strains), NDV (Clone 30), aMPV (BUT 8544) and IBDV (classic strain) whereas vaccine B contains IBV (Massachusetts M41 a...
Zia-ur-Rehaman1, Naila Chand1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Rifat Ullah Khan2,*
... titer against Newcastle disease (ND) and serum paraoxonase (PON1) were significantly higher (P< 0.05) in TN zone, while serum malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly (P< 0.05) higher in HAT zone. No significant differences were recorded in serum antibody titer against ND, PON1 and MDA among different broiler strains in TN zone, while in HAT zone, Ross and Arber Acer showed significantly (P<0.05) higher serum antibody titer against ND. In HAT zone, si...
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
...economically significant disease in commercial poultry industry. This study aimed to develop and optimized a novel tPCR approach to detect Mycoplasma gallispeticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and nonpathogenic mycoplasmas at the same in a single PCR reaction collected from diseased chicken. Direct PCR from the clinical samples produced false negative results. Both culture and PCR were combined as culture-enhanced PCR ...
Zhenyu Chang1, Hui Zhang1, Khalid Mehmood1,2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman1, Xiaodan Yuan1, Zhaoyang Li1, Fazul Nabi1, Xiaoxing Wu1, Xinxin Tian1, Xueting Liu1, Jingen Xu3 and Donghai Zhou1,*
...tor (TFF3) in intestinal disease was explored. Porcine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant human (rh) TFF3. Cell proliferation and TFF3 mRNA expression were examined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. The results showed that rhTFF3 effectively prevented the cell injury induced by LPS (P<0.05). A low concentratio...
Jing Xin Mao1,2, Guo Wei Wang2, Yuan She Huang3, Rui Wang2, Guo Ze Wang4, Bing Zeng1 and Fu Yuan Zuo1,*
...s a better resistance to disease than Landrace. When Rongchang pig and Landrace were 0 day old, the expression level of BPI of Rongchang pig was higher than Landrace in heart, liver, spleen, kidney, small intestine, lower than Landrace in lung. When Rongchang pig and Landrace were 28 day old, the expression level of BPI of Rongchang pig was higher than Landrace in spleen (p<0.05), kidney (p<0.05), small intestine (p<0.05); lower t...
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
...berry.
...

Imtiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Abbas Khan, Noorullah Khan, Naveed Ahmed, Abdul Waheed, Fazal Yazdan Saleem, Sajjad Khan and Sohail Aslam 

...he study. Data regarding disease occurrence, disease severity, plant height (cm), bulb weight (g), bulb diameter (mm), clove weight (g), number of cloves bulb-1 and yield (t ha-1) was measured. The result of the study reveals that plant spacing had significant impact on the occurrence of rust disease and its severity, yield and yield components. Plants with 10 cm spacing had more
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Muhammad Shahzad2, Xiaokang Wu3, Chaofeng Ma4 and Jiru Xu1,*
...llergic and chronic lung disease that causes inflammation and narrows the air passages. Present study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota of asthma patients and to investigate the alteration in similarity and diversity of gut microbial composition with comparison of healthy controls. Fecal samples from fifteen patients and five healthy individuals were collected. PCR-DGGE, by using universal primers focusing V3 region of 16S rRNA gene, was performed for c...
Muhammad Saqlain1, Humaira Kalsoom1, Muhammad Fiaz1,2, Abid Mahmood1, Rizwan Aziz Qazi4 ,Waseem Safdar5, Pakeeza Arzoo Shaiq1,Bernard M.Y. Cheung3 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1,*
...P2 54Thr allele with disease and provides further evidence for the involvement of intestinal fatty acid binding protein in the pathogenesis of MetS.
...
Rana Hanan1*, Muhammad Waqar Shafi1, Sumair Anwar2 and Numrah Nawaz1
...a multifactorial chronic disease and a silent cause of high causalities around the globe. Both hyper and pre-hypertension affect all ages and professions, and are as common as flu infections by affecting 1 in every 5 persons. In order to determine frequency of hypertension and pre-hypertension among medical students and their association with various variable and fixed risk factors, this study was designed. The cross sectional study of 4 months was carried out...

Warda Fatima1 , Shahida Hasnain1 , Saqib Mahmood2

 

...ed one of the most costlydisease in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Its heritability content is considered to be up to 80% but still it isunknown whether it’s a pure genetic disease. It is considered a polygenic multifactorial condition where both genes and environment have roles in disease development. In the present study we selected a family withmultiple schizophrenic patients a...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
...gious equine respiratory diseases. Due to lack of awareness and interest of all the equine industry stakeholders no vaccination against EI is performed, also the information regarding the epidemiology and occurrence of EI is lacking in Pakistan. We hereby attempted to determine the seroprevalence, investigating the EI outbreak 2015-16, and describing the demographic and management risk factors associated with seroprevalence of EIV. Using ELISA kit and HI as se...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

...t.
...
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 
...ic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Their frequency is directly related to the prognosis of the disease. The objective of this study was to identify the ‘frequent exacerbator’ phenotype and determine the risk factors for increased frequency of acute exacerbations in local chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in a cross sectional analytical study design. Fo...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

...t crops, pests and crops diseases, flowering time of fruits trees, biodiversity and livestock’s. Respondents were selected randomly but priority was given to elders and those possess land and practice agriculture. The study reveals that majority of the respondents are well aware of climate change and its effects on cropping calendar, crop variety, crop yield, crop diseases as well as an earlier blossoming of fruit tree...
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
Muhammad Abubakar,1,2,* Aamer Bin Zahur,1,3 Khalid Naeem1,3, Muhammad Azeem Khan1,3 and Subhan Qureshi
...economically devastating disease of sheep and goats. Present study was designed to have an insight into the epidemiology of PPR under field conditions in the country using molecular tools. A total of eighty-four (n = 84) PPR outbreaks were investigated during the study (2010 to 2013). The highest number of outbreaks was reported from Punjab province (n = 38) followed by Sindh (n = 21) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK, n = 10). In 48 out of 84 outbreaks,

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

...s a globally significant disease of wheat. Stripe rust was primarily considered a disease of cooler climate (2°C - 15°C), upper altitudes and northern latitudes, but current epidemics of the disease have confronted this supposition because fresh strains have greater adaptation to higher temperatures and countries closer to the equator. Crop damages can reach 50 - 100%, due to infec...

Aneeza Jamshed1* and Syed Amir Gillani2 

...61% thought that it is a disease of adults. Only 21.1% students thought it can be cured. In post awareness assessment after 3 sessions of interactive learning, 92% students understood the prevention of hepatitis C disease, its transmission (syringes 88.7%, blood transfusion 91%), signs (effects on liver 92.9%), symptoms (88%), prevention in high prevalent areas (sterilized syringes and screened blood transfusion 86.5%) and m...

Muhammad Yahya Noori1*, Saharish Rizwan2, Zaheer Ali3 and Shaheen Sharafat4 

...who are unaware of their disease

...
Muhammad Naeem1, Bushra Sadia1,2,*, Faisal Saeed Awan1and Muhammad Anjum Zia3
... in treatment of various diseases like ischemia, Budd-Chiari syndrome, myocardial infarction, brain stroke and myocardial infarction. Strain improvement is an important approach for its hyper production. In this connection, wild bacterial strain Streptococcus equisimilis was mutagenized using ethidium bromide and UV radiation. The colonies (15 each) showing > 1% survival rate at 150 min of UV exposure and 12 % survival at 0.5 mg/ml of ethidium bromid...

Sadaf Ghulam Rasul1*, Uzma Yaqub2, Maida Manzoor1 and Hafsa Mubasshar

...is an estrogen-regulated disease, and is signified by the existence of a particular endometrial tissue exterior to the uterus. It is a principal cause of long lasting morbidity, mostly from serious pelvic pain(1). Endometriotic tissue has the potential for aromatase gene expression that leads to aromatase and estrogen production. Danazol is a synthetic androgen whereas Letrozole is aromatase inhibitor. This study was conducted to compare the mean decrease in v...

 Mohammad Siddique Munawar, Shazia Raja, Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure* and Muhammad Barkat**

...llus larvae is a serious disease of honey bees worldwide that inflicts considerable economic losses to beekeepers. All work was undertaken in a commercial apiary that showed visual signs of AFB infection. Twenty four hives positive for AFB were identified from the apiary (4 colonies in each replicate). Half of the colonies were treated with shook swarm method while other half were left without any treatment. The treated colonies showed significant difference f...

Muhammad Athar Khan1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Syed Amir Gilani3 and Ifrah Bukhari4 

...obal zoonotic infectious disease having alarming public health concerns. Generally this is an occupation related disease and the victims belong to animal slaughtering, owners of pet shops, farm workers, handlers of meat, sewerage and agriculture workers. Leptospirosis affect multiple organs in human body and may lead to myocarditis, renal failure, respiratory distress and hypotension. This disease

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

...tes to better assess the disease transmission dynamics and future control strategies. 

...

Imtiaz Hussain*, Hassnain Shah, M. Azeem Khan, Waqar Akhtar**, Abdul Majid*** and M. Yaqub Mujahid*

Corresponding author:izhussain@yahoo.com

PRODUCTIVITY IN RICE-WHEAT CROP ROTATION OF PUNJAB: AN APPLICATION OF TYPICAL FARM METHODOLOGY
...eased weed problem, more disease and insect invasion leading to yield losses. Berseem is the only crop that breaks this rotation. Farmers are aware of the beneficial effects of this crop rotation and believed that this riceberseem rotation control weeds in the next wheat crop along with yield -1 -1 improvement of both rice (upto 5.4 md acre ) and wheat (4.4 md acre ). However there is need to assess the economic impact and evaluation of berseem in rice-wheat c...

 A. N. Naqvi and K. Fatima*

INCIDENCE OF LIVESTOCK DISEASES IN NOMAL AND NALTAR VALLEYS GILGIT, PAKISTAN
...e incidence of livestock diseases in Nomal and Naltar valleys, Gilgit. The data on cattle, goat, sheep and donkey were collected from the Animal Husbandry Department from 2003 to 2007. In total 19259 animals were found affected with various diseases. The disorders reported in the area were digestive diseases, infections, mastitis, reproductive diseases, ...

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi*, Abdul Jabbar** and Sajida Taj*** 

FINANCIAL PROFITABILITY OF WHITE SUGAR PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
... measures are needed for disease control and optimal pesticide use. Adequate supply of water, optimal use of fertilizer and judicious use of pesticides can improve yield and hence higher financial profitability.

...

 Maqsood Qamar*, S. Dilanawaz Ahmad Gardazi**, Riaz-ud-Din*, Muhammad Sohail* and Syed Haider Abbas*

PARTIAL RESISTANCE TO STRIPE RUST AND ITS EFFECT ON SUSTAINABILITY OF WHEAT YIELD
... is prone to stripe rust disease. It can cause 10-17% yield losses if susceptible cultivars are planted under favorable conditions. Level of partial plant resistance in bread wheat and its impact on sustainable wheat production was studied at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad under natural conditions in the field. Eleven Pakistani commercial wheat cultivars/advance lines including check (Inqalab 91) were assessed for the level of partial res...

 Frasat Saeed*, Jehanzeb Farooq*, Abid Mahmood**, Tassawar Hussain***, Muhammad Riaz* and Saghir Ahmad****

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN UPLAND COTTON FOR COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE, EARLINESS AND FIBER QUALITY
...s cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD). For estimation of genetic diversity regarding CLCuD tolerance, fiber quality and some yield contributing traits, 101 cotton genotypes imported from USA were evaluated. Different statistical procedures like cluster, principle components (PC) and correlation analysis were employed to identify the suitable genotypes that can be further exploited in breeding programme. Significant associations were found between yield cont...

 Mazher Abbas*, Irfan Mehmood*, Arshed Bashir*, Muhammad Ather Mehmood* and Sonila Hassan* 

WOMEN COTTON PICKERS PERCEPTIONS ABOUT HEALTH HAZARDS DUE TO PESTICIDE USE IN IRRIGATED PUNJAB
... importance (in terms of disease treatment and long-run health costs) of using safety measures during and after cotton picking.

...

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool*, Abuzar Muhammad Afzal*, Abu Baker Siddique*, Waseem Akram**, Muhammad Saqalein*, Madiha Basit* and Muhammad Farooq Tahir***

ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF VIRO CARE GZ-08 AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN POULTRY AND ITS IN-VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY
...y.

...

 Muhammad Mohsin Raza*, Muhammad Aslam Khan*, Irfan Ahmad**, Ali Ahsan Bajwa***, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam*, Badar Ahsan Ullah****, and Kashif Riaz*

FOREST PATHOGENS AND DISEASES UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE -A REVIEW
...s and severity of forest diseases caused by diverse pests, resultantly altering the forest ecosystems. The present review covers the relationship between climate and diverse cases of forest diseases and potential shocks of climate change on pathogens and diseases. Biotic diseases, cankers, decays, declines, foliar disease<...

 S. Talat Gilani*, Shahid Hameed* and Hussain Shah* 

OCCURANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POTY VIRUSES INFECTING GARLIC IN PAKISTAN
...the poty viruses causing diseases in garlic (Allium sativum) from major garlic growing areas of Pakistan. The yellow stripes, mosaic and chlorotic spot symptoms of the disease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. Altogether 690 samples were collected from 29 locations of Punjab and 40 locations of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa to determine the prevalence of Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV) and Leek Yellow ...

Basharat Hussain Shah*, F. S. Hamid*, Shams ul Islam*, Fayaz Ahmad*, Sohail Aslam*, and Noorullah Khan*

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR YIELD AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES AT SHINKIARI, MANSEHRA
...susceptible against this disease followed by 'Sarsabz 9800-1' as moderately susceptible and 9375 as resistant. The other varieties/lines Pea-09, Climax, Local and PF-400 were found tolerant against this disease. Green pod yield per hectare data revealed that pea variety 'Climax' produced the highest yield (11.6 t ha-1) followed by advance lines PF-400 (11.5 t ha-1) and 9375 (9.9 t ha-1), respectively. The lowest yield (2.1 t...

 Ummad-ud-Din Umar*, Muhammad Aslam Khan**, *Ateeq-urRehman*, Abdul Hannan***, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi*, Azhar Ali Khan****, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar****

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF POTATO LEAF ROLL VIRUS DISEASE PREDICTION MODEL BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS FOR FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN
...align: justify;"> A disease predictive model for Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) was developed based on a ten year dataset of disease incidence and environmental variables and validated by two years data collected in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Maximum and minimum air temperatures, relative humidity and rainfall were employed as independent variables while PLRV disease incidence served as the...

 Arshia Naeem*, Maria Anjum*, Mariam Rehman*, Zahid Mahmood** and Muhammad Asif Kamran**

AN INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM TO FACILITATE FARMERS IN WHEAT, SUGARCANE AND OTHER CROP DISEASES IDENTIFICATION
...entists to identify crop diseases. A case study was developed from Faisalabad region where information about crops, their soil conditions and associated diseases were provided on a web application. An online registration facility was provided along with interface to send image of crop related diseases. The desktop application consisted of an image analyzer that received images from web app...

 Ghazala Nawaz*, Muhammad Nawaz Malik**, Muhammad Hassan
Mushtaq***, Fraz Munir Ahmad****, Ali Abdullah Shah*****, Farooq
Iqbal******, Shinawar Waseem Ali*******, Zahida Fatima******** and
Amjad Khan*********

SURVEILLANCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN LIVESTOCK IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...done in Pakistan. Active disease surveillance at door steps was conducted to collect blood samples from small and large ruminants of subtropical rural communities in the province of Punjab during January-March, 2015. Total 59665 sera samples from apparently healthy animals were collected and screened by Rose Bengal Plate test and confirmed by Complement fixation test, respectively. After adjustment for test sensitivities and specificities accordingly, and chi ...
Waqar Islam*
... threat by various plant diseases worldwide. A sudden epidemic breakout of any plant disease can cause huge economic losses leading towards the famine. To cope with this situation, understanding plant disease triangle and disease epidemic forecasting is very important. So here we have briefly introduced plant disease e...
Wazha Mugabe1,3,Gaolebale Segolame Mpapho1, John Kamau1, Wameotsile Mahabile2, Shalaulani James Nsoso1, Kealeboga Dipheko1 and Assar Ali Shah3,*
... farmers informed on the diseases only, 76% were able to diagnose the disease. Most diagnosis was based on clinical observations (68) with the low utility of California Mastitis Test (CMT) (3%). Milk production was at subsistence scale and a secondary product from meat type breeds. With a commercial mindset, improved goat management and cooperative pooling and marketing of milk the current farming setup of using meat breed f...

Anza Zahid*, Muhammad Ali Ayub, Mujtaba Saeed, Nasir Pasha, Abdul Jabbar Dar, Huzaifa Javed, Aimen Shakeel, Amna Nasir, Ana Akbar, Zainab Tarrar and Ayesha Humayun 

...;">Diabetes is a chronic disease and non-compliance attitude of patients poses a great challenge to the success of therapy. Multiple factors influence compliance among diabetics and other chronic diseases and non-compliance results in avoidable consequences and complications. In order to determine the magnitude and factors of non-compliance to physicians’ advice in diabetics attending outpatients, a cross-sectional ana...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Muhammad Kashif Prince1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*, Mian Saeed Sarwar2, Hazrat Ali2, Tahir Usman2, Asadullah Khan2, Siffat Ullah Khan3 and Shahid Zaman5
...tors associated with the disease (month, age, sex and season). Results showed highest prevalence (P < 0.05) of the Cryptosporidium in Kohat (33.33%) followed by Lakki Marwat (25%), while the lowest percent prevalence was recorded in Bannu (23.33%). Highest month-wise prevalence was recorded in the month of August (46.6%), followed by July (40%), and the lowest during February and December (16.66%). Results showed highest prevalence in summer season (...
Aitezaz Ahsan1*, Muhammad Usman1, Ihsan Ullah2, Aamer Bin Zahur3 and Adnan Rasheed Malik4
...R) is as a transboundary disease whose occurrence hampers the trade and consequently causes an enormous economic losses. It is a disease of sheep and goat, particularly in the regions of Africa, Middle East and Asia. Besides clinical signs and symptoms of PPR various diagnostic assays, both serological and molecular, have been developed and are applied for estimating the current status of the disease...
Abdul Nabi Jatt1,*, Sarfraz Ali Tunio1, Shaista Bano Memon1, Abdul Sattar Qureshi2 and Muhammad Aqeel Bhutto
...rulence factors to cause diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate enzymatic activities of the bacterial strain Shigella dysenteriae IM using API-ZYM test system. Out of nineteen different enzymes, S. dysenteriae IM strain was capable to poroduce nine enzymes, i.e., alkaline-phosphatase, acidic-phosphatase, lipase, valine arylamidase, cystine arylamidase, napthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, β-galactosidase, leucine arylamidas...
Aqsa Gulzar1, Tariq Mahmud1,*, Rubina Munir2 and Asma Anjum3
... on HeLa cells (cervical disease) and Luminol-improved chemiluminescence assay, respectively. The novel Schiff bases 4a and 4b have been synthesized by the reaction of 2-[(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)sulfanyl]-N-[4-(hydrazinecarbonyl)phenyl]acetamide with 3-nitro and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Characterization of the synthesized compounds was done by using various spectroscopic techniques namely FTIR, proton and carbon-13 NMR, Mass spectrometry and elemental analys...
Nasir Abbas1, Muhammad Suleman1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2,*, Ijaz Ali3, Mubashir Rauf1,5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman4,*
...s of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in poultry and pheasantry birds of Northern Pakistan is underreported. In this study we report on the seroprevalence and isolation of MG from a total of 2341 poultry and 24 pheasantry birds. Overall, seropositivity of 46.56% (1090/2341) and 27.2% (6/24) against MG was observed among poultry- and pheasantry- birds, respectively. Broiler breeder and broiler showed 58.93% (264/448) and 37.23% (542/1456) seropositivity, respe...
Ahmad Farooq1, Usman Waheed2,3, Hasan Abbas Zaheer2,3, Abdul Rauf4, Abida Arshad5, and Muhammad Arshad1,*
...them to many blood borne diseases, most commonly hepatitis B and C. The aim of current study was to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among thalassaemia major patients. The study was conducted from June – December 2016, at the Thalassaemia Centre, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad and the Pakistan Thalassaemia Centre, Pakistan Baitul Mal, Islamabad, Pakistan. Data were obtained by clinical testing of 1,440 ß...
Naimat Ullah1,3,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Avais1, Nisar Ahmad2, Sana Ullah3, Muhammad Shuaib Khan3, Khalid Mehmood5, Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Ikramul Haq1
...a common blood protozoan disease of sheep in tropical and subtropical areas. The current study was designed to inspect the prevalence and its correlation with various risk factors and host biomarkers concerned with the occurrence of theileriosis in sheep. Total 600 blood samples were taken each 200 from districts Bannu, Tank and Dera Ismail Khan of southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan and screened through blood microscopy. The current study revealed an overall...
Syeda Madiha, Zehra Batool, Saiqa Tabassum, Laraib Liaquat, Sadia Sadir, Tahira Perveen and Saida Haider*

 

...ferent neurodegenerative diseases.
...
Abdul Majid Ujjal2, Sharmin Akter1* and Suman Paul1 
...al prevalence of buffalo diseases and to determine the temporal distribution of important infectious diseases of buffalo like as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) at Upazila veterinary hospitals of Jaintapur, Gowainghat and Kanaighat upazilas of Sylhet district. From October, 2015 to September, 2017 a total of 1057 cases of buffalo dise...
Lotta Wahldén1, 3, Ulf Emanuelson1, Torsten Møller2 and Jonas Johansson Wensman1*
... fear of vaccine-induced disease. Kolmården Wildlife Park in Sweden has used a live attenuated vaccine without any apparent cases of vaccine-induced disease, but no studies to evaluate immune response after vaccination have been performed. The objective of this study was to gain more knowledge about immune response following vaccination of the African wild dog, in order to improve husbandry in zoos and help wildli...
Muzafar Shah1,*, Mazhar Ali2, Sardar Azhar Mehmood2, Shabir Ahmad2, Khushi Muhammad3, Israr Alam1, Kausar Saeed1
...or incidence of malarial disease. For this purpose a total of 997 individuals were screened for malarial test in the study area and divided into four category of age i.e. (1-15), (16-30), (31-45), (46-onward), gender wise, union council (Kota, Barikot, Shamozo and Ghalegi) and month wise. It was concluded that out of 997 samples, 204 (20.46%) were found positive, in which mostly under positive, under 15 year of age (23.36%), whereas less cases were reco...
Jehangir Khan1,*, Rasheedullah1, Bakht Tarin Khan2, Ayaz Ahmad3, Muhammad Salman4 and Khalid Khan5
...d with hepatitis and the disease is constantly increasing. Every 10th Pakistani is believed to be suffering from viral hepatitis. It is the first study documenting the epidemiology of HCV in District Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). Blood samples from 900 individuals of various age groups were collected (August to November 2013) from patients at clinics, houses and pharmacies belonging to three Tehsils (Puran, Alpuri and Besham) of district Shangl...

Urooba Pervaiz1, Abdus Salam1, Dawood Jan2, Ayesha Khan1 and Mahmood Iqbal

...ical knowledge, pest and diseases incidence, improper marketing of produce in the study area.  

...
Jiji Li*, Tianyang Zu, Xiangli Dong, Xiao Yang, Wei Liu and Changwen Wu
...lp to develop methods of disease resistance in the aquaculture industry.
...
Ayesha Munir, Hafiz Muhammad Umer, Anjum Nasim Sabri and Imran Sajid*
...a significant infectious disease of human being caused by multispecies of bacteria. Among the causative agents of dental caries, notable one is Streptococcus mutans, which is an obligate parasite. In this study eleven S. mutans strains were isolated from carious lesions on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar along with twenty potentially active Streptomyces strains were isolated from the soil of agriculture farmlands. The biochemical and phys...
Niamatullah Kakar, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad Shafee and Tauseef Asmat*
...) is airborne infectious disease and poses a great threat to public health. Precisely and timely detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is prerequisite for the successful treatment of TB. Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of tuberculosis along with associated risk factors in Quetta Jail, Pakistan. In this cross-sectional study, 186 sputum samples were collected randomly from jail inmates. Sputum was processed for smear microscopy ...
Abdul Samad1, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Olena Pokryrshko2 and Tauseef M Asmat1,*
... incidence of food-borne diseases. 

...
Jun Chen1, Shuai Shang2, Xiaoyang Wu1, Jiakuo Yan1, Huaming Zhong1, Huanxin Zhang2, Weilai Sha1, Wanchao Zhu1 and Honghai Zhang1,*
...f great significance for disease monitoring and protection of these animals.
...
Hazrat Nabi1, Irshad Hussain2, Muhammad Adil3, Amar Nasir3,*, Arbab Sikandar3, Saeed Khan1 and Nasrullah Khan3

 

...titer against New Castle disease virus, feed consumption, weight gain, relative weights of lymphoid organs and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broilers were investigated. Chicks fed aflatoxins (group B) alone manifested significantly reduced feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. However, no variation in weight gain and FCR was found between the controls (A, B and C) and mycotoxin binders fed groups (experimental group E and F). Significa...

Fatma Abdallah1*, Ola Hassnain2, Elsayed Attar3, Haytham Ali3,5, Mohamed Megahed1 and Venugopal Nair

Guifen Liu1,2, Xiaomu Liu1,2, Khuram Shahzad3, Wei You1,2, Juan J. Loor3,* and Fachun Wan1,2,4,*
...on regulators related to disease, cell growth, proliferation and lipid metabolism, including PPAR, are important during development of the adipose tissue. These data indicate that future research should emphasize the study of key genes related to synthesis, metabolism, and growth of adipose tissue during development. This will allow to determine the functional relevance of the genes and pathways uncovered.
...
Kaleem Ullah1, Zafar Niaz2, Sami Ullah Mumtaz3, Sajid Abaidullah4*
...ic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases strongly exists as diastolic dysfunction is commonly reported in COPD patients.
Objective: This study was conducted to determine the presence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients of COPD.
Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Mayo Hospital Lahore for one year. A total of 50 confi...
Riffat Mehboob1*, Shahida Perveen2, Naseer Ahmed3
...Women with benign breast diseases (BBD) are at a high risk of developing breast cancer. 
Objective: Purpose of the study was to analyze the spectrum of BBD in a tertiary care hospital of Lahore to understand the prevalence of inflammatory lesions, benign neoplasms and their age-wise comparison.
Methodology: The study was carried out at Pathology Department, King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Data of 368 cases of ...
Abdul Wajid1,*, Asma Basharat2, Muhammad Akbar Shahid3, Sidra Tul Muntaha1, Abdul Basit4, Tanveer Hussain5, Muhammad Farooq Tahir6, Muhammad Azhar7, Masroor Ellahi Babar1 and Shafqat Fatima Rehmani2
...idemiological studies of disease outbreak and the adaptation of vaccine strategies. In spite of appropriate administration of vaccination, FAdV outbreaks have been reported and caused significant losses in poultry flocks throughout Pakistan in recent years. To identify the serotype and gain a better understanding of the genetic properties of the FAdV strains responsible for recent outbreaks, the sequence analysis of hexon gene of 10 isolates associated with IB...
Masood Nizam Tabassum1*, Muhammad Ather Khan2, Saira Afzal3, Amir Gilani4, Abdul Wahab Gureja5, ShafaqTabassum6
...ctious chronic bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). More than 95% of cases and deaths are reported in developing countries. Tuberculosis affects all age groups but adults are mostly affected in their most productive age. However, all age groups are at risks. In the world, TB is one of the major killer infectious diseases, which place it in one of the top 5 causes of death for females aged 15 t...
Naveed Akhtar1, Humaira Zareen2* and Rubina Sarmad3
...of many non-communicable diseases. Additionally, with best eating habits female doctors can be a role model for their patients.
Objectives: This study was designed to access the dietary habits, nutritional status and their association in young adolescent female medical students.
Methodology: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out in Medical College of Lahore. A total of 114 female students from 1st...
Taimoor Akram Khan1*, Anam Farooq2, Amna Farooq3, Muhammad Nasir1, Gohar Khan4 and Ali Akram Khan1
... | The assessment of disease pattern and burden in a defined population based on the symptomatology as well as the organic presentation is quite fruitful. 
Objectives:This study was designed to determine demographic characteristics and disease patterns related to different organ systems presenting at first tier of primary healthcare system. 
Methods: A cross-sectional study...
Muhammad Kashif Munir1*, Sana Rehman1, Rizwan Iqbal1, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Muhammad Aasim1
...sis (TB) is a contagious disease and multidrug resistant tuberculosis is an emerging global issue. Rapid detection of such type of tuberculosis is necessary for timely control of the disease. GeneXpert test has already been implemented by World Health Organization to diagnose the infection on urgent basis.
Objectives: This study was designed to apply GeneXpert MTB/RIF assays for the detection of rifampicin...
Quratul Ain Tahira1*, Sidrah Lodhi1 and Sajid Abaidullah2
...quo;health promotion and disease prevention”. All RDs undertook individual readiness assurance test (IRAT) and final (FT) tests where FT pertained to six cognitive domains. Statistical testing for IRAT and FT scores and performance in early and advanced domains were performed taking p-value < 0.05 as significant.
Results: A total of 53 RDs including 58.49% HOs and 41.51% PGRs participated in the study with similar distribution among...
Muhammad Nusrullah*1, Muhammad Younus2 and Yasir Nasir3
...ic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by chronic airflow limitation which is not fully reversible and it can lead to respiratory failure.
Objective: To determine the correlation between arterial and venous blood gases in patients presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Department of Chest Medicin...
Naveed Rashid*1, Muhammad Aamer2, Uzma Malik3, Nimra Arif4, Muhammad Waqar Akram5 and Ayesha Irshad6
... amongst end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who are on maintenance hemodialysis. 
Methods: This comparative cross sectional study with quantitative approach was carried out in hemodialysis unit of Shalamar Institute of Health Sciences, Lahore for the month of July, 2017. All patients with ESRD, on maintenance hemodialysis through an AVF access for at least last 30 days, were included in the study. Each patient was given a questionn...
Bo Wu1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,7, Yan Zhao1, Bin Jiang1, Chengjun Xue3, Muhammad Tariq Javed6, Fazul Nabi2, Zhaoqing Han5,* and Houqiang Luo4,*
...ge.

...
Ansar Ahmed Abbasi1,*, Kathrin Blasius2-4, Imtiaz Ahmed6, Hao Hu7, Sylvie Picker-Minh2-4,8, Muhammad Nasim Khan5, Khalid Hameed1, Aneela Gulnaz1, Zahid Latif5, Abdul Rauf5 and Angela M. Kaindl2-4,8
...ve been linked with this disease. Biallelic mutations in the abnormal spindle-like, microcephaly associated gene ASPM causes MCPH type 5, the most common MCPH subtype. In the current study we recruited two families from Sialkot region of Pakistan which were assessed by whole exome sequencing and cosegregation analysis. We identified a previously described mutation c.4802C>G (p.S1601*) in the ASPM gene in both families. This study further under...
Hanif Ur Rahman1, Umer Saddique1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Kamal Shah1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Farhan Anwar Khan1Fazli Rabbani2, Muhammad Asif Hussain2, Attaur-Rahman2, Irshad Ahmad3,4 and Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*
...economically devastating disease, is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides (MM) - a cluster of six member species. However, literature is not available regarding the causative agents of CCPP in sheep and goats in Northern Pakistan. The current study was thus aimed to identify relative abundance of members of MM in small ruminants suspected of CCPP in Northern region of Pakistan. A total of 300 samples, (150 sheep and 150 goats) were randomly collected from nasa...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla

...ants (PPR) is an endemic disease in Hail, Saudi Arabia where outbreaks are regularly reported. This study was carried out to analyze nucleoprotein (N) gene of PPRV from fatal infections in small ruminants. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from suspected animal samples (n=18) and were screened by real time-PCR. Additionally, to assess the phylogenomics, the N gene was amplified and sequenced from sheep and goats (n=12). Nucleotide identity among Hail strains...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...auses contagious form of disease, mainly but not limited to sheep and goats, which lead to high economic impact in developing countries including India. The causative agent, Orf virus (ORFV) belong to the genus Parapoxvirus (PPV) of the family poxviridae produces a typical papillomatous, cauliflower like external growth around mouth regions and rarely the lesions are found in other parts of the body and internal organs. Another characteristic feature of ORFV i...
Jingen Xu1, Yang Liu2, Erhui Jin1, Youfang Gu1, Qin Zhang3 and Shenghe Li1,*
...y be candidate genes for disease resistance breeding in pigs.
...
Md. Abu Affan1,*, Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani1, Adnan Jaman Turki2 and Mohammed S.B. Hariri3
... pesticides, toxins, and diseases. The study was carried out to find out the reasons of sudden fish killing. Therefore, physico-chemical and biological parameters, and postmortem, especially the gills and gut content of dead fishes were studied. The dead Tilapia tilapia (Tilapia), Chanos chano (Milkfish) and Parapriacanthus ransonneti (Glassfish) were found with wide mouth opened, skin with huge mucous and a bent back head, flared gills le...

 

Syed Aun Muhammad1, Muhammad Soaib Said2, Shams Ur Rehman2, Muhammad Dawood2, Muneer Ahmed Qazi3 and Nighat Fatima2,*
...rugs to treat infectious diseases.
...
Kiran Aqil1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan2, Asim Aslam2, Aqeel Javeed5, Rizwan Qayyum1, Farooq Yousaf,1 Farkhanda Yasmeen1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail3 and Sajid Umar4,*
...R) is an important viral disease of sheep, goat and other small ruminants, imparting substantial economic losses. In current study, antiviral activity of six dilutions of Nigella sativa (N. sativa)alcoholic extracts against the PPRV was investigated in vitro. Vero cell lines infected with PPRV were treated with six dilutions alcoholic extracts of N. sativa (200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 µg/mL). The antiviral effects were judged by ...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2, Sumaira Maqsood3, Ishita Ahuja4 and Atle M. Bones4
...NPV gene from native NPV diseased insect. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis were performed to compare SlNPV- FSD15 based on Lef-8 with other Lef-8genes sequences clearly showed that our SlNPV-FSD15 isolate belongs to Spodoptera litura associated NPVs. The biological activities of this NPV isolates were investigated under laboratory condition. The highest mortality of S. litura was observed at early instars...
Xiaqing Chen, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...lberry fruits and causes disease named as “popcorn disease”. Many Trichoderma spp. produce a series of antibiotic metabolites that can inhibit plant pathogens. Trichoderma hamatum isolated from infected mulberry fruits was evaluated for its efficiency to suppress plant pathogen S. shiraiana alone or in combination with fungicide carbendazim under laboratory conditions. The results...

Ghulam Abbas1, Khalid Pervez Akhtar1, Muhammad Ahsan2, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Fiaz Ahmad1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

... justify;">Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) caused by mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is an important constraint of mungbean during the summer season in Pakistan. The use of resistant varieties is the only way to reduce the losses caused by YMD. Resistant sources had already been reported in mungbean, but no such information seems to be available for mung × mash interspecific recombinants. In this study, 72 mung × mash interspecific recombina...
Dan Yü, Chuchu Li, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...s in controlling popcorn disease of mulberry.
...

Anish Shrestha* and Samata Baral 

...te change were increased disease pest infestation, loss of appetite and decreased milk production. Vulnerability index of the area found to be 4.29, indicating higher vulnerability of the research area to climate change. Study concluded that impact of climate change in livestock sector is significant and means of dealing with climate change must be identified soon for the betterment of farmers’ economy and insuring food security.

...

Safina Naz1, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi2*, Bushra Siddique3 and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar4

... the deterrence of human diseases and improvement of health. People usually used to eat vegetable for developing taste without observing their nutritive significance. The present study was therefore, planned to assess the essential proximate nutritional and mineral contents in edible parts of some vegetables. All the analyses were carried out by following the standard analytical procedures during 2014. The highest values for ash contents were detected in Abelm...

Yasir Ali1*, Muhammad Aslam Khan1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Muhammad Hussain2

...r controlling three rust diseases caused by P. recondita Rob. exdesm f. sp. tritici , P. striiformis West. f. sp. tritici, P. graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici and the importance of race specific and non-specific rust resistance genes in in global wheat varieties. This knowledge will help as basis for plant pathologist, plant breeders and genetics to develop non-specific rust resistant wheat varieties through gene pyramiding or marker assisted breeding 

...
Qiang Li1,2, Guo Qiao2, Li Wang1, Jipeng Zhang1, Ruijun Li1, Ping Ni1, Yi Guo1 and Shigen Ye1,*
...ribution associated with diseased fugu (Takifugu rubripes) in northeastern China from January to December in 2014. The main clinical signs included fin ulceration, skin darkness, hepatohemia and intestinal hydrops. Totally, 104 diseased live fish were collected and 70 strains isolated from naturally diseased T. rubripes. Most isolates were obtained in May, September and Decem...
Asad Ullah1, Umar Sadique Khattak2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Imad Khan1, Ibad Ullah Jan2, Irfan Khattak1, Raheela Taj3, Sahar Nigar4,    Naimat Ullah Khan1,Mumtaz Ali Khan5 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail6,*
...for instant measures for disease control among the animals and humans of the study area, and highlight the need for farmer education regarding bovine tuberculosis.
...
Qudrat Ullah1,*, Huma Jamil1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Muhammad Saqib2 and Heinrich Neubauer3
...>Coxiellosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, acts as a major trade barricade and adversely affects the productive and reproductive capabilities of animals. This study was planned to investigate the sero-prevalence of Coxiellosis and its relationship with some important risk factors in small ruminants kept at nine government livestock farms of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 1000 blood samples (500 each from goats and sheep) were collected ...

Zulqarnain and Zafar Iqbal* 

... is a devastating fungal disease with several infectious strategies leading to the complete death of plant. None of the strategies in controlling the wilt have shown fruitful results. Dual culture assay was employed is this study to identify the fungal species with their potent antifungal activity against the Fusarium wilt of tomato. Six distinct fungal species including Penicillium sp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma harzianum, Alternaria ...

Saeed Ahmad Shah Chishti1, Mudassar Iqbal1*, Nusrat Parveen1, Kashif Nadeem1, Muhammad Iqbal1, Umbreen Shahzad2, Rana Husnain Shabbir1 and Muhammad Najeebullah1 

...t rot and powdery mildew diseases of pea crop. The newly approved variety has potential to moderately resist to collar rot disease as compared with all other existing varieties. Studies on organoleptic characteristics showed that Sarsabz is less sweet in taste than Pea-2009, suitable for all types of dishes. This variety was approved by Punjab Seed Council and its seed is available for dissemination. 

...

Waqas Ali* and Mudasser Habib 

...justify;">Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. In Pakistan, this disease causes huge losses to economy. However, the reports on its selection and evolutionary pathways are rare. In present study, 336 strains of serotype O (n = 178), A (n = 82) and Asia 1 (n = 76) were downloaded from NCBI database that mainly belonging to Pakistan,...
Shagufta Naz*, Saima Sharif, Hafsa Badar, Syeda Fareeha Tauheed
...mal recessive hereditary disease, slowly progresses punctate opacities in the cornea which result in bilateral loss of vision and leads to corneal transplantation. A cross-sectional, analytical study was carried out from August, 2015 to May, 2016 on and MCD patients were diagnosed by visiting different hospitals like, General Hospital, Al-Ehsan welfare Hospital, Mughal eye and Mayo Hospital with the help of ophthalmologist. The main purpose of such type of res...
Tahira Jamil*1, Mohammad Asghar1, Fatma Husain1, Haq Nawaz Bhatti2
...pment of cardio vascular diseases. Lovastatin is formed as secondary metabolic intermediate initiated by anion moiety (acetate) through polyketide chain reactions. The current work was put away to investigate the potency of Pleurotus strains for statin formation by cultivating them on lignocellulosic substrates (wheat straw, rice straw, banana stalk) in SSF for 8 days. Among Pleurotus species (P. nebrodensis, P. sepidus, P. spodo...
Muhammad Zahid1, Aneela ZameerDurrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1, KhushiMuhammad1,Muhammad Usman1,*, Muhammad Husnain1 and Nadeem Kamal2

 

...ound to be more prone to disease. In the case of buffalo breeds, prevalence was more in Nili Ravi buffalo, i.e. 36.6% than Kundi breed, i.e. 33.3%. Prevalence of disease was found maximum in humid and plain area of Lahore, i.e. 56%. In dry, dusty and hot weather of Multan overall the prevalence of disease was 55.5%, while in Rajanpur topography of the land is mixed com...
Ejaz Mahmood Ahmad Qureshi1,*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Seemal Vehra3 and Atif Yaqub4
...idemic period (s) of the disease. In the present study, distribution and seasonality of horizontally transmitted dengue viruses in Aedes mosquitoes was investigated in the metropolitan city Lahore, Pakistan during 2011, 2012 and 2013. Adult Aedes aegypti, were captured from nine towns and one Cantonment Board of the city using back-pack mechanical aspirator. Female mosquitoes were segregated and were pooled (7-9 individuals/pool) and subjected to...
Saba Irshad*, Aruba Muhammad, Ammara Muazzam, Farah Sarfraz Anmol and Rehman Shahzad
...ing factor in minimizing disease severity. PCR-RFLP was employed for securitizing Xmn1 polymorphism among thalassemia (Major) patients. Out of total 206 screened patients, sole Xmn1 homozygous (+/+) and heterozygous (-/+) case was reported with a band size of 418 bp, 230 bp and 641 bp, 418 bp, 230 bp respectively. Xmn1 restriction site was present at 158 bp upstream of the Gamma globin gene on chromosome 11 of positive patients (GenBank KY927385). Fetal hemogl...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ammarah Hasnain2, Ateeq ur Rehman1 and Rashida Perveen1 

... blight is a devastating disease of paddy rice crop throughout the rice growing countries. Several commonly available plant decoctions were investigated as the bioactive eco-friendly compounds, and as the possible alternatives to hazardous chemicals for the control of BLB of rice. Aqueous extracts of fifteen different plant parts either individually or in combination were tested at various concentrations under in vitro conditions by poison food and disk diffus...

 Mian Azhar Ahmad1†*, Nawab Mohammad Khan2, Asmatullah3

Anatomical variations of hepatobiliary triangle in patients operated laparoscopically for gallbladder diseases from Lahore and Sahiwal
...or different gallbladder diseases was performed. Total of 63.6% of patients expressed cystic duct, cystic lymph nodes and cystic artery variations. Among them 12% depicted cystic duct variations, 32.2% of patients demonstrated cystic lymph nodes variations and 19.4% of the patients showed cystic artery variations. In addition to variations mentioned above, fat deposition, fibrosis and adhesions were more prevalent in hepatobiliary areas of female patients. Ga...

 Saiqa Andleeb* , Shaukat Ali

RNA interference; A tool for treatment of human diseases
...tious and non-infectious diseases. Variety of human diseases like cancer, viral and neuromuscular has been controlled through RNAi. Some vectors and inducible systems are available now to treat numerous disorders. This review paper provides the basis for further development of RNAi technology as a drug therapy against various human disorders.

...

Durr-e- Samin Tahir*, Waqar Nasir, Sarah Bushra, Fatima Batool

Height trends in the population of Rabwah, district Chiniot, Pakistan and comparison with WHO standards
...ctors such as nutrition, disease and lifestyle. A study was carried out to compare the height trends of
the local population of Rabwah with WHO standards. A total of 4293 accurate observations (male=2084 female =2209) were recorded. The age group chosen for present study is 5-19 years which is the phase of growth and height
increase. Heights of the parents and siblings up to 25 are also recorded for further analysis. The R- Programming and
...

Nasir Raza Zaidi1, Mian Waheed Ahmad1, Mahesh Gautam1, Riffat Mehboob2*

Risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Pakistani population- A crosssectional study
... (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the brain and spinal cord where it damages the myelin sheath
protecting the neurons. Many environmental and genetic factors have been associated with MS. The aim of this study
is to identify the possible risk factors that are linked to MS in Pakistani population. This study was conducted in
Department of Radiology, Mayo Hospital Lahore from 2013 to 2014. The first hundred patients who came for
rep...

 Zafar Iqbal*, Hafiza Madhia Imtiaz

Parasites of double tail goldfish, Carassius auratus L. imported to Pakistan
...e import of infected and diseased fishes in Pakistan to protect the local biodiversity of
Pakistan.

...

Sadaf Niaz1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Asif Nadeem1, Misbah Hussain1, Riffat Mehboob3*, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad3

Mutation analysis of RING1 domain of Parkin in early onset of Parkinson’s disease in Pakistani patients-a pilot study
...> Parkinson’s disease (PD) is considered as second most common neurodegenerative disorder, occurring mostly in
men. Almost 9 genes have been reported to be involved in the progression of PD, if mutated. Among them, PARK2
gene is involved in 50% of the early onset cases. Aim of study was to do mutation analysis of RING domain of Parkin
gene as there is no mutation reported previously. In current study, sequence analysis of RING1 ...

 Ihsan Ali1#, Asim Aslam1*, Habib-ur-Rehman2, Beenish Zahid3, Ishtiaq Ahmed1

Effect of fish oil on growth performance and immune response in experimentally infected broiler chicken with avian influenza virus H9N2
... an important infectious disease of poultry which cause
immune suppression and immune organs damage in broilers. Supplementations of
fish oil (FO) enhance the immune status and subside inflammation. This study was
design to observe the effects of Fish oil on lymphoid organs through
histopathology, growth performance and antibody response in H9N2 challenged
broilers. A total of 80 chicks were divided in to 4 groups A, B, C &am...

 Zafar Iqbal

A review of fisheries education in University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
...esearch projects in fish disease and health management. The future aspects
of “Fisheries Education” needed in aquaculture industry in Pakistan and Asia
Pacific Region is discussed.

...

 Sobia Faisal1*,Qurat-ul-Ain Ahmad2, Maleeha Manzoor3, Madiha Manzoor4, Faisal Rifaq5

Socio-psychological factors related to tuberculosis diagnostic test seeking behavior in Pakistan
...ility and severity of TB disease is contributing towards low health seeking
behavior. Further, false beliefs and distrust in treatment are the perceived barriers,
which decrease motivation for benefits and superimpose the condition.

...

Muhammad Asghar1*, Mirza Muhammad Qadeer Baig1, Sanaullalh Chaudhary1 and Muhammad Anjum Ali2 

...of brown leaf spot (BLS) disease on rice crop by using different combinations of fungicide (difenoconazole) with various concentrations of sprayable formulations of macronutrients (NPK) was conducted during Kharif 2012 to 14 at Adaptive Research Farm, Gujranwala, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted on a promising basmati rice cultivars Super basmati in RCBD with three repeats. The spray of difenoconazole at rate of 315 mlha-1 + 500gha-1 of NPK (20:20:20) si...
Atiq-ur-Rehman1,2,*, Abida Latif1,*, Rukhsana Anwar1, Nasir Abbas1, Sajid Nawaz2 and Hamid Turab Mirza3
...used in treating various diseases in folkloric/traditional medicinal system. It is used as a folklore medicine to treat diabetes. No study has been conducted so for to determine α-amylase inhibition for the evaluation of hypoglycemic potential of the plant. So, the aim of this study was for the investigation of in vitro, in vivo anti-diabetic potential and mode of action of various fractions of methanolic extract of the aerial parts of this...
Hina Abrar1,2, S.N.H. Naqvi1,*, Muhammad Rashid Ahmed3, Asma Basharat Ali3 and Hina Yasin1,2
... cardiac and non-cardiac diseases including arrhythmia, hypertension, portal hypertension and oesophageal varices. The study was undertaken in rabbits to investigate the effect of propranolol to reduce hepatoxicity of carbamazepine (CBZ). Animals were divided into three groups; control, CBZ administered group (200 mg/Kg for 10 days) and CBZ plus propranolol (30 mg/Kg for 10 days) treated group. Liver function test and histological evaluation by H and E stainin...

Saman Fatima* and Shazia Iram 

... lesions on peal and the disease severity was then identified. Both classical and molecular method was used for identification of pathogens. Under classical approach the infected sections from the skin of kinnow was utilized to grow fungal colonies on generalized media, i.e. potato dextrose agar, from which six fungal colonies were also isolated and studied further. Under molecular approach direct DNA was isolated from the infected skin of sampled fruits by us...

Umair Talib1, Ijaz Ashraf2, Robert Agunga1 and Saleem Ashraf3* 

...nd controlling livestock diseases were the main challenges resource-poor farmers face while water conservation and climate smart agricultural practices were proposed as the main mitigation strategies. Educating resource poor farmers on the causes and consequences of environmental degradation is relatively new in Pakistan. With these farmers constituting the vast majority of the agricultural population there is an urgent need for extension to come to their aid....
Mirza Imran Shahzad1, Hina Ashraf2,*, Muhammad Arshad3, Sabeeha Parveen4, Amna Aslam4, Nargis Naz4, Zahid Kamran1, Sumbul Gohar Khalid5, Sajid Hameed1, Muhammad Ashfaq6 and Muhammad Mukhtar7

 

Ghulam Ali1,3, Wopke van der Werf2 and Just M. Vlak1,
...with final polyhedrosis (disease resulting in dissolution of larval tissues and accumulation of viral occlusion bodies) exhibited reduced food intake and weight gain relative to uninfected larvae. The unexposed larvae and the larvae that were exposed but survived exhibited the same food consumption and weight gain. This study did thus not reveal any sub-lethal effects of exposure to the virus on food consumption and weight gain. There was no viral dose depende...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Memoona Chaudhary2, Riaz Hussain3, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Madiha Khan6, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Mehtab Ahmad7, Muhammad Sajid Hasni2Imran Qaiser8, Ghazanfar Rashid1, Ikramul Haq1 and Ikramullah Khan8
...strategies for effective disease control according to the climatic conditions of the area.
...
Muhammad Saqib Shahzad1, Amina Arif1,*,Saeeda Kalsoom2, Javed Iqbal3, Shahnam Shafique2, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem4 and Rafique Ahmed5
...herapy and to manage the disease with more efficient plan.
...

Muhammad Rameez Khan1, Muhammad Imtiaz2, Farhatullah3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Sajid Ali1* 

...t-align: justify;">Wheat diseases remains the major constraint to wheat production across Pakistan, including rusts and powdery mildews. Although significant attention is given to rust diseases, powdery mildew is a less considered diseases so far, mainly due to lack of information on the prevalence across Pakistan. Surveillance for powdery mildew status assessment was conducted across Paki...

Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Muhammad Irfan Zafar1, Faqeer Hussain2, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3 and Azhar Ali Khan3 

... against the deadly rust disease. 152 lines of the wheat were screened against brown and yellow rust of wheat which are a serious pathosystem of wheat throughout the world. Some varieties were found resistant some were found moderately resistant while some were in susceptible response against the both rust disease. No variety was found to be resistant at all against the rust pathosystems. Correspondingly, in the results of y...
Mehwish Akram1,2,* and Naeem Rashid1
...hological conditions and diseases.
...

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

... and is a major cause of diseases and significant mortality in various cattle, sheep, deer, buffalo and goat, etc. Various synthetic anthelmintics have been used, on wide scale, to control the helminths infections.But the parasite worms have developed multiple resistances against the synthetic anthelmintics. Hence, various biological controls, vaccines and local medicinal plants are being explored to control the parasitic worms. The aim of this study was to ev...

Omer Baris Ince* 

...font> depends on the disease control policies and epidemiological status of the country. In countries where the disease is endemic, protective vaccinations are performed with inactive vaccines of suitable serotype and measures are taken in order to reduce the prevalence of the disease. In this study, blood samples were collected from clinically healthy sheep and bovine in the surroundi...

Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Syed Burhan-ud-Din2, Muhammad Fahad Khan1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Naila Ilyas1

...ransmitted Begomoviruses diseases have appeared as irresistible problem in different crops of Pakistan. The research was carried out to estimate the probable role of induced systemic acquired resistance in mungbean against Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) disease. Exogenous use of Salicylic acid (SA) and Benzothiadiazole (BTH) as elicitors enhanced the resistance in mungbean plants by triggering the SA pathway. Induced re...

Hina Ali*, Iram Shaheen and Feroza Hamid Wattoo 

...which caused water-borne diseases such as Dysentry, Diarrhea and Typhoid fever. 

...

Muhammad Aslam Rajput1,3, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan2, Rehana Naz Syed3 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi3* 

...mportant and destructive diseases of sugarcane, occurred in almost all sugarcane producing regions of the world. Its incidence could effectively be minimized by planting smut resistant cultivars. For evaluating a large number of propagative materials; standardized germplasm screening protocols as well as optimized inoculation techniques are required. The pathogen inoculation method should be less cumbersome, simple, and rapid. Here, we compared the effectivene...

Ahmed Samy1*, Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba2, Gamelat Kotb Farag3 and Ahmed Abd El Halim1 

...;">Genotype VI Newcastle disease viruses (NDV), that designated pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (PPMV1) commonly isolated from pigeons (family Columbidae). PPMV1 not only represent a potential threat to pigeon but also it can infect chickens and its virulence enhanced upon passaging in chickens causing clinical signs and deaths. In the present study brain samples were collected from twelve pigeon flocks exhibiting signs of nervousness and diarrhea in a live bird market...
Nasira Khatoon1, Aly Khan2,*, S.S. Shahid3, Z.S. Saify4, M. Arshad Azmi1 and Wali Khan5
...a highly contagious skin disease caused by an infestation by the mite Sacoptes scabiei. The most important symptom is severe itch. Severe itching may cause sepsis which is sometimes life threatening. Male patients visiting Baqai Medical University were grouped into five categories based on their age at the first visit. The diagnosis was based on detailed history and clinical examination which included scraping of papillae or burrow to confirm the diagno...
Ali Raza Jahejo1,2, Nasir Rajput2, Wen-xia Tian1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro2, Asmatullah Kaka2, Sheng Niu1 and Fa-jie Jia1
...moglobin, and new castle disease antibody titer were significantly higher in basil supplementary group. The weight gain and feed conversion ratio significantly improved in basil treated group, while ascorbic acid and basil significantly decreased the water intake. Body temperature and mortality percentage were significantly decreased in ascorbic acid and basil supplementary group as compared to control. Dressing percentage significantly increased in both suppl...
Ayesha Chaudhary1, Fouzia Mumtaz1, Muhammad Yaseen2* and Muhammad Younis Afzal3 
 
...s through an increase in disease spread, and careless usage of natural resources. Due to these effects, pastoral families are at high risk, hence there is a need to make farmers aware of the reasons and causes of climate change so that they may contribute to their side in actively advocating the cause. The present study was survey-based research and carried out in the Faisalabad district of Punjab, Pakistan. The data was collected using a multistage sampling m...
S. Justin Carlus1,*, Atiyeh M Abdallah1,2, Abdulhadi H. Al-Mazroea1, Mazen Khalid Al-Harbi3 and Khalid M Al-Harbi1
...iv>...

Sabi-Ur-Rehman1, Anwar Khalid2, Qazi Najam Us Saqib3, Farooq Ahmad1, Shaheed-Ur-Rehman4, Neelam Zaman3, Ayeza Mehmood5 and Abdul Samad6*  

...spectrum against various disease-causing microbes. 

...
James Maffie
...ffering, sorrow, hunger, disease, and death. Stubbornly refusing to surrender to despair, Aztec philosophers (tlamatinimeh) responded with what they called toltecayotl or “the art of living wisely and well.” Toltecayotl enjoined humans to pursue balance in all matters, ranging from how they treated themselves and other humans to how they treated the countless other-than-human agents populating their living world. Humans attained balan...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

... the actual cause of the diseases is still controversial. It is pertinent to mention here that no viruses or any bacteria has been reported from a singly tree in whole of the Indian sub-continent. Although the involvement of the insect’s species has been recorded and authenticated by various scientists reporting that these acts as the carrier of the fungal spores and produce tunnels in the bark of the trees. Since, many extensive filed surveys of forests...

Khadim Hussain Wagan1*, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1 and Abdul Ghani Lanjar2 

...ressiveness to cause the disease is playing critical role for management of this pathogen. For such purpose colony forming units (cfu) per gram of soil and seed were determined and capability of previously characterized M. phaseolina isolates to cause the disease was tested on HO-1 variety. Additionally, most virulent isolate was characterized through sequence and phylogenetic analysis. There was significant variation (Df= 5...

 Abdul Maalik1, Shahzad Ali1,*, Anam Iftikhar1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Haroon Ahmad2 and Iahtasham Khan1

...42.2%. The prevalence of disease was higher in cows (54.5%) than in buffalo (22.9%). Based on chi-square and P-value the prevalence of mastitis was significantly (P˂0.05) associated with animal type, urbanicity, age of animal and previous exposure of mastitis. There was no association of the prevalence of bovine subclinical mastitis with breed, teat washing, bedding area and lactating stage. Out of 38 positive milk samples, 13 (34.2%) were positive for Sta...
Jie Yang
...PGLYRP1 on several human diseases (inflammatory bowel disease, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, skin melanoma and renal carcinoma) have been reviewed. Taken together, these results indicate that human PGLYRP1 encodes an innate immunity protein that breaks down the structure of microbial cell wall, plays a role both in antibacterial defenses and several inflammatory
Fazal Abbas1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Zunaira Akhtar1, Khalid Mehmood2, Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder3 and Umair Iqbal4
...atality and among common diseases of the calves worldwide which cause huge economic losses for the dairy and beef industry. For this study 120 clinically affected calves (n=60 cattle calves; n=60 buffalo calves) under one month of age irrespective of cause of diarrhea was selected from different livestock farms located in the outskirts of Lahore. The result showed that there was increased in packed cell volume (%) in their blood profile. The sodium and potassi...
Bibi Nazia Murtaza1,2, Azhar Qayum3, Shamaila Inayat Nadeem1, Naif Awdh Al-Maliki4, Abdulaziz Alamri4 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,5,*
...were predicted as ‘disease causing’ and protein stability analysis revealed p.G138V to be more destabilizing variant than p.E31K. When three-dimensional structures of variants were subjected to molecular docking with GTP, the mutated KRAS showed low binding affinity to the GTP as compared to the wild-type KRAS protein.
...

Ragia S. Mohamed1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mamdouh. M. Hamoud1, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shimaa A.E. Nasr1, Manal M. Zaki1, ElShaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...ign: justify;">Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is still a havoc to the poultry flocks and outbreaks have occurred even in vaccinated flocks. Commercial Newcastle disease virus vaccines can provide various levels of protection against challenge with different NDV genotypes, raising the importance of the relationship between vaccines and field strains. The aim of the current work is to evaluate the effect of moisture percentage ...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...ypt, Newcastle disease still being a significant threat to the poultry industry. Bad management for poultry byproducts (e.g. manure) might be a reason for environmental pollution which contaminate the environment either chemically through haphazard usage of medications and or biologically through massive use of homologous/heterologous vaccines especially the live ones. The aim of the current work is to estimate the persistence time for velogenic Newc...

Javed Asghar Tariq1*, Bashir Ahmed2, Manzoor Ali Abro2, Muhammad Ismail1, Muhammad Usman Asif1 and Raza Muhammad1 

...t to manage other fungal diseases of agricultural crops also. 

...

Abdul Kabir1, Laiba Uroog2*, Naushad Ahmad3, Fawad Ahmad3, Muhammad Saqib3, Noor Badshah4 and Taj Ali Khan3 

...akistan, it is the major disease of different dairy animals including bovines. However, only a little information is available about bacterial profile of the disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted to find the Etio-prevalence of bacterial species causing subclinical mastitis in a cohort of buffaloes at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. 120 quarter samples were collected from suspected buffaloes in selected areas of Peshawar, Charsa...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi* 

...ructive bacterial blight disease of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, in rice producing areas. This article comprehensively reviews the etiology, symptomatology, pathogen biology, disease development, disease cycle, epidemics and epidemiology, geographical distribution and strategies for the disease management viz., exploitation of host plan...

Muhammad Rehan1, Asim Aslam1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Muhammad Abid2, Shakeel Hussain3, Javeria Umber4, Ahsan Anjum1 and Altaf Hussain2* 

...ign: justify;">Newcastle disease (ND), caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) is an important disease of avian species and continuously cause outbreaks in commercial poultry throughout the world. Despite intensive vaccination, ND is endemic in Pakistan and locally known as Ranikhet. Wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and some common resident or ...

Tariq Shah1*, Umar Hayat1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad3 

...ert mainly for livestock diseases and artificial insemination. However, some of the respondents report long distance, lack of proper facilities and high charges for not visiting the livestock experts. Majority of the respondents both member and non-member respondents have not attended any training on livestock or related program. Few of the respondents have participated in field days, workshop and seminars regarding livestock program. Moreover, results reveal ...
Abid Hussain1,2, Farida Ahmed3, Shyamali C. Dharmage4, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam5 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
...nitis was most prevalent disease (41.57%) followed by bronchial asthma (25.68%) while allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma at the same time were 3.9% prevalent. This study revealed a huge number of patients with diverse demographics, suffering from allergic diseases and sensitization to different allergens majorly aero allergens indicating poor indoor and outdoor air quality. This demands more public health facilities, and...

Muhammad Ijaz, Sayed Rashad Ali Shah*, Muhammad Izhar-ul-Haq and Amir Afzal 

...consistent in occurrence disease of groundnut worldwide. LLS is the imperative factor while developing resistance varieties along with agronomic characteristics. In total, 153 groundnut botanically different genotypes namely Virginia, Spanish, and Valencia were screened under filed conditions and detached leaf assay against LLS pathogen. Most of genotypes during three years of study at early assessments under field conditions showed resistant response whereas,...

Muhammad Usman Ghani1*, Muti Ur Rehaman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Zubair Shabbir2, Li Bo3 and Naveed Anwar4 

...omically important viral disease of skin that affects most of animals. The purpose of current study was to establish and familiarize a precise and rapid detection approaches with molecular diagnostic tool. The method relies on periodically thermo cycling heating and cooling of DNA in presence of certain chemical reagents. In order to detect and differentiate parapox infections from those induced by pox virus. A new parapox specific and sensitive PCR assay base...
Syeda Ain-ul-Batool1, Sadia1, Kathrin Blasius2,3,4, Angela Kaindl2,3,4 and Ghazanfar Ali1,*
...impairment, hirschsprung disease, cardiovascular and liver disorders. So far 21 genes are reported that cause BBS (BBS1-BBS21). A consanguineous family having clinical symptoms of BBS9 is described in current study. Mutation was detected in BBS9 on chromosome 7p14.3 using whole exome sequencing (WES). A splice acceptor site mutation (c.1131G>A) in exon 3 was revealed by Sanger sequencing.
...
Wali Khan1,*, Mudassar Iqbal2 and Israr Khan2
... of intestinal parasitic diseases in children.
...
Ghulam Murtaza1*, Razia Sultana2, Muhammad Arshad Malik3, Sibtain Afzal4, Mubashar Hussain5, Shahid Bashir6
...ng causes of preventable diseases and premature death worldwide. Nicotine is a highly addictive substance, which exerts influence over different reward pathways of the brain. In Pakistan, nicotine use is very high and its consumption is expected to increase further in future. This article focuses on the increase of nicotine consumption in Pakistan and how people can get rid of smoking habit using the latest method such as transcranial direct current stimulatio...
Zhimin Yuan1, Yan Yu2, Yanmei Wang1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
... prevent transmission of diseases from bats to humans.
...

Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba1, Naglaa Fathy Saeed Awad1*, Gamelat Kotb Farag Kotb2, Amany Adel3 

...aks of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were reported in Egypt despite vaccination. Therefore, this study was conducted to characterize infectious bursal disease (IBD) viruses circulating in Egypt during the period of 2017 - 2018. Sixteen pooled bursal tissue samples were collected from IBD suspected (9 Egyptian balady and 7 broiler) chicken flocks located in different localities at Sharkia governorate, Egypt. The...
Rana Waqas Arshad1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Kamran Ashraf2 and Raheela Akhtar1,*
...nes of infectious bursal disease (IBD). Three experimental groups, each having 100 broiler birds were placed in the same environmentally controlled house. Samples of blood and bursa of Fabricius were collected from slaughtered birds after every 7 days till the end of experiment (35 days). The size of bursas and the bursa/body weight ratios were significantly greater in live vector vaccine group than other vaccinal groups. ELISA revealed high antibody titre in ...

Ali Mahmoud Zanaty, Naglaa Mohammed Hagag, Neveen Rabie, Mahmoud Saied, Karim Selim, Saad A. Mousa, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Abdel-Sattar Arafa and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...ign: justify;">Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a highly contagious disease in poultry, also considered as a major threat for commercial and traditional poultry industry in Egypt, even in vaccinated flocks. A total of 8121 different samples (organs and swabs) that represented 588 NDV suspected flocks were collected from poultry farms showing respiratory manifestation and/or drop in egg production during 2015-2018. Out of 588...

Shaikh Abdul Lateef, Zhou Lin, Wu Jian, Junjie Qian, Jonathan Hartanto Tan and Zheng Shusen*
 

...epatitis. The pattern of disease progression manifests liver inflammation, chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this article, we present a comprehensive review characterizing the viral architecture, life cycle, infectivity mechanisms, immune escape strategies, disease epidemiology and preventive measures associated with HBV. The current antiviral therapeutics are not providing adequate protection against HBV. I...

Waqas Raza*, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar and Muhammad Imran Hamid 

... and 2017, prevalence of disease in all the surveyed districts ranging between 34.6-24.4% and 39.3-28.6% respectively with district Okara recording the maximum (39.3%) and district Jhang the minimum incidence (24.4%) for both the years. Similarly, disease severity ranging from 19.3-16.1% and 21.1-17.4% during the year 2016 and 2017 was recorded with Okara recording the maximum (21.1%) and Sahiwal the lowest blight severity (...
Shujjah Haider1,*, Ayesha Maqbool1, Tariq Pervez1, Saima Parveen1, Arfan Ahmad2, Zahid Iqbal3, Javed Iqbal3, Shahid Mehmood3, Amanullah Khan4 and Sajid Umar5
...bsp;
...
 

Aftab Shaukat1,*, Khalid Medmood3, Irfan Shaukat2, Tauseef ur Rehman3, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem1,5, Ashar Mehfooz1, Muhammad Ijaz Saleem1, Zia-ud-Din Sindhu1, Shahid Ali Rajput4, Mubashar Hassan1,4, Saqib Umar1, Muhammad Ali Jamil1, Rao Zahid Abbas1 and Anas Sarwar Qureshi1

 

...luenced the incidence of disease in the cattle of district Faisalabad. A. marginale induced statistically significant reduction was observed in RBC count, Hb, MCV, PCV and MCHC in infected cattle compared to healthy animals (P<0.05). Anaplasmosis infected animals more effectively treated with combination of Oxytetracycline (22mg/kg, I/V, once/day for 5 days) and Imidocarb dipropionate (5mg/kg, I/M, twice 7 days apart) compared to Enrofloxacin ...

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar, Muhammad Imran Hamid, Mubashar Raza, Waqas Raza*, Misbah Iqbal Qamar 

... conditions favoring the disease suppression. 

...
Hafiz Suboor ul Hassan and Saira Malik*
...tus and gastrointestinal disease are among the other factors that may influence the onset of lactose intolerance in patients and controls. 
...

Obaidul Islam*, Shameema Khatun and Mustasim Famous 

...linical cases infectious diseases occupied the highest prevalence in CVASU (62.85%), CVH (61.53%) and DVH (61.53%). Prevalence of difference in clinical diseases was not significant (P>0.05). In case of parasitic diseases, the highest prevalence was observed in DVH (34.61%) and lowest in CVASU (28.57%). The prevalence of nutritional diseases was lower...
Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Shahid Yousaf1, Salman Khurshid1*, Qurrat Ul Ain Akbar1, Saqib Arif1, Nasreen Fatima2 and Ali Murad Rahoo3
...occurrence of pathogenic diseases. Fruit samples (injured and healthy) were taken from the three different local markets of Karachi. Some of the fungal species viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Alternaria alternata have been identified in citrus samples. However, major incidence was recorded for Aspergillus niger (41.6%) followed by Fusarium oxysporum (27.7%). Infected samples (5...
Salma Javed1, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Irfan Ullah2, Sadia Tabassum1,*
...k of awareness about the disease, while Torghar exhibited the lowest prevalence (12.4%). The sociodemographic factors were analyzed one by one to assess their association with the disease. Smoking having OR=1.47, 95%CI=1.07-2.02 and P=0.0173 as well as a high level of stress having OR=1.27, 95%Cl=2.16-4.22 and P<0.0001were found more allied with the disease as these factors increase ins...

Mustasim Famous*, Obaidul Islam, Shameema Khatun, Mohammed Mustafizur Rahman and Tania Ferdoushi 

...arms use only new-castle disease vaccine. Most of the turkey farmers rear turkey in small scale semi-intensive system (50%) was generally practiced by the rural farmers. They have very little idea about breed and variety of turkey and prevention of diseases of turkey. But farmers have very little knowledge about turkey management procedure. There is no specific feeding standard for turkey. Farmers used to feed their turkey a...
Huaisheng Zhang1, Pengfei Li2, Huajun Wen2, Guangming Tian1, Hui Chen1, Lu Zhang1 and Jianqiang Zhu1,*
...on development, habitat, disease dynamics, and biological or genetic characteristics of Père David’s deer in detail, review the research status and progress and examine the trends in the development and direction of Milu research in China, which should provide a reference for the healthy development and protection of the Milu population.
...
Huma Sattar1, Sehrish Firyal1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Habib-Ur -Rehman2, Muhammad Sajid Hasni3 and Amjad Islam Aqib4*
...t and prevention of this disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of polymorphism in bovine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene on immune function and its role in mastitis susceptibility in Pakistani Sahiwal cows. In this study, a total of 150 Sahiwal cows were selected suffering from clinical (n=50), subclinical (n=50) mastitis along with non-mastitic (n=50) cows from different dairy farms of Punjab. TNF-α ...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Naimat Ullah Khan3, Muhammad Asfandyar Khan2, Kashif Prince1,*, Mahboob Ali1, Ghazunfar Rashid1 and Azmat Ulah Khan2
...lysis of 73 strains from diseased lambs showed 13.10% type A, 9.52% type B and highest 20.83% proportion of Clostridium perfringens type D. Out of 108 strains from kids, 54.62% were type A, 9.25% were type B and 36.11% were type D. Clostridium perfringens type C and E were neither detected in lambs nor in kids. The association of various factors (i.e. area, housing, seasons, colostrum feeding, hygienic condition, body condition and animal ...
Rais Ahmed1,2,*, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor1,2, Iftikhar Hussain1, Muhammad Saqib3, Muhammad Hammad Hussain4, Amjad Islam Aqib5, Haleema Sadia6, Javed Muhammad7, Asma Irshad8, Kashif Prince5, Muhammad Zain Saleem9 and Abdul Whab Manzoor10
...uberculosis is a chronic disease of cattle and buffaloes, causing progressive weight loss, persistent diarrhea and finally death. Due to zoonotic nature of the disease, workers in slaughterhouses are at a high risk of infection. In this study, the status of paratuberculosis was assessed in a slaughterhouse located in district Faisalabad, Pakistan. A total of 455 blood samples were collected from slaughtered cattle and buffal...
Lin Sun1, Xiaofang Bu2, Jian Wang1*, Xiaorui Liu1 and Zhanyi Kong2
...d to the severity of the disease and the course of the disease. The correlation between CXCL8 and its mRNA was significantly decreased in the recovery phase. There was only a weak correlation between serum CXCL8 level and serum Anti-MP level in both acute and convalescent stages (r= -0.2917, P=0.0891; r=-0.2783, P=0.1055). The level of CXCL8 and its mRNA was increased in the peripheral blood of th...
Muhammad Siddique1, Muhammad Shafique2,*,Abdul Mateen3, Naveed Shahzad4, Bilal Aslam2, Nasir Ahmad1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar2
...re helpful for analyzing disease severity and start of therapy. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the genotyping of clinically isolated HCV from a Liver Center Faisalabad, Pakistan. A total of 3200 clinical samples were screened for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies by ICT method. Among positive samples, confirmation was carried out by RT-PCR and clustered into four groups (acute, chronic, cirrhotic and hepatocellular carcinoma) on the basis of...
Azra1* and Shaukat Hussain2
...ee replications. Data on disease severity and grain yield were recorded. There were not significant differences in disease severity among maize genotypes for individual years. However, significant differences were recorded amongst the genotypes when the data were pooled over two years. Based on disease severity scale 14 genotypes were categorized as moderately resistant, 14 moderately susc...
Tahsin Razzaq*, Muhammad Fareed Khan and Shahid Iqbal Awan
...s most infectious foliar disease in Himalayan region of the Asia, caused by fungus Exerohillum turcicum. We evaluated resistant genotypes against NCLB under agro-climatic condition of Rawalakot and assessed the yield loss due to impact of NCLB. Maize plants were artificially inoculated at four to six leaf stages. Thirty genotypes were screened in first field trail in June 2016. Genotypes had significant differences for NCLB severity and reactions and we...
Beenish Zahid*1,2,7, Javed Iqbal Qazi2, Amir Zohaib2, Asim Aslam3, Raheela Akhter3, Haleema Sadia4, Qurat ul Ain5, Razia Sultana6, Irfan Irshad3 and Sobia Alyas7
...aracterize the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in ducks. For this purpose, a total of 100 samples of cloacal and 100 oropharyngeal swabs of ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected from different villages of four tahsils of Sheikhupura during period (May to July 2017). NDV was isolated from field samples by inoculating the suspected samples into embryonated eggs of 9-11 days. Isolated virus was confirmed through haemagglutination and...

Muhammad Abdul Rahman1*, Abdul Saboor1, Gulnaz Hameed1, Ghulam Bilal2 and Farooq Tanwir3 

...Lack of labs to identify diseases, sensitiveness of buffaloes to temperature, slow and reduced weight gain and effect on birth and death rate are weighted high as threat to farm animal health while India-Pakistan ties on water, water scarcity, high water requirement for buffaloes and lack of innovation in processing of milk and milk products are other major threats to production from farm animals. The findings of this study can serve as basis of providing key ...
Hanif Ullah1, Muhammad Inayat Ullah Khan2, Suleman3, Sawar Khan1,Salma Javed4, Abdul Qadeer1, Mohsin Nawaz1, Sardar Azhar Mehmood4
...osquito borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium. In Pakistan, P. vivax and P. falciparum are common species. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence of malaria infection in District Lower Dir Pakistan. A total of 1750 blood samples were collected from seven tehsils of District Lower Dir (January to December 2013). The data were analysed tehsils wise, month wise, gender wise, age wi...
Hafiz Muhammad Arsalan1, Maria Altaf1, Zeemal Seemab Amin1, Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan2, Anum Shahzadi1, Hina Mudasser1, Iqra Maqsood1, Nazia Gulshan1, Saira Naseem3
... Glutathione declined in disease persons (0.56) from healthy subjects (6.39). Serum Micronutrients level was also declined in RA patients as compared to healthy persons and substantial statistically (P=0.000). Serum Nitric Oxide jump high in patients (32.11) than normal persons (15.2). Abnormal concentration of reactive oxygen species can disturb the body’s defense mechanism which cause potential oxidative injury to tissues and lead to cartilage degradat...
Syed Maaz Nadeem1*, Muti ur Rehman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh1, Arfan Ahmad1* and Muhammad Anees2
...ntinuous surveillance of disease and understanding of local field CAV strains. The CAVs have been reported previously both in broiler chicken and layer birds in Pakistan; however, their molecular characterization is largely inadequate and requires continuous evaluation. In this study, sequencing and molecular analysis of specific regions overlapping VP1-VP2 and VP2-VP3 genes of CAV strain from outbreaks in broiler flock (n=45) were undertaken in the Punjab Pro...

Waseem Abbas1, Shakeel-ur-Rehman2, Abdul Rashid2, Muhammad Kamran3, Muhammad Atiq2 and Muhammad Ehetisham ul Haq3* 

...baci) and indirectly the disease incidence. Leaves extracts of four plant extracts i.e. Calotropis gigantea, Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa and Azadirachta indica were evaluated at 3 % concentration against eggs hatchability and adult emergence of the whitefly in lab condition. Two consecutive sprays were applied to assess the relative impact of different plant extracts against adult whitefly population and the disease inc...

Awais Ahmed Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal1 and Muhammad Atiq2 

...effective to control the disease and showed minimum mycelial growth diameter (35mm) followed by benzoic acid (44mm), jasmonic acid (45.5), and ascorbic acid (50mm) as compared to control (92mm) treatment. Organic elicitors activated the defense system, by inducing the biochemical alterations. These treatments effectively enhanced the activities of peroxidase (POD), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total phenolic contents. Salicylic acid showed highest POD activ...
Umm-i-Habiba1,*, Ayesha Maqbool2, Muhammad Safdar3, Nida Zia1Altaf Mehmood4, Muhammad Usman5, Mehwish Sharif6, Amanullah Khan7 and Sajid Umar8
...v>...
Bibi Nazia Murtaza1, Mazhar Saeed Chaudry2, Shamaila Inayat Nadeem1, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem3 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori4,*
... with worst prognosis of disease. Through mutagenic PCR, codon 12 was analysed by creating a single nucleotide mismatch at the 3′-end of primers to produce a BstNI recognition sequence at codon 12 while codon 13 was analysed by introducing HaeIII recognition sequence. By using RFLP and sequencing, point mutation substituting the glycine (GGC) to aspartic acid (GAC) was observed at codon 13. The p.G13D or cDNA.230G>A/ g.5590G>A is...

Muhammad Akbar Ali Shah1, Gamze Özel2, Christophe Chesneau3, Muhammad Mohsin4, Farrukh Jamal5* and Muhammad Faheem Bhatti6 

Basharat Hussain Shah*, Farrukh Siyar Hamid, Shams ul Islam, Naveed Ahmed, Fayaz Ahmad, Noorullah Khan and Qamar uz Zaman. 

...orer attack no prominent disease attack was observed in the experiment during the growth period. Significant differences were observed in the genetic material for all the parameters studied. Maximum plant height of 165.8 cm was recorded for Line-31. Maximum number of tillers per plant 23.9 was recorded for Line-80. Maximum stem diameter of 7.20 mm was recorded for Line-140. The highest flag leaf length of 47.9 cm was recorded for Line-28. The 1000 grain weight...

Naglaa M. Hagag1*, Mervat E. Hamdy1, Mary A. Sargious1, Sara M. Elnomrosy1, Nahed A. Ahmed1, Ayman A. Hamed1, Ahmed R. Habashi1, Essam I. Ibrahiem1, Mahmoud A. Abdel-Hakim2 and Momtaz A. Shahein

...justify;">Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a severe, highly contagious, and economically devastating viral disease worldwide. FMDV affects animals with cloven hooves, including domestic and wild bovids. In this study, 100 FMDV field samples were collected in 2018 and early2019 from governorates in Egypt. Molecular and genetic characterization indicates that serotype SAT2 is widespread (in 96 cases), while only four cas...

Bamigboye Olutoyin Omolara1, Fapohunda Funmilayo Omotoyosi1, Oladipo Elijah Kolawole1,2, Oni Mattthew Olujenyo1, Ajibade Oluwatosin Akinola1, Kaka Mary Oluwatosin1* 

... increased risk of liver disease and hepatotoxicity despite undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study aims to determine the prevalence of serological markers of HBV based on serological markers among infected individuals with HIV. Ninety-three sera samples of HIV positive individuals were collected by Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) Teaching Hospital- HIV/AIDS Supporting and Counselling Unit, Ogbomoso. The collected samples were an...

Muhammad Rehan3, Asim Aslam3, Javeria Umber4, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan3, Waqar Azeem3, Hassan Aftab5, Ahsan Anjum3, Muhammad Abid6, Abdul Hameed Khan3, Hafiz Hasnain Ayoub5, Altaf Hussain2 and Muhammad Farooq Khalid1* 

...tious and non-infectious diseases however its exact mechanism is still unknown, but low levels of vitamin D has been detected in different diseased cases. Recent investigations have reported various cells of body exhibiting vitamin D receptors and CYP27B1 which is capable of converting inactive form vitamin D into biologically active form 1,25(OH)2D3, that important for maintaining immune homeostasis. These findings lead to ...
Monica Paula Marin1, Elena Narcisa Pogurschi1*, Iuliana Marin2 and Carmen Georgeta Nicolae1
...ng the diarrheal gastric disease of cattle. By adding zeolite in the cow ration during the precalving period has determined a significant increase in blood serum calcium during the last week of precalving period, as well as in the calving and postcalving periods, having as consequence fewer recorded milk fever cases. The results obtained can convince the farmers to use volcanic tuff as a food additive in the feeding of dairy cows during the precalving, postcal...

Farheen Shafique1, Shaukat Ali2,*, Saiqa Andleeb1, Abdul Rauf1,3, Syed Ayaz Kazmi1,3, Sadia Idrees4, Faisal Farooq1,3, Faiq Nawaz Khan3,4, Muhammad Saad-ul-Hassan1,3, Raja Awais Mumtaz1,3, Saba Khalid1, Zaheem Ashraf1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2 and Fazal-ur-Rehman5

...h no coinfection of both diseases. Out of 25 total infected individuals, 05(1.6%) were found HBsAg positive and 20(6.6%) were found anti-HCV positive. All the ICT positive individuals were further confirmed by quantitative Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and 23(7.6%) individuals were confirmed for both hepatitis B and C including 05(1.6%) HBsAg positive as well as 18(5.9%) anti-HCV antibody positive individuals. We can conclude that 8.2% prevalence o...
Ahsan Anjum1, Asim Aslam1, Raheela Akhtar1, Tahir Yaqub2,  Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Rizwana Sultan3, Saba Usman1Aneela Zameer Durrani4 and Muhammad Usman4*
...n infectious respiratory disease of cattle, characterized by anorexia, fever, dyspnea, polypnea, cough, and nasal discharges and caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. This study was carried out in abattoirs of Lahore, Kasur and Jhang districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Different tissue samples were collected from 560 cattle showing respiratory signs at slaughter. Lung samples were used for detection of CBPP through PCR targeting 16S ribosomal...

Anand Kushwaha, Amit Kumar, Aparna Madhavan, Durga Goswami, Golmei Poulinlu and Gnanavel Venkatesan* 

...and OIE notifiable viral diseases of sheep, goats and cattle. They are endemic in most parts of the globe associated with significant production losses due to high morbidity, high mortality rate and animal trade restrictions. Though several diagnostics including molecular tools are available, recombinant protein based diagnostic assays namely ELISA is safer and robust to handle large sample size and also to minimize labor/time. However, the genus Capripoxvirus...
Peng Ren1, Xian-Qing Liu1, Chao-Wu Yang2,3, Hua-Rui Du2,3, Xiao-Song Jiang2,3 and Yi-Ping Liu1*
...ding.
...
Tian-Yi Zhao1, Zi-Qing Liu2, Shu-Fei Ma3, Bo-Yang1, Fan-Fan Guo1 and Ming-Hua Duan1*

 

...nd used to treat various diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms of biatractylolide in preventing and protecting Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remained elusive. This study was conducted to observe the effect of biatractylolide on the pathological changes of amyloid beta protein (Aβ)-induced AD. In vitro assays (MTT and flow cytometry) were applied to detect the effect of biatractylolide on PC12 cell proliferation, ...

Sanaullah1*, Urooba Pervaiz1, Shahid Ali2, Mohammad Fayaz2 and Aftab Khan

...ignificant effect, while disease, fertilizer and pesticide had non-significant effect on maize yield. Nevertheless, adoption of recommended technologies were low due to some constraints in the study area out of which low income of the families and lack of required technical knowledge were of major concerns. The results of t-test indicated that higher maize yield was obtained for the respondents who irrigated their fields using hybrid seed, as well as with the ...
Irfan Shahzad Sheikh, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa, Nadeem Rashid, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa, Mohammad Masood Tariq*, Majed Rafeeq, Abdul Samad, Tauseef M Asmat and Asad Ullah
...inated against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bursal disease. Relative lymphoid organ weights were recorded on day 42. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay was performed against Newcastle disease virus on a weekly basis, whilst a hemagglutination (HA) assay was performed to determine immunity against total sheep red blood cell (SRBC) , mercaptoethanol-2 resistant (IgG) and mercap...
Abdul Kabir¹, Amjad Hussian Mirani¹, Jam Kashif1, Shumaila Manzoor2, Abdullah Iqbal3*, Ihsan Ullah Khan4 and Muhammad Abubakar2
...l ruminants and on-going disease outbreaks in the target area.
...

Amna Qazi1, Ghulam Shah Nizamani2*, Muhammad Tahir Khan2, Shafquat Yasmeen2, Shahla Karim Baloch1, Muharram Ali1, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan2, Sagheer Ahmad3, Muhammad Rashid Nizamani4 and Mohammad Aquil Siddiqui

... rapid multiplication of disease-free potential material to occupy large area in short time span, giving the phenomenon paramount economic importance. 

...
Sumaira Akram1, Sajid Aleem Khan1*, Nazir Javed1 and Saeed Ahmad2
...chemicals suppressed the disease and enhanced plant height and root weight. All treatments evaluated in this study exhibited suppression of MG. Therefore, these treatments can be used in combination against MG infestation on wheat.
...

Asmaa A. Darwish 

...s described in the three diseased groups. Biochemically, a significant (P< 0.05) increase in total protein, globulin, liver enzymatic activities, kidney function tests, total lipids, triglycerides, MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations was depicted in the three diseased groups. On the contrary, the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, minerals, electrolytes, trace elements and total antioxidants capacity concentr...

Ihsanullah Kakr1, Sarwar Khan2, Khalid Khan3* and Sajjad Ahmed

...camels, prevailing camel diseases in the area, treatment facilities, traditional remedies used by them against various diseases in camels and economic losses were collected. A total of one thousand and forty (n=1040) camel owners/respondents from three groups viz settled, transhumants and nomads were interviewed in Districts, Musa Khail and Jhal Magsi during the year 2011. The direct as well as indirect economic losses due t...

Muhammad Zeeshan Nazar*, Ayyan Umer, Zahid Mahmood Sarwar, Faiz Ullah Faiz and Sikandar Hussain 

...le to various pathogenic diseases. Among the all bacterial diseases of B. mori, flacherie is injurious disease that is initiated by entomo-pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis var. sotto (Bts). The impact of this infectious disease is weight loss, reduction in cocoon quality as well as quantity and source of infestation for healthy larva. In curre...

Shilong Chen1,2, Shifeng Xiao1,2, Shao Wang1,2, Fengqiang Lin1,2, Xiaoxia Cheng1,2, Xiaoli Zhu1,2, Dandan Jiang1,2, Shaoying Chen1,2* and Fusong Yu3* 

Naseeb Ullah1, Assad Ur Rehman1, Aamir Khan1, Rabia Noushin2Shahid Naiz Khan1, Syed Ishtiaq Anjum1, Sajida Afzal1, Asma Naseem1Kenza Javed1, Ujala Rauf1 and Kalim Ullah1*
...: small;">Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an infectious viral disease of cloven-footed animals. It is widespread in Pakistan with huge economic losses. The chief objective of the study was to estimate the sero-prevalence of FMD in livestock in district Lakki Marwat, southern part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Pakistan. 376 blood samples were randomly collected from livestock (large and small ruminants) from December 2017 to Apr...

Humayun Saleem1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Zia-Ur-Rehman1 and Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique

... a treatment for various diseases in Folk medicines. Shot hole which is a fungal disease caused by Wilsonomyces carpophilus is one of the diseases that target apricot. The purpose of the current study was to record the prevalence of shot hole disease on Islamabad’s Federal Capital Territory markets. The frequency and severity of shot hole
Daniel Kerr Baines
...ticle 11 April 2020, the disease CoVID-19 caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has claimed over 100,000 lives and affected essentially every country on the globe with over 1.6 million cases (John Hopkins, 2020). CoVID-19 has overwhelmed the medical capacity of countries like Italy and Spain, to a point not seen since the Spanish flu epidemic. Ports and countries are closed, people are on lock down, people are dying due to a lack of medical supplies and the wo...
Samia Afzal*,Sadia Zahid, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Idrees
... inexplicable paralyzing disease has trapped thousands of people in Karachi region of Pakistan and the symptomatology among suspected cases was compatible with Chikungunya fever. Thus Chikungunya outbreak was reported in Pakistan but actually the recent reports about the occurrence of Chikungunya outbreak in the southern region of Pakistan has been highly controversial. In order to further confirm the circulation of the virus and put an end to the speculative ...

Asad Ullah1*, Umar Sadique2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2 and Farhan Anwar Khan

...f the neglected zoonotic disease (NZD) caused by Mycobacterium bovis with public health significance and appear as a life threatening infection at the human-animal-ecosystem interface in low-resource settings in the central zone of KP, Pakistan. The surveillance, prevention and control programs of this NZD in the KP province of Pakistan is necessary because of the continual unrestricted movement of infected animals and the use of unpasteurized milk which migh...

Muhammad Shakeel1,2*, Salik Nawaz2, Yasar Saleem3, Shazia Shafique2, Ateeq Tahir2 and Muhammad Riaz2

...properties against heart diseases. In case of selection of varieties 37% were unaware of the name of variety and 22% cultivate “Marathon” while a small group was cultivating other improved varieties. In case of agronomic input 96% farmers were applying fertilizers and observing other recommendations for cauliflower. In case of postharvest handling 49 % were not specific for packing material whereas broccoli leaves were being used for wrapping of fl...

Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Muhammad Zubair Khan1, Ayesha Bibi2, Muhammad Shehzad Khan1*, Bashir Ahmad

...observed and severity of disease was investigated for supplement efficacy. The biochemical results obtained were all positive, which confirmed stem rot pathogen as Erwinia carotovora sub spp. chrysanthemi (gram-negative bacteria). Highest plant height (75.3 cm) and maximum number of fruits plant-1 (14.3) were recorded with A. indica when applied at 15ml L-1 along with highest dose of boron at 3.95 g seedbed-1. The severity was observed 0.0% in supplement of bo...

Cornelius Arome Omatola*, Samson Daniel Iyeh, Shedrach James Abuh, Charles Kehinde Mofolorunsho, Martin-Luther Oseni Okolo and Phoebe Queen Akoh 

...ing the magnitude of the disease in the study setting. This study investigated the prevalence of five major STIs (HIV, HBV, HCV, HSV-2 and syphilis) in asymptomatic women in Anyigba. Sera samples from a cross-section of 250 consenting pregnant women on antenatal visits to five health facilities were screened for HIV, HBV, HCV and HSV-2 using commercially available immunochromatographic based kits and for syphilis using non-treponemal and treponemal antibody te...

Ghulam Akbar1*, Muhammad Anjum Zia1, Ali Ahmad2, Neha Arooj1 and Shahneela Nusrat

...justify;">Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death along the world about 30% of all deaths occur due to cardiovascular diseases. Among fibrinolytic enzymes streptokinase (SK) is commonly used in the world to cure heart diseases because its low cost and efficacy. It’s a microbial origin enzyme produced especially by Streptococcus bacterial spp. Therefore, it is antigenic...
Aamir Mushtaq1,2, Rukhsana Anwar1 and Mobasher Ahmad1,2,* 
...dering Alzheimer’s disease a universal challenge, this study was planned to utilize the bio-constituents of Pimpinella anisum dried seeds to check the oxidative neuronal decay in brain parts. Methanolic extract of Pimpinella anisum (meP.a) dried seeds was explored qualitatively and quantitatively for analysis of phytoconstituents along with anti-oxidant activity. Anti-amnesic activity was found by behavioral and biochemical studies for whic...

Asmaa Abdallah Darwish 

...tions in different sheep diseases. So, this paper aimed to assess the antioxidant vitamins (E, A, D3 and C) levels in some sheep physiological and pathological conditions. For this purpose, 200 barki ewes were divided into control group, inflammatory diseases groups (pneumonic group, arthritic group, enteric group), late pregnant groups (normal late pregnant group, pregnancy toxemia group), postpartum groups (normal postpart...
Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Asim Aslam1*, Muhammad Yasin2, Tahir Yaqoob2 and Beenish Zahid3
...e of vaccines, Newcastle disease (ND) and Infectious Bronchitis (IB) outbreaks are not uncommon in endemic countries. Therefore, the current study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of commercially available vaccines against each virus alone as well as co-infections with NDV and IBV in commercial poultry. For assessment of vaccine efficacy, commercial chickens were vaccinated with La Sota (against NDV) and Massachusetts (against IBV) vaccine preparation...
Murtala Muhammad, Ting Zhang, Siyu Gong, Jing Bai, Jiansong Ju, Baohua Zhao* and Dong Liu*
... was responsible for the disease outbreak that caused massive mortality of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) in 2016. We isolated the pathogenic bacteria (HNM-1) from the infected A. sinensis and identified its identity by conventional physiological, biochemical, and molecular techniques. Virulence and pathogenesis of the disease were determined by intraperitoneal injection of the etiological agent to the h...
Muhammad Anwarullah1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Ghulam Mustafa3, Muhammad Husnain1 and Muhammad Usman1
...e: small;">Johne’s disease has its economic importance worldwide because of heavy treatment cost and poor outcomes. This study is conducted on experimentally challenged rabbits to observe the efficacy of amikacin and cinnamon. A total of 40 SPF (specific pathogen free) rabbits were selected at the age of two months. Rabbits were given experimental challenge with oral inoculum of pure culture of MAP. These rabbits were divided into four groups; three test...

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Waqas Raza1*, Waqas Wakil2,3, Imtiaz Hussain4 and Misbah Iqbal Qamar

...ance inducers suppressed disease development by 54.1% and 67.4%, for SA and BABA, respectively, 5 days after pathogen inoculation. Numbers and size of lesions per plant was reduced by application of SA and BABA. Plants treated with BABA exhibited increased resistance against herbivory by aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphidiae), thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae...
Khayyam1*, Muhammad Zahid1, Naiz Ali2 and Qadeem Khan3
...r the autoimmune thyroid disease. Out of total eighty two autoimmune thyroid patients 50 were Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients (HT) (30 female, mean age=34±1.43 years, 20 males mean age =38.35±1.17 years) and control group included 35 individuals (20 females mean age=31.65±1.77years, 15 males mean age=37.93±2.561 years). The 32 Grave’s disease (GD) patients (24 females mean age=34.96&p...
Shaheen Rahman1, Kafeel Ahmad1*, Niaz Ali2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Waqar Ali4
...s devastating Crown Gall disease. Current studies were aimed at the isolation of A. tumefaciens from local soil. Five soil samples were collected from research farm of Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Soil samples were processed for the isolation of A. tumefaciens. Various biochemical and morphological tests were conducted to confirm the identity of A. tumefaciens. The pathogenicity of the isolates was confirmed by in vitro carr...

Aurang Zeb, Abdur Rab and Shujaat Ali* 

...e data regarding percent disease incidence revealed that the highest disease incidence (26.66 %) was recorded from Torwarsak (Buner) 48 days of storage freshly harvested fruits. It is concluded that Sweet orange fruits from different locations can be best stored at room temperature (20±1 0C with relative humidity of 45-50 %). 

...

Md. Zubael Islam, Rukhsana Amin Runa and Md. Mahmudul Alam* 

...sh. However, due to foot diseases the farmers face a considerable amount of economic loss. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of foot diseases in cattle and also to explore the risk factors having a promoting role in developing foot affections in three unions (Potazia, Jalalpur, and Kaijuri) of Shahjadpur Upazila. Foot affections were physically investigated and examined from May to October 2019 and a tota...
Mian Adnan Kakakhel1, Faryal Gohar1, Zahid Anwar2, Raza Ullah1, Muhammad Attaullah3, Shahbaz Ahmad4, Aamir Khan5, Kalimullah5*
...plasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by T. gondii, which infects warm-blooded animals worldwide. This study was conducted with the main objectives, determination of seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pet dogs. To evaluate the main associated risk factors related with T. gondii exposure to this region. A total of a hundred number of blood sa...
Neelam Pery*, Nayab Batool Rizvi, Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq
...poly of the conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs over the drug platform has been taken over by a number of biologics including TNFα inhibitors, IL-1 inhibitors, IL-6 inhibitors, and co-stimulatory signal inhibitors with better efficacy and safety profile. However, certain factors such as lack of universal response,...
Majeeda Rasheed1*, Tanveer Akhtar1, Nadia Mukhtar2, Muhammad Furqan Shahid2, Muhammad Imran3, Saima Yaqub2
...V), is a contagious disease of domestic and wild small ruminants. The disease is endemic in developing countries of African and Asian worlds including Pakistan, where several clinical cases in small ruminants (sheep and goat) have been frequently reported. Despite PPRV is endemic in Pakistan, information on disease serosurveillance of prevailing strains in Gilgit-Balitistan (GB) terri...
Saira Saleemi1*, Zafar Iqbal1, Abdul Nasir Khalid2
...aslon Pro";">Fungal diseases are very common in freshwater fishes. Aspergillosis is a fungal disease of fish. This study was designed to examine a fungal infection in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. The infected fish showed clinical signs such as: eroded gills, damaged fins and lesions all over the body. The fish specimens showed mild to severe infection. The infection caused by fungus was confir...

Hasaan Aziz*, Fariha Altaaf, Attia Bashir, Abdul Basit, Syed Anam Masood Gardazi and Farah Haider 

...V), is highly contagious disease of carnivores and is quite prevalent in Pakistan. The CDV is known to exist as 11 distinct clades around the globe; however, as to what prevail in Pakistan to devise appropriate diagnostics and control strategies is yet to be known. Despite the use of modified live vaccine to dogs, occurrence of disease is not uncommon. Here, we sequenced and phylogenetically analysed the complete hemagglutin...

Olotu Titilayo Mabel*, Adeosun Idowu Jesulayomi, Kaka Mary Oluwatosin and Oladipo Elijah Kolawole 

...o HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease. HIV-1 genome has nine genes; gag, pol, and env genes are common in all replication-competent retroviruses, and the pol gene is very unique encoding the enzymes for replication. Our objective is to describe the relatedness of these HIV-1 pol genes with each other and its antiviral drug susceptibility which will provide more information on its sensitivity and resistivity to each antiviral drug. Seventeen partial genome sequences...

Zia-Ur-Rehman1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Humayun Saleem1 and Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique1 

...0 hectares. A variety of diseases infect the peach tree. Among these diseases, brown rot disease is very important that reduces yields primarily by decaying the fruits on the tree and after harvest. A preliminary study was designed to see the prevalence, incidence and severity of peach rot disease in the markets of Federal Territories of Islamabad t...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1 and Onyemocho Audu2 

...ter epidemiology the HCV disease burden more accurately.  

...

Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Zia-Ur-Rehman1 and Humayun Saleem

... attacked by a number of diseases including early blight of potato, black scurf disease of potato, stem canker and powdery scab of potato. Among various fungal diseases in potato crop, the black scurf disease of potato caused by Rhizoctonia solani, affects the quality of potato and lowers its market value. A preliminarily a study was designed to see the ...

Naseem Zahra1* and Shajia Jabeen

...ss. In present era where diseases are common and people are in search of nutritious diet containing minerals and essential compounds, brown rice is found to be healthiest and minerals rich food commodity. Due to its appearance, color and texture it is rarely used. Brown has a meek nutty flavor and may become rancid more rapidly, but it is extreme more nutritious as compared to processed rice. Brown rice is the whole grain rice and is high in fiber contents. Br...

Yasir Iftikhar1, Mustansar Mubeen1,2*, Waqas Raza1, Qaiser Shakeel3, Waseem Abbas1, Shehzad Iqbal1 and Ashara Sajid

...ally used to monitor the disease severity as these factors are interconnected. In the present study, ten potato varieties viz., FSD white, FD 8-1, FD 71-1, Tota 704, Kuruda, FD 74-41, FD 76-24, SH 216-A, N 96-25 and FD 74-50 were evaluated against PLRV. The range of disease incidence was from 15.93% to 64.58%. Moreover, susceptible reaction was observed in five varieties (FD 71-1, Tota-704, FSD white, FD 76-24 and FD 8-1). T...

Muhammad Raheel Faiz1, Ijaz Ashraf1, Haq Nawaz2, Muhammad Zubair3*, Muhammad Sajid Mahmood4, Sajid Hussain5 and Abdul Qadeer2 

... against various chronic diseases as they are rich source of minerals and vitamins. The annual vegetable production of Pakistan is about 10 million tons which adds almost $170 million in national economy. Unluckily, this production is far below than its required amount due to production, protection and marketing problems which are faced by the vegetable growers. Therefore, the present study was designed to identify and prioritize the production, protection and...

Hafiz Muhammad Imran Javed* and Mushtaq Ahmed 

...he most contagious viral disease of sheep and goats. The present study compared the select genetic markers of the vaccine and field strains originating from the field outbreaks for phylogenetic analysis, nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analyses, and a comparison of three-dimensional protein structures. The N gene ORF was 1578 nucleotide long with a single open reading frame encoding 526 amino acids. Similarly, the ORF of F gene was 1641 nucleotide l...

M. Hammouchi1*, G. Sebbar1, N. Touil2, C. Loutfi1, Y.S. Malik3, M. El-Harrak1 and O. Fassi-Fehri4 

...ed a serious outbreak of disease in small ruminants recently in 2008 in Morocco. The field data obtained during the outbreak indicated that there were marked differences in breed susceptibilities to PPRV infection. In the field exotic breeds of Alpine goats were observed to be highly susceptible to the disease, with mortality rates approaching 100%, contrary to local breeds which were less susceptible to the

 M. Ihsan Ul Haq1, Ahmad Hussain2*, Farzana Yasmeen3, Shafiq R. Qureshi4

LIFE CYCLE COSTING AND PAYBACK PERIOD EVALUATION OF A SOLAR THERMAL DESALINATION SYSTEM
...r is the major source of diseases in the different regions of the world
especially remote rural and coastal areas. About 97% of water on earth is comprised of seawater. Desalination of
saline water is a prominent approach to handle the problem of water scarcity. Conventional desalination technologies
cause economic and environmental problems due to their dependency upon fossil fuels. Solar flash desalination
is one of the best desal...

Kulsoom Iftikhar1, Shahzad Anwar1, Izhar Ul Haq1, Muhammad Tahir Khan1 and Sayed Riaz Akbar1 

AN OPTIMAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE FOR BREAST CANCER DETECTION
... most significant health diseases in the world. Early identification of breast carcinoma
could be beneficial for in time treatment of the disease. This study presents an efficient classification method
for benign and malignant breast cancer. The proposed method employs an optimal feature classification employing
artificial neural network. The proposed architecture has five input nodes, two hidden layers ...
Sitara Nawaz1, Shamaila Irum1, Haroon Ahmed2, Shazia Shamas1, Sadia Roshan1, Muhammad Ather Rafi4, Irfan Ullah5*, Gulnaz Parveen3*
...ran are vectors of human disease called leishmaniasis. It is one of most neglected diseases in our country. The main purpose of the study was to identify the prevalence of sandflies in selected regions of Panjab and their relationship with hospital-reported cases of Leishmaniasis. Clinical information of 124 patients was recorded. Observable factors of prevalence include age group, gender, financial status, clinical symptoms...

Muhammad Riaz1*, Naureen Akhtar1, Salik Nawaz Khan1, Muhammad Shakeel1,2 and Ateeq Tahir1

Neocosmospora rubicola: An Unrecorded Pathogen from Pakistan Causing Potato Stem Rot
...he produce. Among biotic diseases, fungal stem and tuber rot are the most common diseases that cause significant loss in potato production in Punjab province, Pakistan. Neocosmospora rubicola was found as a new pathogen causing stem rot of potato in the potato growing area of district Kasur. Symptoms of the N. rubicola infected potato plants were necrotic stem lesions near the collar region. Causal organism was isolated from...

Mohammad Enamul Hoque Kayesh1,2*, Mohammad Tufazzal Hussan3, Md. Abul Hashem2,4, Mohammad Eliyas5 and A.K.M. Mostafa Anower1

Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Infection: An Emerging Threat to Cattle Health in Bangladesh
...gn: justify;">Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious and economically important transboundary disease of cattle caused by LSD virus (LSDV). LSD is characterized by fever and the appearance of nodular lesions in the skin covering all parts of the body. LSD is currently endemic in many African countries and causing significant economic losses. LSD has recently spread out of Africa into the Middle East region, and stil...
Dibyendu Biswas1*, Shib Shankar Saha2, Shankar Biswas3 and Md. Abu Sayeed4
Outbreak of Lumpy Skin Disease of Cattle in South-West Part of Bangladesh and its Clinical Management
...gn: justify;">Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious eruptive viral disease of cattle, caused by LSD virus (LSDV) under the family Poxviridae and transmitted by direct contact or through biological vectors such as mosquitoes, flies and ticks. Sporadic cases of LSD have been observed in cattle elsewhere. The aim of the present study was undertaken to evaluate the present scenario of LSD and its clinical management at...

Markus I. Francis1*, Paul I. Ankeli2, Clara N. Kwanashie1, Jibril Adamu1, Lushaikyaa Allam1, Mashood A. Raji3, Godwin O. Egwu4, Flavio Sacchini5 and Massimo Scacchia5

Detection of Mycoplasma bovis from Cattle Presented for Slaughter in Adamawa and Taraba States, Northeastern Nigeria
...mas causing a variety of diseases in cattle worldwide. This study was aimed to report the PCR identification of M. bovis from slaughtered cattle in northeastern Nigeria. Four hundred and eighty (480) samples of lung tissues (180), nasal swab (180), ear swab (60) and pleural fluid (60) were collected from 190 heads of cattle at slaughter in Yola and Jalingo abattoirs in Adamawa and Taraba States, respectively Samples were processed based on standard laboratory ...

Hina Imtiaz1*, Salma Khalid2, Kashaf Riaz1, Muhammad Arshad Ullah3 and Zubair Rehman

...pes of waste generation, diseases among the residents and their opinions about the recycling and proper waste management were carried out through self-administered questionnaires. In order to observe coagulant effect according to Pakistan National Environmental Quality (Standards (Pak-NEQS), the collected samples were treated in the laboratory for identification and recommending suitable coagulant. Three different treatments were practiced i.e. Alum, Lime and ...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shakoor Ahmad2, Irshad Ahmad3, Kashif Prince1*, Ghazunfar Rashid1, Mahboob Ali1, Imdad Ullah Khan4Asad Ullah5, Naimat Ullah4, Muhammad Shoaib2 and Said Sajjad Ali Shah2
...o two groups healthy and diseased to compare the hematological and biochemical parameters. Hematobiochemical analysis indicated that mean erythrocyte count (RBC) and hemoglobin levels decreased while the mean leukocytes (WBC), platelets, packet cell volume (PCV) and total bilirubin levels increased significantly (P<0.05) in sheep infected with Clostridium perfringens type A. Sheep infected with Clostridium perfringens type B and type D showed ...
Abdul Waheed*, Asim Faraz, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq
...ity was aware of poultry diseases, mainly keeping desi birds. Without having any special training, vaccinating the birds for Rani Khet (New Castle disease). Most of them hatched chicks of their own, bought hens from the village, knew about ill birds and benefitted from the birds. Mostly they kept birds for sale, disliked cock fighting, provided positive gesture about poverty alleviation and showed minimum concern about poult...
Muhammad Rizwan1*, Bilal Atta1, Ana Maria Marino de Remes Lenicov2, Roxana Mariani2, Arshed Makhdoom Sabir1, Muhammad Tahir3, Misbah Rizwan4, Muhammad Sabar1, Ch. Muhammad Rafique1, Muhammad Afzal5
...f severe rice pathogenic diseases in the Oriental and Paleartic regions. Laodelphax striatellus was recorded on rice for the first time in Pakistan. Among alternate hosts, Trifolium alexandrium, Leptochloa chinensis, Helianrhus allus, Medicago polymorpha and Sorghum bicolor were recorded for L. striatellus, while Leptochloa chinensis, Helianrhus allus, Medicago polymorpha, Sorghum bicolor...
Shagufta Parveen1*, Kousar Perveen1, Muhammad Afzal1, Syed Amir Gilani2, Muhammad Musadaq3
...re or had any congenital disease were excluded from the study. Information about the weaning practices of the infants was obtained from the consenting parent or guardian of each respective infant and recorded in the questionnaire. Weight and height of each infant was measured in kilograms and cm, respectively, and recorded. Data was entered in SPSS version 26 and analyzed for results. A total of 200 infants were included in the study, of which 94 (47%) of infa...
Gregory Ejikeme Odo1,*, Juliana Ekenma Agwu1, Nkechi Nweze2, Clara Ikegbunam2,Felicia Ekeh N1, Vincent Ejere1, Ngozi Ezenwaji1, Reginald Njokuocha2, Godwin Ngwu1 and Fabian Okafor1
...some protections against diseases related to the muscles. The significant reduction of AST level has further eliminated any leakage of the enzyme in the liver due to hepatic injury in the treated rats. Previous biochemical studies have also confirmed the non toxicity of the plant extract of D. erecta to the kidney.
...
Shikun Ge1, 2, Yanli Yang3, Brindha Chelliappan4, 5, Antonysamy Michael5, Fagang Zhong1 and Xiaoying Zhang1, 2, 3, 4*
...e therapy for veterinary diseases, and the egg yolk has proved to be a promising source of antibodies. However, the extraction methods and storage stability of IgY antibodies from egg yolk for feed supplements remain major problems in mass production. Based on Based on IgY antibody titer, IgY thermostability, IgY acid and alkali resistance, resistance to trypsin and pepsin, four different IgY purification methods (PEG extraction, water dilution method, the eff...
Zengwen Huang1,2, WuReliHazi Hazihan2*, Baheti Bodai2, Kadyken Rizabek3, Nuralieva Ulzhan3, Omarova Karlygash4, Juan Zhang1 and Yaling Gu1*
...ions and displays strong disease resistance, fast growth, and high cold tolerance. The effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the expression of follistatin inhibin alpha gene (INHα) in YM sheep was analyzed, and the INHα gene was amplified from total RNA of the ovary tissue of YM sheep and was successfully cloned. The eukaryotic siRNA expression vector was constructed with the cloned gene as the target and validated at the cellular level.Three ...
Zumama Khalid1, Muhammad Abrar Yousaf2, Abeedha Tu-Allah Khan1Farah Rauf Shakoori2, Muhammad Munir3 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori1*
...s. Although the complete disease-causing mechanisms of COVID-19 remain to be fully elucidated, active research is being conducted continuously in the field to gather as much information about every aspect of this disease as possible. Also, a clear difference is prevalent in different regions of the world about the rate of deaths and survivals. Therefore, the current comprehensive review has been written in view of all these ...
Yan Wen1, Liu Lian2, Zhuang Xun3, Murong Jiaying4, Cui Shuyi1, He Wanwen1, Mai Guanghuai5, Huang Wenzhu1, Chen Gang1,* and Wang Zhijun1,*
...ic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The elderly patients suffering from COPD were randomly divided into an observation group (n=30) and a treatment group (n=30). Accordingly, the patients in the observation group were given a medication-assisted treatment plan for stable COPD based on established guidelines and indoor rehabilitation training for pulmonary function. Outdoor-based rehabilitation therapy was also delivered to the patients in the treatment gr...
Aamir Khan1, Rabia Noushin2, Mohammad Attaullah3, Shahid Naiz Khan1, Rafiqe Hussain4, Farman Ullah Dawar1, Faiz Ur Rehman1, Muhammad Ijaz1 and Kalim Ullah1*
... importance of tick born diseases in the livestock sector, the present study was conducted to find out the prevalence of babesiosis among domestic cattle of Southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Blood samples (1500) were collected from clinically suspected cattle in span of one year. All blood samples were examined through microscope. Overall incidence of babesiosis was 54.80%.B. bovesshowed high prevalence (35.46%) than B. bigemina (19.33%). Femal...

Amir Afzal, Muhammad Ijaz and Sayed Rashad Ali Shah*

Determination of Suitable Growth Stage for Application of Fungicide against Stripe Rust in Wheat
... is severely detrimental disease. Improvement of crop through incorporation of resistance is practiced enormously. However, a wheat variety that has been recommended for cultivation may not remain resistant for long because of fluctuating nature of pathogen. Therefore, an alternative management strategy to control diseases is application of suitable fungicide at appropriate growth stage. For this, an experiment was conducted...

Ummad ud Din Umar1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ishfaq Ahmed1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2, Sibghat Ullah3, Shah Pasand4, Zehri Khan3 and Abdur Rehman5

Prevalence and Serological Detection of Spiroplasma citri, a Cause of Citrus Stubborn Disease in Southern Punjab, Pakistan
...se of Citrus little leaf disease (Citrus stubborn disease) which is not only responsible for the low citrus production in terms of quality and quantity but also moving the citrus industry to down fall in citrus growing areas throughout the world. Current research was organized to study the distribution of disease using the serological based detection methods by conducting a comprehensive s...

Iram Bilqees1, Yasir Iftikhar1, Mustansar Mubeen1,2*, Qaiser Shakeel3, Ashara Sajid1, Zahoor Hussain4, Aqleem Abbas2, Muhammad Aamir Sohail2, Judith Jeruto Kiptoo5 and Shehzad Iqbal2

Use of Nutrients and Plant Extract to Manage Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease (OYVMD) in Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...>Okra yellow vein mosaic disease (OYVMD) has been a menace to okra cultivation wherever grown in the world. This trial was carried out to monitor the disease severity, incidence and its management through different nutrients and plant extract. Plant extract and multi-nutrients were used to manage the disease to avoid the hazardous effect of chemicals on human health and being the eco-frien...
Chao Zhao1,2, Sigang Fana2 and Lihua Qiua2,3,*
...ns and water quality and diseases affect commercial shrimp production, the relation between these factors are less studied. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of bacterial dynamics and water quality factors on Penaeus monodon larvae. We recorded the survival rates, water quality (total ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate concentration), heterotrophic bacteria, and vibrios during different P. monodon stages(nauplii, zoea, mysis stage, po...

Muhammad Shakeel1*, Mudussar Nawaz1, Zahid Naseer1, Muhammad Fiaz1, Asghar Khan1, Muhammad Imran Khan1, Awais Ur Rehman1, Ahmad Yar Qamar2 and Ali Raza3

Caprine and Ovine Serological Evidence of Brucellosis in Five Districts of Punjab, Pakistan
... is a worldwide zoonotic disease that affects various animal species. Amongst different Brucella species, Brucella melitensis has the greater zoonotic aspect, hence, it is considered an occupational hazard for small ruminant handlers as well as Veterinarians. The present study reports the seroprevalence of brucellosis in different sheep and goat breeds in five districts of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 1239 serum samples were collected from male (n=73) and fema...

Md. Aminul Islam1*, A.N.M. Aminoor Rahman2, Mohammad Shah Alam3 and Md. Taimur Islam4

Gastrointestinal Nematodiasis in Quail in Bangladesh
...other types of parasitic diseases in quails in Bangladesh.

...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Obinna Oragwa Arthur2, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1, Sarah Joseph1, Geoffrey Chibueze1, Joshua Adetunji1, Joseph Ameh Okwori3, David Ochola Amanyi4, Otobo I. Ujah5 and Onyemocho Audu6

Seroprevalence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection among Slaughtered Ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria
... mosquito-borne emerging disease, capable of causing large epidemics in livestock accompanied by cases in humans, but with a complex cycle of transmission that makes it difficult to predict. The risk of infection in humans is more with livestock handlers who get occupationally exposed to Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) because of frequent contact with infected vectors, animal body fluids and other tissues. We aimed to determine the prevalence of antibodies agai...
Huma Abbas1, Muhammad Azhar Iqbal2, Muhammad Kamran3, Muhammad Umar Shahbaz3*, Haseeb Ullah Kamber1, Nazir Javed1, Muhammad Junaid1, Hira Abbas4 and Muhammad Ehetisham ul Haq3
Evaluation of Advanced Mung Bean Germplasm against Cercospora Leaf Spot and its In-vitro Management by Different Fungicides
...onditions. To manage the diseases through tolerant germplasm and with environmentally safe fungicides is a cost-effective approach. The present study was aimed to find the resistant germplasm against the disease and to evaluate the relative efficacy of different fungicides against the C. canesens in lab conditions. Twenty varieties/lines were screened against Cercospora Leaf Spot disease i...

Malik Abdul Rehman1, Shafqat Ali1, Muhammad Babar Shahzad Afzal1, Muhammad Nawaz Khan1 and Mujahid Ali2*

Efficacy of Chemicals and Botanical Extracts to Control Citrus Canker on Kinnow in Sargodha Region
...ychloride controlled the disease up to 74%, difenconazole up to 56%, whereas, among botanicals, the disease control was 74%, 64%, 59%, and 52% due to application of extract solutions of A. cepa, D. alba, Neem Oil, and A. nilotica, respectively. The application of different chemicals also significantly influenced the fruit quality regarding fruit weight, fruit size, peel thickness, and juice weight. Copper oxychloride and A. ...

Muhammad Imran1,2*, Shahbaz Talib Sahi1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Amer Rasul3

Brown Leaf Spot: An Exacerbated Embryonic Disease of Rice: A Review
...o 90% depending upon the disease triangle. It has become a great concern for the rice-growing areas to find better management strategies under the fluctuation of the climate conditions. Different management practices (cultural, biological, chemical, induce resistance, nutrient management, natural byproducts, and resistant cultivars) are used by farmers in different field areas of the world. The use of the resistant source is the simple, reliable, operative and...

Zulnorain Sajid1*, Muhammad Ramzan2 and Noreen Akhtar1

Foraging Behavior and Pollination Ecology of Bumble Bee and Honey Bee in Pakistan; A Review
...the treatment of various diseases like cardiac diseases, hypertension and many others problems. These are the main source of income for entomologist and agriculture graduates. There are several factors (habitat loss, landscape degradation, overuse of agrochemical, exotic species and pathogens) involved in the declining of pollinators, a big loss for the economy of Pakistan. The aim of this review paper was to check the impor...

Md. Sahidur Rahman

Origin and Spillover of Coronaviruses: Prospects of One Health Action
...group of viruses causing diseases in mammals, including humans and birds. Bat and rodents act as a reservoir of alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus whereas, gamacoronavirus and deltacoronavirus originate in avian species. Domestic animals also play a critical role in disease transmission as they are found seropositive against different coronaviruses. At least seven coronaviruses are known to have been spilled over from anim...
Gulzhan Aubakirova1*, Zhanat Adilbekov2, Assylkhan Inirbayev2, Assel Zhamanova2 and Aibar Akhmetov3
...hat the most common fish disease in the water bodies of the Karaganda region was postdiplostomatosis, which was diagnosed in the roach in all the water bodies of three regions, and the most infection was observed in the fish of the DSU-58 reservoir in the Nurinsky district, where the infestation rate was 42.8%, intensity 3-5. Most likely this is due to the presence of fish-eating birds (herons and tree frogs) and a large number of gastropods in these reservoir...

Ghulam Akbar1*, Ali Ahmad2, Neha Arooj1, Muhammad Anjum Zia1, Aamna Rafique1, Sania Riasat1, Mohsin Raza1, Mahpara Qamar1, Shahneela Nusrat1 and Shakila Hanif1

Critical Update for the Treatment of Anemia by using Advanced Genome Editing Crispr Cas Technology
...uch as persistent kidney disease, cancer, ischemic heart ailment and inflammatory bowel disorder. However, with the development in generation at genome editing level have made feasible to accurate mutations in human genome. A site oriented specific break in double stranded DNA is induced by CRISPR/Cas9, whereas different oligonucleotides are provided to make accurate DNA template for genome correction. It is of importance to knowledge about types of CRISPR to ...
Ammara Gull-E-Fareen1, 3, Imran Bodlah1*, Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1, Yasir Niaz2, Muhammad Adnan Bodlah2, Muhammad Asif4 and Nasir M. Khokhar5
...ct aphids from different diseases. Aphids (serious crop pests) can be divided into myrmecophilous and non- myrmecophilous. The main objective of this study was to determine trophic associations of ants associated with aphids on various host plants in Pothwar. For this purpose, seven ant species were selected, identified as Camponotus compressus (Fabricius, 1787), Formica fusca Linnaeus, 1758, Formica clara Forel, 1886, Lepisiota frauenf...
Rida Younas1*, Tamseela Mumtaz1, Nabeela Roohi2 and Muhammad Amir Iqbal3
...ic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Evaluation of expressed of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine as biomarker was obtained in moderate, severe and very severe COPD patients and established their relationship with lung obstruction. Samples were collected between April and August 2017, total 35 COPD patients with lung obstruction (FEV1/FVC< 70) were enrolled as well as age and sex matche...

Muhammad Yaseen1*, Muhammad Luqman1*, Zahoor Hussain2, Usman Saleem3, Asif Nawaz1, Tahir Munir Butt4 and Muhammad Umer Mehmood1

Assessment of Knowledge Level and Information Sources of Vegetable Growers regarding Tunnel Farming in District Sargodha
...k of insects, pests, and diseases in tunnel farming. Some areas were identified, which require the attention of responsible authorities for the relevant knowledge.

...
Taqiur Rahman1, Tabassum Yaseen1*, Ali Mujtaba Shah2, Samiullah3, Ghulam Jelani3, Gul Nawaz1,Qudratullah Kalwar2
...nd methods used to treat diseases, maintaining animal health and its importance to ethnobotany and Pharmacogonosy.The objective of the present study is to identify the leading medicinal plants used by local communities for the treatment of animals and document the threatened herbal knowledge from the elder formers (R1, R2 and R4) this study labels the ethno veterinary practices in different villages of District Shangla, where the documentation process is carri...

Muhammad Javaid1*, Unsar Naeem-Ullah1, Waheed S. Khan2, Shafqat Saeed1, Mirza Abdul Qayyum1 and Muhammad Arslan Khan1

Role of Nanotechnology in Crop Protection and Production: A Review
...control pathogens, plant diseases and nanoherbicides for the management of weeds. It also facilitate in precision farming, targeted use of inputs i.e. nanofertilizers and to overcome the environmental stress seed treatments with nanoparticles, to improve the crop yield use of smart gene delivery system. This technology can also be useful for sustainable water use and irrigation water filtration. It also plays an important role in pollution reduction. Green rev...
Neelam Pery1*, Fatima Ijaz1, Nayab Batool Rizvi1, Munawar Ali Munawar1 and Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq2*
...thritis is an autoimmune disease with prevalence all over the world. Several therapeutics with different modes of action are available to deal with the disease but have failed to produce universal response leaving a large proportion of patients untreated. This is due to complex pathogenesis comprising a network of signaling pathways. By controlling one pathway, the pathogenesis continues through complementary pathways. Janus...
Gautam Patra1*, Ana Sahara2, Sonjoy Kumar Borthakur1, Parthasarathi Behera3, Subhamoy Ghosh1, Apurba Debbarma4 and Seikh Sahanawaz Alam5
...ng emergence of wildlife diseases with the possibility to ecological threats as well as domestic animals and human health has prompted the importance of understanding disease dynamics and associated risks in biological conservation. The present study was undertaken from North Eastern part of India from January, 2017 to March, 2018 to identify and molecularly characterize Plasmodium relictum based on cyt b gene ...
Faryal Saad1,3, Zia Ur Rahman2, Aamir Khan3, Rabia Noushin4, Irfan Ullah5, Farman Ullah Dawar3,Shahid Naiz Khan3, Rafiqe Hussain6, Kenza Javed2Abid ur Rehman7, Amna Fayaz3, Zohra Saifullah3 and Kalim Ullah3*
...tive way to control this disease. Lack of health care facilities and proper screening of pregnant women for various congenital infections in the Sothern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, making the situation more worst. Therefore, this preliminary study was set to assess the seroprevalence and molecular detection of CMV infection among pregnant women of districts Lakki Marwat and Bannu of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A total of 188 blood samples were randomly collected ...
Mushtaq Ahamd Khan1, Ziaul Islam2, *, Amin Ullah Jan3, Kamran Khan2 and Abdullah Shah3
...alent parasitic zoonotic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals including humans. Congenital infection with T. gondii during pregnancy can result in severe abnormalities in infants such as hydrocephalus and mental retardation. The present study was conducted to estimate seroprevalence and potential risk factors in acquiring T. gondii infection by child-bearing age women in Dir Khyber Pakhtunkh...
Mumtazur Rahman1, Farhan Anwar Khan1,*,Umar Sadique1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Faisal Ahmad1,2, Hayatullah Khan1,3, Muhammad Saeed1, Faiz Ur Rehman1, Ibrar Hussain1, M. Faraz Khan1, M. Izhar ul Haque1 and Hanif-ur-Rehman1,3

...ly contagious and deadly disease of small ruminants, especially goats. It is an economically important disease, causing high morbidity and mortality in goats. More recently Mccp Pakistan strain has been identified and isolated by our laboratory. Alarmingly, antimicrobials in animals are inappropriately using and resultantly leading to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) including mycoplasmas, which are causing serious infections ...

Masoud Hassani1* and Omid Madadgar2,3

Serological Evidence of Bluetongue in Iran: A Meta-Analysis Study
...e is an infectious viral disease that is endemic in the domestic livestock populations of all tropical and subtropical countries. BT was first reported in Iran in 1972, however until now there is the absence of comprehensive information on the BT status in Iran. We aimed to present the seroprevalence on BT in farm animals of Iran based-on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis study was conducted in national and international databases to find articles which...
Jin-Juan Wan, Mei-Fang Shen*, Hui Xue, Hong-Yan Liu, Mei-Qin Zhang, Xi-He Zhu and Chong-Hua Wang

 

Xuya Zhou1, Ying Liu1, Deqin Xu1, Jie Bao1, Yaru Cao2 and Yong Jin3*
...e risk of cardiovascular disease, such as thiazolidine diketone: rosiglitazone, selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors: rofecoxib, celecoxib. This study was aimed to find out whether unification of two drugs would increase cardiovascular side effects. Type 2 diabetic rat model was induced through feeding with fodder containing high sugar and lipid and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The adjuvant-induced arthritis model was established by Para...
Adeen Kiran1, Umar Farooq Gohar1*, Ayesha Farooq1, Malik Muhammad Asif2 and Hamid Mukhtar1
Redressal of Antibiotic Resistance using Plant Extracts
...nough to cure infectious diseases caused by these resistant pathogens. In this battle, there is a continuous need to develop new drugs or compounds that can cure these infections or to reverse the antibiotic resistance in these pathogens. In recent years different experimental approaches highlighted the importance of phytochemicals present in plants and its ability to kill these pathogens and microbial inability to develop resistance against these pathogens. T...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Muhammad Ehetisham ul Haq1*, Muhammad Kamran1, Muhammad Idrees1, Shahid Nazir2, Ihsan Ullah3, Sumera Naz1, Shaukat Ali1 and Muhammad Zafar Iqbal2

Morpho-Molecular Characterization of Xanthomonas Axonopodis Pv. Citri Associated with Kinnow (Mandarin) and its Management
...ord the incidence of the disease in the Sargodha districts of the Punjab province. Furthermore, isolated bacterium from diseased samples was characterized morphologically and molecularly. The relative efficacy of commercially available antibiotics against the pathogen was evaluated in the lab and in field conditions. A systematic survey of randomly ten localities/sampling sites was conducted for a reliable estimation of citr...

 Shafii Abdullahi Mohamed1, Abdiaziz Idiris Mohamud2*, Yonis Abukar Mohamed3, Pravin Mishra4 and Osman Sheikh Ali Jama5

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Population Towards Brucellosis in Benadir Region, Somalia
...was 37.5% (n=45) and the disease was 45% (n=54), while transmission of animal to human was 43.33% (n=52). The majority of participants would take actions to ensure the animal is healthy when they buy 95% (n=114), all participants would like to receive more information about the disease and majority of participants have good practices when they handling the domesticated animals and their secretions 96.66% (n=116). Populations...

Sidra Shehzadi, Sher Bahadar Khan*, Umar Sadique and Saqib Nawaz

Isolation and Molecular Identification of Clostridium perfringens Type D in Goats in District Peshawar
...perfringens Type D, is a disease of domestic animals particularly sheep and goat widespread in Pakistan due to endemic outbreak in every spring season; therefore the current study was conducted for isolation  and molecular identification of new strains of C. perfringens Type D for effective diagnosis, treatment and vaccination. A total of 100 fecal samples  were collected aseptically from four different zones of district Peshawar during the period of...

Ghulam Rabbani1, Uzma Javed1*, Javed Iqbal2, Ruqeah Mustafa3, Ghulam Shabbir2 and Fida Hassan Shah4

Barani Mash a Newly Developed Disease Resistant and High Yielding Mash Cultivar for Rainfed Areas of Punjab, Pakistan
...r has resistance against diseases and lodging, the pod size is medium and 100-seed weight is 4.73 g. It has been developed through screening from the local material. It was further evaluated in yield trials for six years from 2012 to 2016. The line 11CM-707 had higher yield than check cultivars per all replicated yield trials. In addition, it has resistance to yellow mosaic. The main yield contributing characters were number of pods per plant, number of primar...
Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1,2, Zaheer Ahmed Nizamani1, Asghar Ali Kamboh3, Mansoor Ayoob4, Waseem Ali Vistro3 and Abdul Sattar Baloch3*
... viscerotropic newcastle disease (VVND) in Japanese quails and mynas. Both birds were divided into Q1, Q2, Q3, M1, M2 and M3 group each of four bird. The birds of group Q1, M1 and Q2, M2 were administered with 0.3ml of VVND virus (1.8×109 EID 50)via intramuscular and oral routes, respectively, whereas, birds of group Q3 and M3were kept in contact exposure with VVND virus infected chickens. Clinical signs were observed in Japanese qu...
Saima Yaqub1, Tahir Yaqub1*, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir2, Asif Nadeem3Aziz-Ul-Rahman1, Muhammad Furqan Shahid1, Zarfishan Tahir4 and Nadia Mukhtar4
...interventions to control disease in developing countries like Pakistan. A total of 201 plasma samples were collected from IDUs. Samples were first screened using HIV-1 Ag/Ab Combo test and then antigen positive samples were amplified for HIV-1 pol gene (1084 bp) and analyzed. Initial screening showed a total of 49 HIV samples positive (24.37%; 95% CI: 18.96-30.76). A substantial association of HIV incidence was observed in individuals with HCV infection (36.84...

Yuan Xing, Congming Tan, Yan Luo and Wenjun Liu* 

...onic inflammatory airway disease, characterized by reversible goblet cells, smooth muscle hyperplasia, airflow obstruction, hyperactivity enhanced, ultra-structural remodeling, and airway mucus production. The current experimental study was aimed at scrutinizing quercetin’s inhibitory effect on airway inflammation in mice and its possible mechanism of action. The mice received varying doses of quercetin from 22-30 days (1, 10 and 50 mg / kg, p.o.) and mo...
Mohsin Ali1, Nargis Haider Kakar2, Rida Dawood3,4, Qurat-ul-ain Fatima5, Zunera Tanveer2, Shoaib Ahmad Malik6, Tauseef Muhammad Asmat1, Asadullah1, Muhammad Masood Tariq Kiani1 and Mohammad Zahid Mustafa1*
...k of having other immune diseases including thyroid abnormalities. The current study, undertaken in collaboration with Shaikh Khalifa-Bin-Zayed Hospital Quetta, investigates the relation of thyroid abnormalities in 224 DM (both type 1 and type 2) patients. The parameters of age, duration of diabetes and type of treatment were measured. Venous blood was taken to investigate the thyroid profiles. Out of 224 patients examined, 67.85% showed the normal thyroid pro...

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Waqas Wakil2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi3 and Waqas Raza1*

Influence of Resistance Inducers on Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Contents of Susceptible Chickpea Cultivars after Inoculation with Ascochyta rabiei
...rtant role in mitigating disease damage. Nevertheless, no specific rule exists that how a specific nutrient can alter the severity of the disease. Normally, plants are stressed by different environmental confines may be weakened and susceptible to disease and these include nutrient scarce plants. Tissue contents of potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus of above parts of the ground of plant i...

Mehar Ul Nissa Rais1*, Tahmina Mangan1, Jam Ghulam Murtaza Sahito1 and Naeem Ahmed Qureshi2

A Trend Analysis: Forecasting Growth Performance of Production and Export of Chilli in Pakistan
...ributed to major floods, diseases attack, poor management practices and shortage of high yielding varieties. Sindh is major producer of chilli with 85 percent contribution in chilli production of Pakistan. Sindh and Balochistan provinces depicted a positive growth of 0.016 percent and 0.035 percent, respectively. Growth performance of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces portrayed negative growth rate -0.044 percent and -0.006 percent, respectively. Forecas...
Ahmad Sadiq1, Muzafar Shah2*, Habib Ullah1, Irfan Ali1, Amir Alam3
Navid Jalil1 and Muhammad Khan3
... cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The present work revealed the role of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the detection of lipid profile and CVD. In recent study 108 (56 males and 52 female) type 2 diabetes (T2DM) subjects were diagnosed at Hayatabad Medical Complex (HMC) Peshawar and private diabetic clinic “Khattak Medical Centre” (KMC), Dabgari Garden Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The normal or control group consists of twenty (9 ...
Ayesha Alam1,* and Labeeb Ali2
... common mediators of the diseases in human beings. Including respiratory disorders, bronchiolitis, digestive tract disorders, pneumonia and conjunctivitis. Additionally, traces of COVID-19 were also found in sewage water sources in some countries like Italy bringing attention towards analysis of sewage water. Based on information from cited literature it is estimated that an individual handling sewage water have approximately 1% chance of becoming infected wit...
Muhammad Shoaib1, Imran Rashid1*, Haroon Akbar1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi3, Muhammad Asif3, Mumtaz Ali Khan4, Shakeel Mahmood5 and Farhan Anwar Khan6
...ock and companion animal diseases are most important globally. In accordance to its economic impact the current study was conducted in three districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan i.e. Mardan, Kohat and Swat. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ixodid ticks and associated animals’ related risk factors. A total of 434 tick infested cattle from three districts were examined conveniently. The genus Rhipicephalus w...
Rabia Riaz1, Khushi Muhammad1*, Masood Rabbani1, Muhammad Amjad Iqbal2, Aamir Riaz Khan2, Sadia Sarfaraz1, Mudassar Naseer3 and Khalid Majeed1

Shishir Sharma* and Laxmi Prasad Joshi

Current Insights on Stemphylium Blight of Lentil with its Management Strategies
...cy and intensity of this disease depends on environmental and climatic factors that are mainly favored by high humidity, temperature greater than 220c, and cloudiness. The pathogen mainly persists in crop debris and occasionally in seed during the offseason. Mapping QTLs by utilizing wild varieties and landraces may be used to develop disease-resistant varieties which it is the most efficient, cost-effective, and environment...
Ashara Sajid1, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Saeed Rauf 2, Zahoor Hussain3, Salman Ahmad1 and Yasir Iftikhar1,*
...;">Asian citrus greening disease is one of the leading causes of the citrus decline in many parts of the world, including Pakistan. Adequate information about disease incidence is essential for the eradication and controlling measures of disease. In this context, a survey regarding the incidence of citrus green disease (CGD) was recorded in two cultivars...
Abdul Hafeez1*, Akhtar Nawaz Khan2 and Zahid Ullah3
...cluding DNA/proteins and diseased human cells can be detected by a variety of micro and nanoscale devices and systems. Unfortunately, these biomedical applications suffer from huge amount of data. That is, the data generated by such systems is so large that a typical computer workstation cannot handle it in real-time. Traditional approaches rely on unloading raw data to off line storage and suffer from the trade-off of an insufficiently rigorous sampling rate....
Faheem Ahmed Khan1*, Sarzamin Khan2, Qurat-ul-Ain3, Saqib Ishaq1Muhammad Salman1, Abdul Rehman1, Ikram Ullah4, Kalsoom5 and Johar Jamil5
Ying Liu1, Shankun Liu1, Hui Wang2 and Weihua Su2,*
...fect against the various diseases. Previous study suggests that the caffeic acid have potent anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of the current study was to scrutinize the protective effect of caffeic acid against the streptozotocin induced GDM in rats and explores the possible mechanism of action. A total 36 female rats were caged into the male rats for the pregnancy, and 33 female pregnant rats were collected and weight. The female rats were group into follo...
Iram Liaqat1*, Tahir Hussain1,2, Aisha Waheed Qurashi3, Gulbeena Saleem2Asia Bibi4, Muhammad Fiaz Qamar5,ShaukatAli1 and Ikram-ul-Haq6 
...ne of the most important diseases of poultry that increases the death rate and reduction in eggs production. Bacteria forms the complex structural colonies enclosed in a sticky matrix known as biofilm. Various antimicrobial approaches used to treat gastrointestinal infections are usually ineffective due to biofilm formation. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare biofilm formation of three S. Gallinarum strains isolated from commercial broiler chi...
Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khalid Munir1, Ghulam Abbas1’*, Isra Munir1Mumtaz Ahmad Khan1, Asif Iqbal1, Munsoor ud Din Ahmad1, Muhammad Arshad Javid2, Zareen Fatima1 and Maria Arshad1
...med as nCoV-19 and later disease due to this virus was named as COVID-19, and recently named as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. This new coronavirus was found to have 86.9 % homology to a batcoronavirusandhence it wassuspectedto have been originatedfrombats. Till 15th January 2021, the COVID-19 infection has been reported from 219 c...
Hina Habib Syed1, Muzafar Shah2*, Shahid Sherzada3 and Masroor Elahi Babar1
...Swat valley for malarial disease in 2017. Blood samples were collected from all age groups patients visiting hospital labs and District Head Quarter Laboratory who were recommended for diagnosis of malaria. About 1050 patients were examined and malaria was detected through microscopy of thick and thin blood smears and rapid diagnostic test of which 118 (11.24%) were found infected with malaria parasite. Comparative Data was also collected from other labs of Di...
Eman Khalifa1*, Riad Khalil2 and Haitham Elaadli3
...oonotic and debilitating disease threatening animal and human health beside economy, this research aimed to determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis from buffaloes’ mastitic milk by isolation on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ medium), Ziehl-Neelsen staining; identification by different biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at 500bp diagnostic for M. bovis, as well as (2) to determine the therapeutic efficacy of the vari...
Rahmat Ullah Khan, Asif Sadam and Sajid Mahmood*
...itats loss, overgrazing, disease and harsh environmental conditions. Awareness campaigns and enforcement of legislation are recommended to save the population of chakor.
...
Saba Shabeer1, Riffat Tahira2 and Atif Jamal3*
 
...y economically important diseases of crops.Many species are included in the Fusarium genus, which are not only pathogenic to plants but also cause different diseases in humans and livestock.Apart from diseases, one of the most dangerous characteristics of this fungus is the ability to produce dangerous secondary toxic metabolites, which are commonly known as mycotoxin...
Javaria Sherani1,2*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani1, Tanveer Ahmad2, Sohail Kamaran3, Abdul Manan2, Tehseen Ali Jilani2 and Mateen Sajid2
 
...hnique to improve yield, disease resistance and fruit quality. This work aims to assess the effect of grafting on production, fruit ripening, physical and chemical properties, and nutritional quality of the fruit. Rootstock has a great influence on plant growth and development, including fruit ripening. However, the presence of a cross-interaction between grafting and rootstock is often neglected. To explore cross-interaction between grafting and rootstock on ...

 Muhammad Ajmal1, Saima Mustafa1, Fizza Ibrahim Bajwa1, Cheng Zhou2, Guangdong Wen2, Soe Lwin Myint2, Syed Irfan Raza3, Ihtasham Bukhari4, Mubashir Hassan5, Muhammad Faisal6 and Furhan Iqbal1*

...data associated with the disease. Patients from both families exhibited congenital atrichia with papular lesions (APL) including hair loss in the scalp, pubic and other body parts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify all the over lapping intron exon regions of HR gene followed by DNA sequencing. Analysis of the DNA sequence revealed a novel deletion c.429delC in exon 2 of HR gene. Due to this deletion Proline at 144 changed into L...
Roland Eric Yessinou1*, Alain Richi Kamga Waladjo2, Nestor Noudeke1, Ignace Dramou3, Justin Adinsi1, Victorien Tamègnon Dougnon4, Elsie Yélognisê Sangnidjo5, Razack Osse5, Alfred Dansou6 and Souaïbou Farougou1
...nd epidemiology may help disease control efforts and limit the risk of transmission, both locally and internationally. This study is also important in order to guide interventions, public health authorities and inform on the evolution of the disease.
...
Saad A. Moussa1, Mohammed Ahmed Mahmoud Abdullah2*, Mahmoud Saied1, Mustafa Saleh1, Mohamed A. Soliman2 and Ali Mahmoud Zanaty2
...nic strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. Phylogenetic analysis of recent Egyptian isolates in Menofia governorate, Egypt was constructed, and showed to be of genotype VII. Eight NDV viruses were isolated from vaccinated commercial broiler flocks showing respiratory manifestation in Menofia governorate, Egypt...
Ryan Septa Kurnia1* and Radiana Dhewayani Antarianto2
 

...earch about mechanism of disease and drug development is conducted in 2D cell culture or in animal models. The 2D cell culture models poorly imitate the condition in vivo and provide limited utility due to mimic tissue physiology in multicellular organisms. Although animal models can be used as pre-clinical tools for new-agent screening prior to clinical testing, there is a growing awareness of the limitations of animal research and its inability to mak...
Hafiz Tassawar Abbas1*, Tamoor Khan1, Ghulam Khaliq2, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3, Muhammad Rashid4, Intazar Ali5, Muhammad Abuzar Jaffar2, Ghulam Ali Bugti6 and Muhammad Waseem4
 

...ant protein. A number of diseases attack chickpea crop but wilt disease is the principle one. In mineral contents i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, iron and copper were decreased in chickpea plants affected with wilt disease. Leaves of three resistant and susceptible (un-inoculated and inoculated) chickpea lines/varieties were tested to find out their ...
Asma Chaudhary1, Qurat-ul-Ain Ahmad1, Afia Muhammad Akram1, Sadia Roshan2 and Javed Iqbal Qazi3*
...robiotics employment for disease control in aquaculture.
...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Jennifer Ifeoma Okpara1, James Mogoret Dabol1, Joshua Adetunji1, David Adeniyi2, David O. Amanyi3, Otobo I. Ujah4, Veronica David1, Patience Omaiye5 and Onyemocho Audu6

...pment of end stage liver disease. Furthermore, larger studies are needed to gain better understanding of the HDV infection among chronic hepatitis B patients in endemic regions and other high-risk populations.

...
Canan Vejselova Sezer*
...ont-size: small;">Cancer disease is a major cause of death worldwide in the last few decades. Recently, the risk of cancer and its mortality rates have increased both in economically less and highly developed countries. Two of the leading causes of the death of cancer are lung and breast cancers among males and females, respectively. A variety of drugs are in use for cancer treatment but their recruiting properties are limited because of the developing resista...
Muhammad Farooq1*, Allah Rakha2,Jawad Ul Hassan2, Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi1, A. Shakoor3, Muhammad Bakhtiar4, Muhammad Noman Khan5,Shoaib Khan5, Ibrar Ahmad6, Shabir Ahmed7 andWang Yunyang1*
 

...al, bacterial and cancer diseases. Mushroom powder also used to reduce blood pressure and increase resistance of person against many diseases. Keeping in perspective the position of dietary and medicinal values of mushroom in this research mushroom powder was added into muffins to improve nutritious and dietetic status of muffin. To achieve desired objective mushroom powder was mixed with wheat flour to improve sensory attri...

Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Badol Ashraf and Md. Mahmudul Alam*

...he abundance of surgical diseases in the study area. The outcome of this study will add to the existing knowledge on the effects of biological and environmental variables on the prevalence of bovine surgical affections in Mymensingh and its surrounding localities.

...

Ali Zaman1, Nabila Roohi1 and Muhammad Irfan2*

...ines suffer from a fatal disease, “Hemorrhagic septicemia” (HS), which is produced by a gram-negative bacterium “Pasteurella multocida.” Existing literature has established bacteria’s pathogenesis, but still, the literature about the role of bacteria and its immunogens on the demonstration of clinical signs, hematology and serum biochemistry in Nili Ravi buffaloes under subtropics is lacking. This study was designed to fulfill thi...

Syed Mazuan, Syed Mohamed, Insyirah Ishak, Dzolkhifli Omar and Norhayu Asib*

...ptible towards pests and diseases. Studies showed the major leaf defoliator of oil palm in Malaysia is the bagworm, Metisa plana. Various spraying methods had been developed for controlling the bagworms. A ground study was conducted in FELDA Gunung Besout 04, Perak, with its main focus on mistblower application towards bagworms. Stihl SR420 mistblower was characterised by having 1.2L / min flow rate, produced volume median diameter of 80μm, and achieved spr...
Arsalan Rasheed1, Tahir Usman2,*, Sadaf Niaz1, Irfan Khattak2, Saira Gul2, Nawab Ali1,Naimat Ullah Khan2, Hazrat Ali2, and Mian Saeed Sarwar2
...tory droplets and causes diseases, ranging from colds to more serious illnesses: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Severe Respiratory Syndrome, and Severe Respiratory Syndrome 2. The prevalence rate is high during winter and spring. Genomes of coronaviruses have large enveloped +RNA. First human corona viruses, causing respiratory diseases, were identified in 1960s, but they were not considered highly pathogenic to humans un...

Muhammad Junaid*, Musharaf Ahmad and Saifullah

... best with lowest (1.19) disease ratings. Significantly higher (i.e. 1.75 and 1.89) disease was observed for C1 and C3 amended soils. FYM was better as it produced significantly less (1.14) disease as compared to green manure with 1.35 disease severity. On the other hand, among concentrations, 5% was the best yielding with 2.17kg plant-1, while the other...
Khurram Goraya1,*, Qais ALRawahi1, Sultan ALBalushi1, Hani ALSaadi1, Sami ALRahbi1, Zahir ALAlawi1, Muhammad Hammad Hussain2 and Madad Hussain1
...sbandry requirements and diseases occurring in these species. This study aimed to evaluate the causes of mortalities at WWR. During July to October 2019, fifty mortalities were observed at WWR. These mortalities consisted of 10 Arabian oryx and 40 Sand gazelles. All carcasses were subjected to the detailed post-mortem (PM) examination to find out the potential cause of death. Fatal injuries caused by fighting were the major cause of deaths (n=17, 34%) followed...

Safia Bibi1, Saima Naz1*, Saba Saeed1, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha2

...imulators for variety of diseases in aquatic organisms mainly fishes. Chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) causes histopathological variations and several diseases in various fishes of Pakistan. Extensive histopathological variations in gills, liver, kidney and skin of different fishes were noticed when exposed to heavy metals, thus indicating severity of heavy metal toxicity. The current study was focus...

Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar*, Sania Waliat, Shafaat Yar Khan, Naila Amjad

...s as a vector of various diseases. Chemical insecticides are used on large scale for the effective and quick management of this pest but it has developed resistance against various insecticides in many countries of the world. This study was designed to check the resistance in M. domestica against selected insecticides from Bhalwal as no previous work has been reported from this area. Flies were collected from two different localities i.e., location 1 (L1) was ...

Allah Bakhsh1, Attiq Akhtar1*, Fiaz Hussain1 and Shabbir Ahmed2

...;">Bunch rot is a fungal disease and causes significant yield loses to grapes yield every year. Fruit Zone Leaf Removal (FZLR) is a canopy management technique that provides a cost-effective and high-quality grape yield. In order to boost grape quality and minimize disease incidence in the King’s Ruby variety, FZLR was used for two seasons in a row. Total leaf removal was used before bloom, during full bloom, and four ...

Muhammad Suhail Ibrahim1*, Asif Ahmad1, Anwaar Ahmed1, Amer Mumtaz2, Muhammad Javaid Asad3, Saqib Jabbar2, Ahmad Mujtaba1 and Muhammad Nadeem4

...bal burden of food borne diseases, causing 550 million people to fall ill and 230,000 deaths every year. Children are at particular risk of food borne diarrheal diseases, with 220 million falling ill and 96000 dying every year. There is a persistent rise in the health expenditure of Pakistan. Pakistan is spending 0.5 to 0.8% of its GDP. Total health expenditure during 2016-17 remains at 145.97 billion showing an increase of ...

Habiba ur Rehman, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar and Waqas Raza

...7.67 and 11.33), minimum disease incidence (12.33, 11.12 and 10.13 %), minimum disease severity (26.80, 24.67 and 11.37 %) and maximum plant survival (89.62, 94.35 and 98.37%) at 15, 30 and 45 days after treatment, respectively. The application of Success @ 6mM was also good but lowers than the Nativo. The poor performance and maximum disease incidence and disease<...
Amreen Zahra1, Mushtaq A. Saleem1*, Hasnain Javed2, Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan3, Muhammad Naveed1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori4
...ts in HIV-1, which cause disease initiation and progression. Here we present a comprehensive study, where both the in vitro and in-silico analyses were performed on HIV-1 from isolates of the Punjab area of Pakistan. The main objective in the current study was to study the hypervirulence of SNPs in the Gag-Pol proteins by molecular modeling approaches. Mutational analysis in our study revealed S61A, S61M, S61Y, S61G, S61Q and M90L as the most hyp...
Sajid Ali1, Muhammad Avais1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Kamran Ashraf2, Saira Jabeen1, Sajid Hameed3, Muhammad Awais1, Jawaria Ali Khan1 and Imtiaz Ahmad4 
...revalent than white line disease, sole hemorrhage or inter-digital dermatitis. It was concluded that lameness and hoof lesions are important health problems in studied commercial dairy herds. The occurrence of lameness could be reduced in dairy herds if producers become aware of the associated risk factors, and improve management practices related to cows, environment and facility design.
...

Misbah Ali1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan2*, Rana Binyamin3, Nadeem Ahmed4, Muhammad Usman Ghani5 and Awais Ahmed Khan2

... It is subjected to many diseases in Pakistan like fungal, bacterial, and viral among which the fungal diseases are the most destructive. Colletotrichum graminicola is the causal organism of red leaf spot of sorghum which causes heavy losses to the sorghum crop cultivated in different areas of Pakistan. It produces black anthracnose spots on all the above ground parts especially leaves. In the present study, four fungicides ...

Md. Mukthar Mia1 and Mahamudul Hasan2

...l gastrointestinal viral disease that fundamentally transforms the pups and collapses the body’s posthaste branching organs, such as bone marrow, lymph node, and the flimsy cell of the intestine, causing bloody diarrhea amidst a high mortality and morbidity rate. CPV is distributed in the family Parvoviridae beneath the subfamily Parvovirinae that pertains to the genus Protoparvoviorus with a high genomic replacement unlike other DNA virus; the organism ...

Gulnaz Parveen1*, Naila Mukhtar2, Shumaila Irum3 and Nain Bukhari4

... due to various kinds of diseases and many other effects like post-harvest loss by different fungi. The danger of post-harvest disease influences the way most horticultural crops are handled. Hence, the proper identification of the causal pathogen is important before appropriate treatment can be made to control the pathogens. Therefore, In the present study, Alternaria alternata, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aspergillus nige...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Irfan Shahzad Sheikh1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Khalid Mehmood1, Rana Muhammad Bilal2 and Tauseef Asmat1
... titer against Newcastle disease virus and sheep RBC showed no significant difference among treatment groups (P>0.05). Supplementation of herbal extracts as feed additives at 200 mg/Kg produced better growth performance of broiler chickens with no adverse effects.
...
Rahma Mohamed, Sara Nader, Dalia Hamza and Maha A. Sabry*
...sis of nasal swabs of 52 diseased and healthy donkeys at different localities in Egypt revealed that the overall occurrence of Cryptococcus spp. was 11.5%. The highest proportion was in El-Fayoum Governorate (25). Phenotypic identification of Cryptococcus indicated that 13.2 % and 7.1% among healthy and diseased donkeys were positive for this pathogen, respectively.The study of the potential risk factors associ...

Sehrish Khudadad1, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Ahmed Zia3, Mian Sayed Khan4, Gulnaz Parveen5, Muhammad Kamal Sheikh6*, Falak Naz7, Muhammad Qasim8 and Syed Waqar Shah9

.... They also spread human diseases. Ant fauna is poorly known in Pakistan. As Pakistan occupies an important biogeographic position and the taxonomic studies on ants of Pakistan are badly needed. During this study ant specimens were collected from different localities of district Mansehra. Total 28 species were identified under 16 genera of three sub-families, namely Camponotinae, Myrmecinae and Ponerinae. Subfamily Myrmicinae represented 20 species under 10 ge...
Samina Tahir Kiani1, Abdul Rauf1, Syed Ayaz Kazmi1,*, Nuzhat Shafi1, Madiha Khalid2, Naeem Latif1, Samina Gul2, Saghir Yousaf3 and Muhammad Arshad4
...lence of above-mentioned diseases in underprivileged orphans of District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Blood samples of a total of 300 children (150 males and 150 females), 4-17 years of age were screened for anti-HCV antibody, HBsAg and anti-MTB antibodies using ICT kits. Sputum microscopy for MTB was done in MTB antibody positive samples. The samples positive in initial screening were confirmed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chai...

NawalM. Abdulla1, M. Haroun1*,Mohamed A. Shalaby2and Ahmed A. Elsanousi2

...cterization of Newcastle disease virus
(NDV) field strains was reported in two captivated falcons(Falcoperegrinusperegrinus)
in Qatar.Virus cultivation in specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonating chicken eggs
(ECE),haemagglutination (HA), haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and mean death time
(MDT)used in the investigation to reveal virus identity and pathogenicity. Both NDV
isolates were found to be ...

Walaa ,S. Shabanaa;Bakr, A. Abdallaa; Eman, M. ELShalamia; I.M. Redab; M. A. Shalabyb

.../div>...
Ala’audin Hakami,1AusamaA Yousif,2* Mohamed Zaki,3 Mahmoud Ismail,4,5 Ahmed Al-Ali,5 Abdu-Rahman Al-Ankari5 
...ttacine beak and feather disease virus
(PBFDV) in Saudi Arabia are increasingly reported without laboratory
diagnostic evidence of virus circulation. The objectives of this study were
to investigate the presence of PBFDV in the Arabian Peninsula, and to
identify its possible molecular origins. Total DNA was extracted from
feather and blood samples from randomly selected 19 clinically-suspect
Mansour, L. L.*; Othman, B. A. **; Abd-EL Ghaffar, M. H. **; Eman, M. Marai** and Sahar, A. Youssef* 
...sidered the most serious disease
affecting banana in Egypt.BBTV was isolated from infected banana(Musa
acuminata cv Grandnain)obtained from EL-Behira, Egypt
byPentalonianigronervosa .Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect
BBTV in infected plants and banana aphid (P.nigronervosa) using specific primer
of DNA-1 for BBTV. The results showed that amplified PCR product with the
expe...

Mokbel, Samah A.1,Ahmed K. El Attar1; Azza G.Farag2.

...>
witches‟-Broom disease, which is characterized by excessive axillary branching,
abnormally small leaves, and deformed flowers. Dienes‟ stain was used for detection of
witches‟ broom infection midribs of the symptomatichibiscus plant. The phloem of
infected tissues showed scattered area stained bright blue. Molecular detection utilizing
nested and direct PCR as well as DNA sequencing was used for the...

Maha I. El Zaafarany1, WafaaM. Badawy2, Eman M. El Salakh3

...llomavirus (HPV) in this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in breast cancer.Fifty four fresh frozen breast cancers samples were analyzed. Samples were tested for HPV by PCR, and products were sequenced. Findings were correlated with clinical and pathological characteristics.The HPV DNA prevalence in the breast cancer samples was 28 % (15/54). Sequence analysis in a subgroup of cases indicates the prevalence of high risk ...

Mai A. Kilany1; Hanaa H.A. Gomaa1; Yousry E. Abo El-magd2 and Nermin Raafat2.

...ents. HCC is a prevalent disease in many populations worldwide. It causes many financial problems in treatment modalities with high mortality rates. In develop-ing countries, the major concern in HCC frequently belongs to HCV long lasting in-fection. Chronic HCV infection mostly leads to hepatic cirrhosis before developing HCC. HCV infection induces overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes leading to their proliferation and triggers HCC. ...
Nader M. Sobhy,1 Sunil K. Mor,2 Mohammed E.M. Mohammed,1
Iman M. Bastawecy,3 Hiam M. Fakhry,4 and Sagar M. Goyal2
...in.

...

Hiam M. Fakhry and Assem A.A.

...trivalent Foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccine in sheep. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zeolite (Zeolith UF) as an adjuvant using inactivated trivalent foot and mouth disease virus, to induce protection against foot and mouth disease. This study was conducted in three sheep groups ; the first group was vaccinated intramuscularly (I/M) with trivalent foot and mo...

Yasser F. Elnaker 1, Mohamed El-Tholoth 2, Sahar Saber 3, Amira A- Elsaid4, Mohamed A. Saad 3, Emad E. Younis 5

...h LSDV.

...

Hanaa A. Ahmed1 and Eman M. AboHatab2

... Egypt.

...

Afaf. A. Khedr*, Ekram Salama*, A. A. Samy**, Abdella, Y.A.*** and Suzan. K. Tolba***

...nd infectious bronchitis diseases were prepared, one adjuvanted with mineral oil and the other with Montanide ISA-70. Evaluation of both vaccines were done by challenge test, haemagglutination inhibition test, ELISA test for Avibacterium Paragallinarum, and ELISA test, indirect haemagglutination inhibition test and ciliostasis score for infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV). The immune response for the antigenic component of both vaccines show high titre of antibo...

Hala K. Abdelmegeed 1, Eman M. Abohatab 1, Khattab,O. M. 1 , Salem, S.A.H. 1 , Arafa, A. 2, Nashwa M. Helmy 3

.../div>...

Samah A. Mokbel, Ahmed K. El-Attar

...ling phytoplasma-causing disease through combination of tissue culture
technique and radiation treatment represented a short method for high level
management. To investigate the effect of gamma rays to produce healthy plantlets, the
hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma was transmitted by grafting into healthy
hibiscus plants, the in vitro-infected hibiscus explants were exposed to gamma
radiation at di...

Hanaa H. A. Gomaa1; Entsar A. A. Nassar2; K. A. El-Dougdoug3

...eatment of various liver diseases. All the studied genetic parameters showed variations among milk thistle and parent varieties (plant height, main branch, total branches, head flower, fruit yield per plant). Concentration and yield amount of seven detected silymarin compounds using HPLC showed wide variations among varieties. They ranged from 9.2 to 34.78 mg/g fruits or 450.25 to 1250.25 mg/plant. The silymarin production has the same pattern of fruits yield....
Amro A. Farrag1; Ahmed K. El-Attar1; Om-Hashem M. El-Banna2; Ibrahim A. I.2; H. M. Mazyad 1 
...
growth stages. The disease severity of the viral infection varied in the other four
susceptible varieties at the different growth stages. It was observed that infection
percentage and disease severity were decreased with increasing growth stage. A
significant difference in the percentage of yield loss in inoculated plants at age 15d and
25d from planting compared with con...
Eman A. Ahmed1, Osama Y. Shalaby2, Emad F. Dwidar2, Samah A. Mokbel1, Ahmed K. El-Attar1 
...toplasma associated with diseased
tomato plants (Solanum lycopersycum L.), and to identify and classify the phytoplasma
involved. A detection of infected tomato plants, which showed symptoms of big bud,
witches'-broom and phyllody, in all regions of the screened governorates, reacted
positively when assayed by nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) using universal
phytoplasma-specific primer pairs P1...

AdlyAbd-Alla1,2, MahaNada3, Francois Cousserans1, and Max Bergoin1

...v>
induced similar disease symptoms and bioassay experiment confirmed virus concentration
response mortality. Injection of a purified virus suspension to third instar larvae of Galleria
melonella and Spodopteralittoralis failed to induce any mortality indicating that the virus is
most likely host specific to N. viridula. This virus is similar to the previously reported NVV-1
virus in N. viridula from South ...

Maryam Yousaf1, Salman Ahmad1*, Romana Anjum2 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed3

... response to tomato wilt disease caused by fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). Two months old tomato seedlings were grown under normal conditions in green house and were artificially inoculated with FOL conidial suspension of 1×106 conidia/mL by drenching method. Untreated plants served as control. First disease symptoms appeared after seven days of inoculation and seedlings became wilted within 30 days...

Magdy, Mariam1 ; Abou ElHassan D.G. 2 ; and Salem, S.A.H 3

.../div>...

Sahar Abd El Rahman1; Mohamed Eladl2 and Mohamed M. El-Diasty3

...pizootic arthropod viral disease infecting cattle and water buffaloes. The present work aimed to isolate the causative agent and identify it by serological characterize of the viral antigens, then molecular characterization of its genome. Infection by the bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) was noticed in Dakahlyia governorates during the summer season of 2015. Twelve samples of buffy coats were collected from dairy farms suspected from clinical investigations...

Safaa M. Mohammed*, Shahira A. Abdelwahab**,Fetaih,H⃰ ⃰ ,Neveen,R⃰ ,Abdel satar ,A⃰ and Mohamed S. Elshahidy**

... aged 48-65days old. The disease was examined clinically ,histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Turkey pox virus was isolated on CAM of embryonated chicken eggs and identified by agar gel precipitation test and polymerase chain reaction .Two main types of TKPV infection were observed in examined flocks ,cutaneous and diphtheritic forms. Morbidity rate ranged from 5-15%with no mortalities .75% of examined serum reacted positive to TKPV .All TKPV isolat...

Amir M. Walaa1 ; Ausama Yousif1; Walid H. Kilany2; Magdy El-Sayed1; Ahmed A. El-Sanousi1

Sahar A. Youssef1; Manal A. El-Shazly1,2; Azza G.Farag1,3; Eman A. Khattab1,2

...g a wide range of foliar disease symptoms including necrotic spots, wavy lines, oak leaf pattern, leaf deformation, reduction in number and diameter of flowers , color breaking and necrotic spots on flower petals .The virus was biologically purified from single local lesion formed on Chenopodium quinoa. The isolated virus was identified on the basis of symptomatology, transmissibility, serological tests and molecular technique. The virus was identified serolog...

Manar F. Seioudy1, Magda M. Sayed1, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2 and M. A. Shalaby2

...omically important viral disease of sheep and goats with high morbidity and mortality rates. A live attenuated PPR vaccine has been produced in Veterinary Serum and Vaccines Research Institute (VSVRI), Abbasia. It has and still been utilized to control PPR disease in endemic areas of the Arabian Gulf. In this study, the identity of four batches of PPR vaccines was tested as per the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) g...

Rafia Ahsan1, Saif Ullah1, Ijaz Yaseen1, Faisal Sohail Fateh1, Muhammad Fayyaz1, Shahzad Asad1, Atif Jamal1, Muhammad Sufyan2 and Muhammad Zakria1*

...light (BLB) is a serious disease of irrigated rice in Pakistan. All famous varieties of Basmati rice are susceptible to bacterial blight. Survey of rice growing areas of Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) was conducted during the year 2019-20. BLB was prevalent in all the surveyed provinces of Pakistan. In Punjab, high disease prevalence was observed in Gujranwala (55%), Hafizabad (36%), Sialkot (29%) and Narowal (27%...

Nashwa M. Helmy1, Ahmed S. Ahmed2, and Zeinab3 Y. Mohamed

...course of the Lumpy skin disease (LSD), and (100) Peripheral blood samples without anticoagulant were drawn from apparently healthy non vaccinated cattle against LSDV and (100) serum samples were drawn from cattle 4 weeks post vaccination with local attenuated sheep pox virus vaccine located in Sharkia and Fayoum governorates. Methods: Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) was isolated from skin biopsies collected from clinically ...

Lamya A. F. Ateya1, Said A. Ahmed 2, Mansour H. Ayman3, Khamees K. Ashraf 4, Heba A. Abdel-Hady 5

...p>Background: Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is an infectious viral disease which is an important serious skin disease of cattle. LSDV was isolated from skin biopsies collected from cattle which are clinically infected at Kaluobia governorate. Objectives: This study was designed for isolation and identification of LSD virus on CAM and MDBK cell culture and identification of isolated virus...

Aly M. Abdel-Salam

...ostly of the yellow-type disease symptoms. Previous observation indicated that co-infection of cucurbits with these viruses was very common and may lead to severe problems in virus diagnosis. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to characterize biologically, serologically, and molecularly one Crinivirus viz. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) and one Ipomovirus viz. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) from infected cucurbits. Further, the stu...

Salama M. El-Saghir1, 2

...erize the nature of this disease complex through
examining the incidence of PNRSV and phytoplasma in these trees.
Methods: The incidence of PNRSV in the peach trees understudy was confirmed with DAS-ELISA
using an authentic antiserum for PNRSV. The incidence of phytoplasma as a second pathogen in the
trees was PCR tested using the universal primers for phytoplasma detection, P1/P7, in the first step.
...

Ayman S. El-Habbaa 1, Gabr F. El-Bagoury1, Samar F. El-Adaway2, and Susan S. El-Mahdy2

..., outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) have been occurring in vaccinated chickens with great economic losses. Objective: This work aimed for diagnosis and characterization of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) from infected broiler chickens in Egypt. Methods: Suspected virus isolates on embryonated chicken eggs was detected by Hemagglutination (HA) test and identified using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. F protein encoding...
Muhammad G. Khodary1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Mohamed M. Emara2, Othman E. Othman1, Hussein A. Hussein2
...ot and mouth
disease (FMD) outbreaks among cattle and buffalo herds in Egypt. This study aimed to investigate the
contribution of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) and characterization of the circulating strains
associated with the outbreaks.
Methods: The collected samples of Oropharyngeal, oral epithelial tissue and/or vesicular fluids were
tested by real time Re...

Naglaa F.S. Awad1, Gamelat K.F. Kotb2

...on of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in 1991,
Egyptian authorities started a national vaccination program against the disease. However, RHDV
clinical cases are still being reported.
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate genetic characterization of recent RHDV isolates from
naturally-infected rabbits in Sharkia governorate, Egypt in 2015/2016.
Methods:...

Lamiaa M. Omar, Mohamed A. Abdrabo, Dali M. Omar, Nermeen A. Marden

...llected
from diseased chicken for virus isolation and quantification by ECE inoculation and rRT-PCR.
Results: the titer of original HPAI virus was 1010.3 EID50/ml. The AI titers after experimental
infection of chicken and viral re-isolation were 1010.3 EID50/ml in ECE and 1.6×107 copies/ml by
rRT-PCR to sample (1), 105.4 EID50/ml in ECE and 1.2 ×106 copies/ml by rRT-PCR to sample (2),
and ...
Rasha M. Mahrous1,4, Ahmed K. El-Attar2, Ahlam A. AlWatban1, Sohair I. EL-Afifi3,
Nagwa M. Aref1,3
...ated with Witches' broom disease (WB) is a very serious disease of
citrus with a major limiting factor for lime production. Symptoms of Witches' broom were observed on
limes in AL-Qalyubia governorate, Egypt. This study identified and classified the isolated WB
phytoplasma.
Method: Phytoplasma was isolated from lime trees exhibited Witches' broom Symptoms in ALQalyubia
<...

Ahmed A. Azab, Wesam H. Mady, Ali Zanaty, Mahmoud Samir

...) is an acute contagious disease cause severe economic
losses in poultry production worldwide. Virus isolation is the golden standard for IBV diagnosis so the
aim of this study was comparing the different biological systems for isolation of infectious bronchitis
virus.
Methods: The Egyptian variant 2 IBV strain representative to the current circulating strain in Egypt
was isolated in specific pathogen...

Dina A. Abdulrahman1, Ayman H. EL-Deeb2, Momtaz A. Shaheen1 & Hussein A. Hussein2

...ckground: Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of multiple outbreaks and
severe economic losses in the cattle population since its introduction in Egypt. Although vaccination is
practiced to control the disease, it is still endemic. Moreover, emergence of new strains is possible
through the international borders of the endemic countries. Consequently, there is a dire ...
Maha M. Khedr1, Reem A. Suliman1, Marwa F. Mohamed1, Mounir D. El Safty1, Hussein A.
Hussein2
...f natural infections and disease, mainly infecting the upper respiratory tract, in humans,
domestic pigs, horses, and numerous bird species. Maternal derived antibodies could interfere with the
efficacy of vaccination against avian influenza in early age in chicks.
Methods: Eight groups of one-day old commercial broiler chicks were kept in isolators along the whole
period of the study. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were vacc...
Ruqayya Bint Khalid1, Asif Nadeem1,2*, Maryam Javed1, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir3 and Masroor Ellahi Babar4
...l cause of several human diseases. It is important to evaluate the A1/A2 β-casein status in milk. Current study was conducted to molecular characterize the exonic regions of β-casein gene and to explore the status of A1/A2 β-casein type in Cholistani cattle breed of Pakistan. Blood samples of Cholistani Cattle were collected from Government Livestock Farm, Jugait Peer, Bahawalpur. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood by organic method. PCR...
Roheela Yasmeen1*, Nida Mobeen1 and Samia Chaudhry2
...r serious cardiovascular disease including myocardial injury. This virus can persuade cardiac damage, arrhythmias, severe coronary syndrome and venous thromboembolic complications. Patients of COVID-19 having already cardiovascular problems showed severe symptoms of this disease and have greater chance of death. This review article especially pays attention on cardiovascular symptoms of COVID-19 and its enhanced effect on pa...
Saira Gul1,2, Sohail Ahmed2*, Tahir Usman1*, Khalid Khan3, Sultan Ayaz1, Saleha Gul4 and Nawab Ali5
...an infectious tick-borne disease caused by a rickettsial parasite Anaplasma marginale. This study investigated the prevalence of A. marginale in cattle on different commercial farms in subtropical conditions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). A total of 120 cattle from different farms were randomly sampled and tested for the presence of A. marginale between May to August 2016. The study revealed that 1...
Syed Maaz Nadeem1,*, Muti ur Rehman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh2, Arfan Ahmad2, Syed Nadeem Mansoor3 and Muhammad Anees4
... healthy birds while, in diseased chicken, severe aplasia was noted. The bone marrow findings suggested an easy, quick and cost-effective approach for supportive diagnosis of chicken anemia virus infection and therefore could be replicated for efficient disease diagnostics in resource-limited setting.
...

Akram I. Aboelkhair1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Momtaz A. Shahin1 and Hussein A. Hussein2

...v>Background: Lumpy skin disease is an infectious viral disease caused by Lumpy skin disease virus
(LSDV) affecting cattle causing skin lesions. It`s a member of Poxviridea family, genus Capri-pox,
and closely related to sheep and goat pox. In Egypt, the protection from lumpy skin disease (LSD)
among cattle population ...

Hanaa A. Elsamadony1, Laila A. Tantawy1, Sabry E. Omar2 and Heba A. Abd Alah1

...s (CAV) is an infectious disease that is causing major economic
losses in the poultry industry and these losses are attributed to high mortalities, reduced production and
cost for preventive medications.
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify CAV obtained from farms with problems associated
with decreased body weight and immunosuppression. Also to determine their relationship with vaccine
us...
Othman N. O. Mansour 1, Naglaa Hagag 2, Momtaz A. Shahein 1, Sayed S. Hassan 1 Ahmed
A. EL-Sanousi 3 and Mohamed A. Shalaby3
...s a newly emerging viral disease of
coronaviridae family which appeared firstly in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. MERS affects the lower
respiratory tract of human. There are many researches which emphasized that camels are carrier for
MERS-CoV.
Objective: This study aim to know the extent of prevalence of new Exotic diseases like MERS among
imported camels from some ende...

Rana A. Rabiea1, Mohamed Fawzy2, Mohamed H. Khodeir3 and MokhtarM. EL-Tarabili2

...usceptible to many virus diseases such as turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) and
avian influenza (AI) that affect their populations in a dramatic form. Successful control of these viral
diseases depends on the implementation of well-designed vaccination programs using highly potent
and safe vaccines.
Aim: The present study investigated the effect of simultaneous administration of ina...

Mohsen M. Elsharkawy1, Salem H. Homayed1, Mohamed M. Elsawy2 and Amr A. Khedr1

...pathogen propagation and disease development.
...

Ahmed K. El-Attar1, Samah A. Mokbel1 and Om-Hashem M. EL-Banna2

...date the etiology of the disease. The diagnostic tools
used were the transmission electron microscope for rapid diagnosis, host reactions, serological
double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and nucleotide
sequence determination. Ultra-structural responses of basil leaf cells infected with a
morphologically distinct RNA virus, AMV, were studied. Molecular characterization and
<...
Riham H. Bassam, Hussein A. Hussein, Mohamed M. Amer, Basem M. Ahmed and Ahmed A. El-Sanousi
...d: IBV is very important disease affecting mainly the respiratory tract of chickens. In
Lebanon; there is a few data concerning the IBV among poultry flocks.
Objective: The aim of the present study is to detect the molecular characterize IBV in samples
collected from Lebanese flocks geographically distributed in 7 Governorates.
Methods: Blood sera, tracheal swabs and tissue organs were collected from 60 poultry f...

Aml S. El-Saadany1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2 and Hussien A. Hussien2

...round: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) remerged frequently in Egypt, causing serious
economic losses. In Egypt very virulent (vv) IBDV strains are annually reported since its first
introduction in 1989. Variant IBDV strains were also reported in few studies. To date, IBDV
associated with breaks has been characterized in flocks which were vaccinated with classical IBDV
vaccines and demonstrated IBD characte...

Shimaa M. Gad1, Ahmed A. Kheder1, Mohamed A. Awad 2

...o Class Mollicutes cause diseases in
several commercial ornamental plants, leads to serious economic losses all over the world. During
2017-2018, gazania showing phyllody, yellowing, proliferation, virescence and little leaf symptoms
was observed Giza, Egypt.
Objective: The current work aims the detection and molecular identification of phytoplasma infecting
Gazania in Egypt.
Methods: Phyt...

Mohsen M. Elsharkawy1, Sara E. Hanbal2, Samir A. Sidaros1, Mohamed M. Elsawy2, Ali H. Hamed2

...t wide distributed virus disease affecting faba bean in Egypt.
Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the efficiency of the plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) of Penicillium simplicissmum GP17-2, Fusarium equiseti GF19-1 and Trichoderma asperellum SKT1 as a sustainable method to control the invasion of BYMV in faba bean plants.
Methods: Faba bean plants were treated with PGPF isolates at 2 days prior to BYMV inoculation.

Shimaa A. Khalaf1 , Mohsen M. Elsharkawy2, Samir A. Sidaros2, Shawky A. El Kewey2, Ayman F. Omar2, Ali Hamed1

Youssef A. Elgharbawy1, Mervat M. Ali1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Mohamed A. Shalaby2

...ropods.

...

Wesley D. Nafarnda, Japhet H. Baraya, Olatunde H. Olabode, Malang K. Simon

...iv>Background: Newcastle disease (ND) has been documented as one of the major viral diseases that
hampers poultry productivity. Oral Newcastle Disease (ND) vaccination has been documented as a
method for control of the disease with varied effects in scavenging rural poultry especially in Nigeria.
Aim: This cross sectio...
Hadeer M. Mossa, Ausama A. Yousif, Emad A. Aboelsoud, Mahmoud El Gamal, Ahmed El-
Sanousi
...ation against lumpy skin disease is carried out by heterologous sheep pox vaccine
(SPPV) giving un-satisfiable results and incomplete protection in vaccinated cattle, since that it was a
must to produce a homologues vaccine for LSDV.
Methods: A local isolate of LSDV strain was propagated on MDBK cell line and CPE was appeared
after 72 hours as cell rounding, cell aggregation and cell degeneration with titer of 10...
Ahmed A. ElWakil1, Ausama A. Yousif2 , Adel A. Fayed3, Ibrahim M. elsabagh2, Mahmoud
El Gamal2, Omnia H. Refaei3
...v>Background: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly contagious trans- boundary disease of cattle with
major economic losses. Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) belongs to the genus capripoxvirus of
Poxviridae. Blood-feeding arthropods like mosquitoes, flies and, African tick species play a role in
LSDV maintenance and transmission. Mechanical transmission of...

Mohamed M. Mashaly1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Momtaz A. Shahein1, Hussein A. Hussein2

...v>Background: Lumpy skin disease outbreaks were observed in different governorates of Egypt
affecting cattle throughout the year and are still present. The progressive shift of the outbreak in Egypt
during 2018 causing severe losses in cattle population despite vaccination, which may incur some
debates on the efficacy of current live attenuated vaccines against CaPVs. The virus isolation,
identification, and vacc...
Soad, E. Elsayed 1, Mohammed A. Shalaby2, Ausama A. Yousef2, Abu bakr A. Agor1,
Sherouk E. Aly1
...ckground: Foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious disease of livestock that is endemic in
Egypt with severe economic impact. The main method of control is through vaccination of the
livestock with a potent vaccine.
Objective: Process development of the current formulations and generating new ones is crucial.
Currently, Montanide ISA 206 is the adjuvant used in FMDV vaccin...
Shourok E. Aly 1, Karim Zaki1, Soad E. Elsayed2, M. Elgamal2, Ausama A. Yousef1, Mohamed A. Shalaby1
...ito-borne viral zoonotic disease that is endemic in
Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Outbreaks of RVF resulted in severe losses to the animal industry
and major threats to the public health. Control of RVF in Egypt is dependent on vector control and
yearly vaccination of livestock using an aluminum hydroxide gel-adjuvanted inactivated Rift Valley
fever virus (RVFV) vaccine.
Objective: Herein, we aime...
Karim M. Selim1, Abdullah A. Selim1, abdelsattar Arafa1, Hussein A. Hussein2, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2
... also known as Newcastle disease
virus (NDV) and formerly known as Avian paramyxovirus 1(APMV-1), are circulating in
many parts of the world. Currently, the used vaccine strains (mainly genotypes I and II) are
three to seven decades old and are genetically distant from the currently circulating virulent
Newcastle disease virus (NDV).
Objectives: In this study we com...

Samah A. Mokbel, Eman A. Ahmed, Hanan F. El-Kammar, Ahmed A. Kheder

...tions of the
diseased sugar beet leaf blade showed changes in cellular organization and vascular bundles that reflect
the progression of the external symptoms. Electron micrograph showed isometric spherical virus
particles, measuring approximately 28 nm in diameter. Ultrathin sections showed chloroplast
malformations. The malformation appeared as a chloroplast broken envelope with the presence of
nume...

Mian Ibad Ali Shah*, Yasir Saleem Afridi and Laiq Hasan

...ontrol the spread of the disease. The data was first converted into summary numbers, followed by carrying out the statistical analysis that yielded meaningful results. Descriptive analysis in particular performs best to achieve this strategy. Descriptive analysis comprising of various methods and factors have been used to infer conclusions from data. Some important factors like, stringency index, number of tests, etc. have been utilized in this paper to achiev...
Bingjie Zhou1, Hitesh Bhagavanbhai Mangukiya1, Siva Bharath Merugu1, Fakhar-un-Nisa Yunus1, Yuchen Fan1, Zhenghua Wu1,* and Dawei Li1,2,*
...AGR2 is also involved in diseases like asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. Studies on the role of AGR2 in tumor micro-environment can help potential therapeutic development. Here, we report the generation of a fluorescent functional AGR2 fusion protein as a powerful visual tracking tool to trace the external function of AGR2. This bioactive and auto-fluorescent his-tag recombinant AGR2-DsRed (hAD) protein was constructed ...
Guan-bao Ning1, Sheng Niu1, Yue-jian Li1,2, Xiao-xiao Lu1,3, Shi-xiong Yang1,  Ali-Raza Jahejo1, Ding Zhang1, Wei-fang Hao4, Wen-wei Gao1, Yu-jun Zhao1, Jian-hui Li1, Fang Yan1, Rong-kun Gao1, Yu-hai Bi1,5, Wen-xia Tian1* and Ling-xia Han6*
...e: small;">Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a highly cell-associated, oncogenic alpha herpesvirus that causes Marek’s disease (MD) in chickens. Chicken erythrocytes are nucleated cells of myeloid origin which contribute to gases exchange, transportation and immunity. The objective of this study was to reveal the immune responses of MDV-infected erythrocytes of chicken by transcriptome analysis. Twenty specific path...
Hassan Shahzad Khan1, Muhammad Tariq1*, Tariq Mukhtar2 and Asim Gulzar1
...s a known vector of many diseases such as Dengue, Chikungunya, Zika and Yellow fever. Many control measures have been adopted to manage the vector of these diseases. The excessive use of insecticides has led to development of resistance in Aedes albopictus and negative impact on the environment and non-target organisms. To overcome these problems, emphasis is being laid for alternatives such as biopesticides which are...

Sami Ullah1, Bernhard Brümmer2 and Umar Ijaz Ahmed1*

...ng better management and disease control skills. Extended extension services are recommended, alongside quality training programmes and the provision of improved crossbred cattle and buffalos to ensure good quality breeds.

...
Nianhong Huang, Yan Wu, Yuanyuan Li* and Jinhong Zhao*
... prevention of parasitic diseases of snakes.
...

Muhammad Madni Afzal1*, Shahbaz Talib Sahi1, Amer Habib1, Waqas Ashraf2, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan3, Muhammad Raheel2 and Qaiser Shakeel2

...tions. Maximum basal rot disease reduction (78.6%) was recorded at 150 ppm concentration of wild cotton (G. thurberi) under in-vitro conditions. Whereas, wild cotton also gave the highest disease reduction under greenhouse (62.93%)