Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology
...ere viral diarrhea in infants and children. Although studies on the genetic diversity of the antigenically important RVA VP7- and VP4- protein encoding genes are important for vaccine development or judging the efficacy of existing RVA vaccines, they do not always provide conclusive information on the overall and complex genetic makeup of RVAs, as the remaining 9 RVA gene segments are also susceptible to the forces governing RVA genetic diversity. Whole genomi...

Lei Chen, Ling Zhu, Zhi-Wen Xu, Wan-Zhu Guo

 

Molecular Genetics of Aichivirus C (Porcine Kobuvirus) in China
...ins and Aichivirus C variants are circulating in China. Recombination events were also observed in Chinese Aichivirus C strains. More further studies are needed to clarify the evolutionary features and pathogenicity of Aichivirus C.

 

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Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

...

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an economically important morbillivirus infection of sheep and goats, is widely distributed in Middle East, Central and South Asia, China and Africa. Whereas PPR antibodies were first reported in Kenyan small stock as early as 1995, the clinical disease was observed later in 2006 following dramatic and devastating PPR outbreaks in Turkana County. In this context, an outbreak of PPRV was observed in Tukana County in 2011 and...

Muhammad Arif1, Fazal Jalal1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Dost Muhammad2

...egumes produced taller plants and high number of grains ear-1. Nitrogen application increased plant height, number of grains ear-1, thousand grains weight, grain and biological yield. It is concluded that integration of biochar and legumes could be a useful strategy for enhancing the overall farm profitability and productivity of cereal-based systems by providing increased yields from this additional ‘summer gap’ crop.

...

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

...y levels and its determinants. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) technique was applied to estimate stochastic frontier Cobb-Douglas production function to ascertain the level of technical efficiency. The econometric computer software STATA was applied for the estimation. The estimated value of technical efficiency ranges from 34 to 88 per cent for the farms in the sample, with an average of 62 per cent. This means that if the average farmer in the sample was...

Michael Shermer

...quiz: What did the assailants shout after murder- ing 17 people in Paris in January, 2015, including edi- tors and cartoonists of the satirical publication Charlie Hebdo?


A. “Moses rocks!”
B. “Jesus saves!”
C. “Vishnu lives!”
D. “Buddha avenged!” E. “Atheists rule!”
F. “Allahu Akbar!”

...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

...

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a highly contagious disease in both domestic and wild small ruminants, and in camels. Based on sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) gene, the PPRV has been classified into four lineages. Serological investigations in Tanzania indicate that peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was introduced in 2004 in Ngorongoro district bordering Ken- ya...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Salman2, Shah Alam Khan2, Alamzeb1, Inamullah Khan1

 

...oved to be the best toxicants, which showed synergistic effect in Bordeaux mixture (Copper oxychloride 75g + Lime 3kg + water 10L) in reducing borer infestation (exit holes/ gum points) in the month of January.

 

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Suresh V Kuchipudi* and Kin-Chow Chang

 

...ral infections which warrants further in-depth investigations.

 

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Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

...one of the major determinants for the clinicopathological manifestations in infected hosts. Recent studies showed that the host innate immune responses to infection play important role in the pathologenesis of NDV, and correlate with the severity of the clinical disease. Virulent strains of different genotypes induce distinct pathological manifestations in chicken organs, especially in lymphoid tissues. Genotype VIId of NDV, which is currently endemic in many ...

Hayat Badshah1*, Farman Ullah1, Abid Farid2, Ahmad-U-Rahman Saljoqi1, Sajjad Ahmad3

...ae), on different host plants. Such studies would identify the best host plant for its efficient rearing. The present study investigated some basic life table parameters i.e. female life span, adult female weight, longevity and reproductive potential of P. solenopsis on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.), brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.), potato (Solanum tuberosum Linn.), China rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Th...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...tween two rows of crop plants was pulverized with the help of local tool spade. The statistical analysis of data showed that interculturing, Dual Gold, and sorghum and sunflower water extracts caused significant reduction of weeds and increased seedcotton yield as compared to weedy check. The combined application of sorghum @ 15 L ha-1+ Dual Gold @ 1.25 L ha-1 resulted in weeds mortality upto 66.6%, produced seedcotton yield of 3961.4 kg ha...

Luca Vitale

..."text-align: justify;">Plants are often exposed in their habitat to multiple abiotic and biotic stresses that limit growth and productivity; however, plants are able, to some extent, to cope with limiting environmental conditions by means of different mechanisms that contribute to their adaptive success in different habitats.

...

Stephen Kershnar

Email: stephen.kershnar@fredonia.edu

... reading for anyone who wants to think seriously about the topic.

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Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco1*, Gaby Dolz1, Danilo Montero-Caballero2, Juan Jose Romero-Zuniga2

...V in goats and wild ruminants, and to identify serotypes present in the country.

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Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...ceptible to all disinfectants because they are enveloped viruses. Disinfection against avian influenza viruses at the poultry farms would significantly reduce and/or limit the chance for its transmission and outbreaks. Many disinfectants have been evaluated for their inactivation ability, but there is still a need for their evaluation under different conditions and in different ways. In the present study, repr...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

...e all the fish, ducks, plants, fungi, bacteria and everything else that belongs to the lake. If we apply this approach to clinical samples we can identify the community of etiological pathogens, without any knowledge on the targets in advance. However, clinical specimens usually comprise an overwhelming amount of host nucleic acids, which by far exceeds the number of pathogen nucleic acids in the sample. Subsequently, it is necessary to either decrease the amo...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...ted. Forty-day-old pot plants were exposed to different concentrations of the insecticide, ranging from 0 to 40 grams active ingredient per hectare (g.a.i ha-1) through foliar spray. Analyses were done at days 3, 7, and 15 after treatment. Lipid peroxidation rates and contents of proline, ascorbate (ASC), glutathione (GLU), antioxidative enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were assessed...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

... maleic hydrazide, the plants grown under control treatment took minimum days (112.9) to flowering, maximum plant height (47.06 cm) and number of leaves (57.89) plant-1. Maximum fresh flower weight (47.85 g) and dry flower weight (5.80 g) was observed with 1500 ppm maleic hydrazide. The interaction between “potassium” and “maleic hydrazide” showed significant effects for some of the growth parameters. It can be concluded that potassium ...

Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi

...vailable and applied implants, none of them was evaluated by motion analysis system. It has been shown that severity of pain and overall function of knee joint were improved following the use of this implant. Although it has been mentioned that KineSpring knee implant is an effective method to relieve pain and improve function in Knee OA, there are incomplete evidences to support this claim. Therefore, it is recommended to perform high-reso...

Rongfei Lu1, 2, Zhiyang Liu1, Peng Fang1, Guangyi Chen1, Feng Sun1, Yongjian Fan1, Yijun Zhou1, Tong Zhou1*

Jonas Johansson Wensman1*a, Karl-Johan Leuchowius2,3 a, Jiting Yan1, Anna-Lena Berg4, Liv Bode5, Hanns Ludwig5, Sandor Belak6, Ulf Landegren2, Ola Soderberg2, Mikael Berg6

...ive strand RNA-virus variants causing neurological and behavioral disorders in a wide range of mammalian animals, possibly including humans. Viral persistence in the brain has been frequently observed, however, the exact mechanisms behind BDV’s ability to establish persistence despite a prominent immune response are not known. Here we have used in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA), a selective tool for studying virus-host protein-protein intera...

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

... DAS) and parts (whole plants incorporation and stubbles incorporation) under varying nitrogen levels (0, 75 and 100 kg ha-1) on physiology, yield and economic returns of Canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Bulbul-98). The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications. Findings of the experiment revealed that guar as previously green manuring crop considerably increased leaf area index (LAI) 4.4, ...

Ashley C. Banyard1* and Satya Parida2

...Peste des petits ruminants virus causes an economically important disease of small ruminants that causes extensive livestock losses across areas where it is endemic. Further the recent description of the disease in naïve populations of animals have demonstrated an expansion of the distribution of the disease. Having been in the shadow of rinderpest virus for decades little is understood regarding factors that inf...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious, notifiable and economically important transboundary viral disease of sheep and goats. PPR is enzootic in India as more number of outbreaks have occurred in the past and now occurring regularly, round the year and most frequently during the lean period throughout the country. In some Indian states viz. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Chhattisgar h the PPR outbreaks in sheep and goats have de...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important plague of sheep and goats that serves as a major constraint in the development of the small ruminant’s production within an infected area. The virus is endemic across much of the developing world and has spread into the developed European borders. The small ruminants industry within an infected state or region is often disproportionately af...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

...Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease in small ruminants causing huge loss to farmers. In this study, an attempt has been made to estimate the economic losses based on the annual incidence, morbidity, mortality levels etc. derived from literature, discussion with experts, and based upon scientific facts. Different mathematical models were used to assess the losses due to mortality in yo...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud1, Muaz Abdellatif 2, 3*, Luai Shazali1

...of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus antibodies in sheep, goats and camels at Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples (n=400), collected during 2012–2013 from sick and clinically healthy herds, were subjected to antibodies detection using c-ELISA. Out of examined animals, 83 (62.9%) goats and 70 (33.2%) sheep were detected positive against PPRV antibodies, whereas camels appeared to be seronegative. Based upon the seasonal vari...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), a viral disease of goats and sheep caused by a morbillivirus of the family paramyxoviridae is a major threat to small ruminant farming. Global announcement of PPR eradication by 2030 has opened lot of research gaps for the development of vaccines and diagnostics for differentiating infected and vaccinated animals. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, recombinant protein based vaccines and/or diag...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

...e des Petits ruminants (PPR) is a potentially lethal, highly contagious viral disease of sheep and goats. Domestic sheep and goats are important species for the livelihoods of poor people in many developing countries. Within societies where PPR is now spreading, poverty is widespread and the disease is expected to have significant negative impacts on livelihoods. In resource-constrained marginalised societies, it is often difficult to collect diseas...

Ali Tahmasebi1, Parvin Raji1*, Mostafa Kamali2

...nment. Out of 30 participants in the study, 15 children were with spastic diplegic CP with mean age and body mass index of 7 ± 1.3 years and 14.70 ± 1.73 kg/m2 respectively and 15 normal children with mean age and body mass index of 7.2 ± 1 years and 14.83 ± 1.57 kg/m2. Children were instructed to stand with bare feet for 60 seconds on a 5-cm-thick piece of foam which was placed on a Kistler force plate with their Eyes Open (EO), Ey...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

...Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute and highly contagious viral disease of small ruminants. The disease is endemic in Bangladesh and causes considerable economic losses due to its high morbidity and mortality. The study was undertaken to detect and characterize the PPR virus (PPRV) circulating in Bangladesh. Twelve local isolates of Bangladeshi PPRV were successfully detected from post mortem samples (lymph n...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...e des Petits ruminants (PPR), possibly caused by the introduction of new animals in the herd, was investigated in an unvaccinated mixed herd of sheep and goats. Goats in the herd showed characteristic signs of PPR including nasal and ocular discharges, high temperature, diarrhea and ulcerative lesions in the oral cavity. A total of eighteen goats from a herd of sixty, were affected and two goats succumbed within two weeks. Interestingly, the disease...

Murad Ali Khan and Mohammad Akmal 

...ws spaced at 70 cm and plants spaced within the rows at 20 cm and (b) 90 x 15.5 cm with rows spaced at 90 cm and plants spaced within rows at 15.5 cm. It is important to mention here that 70 cm is the recommended row spacing used for sunflower crop in the region. Experiments were conducted in randomized complete block design, replicated four times. Results showed no significant changes in yield traits i.e. plant density (m-2...

 Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Rajwali Khan, Syed Muhammad Sohail, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib and Asim Ijaz

...ers, 15 veterinary assistants, 15 veterinarian and 40 butchers were also screen out. Overall sero-prevalence in cattle was 15.36% on SPAT, 14.39% by i-ELISA and 14.14% through PCR. Higher prevalence was recorded in abattoir shops (31.01%) followed by private farms (11%) and animal selling points (9.25%). Significant difference was recorded in different breeds i.e. achai, local non-descript and crossbred (non-descript x jersey) cattle. Higher prevalence in fema...

 Mukhtiar Ahmed, Jana Pickova, Taufiq Ahmad, Muhammad Liaquat, Abid Farid, Muhammad Jahangir

...th of consumers. Antioxidants and chelating agents are the most helpful inhibitors of lipid oxidation.

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 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...lopathic properties of plants is thought to be an effective and environment-friendly approach for weed management. A pot experiment to evaluate the allelopathic potential of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (L.) against Convolvulus arvensis (L.) and Cyperus rotundus (L.) was undertaken during summer 2011. The study was conducted at Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in three replicated comple...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

...olymers or mineral coagulants.

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Sayeda Sarah and Muhammad Ibrar

... soil of control (RP0) plants, which decreases progressively with increasing fertility level. Less number of spores and percent root colonization was found at high RP level (RP100) in all hybrids. Higher P doses declined the sporulation and colonization. There was total seven AMF species that were observed and recorded. The dominant genus was Acaulospora which was followed by Glomus, Sclerocystis and Gigaspora. The average AMF spore density ranged from 56-260 ...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

...most influential determinants of the technical efficiency in both NonBT and BT- cotton farms. Extension of cotton production required the development of cottonseed that will be suitable for environmental conditions of Pakistan.

...

Hassan Tarik Atmaca

...>| Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and economically devastating viral disease of small ruminants and camels, and thus is negatively affecting the livelihoods of poor people in many developing countries. Efforts are being made to advance our understandings on different aspects of molecular biology of the virus and to consolidate national and international strengths to eradicate the disease from the pla...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...d giving vigour to the plants. In laboratory experiment, L. muscarium was the most effective against nematode eggs (95.6%) and second stage juveniles (J2) (95.8%) infection. In greenhouse experiment, similar trend was found. L. muscarium proved to be more effective against M. hapla whereas S. rugosoannulata and C. rosea showed better results among other tested fungi in experiments. Moreover, plant growth parameters were also ...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...ers of eggs per cyst warrants that nematicides were able to penetrate into cysts. Reproduction rate (Pf/Pi) of L. muscarium treated plants was documented minimum as compared to that of control but slightly higher compared to that of treated with nematicides. More interestingly, plant growth parameters including shoot and root were tremendously improved in L. muscarium treated plants than t...

Felwa A. Thagfan1, Mohamed A. Dkhil1,2* and Saleh Al-Quraishy1

...e of the commonly used plants in Islamic countries.The root extracts of S. persica has been tested for its anticoccidial activity against Eimeria paillata induced infection in mice jejunum. Three different doses, 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg were used after infection of mice with sporulated oocysts. A dose of 300 mg/kg reduced the number of oocyst output in mice faeces by about 56.8 % and also improved the body weight. In addition, the root extract dec...

Safdar A. Wahocho, Tanveer F. Miano, Noor U.N. Memon and Niaz A. Wahocho

...CBD design. The zinnia plants were grown under four photoperiodic treatments which included T1=Natural photoperiod (Control), T2=4 hours daylight (8 am -12 noon), T3=6 hours daylight (8 am – 2 pm) and T4=8 hours daylight (8 am – 4 pm). The results revealed significant (P<0.05) photoperiodic effect on all the growth and quality traits of Zinnia. The Zinnia grown under 8 hours daylight (8 am – 4 pm) with 38.29 cm plant height, 6.61 side bra...

Laila M. Fadda1, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed1, Iman H. Hasan1, Hanaa M. Ali2,3*, Nawal M. Al-Rasheed1,4, Musaed Al-Fayez5, Aly M. Ahmed5, Nada Almutlaq1, Nehal Qasem1 and Reem Khalaf1

...e aforementioned antioxidants downregulated most of the elevated parameters compared to the APAP-treated group. Treatment with the combination of CUR and THQ was the most effective therapies in the attenuation of liver injury assessed by a decrease in ALT and ALP activities down-regulation of Bax and CD68 expressions. It was concluded that the combination strategy of THQ and/or CUR may be considered as a potential antidote in combating liver injury indu...

Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Himayatullah Khan

...ds (Owners, Owner-cum-tenants and tenants) was selected using random sampling technique and data were collected through a pre-tested interview schedule. This study is focused on two selected districts of Peshawar and Charsadda. Four villages were studied two each from the sampled districts. Analysis showed that owners (59.31 percent off-farm employment) were performing more off-farm jobs than the ten...

Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

...the genes, and their variants, involved in innate immune responses is essential for the understanding of this inflammatory disease and to identify potential genetic markers for resistance to mastitis. This article presents a systematic integration of complex biological interactions of 226 mammary gland genes to uncover underlying regulatory networks. Data were collected from various databases after having an exhaustive literature study. Network, functional and...

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

...raction between invasive ants and honeydew-producing hemipterans has been extensively examined in many studies. Laboratory experiments showed that invasive ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) suppress ghost ants Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) through interference competition. However, relatively less testing have been done to evaluate the competition for mutual exploitation between the two ant...

Sadiq Hussain, Muhammad Sharif, Sarmad Khan, Fazli Wahid, Hina Nihar, Wiqar Ahmad, Imran Khan, Nadeem Haider and Tabassum Yaseen

...rmicompost treatments. Plants P uptake of 0.09 g and 0.08 g pot-1 were found in mycorrhizal inoculation along with full and half doses of vermicompost, respectively. Maximum concentration of Zn (0.7 mg kg-1), Cu (0.164 mg kg-1), Fe (1.0 mg kg-1) and Mn (1.63 mg kg-1) were noted in mycorrhiza inoculated treatments with recommended dose of vermicompost and these were statistically at par with treatments receiving mycorrhizal inoculation along with half and full ...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...her in the non-treated plants than those that were treated. The root quality of the fungus-treated plants was significantly improved. All fungi conclusively proved to be effective against H. schachtii and need to be further investigated at the molecular level.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...i) was observed in the plants treated with L. muscarium compared to the control. However, all chemical nematicides were also effective in reducing the nematode infestation significantly (P=0.05) in soil compared to the control, but there was no significant difference (P=0.05) among them. Plant growth was significantly (P=0.05) improved in the plants treated with L. muscarium.

...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...and transmission determinants for urban Leptospirosis in developing countries. This study aims to source dynamic ecological and epidemiological field parameters to describe a slum household-based pathogenic Leptospira population dynamics simulation model. The model will be analyzed to assess the role of slum-based biotic (human and animal) and abiotic (soil, water and weather) habitats in Leptospira propagation. Influential habitats would serve as key targets ...

Süleyman Kök1*, Sertaç Atalay1, Hasan Semih Eken2 and Mustafa Savaşçi3

...r to sort the allele variants (G/C), PCR products, the ones in CAST with RsaI enzyme, was cut using RFLP method. The allele variants (G/C) of CAPN1 316 and (C/T) of CAPN1 4751 were determined with ARMS-PCR method. This study was conducted to determine three SNPs which were related to meat quality in 130 purebred female and male samples of TGC breed. In TGC samples, C allele frequencies related to UoG-CAST, CAPN1 316 and CAPN...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...;">Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the causal agent of a highly contagious disease that affects domestic and wild small ruminants, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Due to the important economical losses caused by this virus in Africa and Asia, the development of more effective, targeted and successful treatments for the disease are necessary. Like other Morbilliviruses, PPRV in...

Dallin D. Oaks and Cynthia L. Hallen

...the vital nature of covenants. As part of the discussion, the metaphor of restoration is identified as the overarching Mormon metaphor to which the others are subordinate.

...

Zafar Waheed, Khalid Usman, Iftikhar Ali

...eat + Rumex dentatus 0 plants m-2 (T1), wheat + Rumex dentatus 05 plants m-2 (T2), wheat + Rumex dentatus 10 plants m-2 (T3), wheat + Rumex dentatus 15 plants m-2 (T4), wheat + Rumex dentatus 20 plants m-2 (T5), wheat + Rumex dentatus 25 plants m-2 (T6), and wheat + Rumex dentatus 30...

Shazia Irfan1*, Asima Rani1, Muhammad Arshad2 and Razia Bashir1

...uced activity of antioxidants enzymes because of polymorphisms in antioxidant genes and variations in levels of metals and minerals creates oxidative stress may play some role in progression and pathogenesis of RA. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene polymorphism [rs2070424 (–251A/G)] in RA and to compare the levels of metals and minerals among its various genotypes in RA patients. A total of 400 ...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

Sidra-Tul-Muntaha1, Muhammad Sagheer1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan1 and Shahbaz Talib Sahi2

...t high concentrations. Plants were effective in order of Azadirachta indica > Melia azadirach > Pegnum hermala > Salsola baryosma> zingiber officinale; whereas effectiveness of pyrethroids was in order of deltamethrin > cypermethrin > bifenthrin. The findings of this research will be helpful in organic storage of pulses by integrating the reduced risk pesticides with plant extracts.

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Muhammad Saeed* and Iftikhar Hussain Khalil

...from transgressive segregants recovered in latter generations.

...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...;">Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important disease of small ruminants that causes extensive livestock losses across areas where it is endemic. A serological survey on the prevalence of antibodies to PPRV was carried out in sheep and goats of Jatoi and surrounding areas in Muzaffargarh districts South Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 965 serum samples were collected from sheep and goat’s f...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

...both domestic, wild ruminants and camels. Sera from non-vaccinated sheep (n=683), goats (n=624) and camels (n=155) of all ages and sexes were collected in a cross-sectional study in Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah. Saudi Arabia. The seroprevalece was determined by NP-epitopes based competitive ELISA. The overall prevalence was 59.9%, goats had a significantly higher sero-prevalence of 75.3% compared to 59.4% obtained from sheep, whereas camels were seronegati...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

... quality. Therefore, warrants further testing under field conditions.

...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...ulating heat stress in plants. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) was transformed with heat shock transcription factor HsfA1d by transfecting leaf discs with Agrobacterium strain GV3101 carrying CaMV35S-YFP::HsfA1d construct. After PCR and confocal-based confirmation, HsfA1d overexpression lines (OX1, OX2 and OX3) were evaluated for their response to heat stress. Overexpression lines on average showed 33.26% less electrolyte leakage after induction of heat stres...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...two poultry processing plants represented broiler carcasses swabs and worker (hand swabs and nail scrapings). Phenotype-based methods for identifying yeast especially Candida species are often difficult, time-consuming and not enough to identify most yeast species. . Molecular biological techniques provide a useful alternative approach. Concerning with genotypic identification, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was a...
Kiran Afshan1*, Sarwat Jahan1 and Mazhar Qayyum2
...is in sera of small ruminants. The result of current study indicated diagnostic accuracy of test 95.6%, while sensitivity and specificity of this assay for small ruminants was 97.83% (95% CI: 92.35% to 99.67%) and 93.75% (95% CI: 87.54% to 97.44%) respectively. In field this test indicated significant (p<0.05) values for sheep as compared to goat indicating high risk of infection in sheep. The current study showed that co...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
...i>M. incognita. Eggplants inoculated with nematodes only served as control. Each treatment was replicated tenfold. Data were recorded after one week interval up to five weeks to record different developmental stages of M. incognita. After each harvest, neemex in combination with G. mosseae proved the most effective as the development of nematode was adversely affected. Developing juveniles and adults were less in number in the combined treatm...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...ea. Risk factors determinants were found significantly (P<0.05) associated with mastitis occurrence except frequency of milking per day. Antibiogram of Staph. aureus indicated very strong resistance to oxacillin, ticarcillin, ampicilline, amoxicillin, azlocine, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, vancomycin, cefixinme, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime. In contrast to this sulphaphenazole, gentamicin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin were highly sensitive. Piperacillin,...
Fazal Said1,Mian Inayatullah2 and Hussain Ali3*
... due to less number of plants with blooms and less availability of pollens and nectar on flowers. Maximum seed production as well as oil contents was obtained from sunflower plots kept under natural conditions, where bee visitors had access to sunflower blossoms. In contrast, sunflower plots covered with insect-proof bags gave minimum seed production and oil contents, which most probably was because of bee visitors denied to forage on flowers of the crop. Resu...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...or their reproduction. Plants have undergone continuous evolution and have equipped themselves with counter defense and tolerant strategies against viral infections. In the 21st century, considerable progress has been made in understanding the available natural resistance in plants against viral threats. The review aims to explain the molecular mechanisms involved in triggering the antiviral resistance in pl
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...otiana benthamiana plants inoculated with ToLCNDV. To immunocapture the ToLCNDV, two antisera raised against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-coat protein (TYLCV-CP) and African cassava mosaic virus-coat protein (ACMV-CP) were used. However, immunocapture of ToLCNDV could only be achieved by using the TYLCV-CP antisera followed by PCR detection by using specific and degenerate primers. ToLCNDV is geographically wide spread Begomovirus (Family Geminiviridae), ...
Akbar Ali1,*, Khalil Mohamed2 and Fawzia Toulah3

 

...us health problems in infants, pregnant women and immune compromised patients. Abortion is one of the most serious outcomes in pregnant women. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 162 women of child bearing age were included from Rafha city of Saudi Arabia. Demographic data was recorded. Specific Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM were detected in serum by ELISA method. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected using PCR. Most women were in the 20-29 ye...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...ghter slab (processing plants) in Nigeria. The relatively high prevalence rate documented in this study may be attributed to the generally poor infrastructure, lack of well-equipped poultry slaughter houses, lack or inadequate water supply at these markets which hampers the ability of handlers to maintain good sanitary and hygiene conditions of the carcass, environment and themselves. Data collected could be valuable for instituting effective intervention stra...
Mirza Imran Shahzad1,*, Anna Iqbal2, Farrah Ali1, Nuzhat Sial3, Muhammad Ashfaq4, Abul Hasanat5 and Azra Khanum6
...uged but however supernatants were discarded to get their pellets, which were dissolved in normal saline. Of this one part was taken for thaw and freeze treatment, while the second for ultrasonication treatment, before conducting antimicrobial activities. Zones of inhibition were measured by using disc diffusion method. Supernatant fraction of E. coli was positive against Sal. typhi and supernatant fraction of P. multocida wa...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

... a result rotten woody plants. The larval beetles characteristically feed in the phloem as well as later in the xylem. The females select living hosts for oviposition and thus destroy the vigour of the trees. However, at the early stage of intestation, detection of Anoplophora glabripennis and exposure will help to eliminate the pest in addition to prevent its establishment. Plantation with different tree species, the cultivation of fast-growing timber ...

Habib Ullah Khan1*, Saleem Ullah1, Hamid Ullah Shah1, Muhammad Arif2

... good or bad effect on plants grown in those soils.

...

Muhammad Waqas1*, Anwar Ali Shad1, Omaira Bashir2 and Mohsin Iqbal3

...ilize it as natural colorants in sunflower oil and spaghetti. Tomato peel contained 720 mg/100g of carotenoids consisting phytoene (3.15%) followed by phytofluene (2.31%), β-carotene (2.11%), cis-lycopene (1.71%), lutein (1.51%), cis-ζ-carotene (0.61%), ζ-carotene (0.56%), and γ-carotene (0.52%). Lycopene was found in highest amount (87.52 %). Antioxidant activity of carotenoids from tomato peel was assessed by measuring Rancimat’s t...
Maoying Zhu, Yuntao Ji, Xiaoyu Wang, Junying Pu and Changqing Qu*
...mbinations of cryoprotectants with and without hydrogen gas (H) (purified H2 was dissolved into normal cryopreservation solution for 2 hrs under 0.6 MPa were tested including the following groups: control (CK), 100µm GSH, 10µm fasudil hydrochloride (FH) and a combination of the two (GSH + FH). A solution of 10% (v/v) Me2SO + 20% FBS was used as the standard cryopreservation solution. After 2 months, MTT assay showed significan...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabyasachi Pal2, Ghule Tushar Manohar2, Somnath Bhattacharyya3, Amit Singh4, Prahlad Sarkar5 and Samuel Lalliansanga6
...am, India and infected plants showed declined symptoms and poor fruit yield. Infested plants displayed stunting and yellowing and thick-root symptoms. The association of the root knot nematode species was identified based on observations on morphology of different life stages, beta-esterase phenotype and amplification of rDNA and partial sequence homology of ITS-1and ITS-2. Host differential tests confirmed the race 2 of ...

Sanaullah Jalil*, Asim Hayat, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas, Muhammad Noman, Muhammad Imran Kasana and Muhammad Mazhar Hussain

...he utilization of P by plants. This research was conducted during wheat cropping season of year 2010 and 2011 and it consisted of determination of the residual effect of six treatments (T0 = control without rock phosphate & farmyard manure, T1= rock phosphate @150 kg P2O5 per hectare, T2 = FYM @5 tons per hectare, T3 = RP @100 kg P2O5 per hectare+ FYM @5 tons per hectare, E0 = without effective microbes and E1= EM-Biozote @ 50 l ha-1) on yield parametrs of...

Waqas Ahmed Dogar2, Arshad Ali Khan3*, Saeed Ahmed2, Sudheer Tariq2, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Imran2, Muhammad Noman2 and Nadeem Khan1 

...griculture Faisalabad. Plants were grown at three planting distances as T1 (11 x 22ft), T2 (11 x 11ft) and T3 (22 x 22ft). T1 (11x22ft) was optimum plantation and showed best results for yield. Maximum fruit yield per plant (3.6373 kg) was observed from the same plants. T2 (11 x 11ft) was close plantation and had more total number of flowers per plant (441.58) and fruit length (58.243 mm), but yield was less due to more frui...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...ot disease and promote plants growth as the length and weight of root and shoot in pot trials on tomato plants. Keywords: Antagonistic fungi, root knot nematode, wilt fungus, bio-management
 

 

...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
...f different ornamental plants in Rajshahi and Dhaka, Bangladesh. It is a polyphagous pest damaging coffee, sweet potato, jute, groundnut, tomato, citrus, cotton, guava etc. causing enormous damage to them. The female lays about 300-400 eggs which hatch in few hours. The life cycle is completed in about 40 days. The small and big black ants tend F. virgata and they keep other insects including hymenopteran parasites away from...

S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
...ifically the pollarded plants) were generally infected with rot disease when it grows older. Phellinus contigus (under Polyporaceae), a white rot fungus, causes heart rot disease and Biscogniauxia mediterranea (= Hypoxylon mediterranea) (under Xylariaceae) causes canker rot disease of Som plant. A survey was conducted to study the infection of rotting pathogens on Som plants at Regional Muga Research Station (RMRS), Boko, As...

Debjani Chowdhury, P. C. Paul and B. Dasgupta

Management of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola
...ight and dry weight of plants.

...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
... cent. Generally young plants die due to heavy infestation and colony formation of the mealybug. P. marginatus is a polyphagous pest attacking several agricultural, horticultural crops, ornamental plants and weeds of economic value. The papaya mealybug feeds on the sap of the plants by inserting its stylets into the epidermis of the leaf as well as into the fruit and stem. In doing so, it ...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...re associated with tea plants. Among them 25 species of insects, 4 species of mites and 10 species of nematodes are recorded from Bangladesh. Enormous crop loss was incurred due to the attack of these pests and largely responsible for the declining productivity of tea. Extensive use of chemical pesticides began only a few decades ago with tremendous immediate economic gains but its abuses were not foreseen or ignored. As a consequence there arose the developme...

Nilesh Suresh Gole and Bijan Kumar Das

Biology of Dichromia sagitta (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), a serious pest of Indian ipecac, Tylophora indica
...dicinal & Aromatic Plants and Betelvine (AICRP on MAPB) at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal during 2010-2011 on seasonality, extent of damage and biologoy of D. sagitta on T. indica. The larvae were active almost throughout the year, fed voraciously on leaves and flowers causing extensive damage to T. indica during June and December. Eggs were laid singly or in batch of 2-3 on younger leaves (mostly on under surface)...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Control of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) root and collar rot (Rhizoctonia solani) with some organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum under field condition
...n vigour of the cowpea plants, basal girth, number of branches & pod number, pod vigour of the bio primed seeds over other treatment combinations. Soil application of Trichoderma in vermicompost +20% neem cakes gave better disease control over the others.

...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
... that all the selected plants have potential to inhibit the radial mycelial growth of C. capsici in-vitro. The plant extract from C. aromaticus at 50% concentration showed 42% radial mycelial growth inhibition in poisoned food technique, whereas 15% increased seed germination and 26% reduced disease incidence is recoded when compared to untreated control. In pot experiments, there is an increase in height and weight of the plants

M. A. Al-Helal, K. N. Ahmed, N-E-P. Khanom, and S. Bulbul 

Observations on papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) damag-ing some crops in Bangladesh
...etables and ornamental plants of economic importance in Bangladesh perspectives.
 

 

...

A. Sajeena and T. Marimuthu

Efficacy, stability and persistence of Ganosol, a Ganoderma based fungicide against plant pathogens
...n Ganosol 10EC sprayed plants and were absent in control. The formulation was tested to have good emulsion stability. The antifungal activity of the formulation persisted up to seven days after spraying the formulation on rice plants. The formulation retained its 100% antifungal efficacy up to three months of storage. Surprisingly, spraying cowpea plants with the formulation as simultaneou...

D. C. Khatua, B. Mondal and G. Saha

Bioassay of some agricultural chemicals, human drugs and disinfectants on Phytophthora melonis Katsura causing fruit and vine rot of pointed gourd
..., insecticides, disinfectants and antiprotozoal drugs were tested on Phtophthora melonis Katsura causing fruit and vine rot of pointed gourd in aqueous environment. Antifungal antibiotics viz. validamycin, kasugamycin, griseofulvin, fluconazole and ketoconazole did not have any pronounced effect on mycelial growth, sporangia formation and its germination. None of the eight antibiotics used in this study prevented mycelial growth. No sporangia formation was rec...

S. Patra, V.W. Dhote, SK F. Alam, B.C. Das, M.L. Chatterjee and A. Samanta

Population dynamics of major insect pests and their natural enemies on cabbage under new alluvial zone of West Bengal
...randomly selected five plants /plot. Peak population of diamond back moth (DBM) was recorded on 1st March and 23rd February with13.60 and 14.33 larvae /plant during 2011-12 and 2012-13 respectively. Cabbage aphid reached its peak on 9th February (14.17 aphids/inch2 leaf) and 16th February (11.03 aphids/inch2 leaf) of 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. Highest parasitized larvae of diamond back moth by Cotesia plutellae were found on 15th and 8th March with 10....

D.K. Hazra, Megha Pant, S.K. Raza and P. K. Patanjali

 

Formulation technology: key parameters for food safety with respect to agrochemicals use in crop protection
...radable ingredients/adjuvants of the conventional formulations but also increase the bio-efficacy of the products through incorporating latest technologies including size reduction (WP to SC, SL to ME), increased coverage of applied surface area (EC to ME/Nano-formulations), reduced wastage (Dust/WP to Con-trolled Release Formulations) and dose rates of same pesticides applied to improve food quality with minimum pesticide residues. 

...

Anil Sehajpal, Saroj Arora and Parminder Kaur 

 

Evaluation of plant extracts against Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight of rice
...sion method. Out of 44 plants tested, 36 plant extracts showed varied degree of antimicrobial effect at different concentrations against the pathogen whereas 8 plant extracts, viz. Abrus precatorious, Acacia auriculiformis, Bougainvillea glabra, Convolvulus arvensis, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Morus alba, Thevatia peruviana, and Withania somnifera did not exert any effect. Among all the plant extracts, A. sativum exhibited strong fungitoxicity even at the lowest ...

Dhananjoy Mandal

Eco-friendly management of mealybug and wilt in pineapple
...f percentage of wilted plants and mealy bug population, T3 was the best and T2 ranked second. Percent of wilted plants in T1, T2 and T3 were 11.88, 4.19, 2.62; mean mealy bug population/plant were 9.33, 5.29, 4.20, and yields were 32.5 tha-1, 38.7 tha-1, 41.6 tha-1, respectively. Benefit: Cost ratio was highest in T3 (1.30) followed by T2 (1.24) and T1 (1.09).
 

 

...

S. Pal and I. Sarkar

Pests infesting ornamental plants in hilly region of West Bengal
...g different ornamental plants viz. Myzus persicae on Carnation, gerbera and Anthurium; Macrosiphoniella sanborni on Chrysanthemum; Aphis gossypii on China rose. Other sucking pests infesting ornamentals included Bemisia tabaci on Gerbera, leafhopper on Gladiolus and scale insect (unspecified) on Anthurium. Amongst the thysanopteran pests Taeniothrips simplex was very much serious on Gladiolus and another species of thrips (unspecified) was found infesting Carn...
Sadia Munir1a, Asif Nadeem1a*, Maryam Javed1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3 and Sidra Manzoor1 
...encies of identified variants were also determined. Chi2 test was performed to evaluate the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium of each polymorphic site. Two loci were found to be in HWE. These identified alleles will be useful for animal selection at molecular level i.e. an ideal tool for marker-assisted selection of animals for future breeding programs.
...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...estruction of diseased plants (farmers’ practice). Results indicated all the management approaches under study performed significantly superior to farmers’ practice in terms of reduction in disease severity (32.8-43.6%), yield increase (20.9% - 26.8%) and benefit-cost ratio. Integrated approach was the best approach followed by prophylactic and curative soil disinfestations. Thus, for the present micro-level situation vascular bacterial wilt malady...

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

... was conducted on weed plants for the primary investigation of natural enemies which may became promising biocontrol agents. A total of 7 weed plants include Commelina benghalensis, Cyperus rotundus, Crotalaria verrucosa, Digera muricata, Sida cordifolia, Ipomoea pestigridis and Trianthema portulacastrum were selected for in vitro studies. Fungal isolates namely Ascochyta cypericola, Bipolaris sp....

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...LSDVs from infected ruminants, indicating a potential role of Ixodid ticks for transmission of LSDV. This study showed the role of A. hebraeum ticks for transmission of LSDV. So, tick control is a crucial part, which should be included as a part of LSDV control measures in endemic countries.

...
 

Amir Ismail1, Muhammad Riaz1,2*, Saeed Akhtar1, Amjad Farooq3, Muhammad Arif Shahzad1 and Ahmad Mujtaba4

 

...ough milk showed that infants are most prone towards heavy metal toxicity due to the higher rate of milk consumption.

...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2,*, Tanveer Hussain2, Rashid Saif2, Sadaf Rashid3, Hanan Sarfraz4, Abbas Ali Shah3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
... to identify genetic variants in BDNF gene and their association with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) among Pakistani Punjabi population. We recruited a total of 100 patients diagnosed with OCD following Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) criteria and controls (n=120) were selected from the same ancestry during August 2011 to January 2014fromSir Ganga Ram Hospital and Panjab Institute of Mental Health, Lahore. The demographic values for age, ...
Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
...micals released by the plants in response to herbivorous attack influences third trophic level and natural enemies use these substances to locate their prey. Twelve-arm olfactory apparatus was used to evaluate the response of C. septempunctata toward aphids and different host plants of aphids. Different horticultural plants and field crops were used singly or in combination with pre...
Ayesha Ilyas1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,* and Abdul Qadir1,*
...acts of six indigenous plants viz., amaltas (Cassia fistula), datura (Datura alba), neem (Azadirachta indica), niazboo (Ocimum basilicum), yellow kaner (Thevetia peruviana) and safeda (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) against the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), at 2% concentration in a free choice bioassays. Acetone, chloroform, petroleum ether and ethanol were used for extraction from leaves. Amo...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...y of helping field assistants to plan extension activities. The lowest competencies of AEOs reported were official inquiries conduction, identification of malpractices of inputs supply dealers and evaluate the working of fertilizer dealers. The study recommended that the gap among the competencies of AEOs might be minimized by increasing their educational level and providing training opportunities especially in supervision and administration to deal effectivel...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
.... Two week old chilies plants were inoculated with M. incognita, S. rolfsii separately and in combination as well. At harvesting, roots of C-302 contained significantly fewer galls (30) and egg-masses (51) compared to the other fourteen cultivars. Seven cultivars including C-33, Gola Peshawari, 11-2010, 18-2010, 15-2010, 27-2010 and C-68 had 10 root galling and egg-masses indices (from a scale of 0-10). Hence, present study shows that none of the availa...

Muhammad Ibrahim and Ahmad Khan*

...e in plastic mulching. Plants took less days to emergence (6 days) in 70% FYM, however, tasseling (45 days), silking (49 days) and physiological maturity (94 days) arrived earlier in no-fertilized plots. Tasseling, silking and maturity delayed with increasing urea N proportion in residue or plastic mulching. The days’ differences for silking across the years were apparent in residue mulching than plastic mulching. Plastic mulching had improved emergence ...
Rahat Naseer1*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Zulfiqar-ul-Hassan2, H. Rehman1, Saima Naveed1, F. Masood1 and M. Tayyab1
...xed rations for the ruminants. For this purpose rice husk was subjected to different processing techniques using acid, alkali, water treatment and fermentation to prepare processed moiety on pilot scale. All these processed materials were included in experimental ration at a fixed level (20 %). All iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous rations were offered to experimental animals (n=36, 22 male 14 female Lohi sheep almost evenly distributed in experimental groups) h...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...ste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry. Clinical investigation was carried out during the suspected outbreaks of PPR/FMD in sheep and goats in Hail. Saudi Arabia. During the outbreaks 271 (20.6%) died out of 648 (49.3%) of affected animals, the overall morbidity in goats (33.3%) was higher as compared to sh...
Talha Nazir1,2,*, Muhammad Dildar Gogi2, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Waheed ul Hassan2, Abdul Hanan2 and Muhammad Jalal Arif
...ese insect pests such as ants, parasitoid wasps, green lacewings and coccinellid beetles. Experimental design was split-plot randomized complete block with three replications for each treatment. Transgenic (Bt) cotton variety (FH-118) was sown. Insecticide formulations were applied according to their field recommended dose rates upon attainment of ETLs of most of the sucking insect pests. Data regarding insect populations were recorded 3 and 7 day post treatme...
Tiansen Li1, Meiling Huang2, Zhen Wang1,Fei Guo3,Hui Zhang1,* and Chuangfu Chen1,*
...ted with omp10 mutants were noted, inhibition of phagosome-Lysosome fusion was dramaticly impaired, and profound increase of apoptosis rate after exposure of RAW264.7 to omp10 mutants at 12 h, 24 h and 48 h compared to RAW264.7 exposed to 2308. Results indicate that Δomp10 mutant would affect its survival and pathogenicity.
...

Sadia*, Abdur Rab, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Irfan Ullah, Farida Bibi and Islam Zeb

...5cm3) were recorded in plants deblossomed in September treated with 50 ppm of GA3. While maximum fruit density (1.13gcm-3) was recorded in the month of July fruits treated with 10 ppm of GA3. While maximum fruit drop (11.69%), titratable acidity (0.59%), with minimum number of new shoots (16.3), number of new flowers (65.3), fruit weight (53.3g), and fruit volume (48.1cm3) were recorded in plants which were not deblossomed a...
Saleem Khan1, Amir Hamza2, Farhadullah Khan3, M. Subhan4, Aziz Khan1, Irfan Ali Shah1, Shakirullah Khan Shakir3*
...sing cotton as a model plants, the present study was designed. For this purpose, dry seeds of four cotton genotypes (Gomal-93, Bt-131, Bt-121 and Bt-CIM-602) were exposed to gamma rays with 10, 15, 20 and 25 Kilo Radium (KR) doses sourced from 60Co. The irradiated seed samples were assumed treated seeds while non-irradiated seeds of each genotype were used as control. Field experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three...
Shantanu Jha1, A. Rama Devi1, Ngalaton Kasar1 and Abhishek Mukherjee2
...s attended by 31 participants. The programme was inaugurated by Prof. D. D. Patra, Hon’ble Vice-Chancellor, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV) and was chaired by Professor C. Sen, President of Association for Advancement in Plant Protection (AAPP). Oher dignitaries attended the meeting were Prof. T. K. Maity, Dean, Faculty of Horticulture, BCKV and Prof. M. R. Ghosh, Taxonomist and Retired Professor of Agriculture Entomology, BCKV.
...

Abdur Rab1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Naveed Ahmad1, Khalid Nawab2, Syed Ghias Ali3

...ted by exposing tomato plants to 0, 75 and 150 mM salinity; and foliar application of 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25% calcium solutions. Salinity stress increased leaf Na+ and Na+/ K+, fruit firmness and blossom end rot (BER) incidence but significantly decreased the leaf K+ and Ca content of the fruit and yield. The foliar calcium application decreased the Na+ accumulation, Na+/ K+ ratio and BER incidence as well as increased the leaf K+ and Ca content of t...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...ect several species of plants against environmental stresses by initiating different processes that are involved in the mechanism of stress tolerance. SA is part of an extremely complex signal transduction network’s part and it works differently in different systems. Drought stress is a major restraint for crop production in arid and semi arid states such as Pakistan. In this study experiments were conducted against the responses of strawberry plant to b...

 Zabih Ullah*, H. Rahman and Niaz Muhammad

...desirable as it allows plants to escape various biotic and abiotic stresses. It also makes multiple cropping possible as the land becomes available for next crop. Keeping the importance of early maturity of maize crop in view, the present study was conducted to evaluate different maize hybrids for maturity and related traits in the geographical location of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The experiment was conducted at The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during the cr...
Rehmat Ullah1*, Kalim Ullah2, Inam Ullah3, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Asif Nawaz1 
...rformance of field assistants in Agricultural Extension, the present study was commenced in district Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during year 2014. Eight villages were selected randomly. Among all the farmers, 120 farmers were evaluated through valid, reliable and pre-tested interview schedule. Data collected was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver. 20. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The study has revealed th...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
...e direct damage to the plants by extracting the sap, and indirectly it is a vector to 16 plant viruses. The study presents data referring to the external morphological characteristics, to the biometrical measurements and to the life cycle of Aphis nasturtii. The researches have been carried out for a period of four years on the potato and for a period of two years on the orchards from Romania. At the Aphis nasturtii species the smallest length of...

Arshad Iqbal1*, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil1, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1 and Muhammad Sharif Kakar

...he performance of crop plants by knowing the magnitude of heritability. An experiment was conducted using a set of spring wheat genotypes to estimate heritability for various plant traits during crop season 2014-15 at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar. The randomized complete block design with three replications was used in the experiment. Data were recorded on yield and some other important plant traits like days to heading (days), days to maturity (day...
Ayesha Aihetasham1,*, Muhammad Saeed Akhtar1, Maryam Umer1, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Muhammad Imran Din3
.... Extracts of both the plants were found repellent to this termite. LT50 values of O. basilicum and F. vulgare against Heterotermes indicola were 60.91 and 115.9 h, respectively.
...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
...lly with the growth of plants. Three aphid species were recorded i.e., Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), Schizaphis graminum (R.) and Sitobion avenae (F.). Mean seasonal aphid population (no. of aphids/tiller) on wheat plants during the whole season was the highest in NW-1-8183-8 and NW-3-3341-7 and the lowest in Faisalabad-08. However, grain yield was the highest in Galaxy-13 and the lowest was in Lasani-...

Inayatullah Jan*, Sajid Khan, Noor Paio Khan and Muhammad Ashfaq 

... were smallholders or tenants. After procuring and properly utilizing credit, the yield of the major crops such as wheat, maize, and sugarcane and the resultant income of the respondents exhibited significant increase, as confirmed by higher t-values. The study concludes that the socio-economic conditions of the farmers can be improved if credit programme is extended which could benefit all farmers in the area. 

...
Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz
...(132.00 cm), number of plants (91.33 m-2), number of tillers (146.00 m-2), number of leaves tillers-1 (5.66), total dry matter (17.70 t ha-1) and fodder yield (60.90 t ha-1) showed that nitrogen application @ 150 % N of recommended dose with drill sowing proved to be the most cost effective technique for fodder oat production in salt affected soil as compared to other treatments.
...

 Zeenat Bano1,*, Sajid Abdullah1, Waqas Ahmad2, Muhammad Anjum Zia3 and Wardah Hassan1

...e level of selected toxicants in water, their bioaccumulation and effects on antioxidant enzymes i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in vital organs (gills, liver and kidney) of fish, Cirrhina mrigala. The 3 different representative water samples and 60 fish samples (20 fish from each site) were collected from three sites i.e. fish-farm, hatchery and Indus River of Punjab, Pakistan. The results showed diffe...
Tahira Perveen1,*, Shaista Emad1, Saara Ahmad2, Zehra Batool1, Sarwat Yousuf1, Sheeza Sheikh1, Sara Qadeer1 and Saida Haider1
...div>Synthetic antidepressants are effective drugs for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Along with the effectiveness these drugs are also associated with some side effects. Since ancient times herbs are used as medicinal purposes. One such herb is Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Fennel has many efficacious uses. It is a common herb and spice. It is used in many culinary purposes and also it has therapeutic purposes. In the present study antidepressan...

Muhammad Anas1, Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar2*, Raza Ullah1, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Sohail Latif5 

...ed viz. Four sunflower plants m-2 + 30 mungbean m-2, 6 sunflower plants m-2 + 30 mungbean plants m-2, 8 sunflower plants m-2 + 30 mungbean plants m-2, 4 plants m-2 of sunflower alone, 6 plants m-2 of sunflower alone, 8 plan...

Imtiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Abbas Khan, Noorullah Khan, Naveed Ahmed, Abdul Waheed, Fazal Yazdan Saleem, Sajjad Khan and Sohail Aslam 

... and yield components. Plants with 10 cm spacing had more disease incidence and severity (79 and 55.66% respectively). Plants with 20 cm spacing had more Bulb weight (99.33 g), Bulb diameter (67.33 mm), clove weight (11.65g) and no of cloves per bulb (12.5); whereas taller plants (54 cm) and maximum bulb yield of 12.85 t ha-1 was recorded in those plots planted with 10 cm spacings. While t...

Riaz Alam* and Muhammad Sajid 

...30 and September 14 in plants of olive cultivars Frontoio, Manzanilla, Ottobratica, Pendolino and Picual. Significant variations were recorded among olive cultivars regarding asexual propagation through air-layerage. The daughter saplings of cultivar Manzanilla took less number of days (47.94) to root appearance, produced more rooting percentage (38.89%), number of roots (4.31), root length (4.61 cm) and root weight (1.77g) with more number of re-sprouts (3.18...
Temel Gokturk1, Elif Tozlu2,* and Recep Kotan2
...ses harm in almost all plants that grow along the Eastern Black Sea coast. The chemicals used to control this pest are prohibited in this region due to tea cultivation. For this reason, new strategies are needed to control this pest. With the awareness on the negative effects of the chemicals used in the control against pests and with the increasing awareness on environmental issues, alternative methods were sought in the past; and in this context, studies wer...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Aly Khan3
...fifteen (11.04%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal protozoans. Forty one (35.6%) of the participants were infected with single parasite and seventy four (64.3%) with multiple infections. Entamoeba histolytica 30.5% (n=77/252), Giardia lamblia 15.0% (n=38/252), Ascaris lumbricoides 17% (n=43/252), Trichuris trichura 11.1% (n=28/252), Enterobius vermicularis
Hayat Badshah1, Farman Ullah1, Paul-André Calatayud2, Hidayat Ullah3 and Bashir Ahmad1
...o the locality and the plants on which P. solenopsis is feeding. In this context, this experiment investigated under field and laboratory conditions the influence of the host plant of P. solenopsis on the parasitism success and the female fitness of A. bambawalei, Five plant species, commonly found to be host of P. solenopsis, were tested: hibiscus, potato, okra, eggplant and tomato. Under no choice test conditions, the resul...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
...urticae, on tomato plants, was tested under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. A sharp reduction in the population of T. urticae was obtained after one week of applying Huwa-San TR50 at a rate of 4000 ppm. This resulted in mortalities of 82.10 and 78.60% under greenhouse and laboratory conditions, respectively. The side effects of Huwa-San TR50 on predatory mite, Neosiulus cucumeris, were also tested to gain successful implementation of ne...
Faiza Ambreen*1 and Muhammad Javed2
...ng the toxicity of pollutants which may be used as part of environmental monitoring programs.
...

Gamalat Osman1, Mansour Galal1, Abbas Abul-Ezz2, Ahmad Mohammed1, Mohammed Abul-Ela3 and Asmaa Mostafa Hegazy2

... exposure to oil contaminants. L. carinatus was chronically exposed to crude oil at intervals of 24 hours, 15 days and 30 days. The LC50 of crude oil for L. carinatus was 700 ppm. HPLC analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the flesh demonstrated that PAHs accumulation in the treated snails was fluctuated with time. The accumulation is due to their biotransformation process during metabolism. The histopathological observations of the gills a...

Ayesha Aihetasham1*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2, Syeda Rida Hasan1, Imran Bodlah3

...cts of three medicinal plants viz., Carica papaya (paw paw), Helianthus annus (Sunflower) and Bougainvillea glabra (Paper flower) against Heterotermes indicola. The leaf extract of C. papaya caused highest mortality i.e. 100% of 10%, 5% and 3% concentration. Bougainvillea glabra and H. annus caused 100% mortality at 10% and 5% concentration while 96.4% mortality on 3% concentration after exposure period of 10 hours. B. glabra extracts also caused 100% mortalit...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Ather Javed Khan2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Ahmad Kamran Khan4 

...rs adopted thinning of plants, 91.3% knew pest scouting, 87.3% used pesticides after pest scouting while 74% farmers used pesticides both at morning and evening. It was concluded that integrated pest management project enhanced the skills of farmers and resulted in higher yields of quality cotton through reduction of pesticides sprays 

...
Shahid Mehmood1,*, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Hassan Raza1, Rida Ahmad1, Azhar Muhammad3, Zulfiqar Ali2, Farhan Abid1, Fehmeeda Bibi4 and Syed Maviz Ahmed5
...s 50 (70.4%), winter migrants 12 (16.9%), summer breeders eight (8) (11.3%) and passage migrant one (1) (1.4%). More birds were observed in winter season compared to summer season. The most dominant species were house crow, Corvus splendens (n=2518), house sparrow, Passer domesticus (n=772), common myna, Acridotheres tristis (n=327), black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax (n=190) and jungle babbler, Turdoides striatus
Muhammad Abubakar,1,2,* Aamer Bin Zahur,1,3 Khalid Naeem1,3, Muhammad Azeem Khan1,3 and Subhan Qureshi
...iv>Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly fatal and economically devastating disease of sheep and goats. Present study was designed to have an insight into the epidemiology of PPR under field conditions in the country using molecular tools. A total of eighty-four (n = 84) PPR outbreaks were investigated during the study (2010 to 2013). The highest number of outbreaks was reported from Punjab province (n = 38) followed by Sindh (n = 21) and Khyber Pakhtun...

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

... 100%, due to infected plants and shriveled grain. These problems can be overcome by knowledge about the disease, identifying resistance lines and subsequently develop resistant varieties with an aim to shorten the disease cycle. One of the quickest ways in this direction is the designing molecular markers for non-race-specific resistance genes. Use of molecular markers is efficient tool for screening diversity of rust genes in wheat germplasm and can facilita...
Samra Imran1,* and Afifa Tanweer2
...valuation of the participants. Results indicated that participants aged less than 18 years and those diagnosed within first year of life, had significantly healthier body dimensions. Higher family income, female gender and greater meal satisfaction was found to be associated with better biochemical indices. Most participants reported partial compliance to GFD. Compliant particip
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz3
...enty one (21.2%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal tapeworms. Seventy seven (7.39%) of the participants were infected with single parasite and one hundred forty four (13.8%) with multiple infections. Taenia saginata 32.6% (n=146/447), Ascaris lumbricoides 20.3% (n=91/447), Hymenolepis nana 19.7% (n=88/447), Trichuris trichura 14.3% (n=64/447), Enterobius verm...
Sumaira Zareen1, Syeda Sadaf Zahra2, Ayeza Mehmood3, Muhammad Asadullah4* and Aish Muhammad5

 

...nts from healthy grown plants were used as explants and cultured on standard Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of benzyl amino purine (BAP) or kinetin for shoot induction and Indole acetic acid (IAA) for primary shoot and Indole Butyric acid (IBA) for root proliferation. Best shoot proliferation (4.48 per explant) was observed in MS medium containing 0.2/0.4 mg/L BAP/...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...M) along with seed inoculants (I1) Azospirillum and (I2) Azotobacter separately for each plot. Data regarding yield, quality and nutrients use efficiency parameters were collected and analyzed. Results depicted that interactive effect of both the factors was non-significant for all the observed parameters. Considering the individual effect of fertilizer combinations, maximum number of productive tillers m-2 (...
Alim-un-Nisa1*, Sajila Hina1, Sania Mazhar1, Imran Kalim1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Naseem Zahra1, Shahid Masood1, Muhammad Khalid Saeed1, Qurat-ul-Ain Syed1 and Maida Asif2
...reservatives and antioxidants like citric acid and determining its usefulness by applying on food products. Natural edible color was extracted from T. erecta gave lemon yellow color shade which when applied on candies increased the attractiveness. The spectrophotometric analysis at 474nm of extracted color both in crude form and in candies was found to be stable at 4oC and showed decay in mean lutein concentration at higher temperatures i.e. ...
Muhammad Naeem1, Bushra Sadia1,2,*, Faisal Saeed Awan1and Muhammad Anjum Zia3
... UV11, UV12 and UV 15 mutants producing halo zones. Percentage blood clot lysis led to screening of mutants UV 2, UV 6, UV 7, UV 9, UV 11, UV 12, UV 15 and EB 3, EB 4, EB 11, EB 13 with hyperactivity as compared to wild bacterial strain. Out of the total 15 isolates of EtBr-treated strains, EB4 gave the maximum enzyme activity (7.3 ± 0.005 U ml-1) with a zone diameter of 6 mm. While UV6 was found to be the ...

Rahila Nizami1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Intzar Hussain3 and Khalid Rashid

...of 36(61.02%) of participants were married and 17(28.81%) were unmarried whereas 6(10.2%) did not disclose their marital statuses. Regardless of the gender, age and character, no dominating leadership-style was identified among the medical professionals participated in this study, highlighting the need for leadership development in health professionals. This present a great challenge for health professionals to understand how their leadership behaviors affect ...

Nukhbat-Ullah Awan1*, Muhammad Sohail2, Zeeshan Sarwar3, Muhammad Mustahsen Bashir4, Muhammad Abbas Khokhar5 and Asad Aizaz Chatha

...sented the study participants. Results demonstrated thatmost common mode of trauma was road traffic accident, and majority (54%) of patients were never vaccinated. Incubation period noted was 7±1 days. Tracheostomy was performed in 16±3 hours of admission and tracheostomy decannulation was performed in 23±3 days. Patients were discharged in 27±3 days.Weconcludethat early control of airway with tracheostomy in grade II tetanus patien...

Ata-ul-Mohsin*, Ehsan-ul-Haq** and Muhammad Naeemullah*

...rasitoid was higher on plants with high phosphorus than those treated with high calcium concentrations.

...

 Z. A. Soomro, M.B. Kumbhar, A.S. Larik*, M. Imran** and S.A. Brohi***

...ping transgressive segregants through hybridization is suggested. However, hybridization system, which exploits both fixable and non-fixable components, simultaneously, could be useful in the genetic improvement of yield and yield components in upland cotton.

...

 Muhammad Asim, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Munir* and Muhammad Aslam**

...lated and uninoculated plants of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from the time of inoculation to root-nodule initiation (192 hours after inoculation). 3H-ABA was applied to the leaves of two soybean cultivars: cv. Williams-82 and its hypernodulating mutant, NODI-3. There was a significant difference in the percent uptake of 3H-ABA between the two varieties both in inoculated and uninoculated plants. A marked difference in t...

 Naheed Akhtar, Muhammad Ashfaque, Waseem Ahmad Gillani*, Ata-ul-Mohsin**, Afzala Tashfeen and Irshad Begum*

...now the effect of host plants on the fecundity of R. padi. Two varieties Wafaq-2007 and Diamond were the least preferred for fecundity and one line V00125 was highly preferred for fecundity.

...

 Badaruddin Khokhar*, Imtiaz Hussain** and Zafar Khokhar*

...ndash;7004, had taller plants in comparison with cultivars NARC–9 and V–7004 however, wheat grain yield was not affected significantly among different cultivars.

...

 Sumia Bint Zaman, Sidra Majeed and Shahid Ahmad*

...ed crops and fuel-wood plants.

...

 Ahmed Aziz Kurd, Amanullah, Saifullah Khan, Basharat Hussain Shah and Munir Ahmed Khetran*

...thout IBA application. Plants were kept in a shade house and humidity was increased manually by hand sprinkling (four times in a day). Highest rooting percentage (60%) was obtained in the cuttings treated with 3000 ppm. The maximum average number of roots per cutting (4.443) and average root length (5.687 cm) were recorded with 4000 ppm IBA treatment. Percentage of rooted cuttings decreased with increased IBA concentration, whereas, number of roots and root le...

Tariq Mahmood, M. Sudheer Tariq, Khalid Mahmood Khokar, Hidayatullah and Syed Ijaz Hussain*

...p with no mortality of plants. Highest mortality of plants due to foliage eating by red pumpkin beetle was observed in control where no permethrin was applied. None of the plant extracts tested in this study as dust alone or mixed with dung ash was effective in controlling red pumpkin beetle attack. Permethrin dust (0.5%) alone and ash + permethrin dust (2000: 1 a.i w/w) gave a significantly higher yield of 18.07 and 18.63 t...

 Oguz Bilgin, Kayihan Z. Korkut, Alpay Balkan, and Ismet Baser*

... out transgressive segregants in late segregations to develop a potential durum wheat variety.

...
Saba Rafique1,2,*, Khalid Naeem1, Naila Siddique1, Muhammad Athar Abbas1, Aamer Ali Shah2, Akbar Ali1, Abdul Rahim1 and Farooq Rashid1
...e origin, variety of variants originate through random spontaneous mutation and genetic recombination which could lead to genetic drift. The emergent strain of IBV in this study points out the need to include such variants in killed-vaccine form in the vaccination program of the affected region.
...
Nazish Shaukat1, Muhammad Javed1,Faiza Ambreen2* and Fariha Latif1
... as the most toxic pollutants in aquatic system. These are important inducers of oxidative stress in aquatic animals, promoting the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which ultimately leads to tissue damage and oxidation of biomolecules. Aquatic organisms possess antioxidant system to cope with the oxidative stress. This research was conducted to see the effect of lead on peroxidase activity (antioxidant enzyme) in the gills and liver of Labeo rohit...

 Hidayatullah, T. Mahmood, M. Farooq, M. A. Khokhar and S.I. Hussain*

* Corresponding author: hidayatu2003@yahoo.uk.co.uk

PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AFFECTING SEX EXPRESSION OF BOTTLE GOURD (LAGENARIA SICERARIA MOLINA) PLANTS
...aria siceraria Molina) plants cv. Faisalabad Round was investigated under field conditions in National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Plants sprayed with distilled water were considered as control. Among all foliar agents, the response of -l GA3 3 and MH was found better. Exogenous application with 30 µmol l GA maximally increased the pistillate flower production as compared to control. Moreover, the treatmen...

 Shahida N.Khokhar*

CROP INOCULANTS- AN UNDEREXPLORED POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURE
...en way of life. Bioinoculants are in perfect harmony with the concept of Evergreen Revolution. They have the potential to improve value cost ratio (VCR) of agricultural production. Pakistan faces increase in degraded lands, water shortage, energy crisis, all contributing to poverty. During last two decades, many efforts were made to address the issue through developing and applying the inoculants. Several research institutio...

 Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Fakhar ul Hassan, Qamar ul Hassan, Usman Shaukat Qureshi, Saman Chughtai and Adnan Saleem*

IMPACT OF CULTIVATION SYSTEMS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA ANANASSA) CV. “CHANDLER”
...Rawalpindi. The runner plants of the strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) cv. Chandler were collected from Swat (Mingora.) Different cultivation systems were adapted i.e., standard growing media in polyethylene bags (T ), soil less media (T ), high tunnel (T ), green house (T ), 1 2 3 4 including open field condition on ridges (T ) by keeping plant to plant 5 distance of 30 cm and row to row distance of 60 cm. The study was conducted to evaluate the effects and suit...

 Habib Iqbal Javed, Ashiq Saleem, Javed Fateh, Mozammil Hussain, Naheed Akhtar and Shamim-ul-Sibtain Shah*

DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANT MAIZE GERMPLASM
... the basis of survived plants, a total of 250 accessions including 150 exotic out of 350 and 100 indigenous out of 900 were selected. During autumn 1999, out of 250 accessions (progenies) 35 exotic and 10 indigenous could survive under artificial infestation. Under natural infestation, 100 progenies performed little better. The best plants among these progenies were advanced by self pollination. A total of 400 self pollinate...

 Muhammad Tariq*, Raja Muhammad Omer**, Muhammad Ashraf Mian*, Obaid Ur Rehman***, Amjad Tahir Virk and Kazim Abbass**

PROMOTING CERTIFIED SEED AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON YIELD IN RAINFED AREAS
...tand which enabled the plants to withstand abiotic stress especially drought during the crop season. The seed multiplication of crop varieties of rainfed areas can be done in irrigated areas to ensure the quality of seed and its availability in rainfed areas, which ultimately will increase the income of the farming community of the area.

...

 Arshad Ali, Imdad Ali Mahmood, Muhammad Salim, Muhammad Arshadullah* and Abdul Rasool Naseem**

GROWTH AND YIELD OF DIFFERENT BRASSICA GENOTYPES UNDER SALINE SODIC CONDITIONS
...domly (average of five plants per replication) at the time of crop maturity. Ionic concentration in plant tissues and oil content in seeds were also determined. Comparatively more number of branches and pods per plant were produced by cultivar Dunkled closely followed by BARD-I while maximum seed yield (241.7 and -1 235.1 kg ha ) was obtained from Dunkled and Sultan Raya, respectively which was statistically at par. However, BRS-II and Rainbow showed significa...

 Muhammad Arshadullah, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*

CUMULATIVE EFFECT OF SULFUR AND CALCIUM ON WHEAT GROWTH AND YIELD UNDER SALINE-SODIC SOILS
...+ receiving CaSO4 help plants to attain more Ca , K and S to avoid Na uptake.

...

 Sajida Taj*, Akhter Ali*, Nadeem Akmal*, Shujaat Yaqoob** and Mubarik Ali***

RAISED BED TECHNOLOGY FOR WHEAT CROP IN IRRIGATED AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...per analyzes the determinants of adoption of raised bed planting of wheat in irrigated areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Wheat is an important staple food of Pakistan. It contributes 13 % to the value added in agriculture and 2.6 % to the GDP. The agrarian economy of Pakistan is continuously under stress due to the low yield of almost all the crops and constrained with many problem. One of the most important issues of agriculture is water shortage which is increasing...

 Rabeea Tariq*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Imran Hassan*, Muhammad Rasheed* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY AND GROWING MEDIA ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY
...s. Results showed that plants grown at low planting distance on all growth media showed more pronounced results as compared to high planting distance. Plants grown in peat moss at both planting densities moderately increased the plant height, canopy size, leaf area, number of fruits, fruit size, fruit weight and titratable acidity. A significant increase in fresh and dry weight of leaves, number of leaves, fruit yield in ter...

 Shahida Khalid*and Shahida Nasreen Khokhar*

INTERACTION OF HERBICIDES AND BIO-INOCULANTS WITH AGRICULTURAL CROPS AND WEEDS
...ld.

...

 Asghar Ali*, Muhammad Tahir**, Shahid Riaz Malik* and Muhammad Hanif Munawwar*

EVALUATION OF PRE AND POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.)
...using injury to lentil plants.

...

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Nouman Badar*

YIELD GAP DETERMINANTS FOR WHEAT PRODUCTION IN MAJOR IRRIGATED CROPPING ZONES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...he yield gap and determinants of wheat production in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is based on cross sectional data from 210 farmers for the crop year 2009-10. Results suggest that farm level wheat yields are less than the potential yield level by 33.0%, 43.0% and 50.6% in the mixed-cropping, cotton-wheat and rice-wheat zones of the province, respectively. Ordinary least square regression analysis of wheat production by assuming Cobb-Douglas specificatio...

 Sajid Ali*, Quratulain Altaf** and Umar Farooq* 

ACREAGE RESPONSE OF FLUE CURED VIRGINIA TOBACCO IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...ifying important determinants of acreage response of FCV tobacco crop in the study area. 

...

 Muhammad Ali*, Ghulam Mustafa Sajid**, M. Faisal Anwar Malik*** and Kalimullah****

ESTABLISHMENT OF IN VITRO CULTURE OF GRAPES
...lture from shoot tip explants (meristemetic tissue) of grapes was investigated through tissue culture technique. These explants were collected from gene bank of Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources (IABGR), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. Fifteen accessions of grapes were surface sterilized and tested on 75% MS media for germination and initial growth parameters. Ac...

 Aniqa Iram*, Javed Khan**, Nadeem Aslam**, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Habib Iqbal Javed**, Muhammad Irfan*, Awais Rasool*, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi** and Sumera Aslam* 

EFFICACY OF PLANT DERIVED OILS AND EXTRACTS AGAINST WHITEFLY, BEMISIA TABACI (GENNADIUS) ON SESAME CROP
... on more than 600 host plants worldwide. Different methods are being used for its control. The present experiment was conducted to determine the effect of some plant extracts of mint (Mentha spp.) and geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) and soybean oil (Glycine max), mustard oil (Brassica spp.) and taramera oil (Eruca sativa) against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci on sesame crop. The data were recorded 24h before and 24h, 48h, 72h and 168h after application of each sp...

 Hassnain Shah*, Nadeem Akmal*, Waqas Farooq*, Muhammad Azeem Khan* and Shahid Munir**

SHIFT FROM SITE DEVELOPMENT TO SKILL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF WATER HARVESTING THROUGH MICRO CATCHMENTS
...conservation for fruit plants but also cost effective, water, labor and resource saving along with farmer friendly under rainfed condition with scare supplemental water availability. The cost of adoption of technology including labor charges for its preparation and maintenance was recovered from irrigation cost saved from single rainfall at the demonstration site. One of the important implications drawn in this regard was the need of a shift from site developm...

 Nosheen Zahra*, Ghulam Sarwar* and Sher Muhammad**

COMPARISON OF GYPSUM AND POTASSIUM SILICATE FOR RECLAMATION OF SALINE SODIC SOIL
...n all the pots i.e., 3 plants per pot. Necessary N, P and K fertilizers were applied at the recommended rate. After crop harvest, soil samples were taken for analysis of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of soil. All the amendments when used alone or in combination with each other improved the chemical parameters of soil. All levels of gypsum (100%, 75% and 50% G.R) proved effective in lowe...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Raheel Babar*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASS OF HETEROPOGON CONTORTUS WITH IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS
...estibility in small ruminants. Goats fed II , HC II , HC II , HC II and HC had similar 100% 25% 75% 50% 50% 75% 25% 100% dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and crude fibre (CF) consumption among all the treatments. The digestibility percentage of dry matter intake (DMI) varied among the treatments ranging from 68.25% to 41.66%. Mixtures of low palatable grass and Ipil ipil were in general more digestible with more than 65% dry matter digestibility. The lowest...

 Ibrar Ali*, Abdul Mateen Khattak*, Muhammad Ali* and Kalim Ullah**

PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT TOMATO CULTIVARS UNDER ORGANIC AND INORGANIC REGIMES
... ha ) were recorded in plants provided with organic conditions Roma cultivar performed better than other cultivars under the agro climatic condition of Peshawar followed by cultivar Rio Grande. Therefore, organic tomato production, and these two cultivars are recommended to be grown in Peshawar area. 

...

 Sameera Arshad*, Iftikhar Hussain*, Maqsood Anwar* and Sarwat Naz Mirza*

HABITAT SURVEY FOR RECOGNIZING BIRD ATTRACTANTS AROUND BENAZIR BHUTTO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
... recognizing bird attractants and hazardous bird species was carried out at 8 selected study sites within 8 km radius of Benazir Bhutto International Airport (BBIA), Islamabad. Each site represented a different habitat and was ranked for the presence of bird attracting sites using Habitat Composite Index (HCI). Habitat representing naturally preserved recreational area (Ayub Park) showed highest rank (9.7) for the presence of bird attracting sites followed by ...

 Quratulain*, Muhammad Aslam**, Muhammad Khalid Rafique*, Mian Atiq Ahmad* and Rashid Mahmood***

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF ROSE APHID MACROSIPHUM ROSAE L. ON DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF ROSA INDICA L. IN PAKISTAN
...rch field area on rose plants for rose aphid populations during 2008-09. Data were recorded on weekly basis. Nymphs, winged and wingless adults were counted from leaves (upper, middle and lower leaves), buds and flowers by visual observation from tagged plants. Aphid populations start to develop in November and its population decline with decline in temperature in December. While its population started rising again at the en...

 Zafar Abbas*, Ijaz Ahmad**, Adnan Shakeel**, Muhammad Abdullah***, Muhammad Islam**, Sadiq Muhammad*, Ghulam Murtaza* and Mushtaq Ahmad**

EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER AND WATER STRESS ON PROTEIN AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
...her in fully irrigated plants as compared to water stress ones. Fertilizer treatments had no considerable effect on phenolic compounds.

...

 Raja Zoq-ul-Arfeen*, Aamir Saleem*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Muhammad Akmal**, Hafiz Muhammad Tayyab* and Obaid Afzal***

BIODIVERSITY AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM RIPARIAN AREAS OF PAKISTAN: SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TAUNSA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY AND KETI SHAH FORESTS
...sanctuary. Total 14259 plants/individuals were recorded, which belong to 54 plant species with 18 different families. In Taunsa pre-monsoon survey, total 30 plant species were found with 4476 plants from 16 different families. In Taunsa post-monsoon survey total 3348 individuals were recorded from 20 plant species and 9 families. Similarly, in Keti Shah forest, total 3975 individual were recorded from 22 species and 11 famil...

 Imran*, Shaheeda Naveed**, Asad Ali Khan* and Inayat Khattak* 

IMPACT OF PHOSPHORUS LEVELS AND SEED RATES ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF LATE SOWN MAIZE ON HIGH ELEVATION IN SWAT, PAKISTAN
...(P) is required by the plants relatively in large quantity and is the second most important crop nutrient that increases productivity of maize (Zea mays L.). An experiment on effect of different P O levels and seed rates on growth and yield of late sown maize cv. 2 5 Baber on high elevation during kharif season, was conducted at Farmer Field School, Swat, Pakistan during summer 2012. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having three ...

 Anwar Hussain* and Muhammad Rahman**

ROLE OF TRAININGS ON FARMERS' PROFITABILITY OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF DISTRICT SWAT, KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA
...medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in mountainous areas of district Swat. A convenient sample of 100 respondents, engaged in MAPs in Chail Valley Madyan was taken. Information about revenue from MAPs, marketing, prices and quantities was collected through a structured questionnaire. The respondents were given training under Swiss Development Cooperation Project at the time of collection, harvesting, cleaning, drying, packing and marketing of MAPs. The overal...

 Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Tariq Hassan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saleem Abid*, Irum Raza* and Saqib Shakeel Abbasi*

ASSESSMENT OF THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING COURSE UNDER WATERSHED PROJECT AT FATEHJANG FIELD STATION, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... Majority of the participants were strongly and merely agreed upon the training practicality, technologies adoption probability and its advantages at farmer's field. Overall, most of the training participants were satisfied with the knowledge sharing presentations about the specific technologies discussed during the training.

...

 Azhar Usman Ali*, Ghulam Sarwar*, Muhammad Aftab* and Sher Muhammad**

EFFECT OF SOIL AND FOLIAR APPLIED COPPER ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
...-2000) were sown and 3 plants were maintained in each pot after germination. Foliar application of copper was done at booting and tillering stage. At maturity, data regarding different yield components were noted and wheat plants were harvested. Grain yield and total biomass was also recorded. Soil samples were collected from all pots and analyzed for copper concentration by using wet digestion method. Results of the experim...

 Muhammad Mudasar Aslam ⃰, Muhammad Jamil**, Ijaz Malook**, Amana Khatoon*, Ali Rehman*, Abdur Rahim***, Pirzada Khan*, Shakir Ullah Khan Shakir*, Shahid Irfan*, Faizan Ullah****, Khair Ul Bashar**, Mahideen Afridi** and Shafiq Ur Rehman*

PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA, TAMARIX APHYLLA AND PEGANUM HARMALA ON PLANT GROWTH OF WHEAT AND MUSTARD
...otoxic effects of many plants are known on growth of different useful crops. This research study was designed to find out phytotoxic effects of Calotropis procera, Tamarix aphylla and Peganum harmala on seed germination and seedling length of wheat and mustard. Results showed that seed germination of wheat was significantly decreased by 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% while mustard seeds were resistant and were affected by higher dilutions (15%, 20% and 25%) of all ...

Sumia Bint Zaman*, Waqas Farooq*, Sidra Majeed*, Hasnain Shah*, and Abdul Majid**

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICE PROVIDERS' TRAINING ON WATER CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES IN POTHWAR REGION
... opinions of the participants before and after the training. Descriptive analysis alongwith paired 't' test was used to measure the effectiveness of training. Results indicated higher satisfactory level as majority of the participants were strongly agreed (73%) and agreed (23%) that trainings were participatory and skill development oriented and as 96% agreed or strongly agreed that these were helpful in starting the busines...

 Muhammad Farrukh Saleem*, Munir Ahmad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza** and Abdul Shakoor*

EFFECT OF TOPPING UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON EARLINESS AND YIELD OF COTTON
...showed that 90 cm tall plants -1 produced maximum seed cotton yield when supplied with 150 kg N ha ; 120 cm tall -1 plants gave maximum seed cotton with 200 kg N ha while 150 cm tall cotton plants -1 needed 250 kg N ha for highest seed cotton production. In conclusion, cotton growth can be manipulated successfully for better performance by topping provided N dose is monitored.

...

 Tasawar Sultana*, Farah Deeba* and S.M. Saqlan Naqvi*

HIGH-THROUGHPUT AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA IN COMPARISON TO TWO EXPRESSION VECTORS
...truncatula transformed plants expressing OsRGLP1 were obtained through GATEWAY technology using pGOsRGLP1 (pH7WG2.0::OsRGLP1). The transformation efficiency of this vector was compared with expression vector from pCAMBIA series over-expressing same gene (pCOsRGLP1). A lower number of explants generated hygromycin resistant plantlet for instance, 18.3 with pGOsRGLP1 vector as compared to 35.5% with pCOsRGLP1 vector. Transform...

Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Tariq Sultan**, Arshad Ali**, Ghulam Qadir*** Imdad Ali Mahmood**, Tauseef Tabassam**, Muhammad Arshad Ullah** and Nasir Abbas* 

EFFECT OF PGPR STRAINS ON SUNFLOWER GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS UNDER SALINITY STRESS
...r six weeks of sowing, plants were harvested and data regarding root length, plant height, root dry weight and shoot dry weight were recorded. The plant growth improved significantly with PGPR strain under salt stress. The root length, plant height, root and shoot weight increased up to 40%, 40%, 167% and 255%, -1 respectively over un-inoculated at 12 dS m salinity level. Whereas an increase of 38%, 54%, 109%, and 117% in root length, plant height, root weight...

 Farid Asif Shaheen*, Sadia Parveen*, Ahmed Zia**, Ghulam Qadir*,
Mureed Husain*** and Rifat Ullah Khan****

PREDATORY APTNESS OF ANTS AGAINST RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM HERBST (TENEBRIONIDAE: COLEOPTERA) IN WHEAT FLOUR
...se results indicate that ants could be used as biological control agents against RFB.

...

 Syed Waqar Shah* and Muhammad Ather Rafi*

PIERID (LEPIDOPTERA: PIERIDAE) PESTS AND THEIR NEW CRUCIFERS HOSTS IN POTHWAR REGION OF PAKISTAN
...cultivated cruciferous plants, the known cultivated hosts such as , , ,, var. and were attacked by , and . Among above reported Pieridae species is reported for the first time however, is also a new record from districts Rawalpindi and Chakwal and from Jhelum, Rawalpindi and Chakwal. However, the non-cultivated host plants in the region were , , and . Among noncultivated hosts was the new host for . C. was found common host ...

Mehwish Kiran*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani*, Kashif Waseem*
and Muhammad Sohail**

EFFECT OF ORGANIC MANURES AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF RADISH ( L)
...e found in NPK treated plants followed by PM, GM, SS, PrM and FYM, respectively.

...

 Arshia Naeem*, Maria Anjum*, Mariam Rehman*, Zahid Mahmood** and Muhammad Asif Kamran**

AN INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM TO FACILITATE FARMERS IN WHEAT, SUGARCANE AND OTHER CROP DISEASES IDENTIFICATION
...e yield losses in crop plants. An integrated application to facilitate farmers to communicate their crop related issues directly to agriculture scientists is proposed. This 'AXPERT Platform' consists of web application that provides user centered interface to farmers and a desktop application that facilitates agricultural scientists to identify crop diseases. A case study was developed from Faisalabad region where information about crops, their soil conditions...

 Ghazala Nawaz*, Muhammad Nawaz Malik**, Muhammad Hassan
Mushtaq***, Fraz Munir Ahmad****, Ali Abdullah Shah*****, Farooq
Iqbal******, Shinawar Waseem Ali*******, Zahida Fatima******** and
Amjad Khan*********

SURVEILLANCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN LIVESTOCK IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...rom small and large ruminants of subtropical rural communities in the province of Punjab during January-March, 2015. Total 59665 sera samples from apparently healthy animals were collected and screened by Rose Bengal Plate test and confirmed by Complement fixation test, respectively. After adjustment for test sensitivities and specificities accordingly, and chi square analysis of results, the true prevalence per 1000 animals in buffaloes was (7.86%), significa...

 

Shakir Ullah*, Aish Muhammad*, Iqbal Hussian*, Hafeez-Ur-Rahman**, Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder***, Muhammad Din**** and Nizamud Din

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS IN APRICOT CULTIVARS GROWN IN GILGIT BALTISTAN PAKISTAN
...on of New Varieties of Plants) and the International Board for
Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) characteristics. Three cultivars
(Charmagzi, Shai Pawand and Narie) had fruit weight from 39-41 g. Most of
the cultivars had small fruit with sweet and large size kernel. Habi and
Astore 1 had latest harvest in late June. Nili Pawand, Shai Pawand and
Skardu Local were determined to late blossom as compared t...

 

ROLE OF HONEY BEES FORAGING ACTIVITIES IN INCREASED FRUIT SETTING AND PRODUCTION OF APPLES APIS MELLIFERA MALUS DOMESTICA

...ght gain in pollinated plants compared to non-pollinated plants. Maximum number of fruits per panicle were 5.33±0.51(Mean±SE) whereas the highest fruit weight 170±2.65g (Mean±SE) was recorded in plants provided with augmentation of honey bees along with natural pollination. The lowest fruit weight of 80±3.05g (Mean±SE) and the minimum 0.33±0...

 Asif ullah Khan*, Faizan Ullah*, Sultan Mehmood*, Muhammad Irshad* and Farhat Ullah Khan**

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF L. PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS
... of not only with crop plants but also with weed species before its introduction into agroforestry systems. During present investigation, allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous extract was investigated on seed germination and seedling development of L. Extracts were applied at 25%, 20%, 15%, 10% and 5% as seed soaking for 8 hours prior to sowing. Phenolics compounds were found in aqueous extracts and were higher in 25% extract (52.72 mg gallic acid eq. / gm of...
Muhammad Sharif1*, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz2, Muhammad Ansar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Syed Abdul Sadiq5
...ally same under CT (83 plants m-2, 6.02 Mg ha-1, 3.32 Mg ha-1, respectively), MT (83 plants m-2, 5.90Mg ha-1, 3.26 Mg ha-1, respectively) and RT(72 plants m-2, 5.92 Mg ha-1,3.20Mg ha-1, respectively)tillage systemswith retention of crop residues,whilesignificantly lower values were recorded u...

Anza Zahid*, Muhammad Ali Ayub, Mujtaba Saeed, Nasir Pasha, Abdul Jabbar Dar, Huzaifa Javed, Aimen Shakeel, Amna Nasir, Ana Akbar, Zainab Tarrar and Ayesha Humayun 

...aire. Out of 177 participants, 55.36% were females and 51.41% participants were in the range of 52-75 years of age. Among 79 males, majority (45.6%) were employees, whereas 91.8% were housewives among females’ participants,. Out of 177 diabetic patients, 42 patients (23.7%) were non-compliant and 135 patients (62.5%) were found to be compliant. The normal glucose level was observed i...

Samina Ashraf1*, Ghulam Haider2 and Maimoona Ashraf

... selected as the participants of the study. The age of participants was between 25 to 40 years and they had past experience of any type of abuse of violence, and were cognitively normal to respond interview. At first we identified the participants with the help of survey. A series of detailed and in- depth interview of 60 to 90 minutes were conducted from the particip...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Muhammad Kashif Prince1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*, Mian Saeed Sarwar2, Hazrat Ali2, Tahir Usman2, Asadullah Khan2, Siffat Ullah Khan3 and Shahid Zaman5
... pathogens in young ruminants and has been associated with diarrhea. The current study was conducted in three selected districts (Bannu, Lakki Marwat and Kohat) of southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) to determine the prevalence and risk factors responsible for the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in lambs and has been known to cause human infection. Three hundred and sixty fecal samples (n=360) were collected through convenient sampling from apparently healt...
Aitezaz Ahsan1*, Muhammad Usman1, Ihsan Ullah2, Aamer Bin Zahur3 and Adnan Rasheed Malik4
...iv>Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is as a transboundary disease whose occurrence hampers the trade and consequently causes an enormous economic losses. It is a disease of sheep and goat, particularly in the regions of Africa, Middle East and Asia. Besides clinical signs and symptoms of PPR various diagnostic assays, both serological and molecular, have been developed and are applied for estimating the current status of the disease. This review article focuse...
Muhammad Zameer Kayani1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2 and Muhammad Arshad Hussain3
...he other hand, ages of plants at inoculation had negative correlations with reductions in these parameters at each inoculum density. The production of galls was found to be positively correlated with the inoculum densities and plant ages. However, rate of nematode build up decreased with an increase in inoculum density and appeared to be negatively correlated with inoculum densities and, on the contrary, was found to be positively correlated with plant ages. T...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2,*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza2, Muhammad Afzal2,Hafiz Salah-ud-Din2, Imtiaz Sarwar2, Muhammad Yahya2 and Khurram Shehzad3

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

...ne yield and its determinants in study area. The results revealed that per acre net return after subtracting total cost from gross revenue was Rs. 33,173.65/-. Results illustrate that labor days, seed quantity, tractor hours, urea and pesticides have positive significant effect on sugarcane yield. Resource use efficiency analysis shows that marginal value product (MVP) to marginal factor cost (MFC) ratios for labor days, irrigation, urea, FYM and pesticides a...

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

...ne yield and its determinants in study area. The results revealed that per acre net return after subtracting total cost from gross revenue was Rs. 33,173.65/-. Results illustrate that labor days, seed quantity, tractor hours, urea and pesticides have positive significant effect on sugarcane yield. Resource use efficiency analysis shows that marginal value product (MVP) to marginal factor cost (MFC) ratios for labor days, irrigation, urea, FYM and pesticides a...
Mubashar Hussain, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Sehreen Siddique, Muhammad Umar, Tamkeen Zainab, Fatima Zafar
...t pests and their host plants.
...
María Magdalena Crosby-Galván1, Bernardino Espinoza-Velasco1 and Mónica Ramirez-Mella2,*
...a standard diet for ruminants elaborated with corn stover, corn grain and soybean meal, and three experimental diets with 10, 20 and 30% dry residue of chihua pumpkin instead of corn stover. Dry matter digestibility and gas production was determined at 24 h of incubation in ruminal fluid obtained from two Holstein cows with a ruminal cannula. Randomized block experimental design was used as and a comparison of means was performed by the Tukey test. The results...

Nadia Mubarik1, Aqib Iqbal1*, Iqbal Munir1 and Muhammad Arif2 

...oliar application, the plants were regularly irrigated upto one week and water stress was imposed by withholding water from half of the pots for 20 days. Data were recorded on the relative water content (RWC), proline, sugar content and transcripts abundance of Lhcb2 gene in the selected leaves. Application of CaCl2 increased the RWC, proline and sugar content as well as the Lhcb2 expression in the leaves under both irrigation conditions; however, the effect w...
Muhammad Umar1, Mubashar Hussain1,*, Ghulam Murtaza1, Farid Asif Shaheen2 , Fatima Zafar1
..., Terns, Ducks and Cormorants), eutrophication (Painted stork and Dalmatian pelican), Agrochemical Contamination (Black-tailed godwit and Fish bird) Heavy Metal Pollution Contamination (Cattle egrets), Unsustainable Fisheries Practices (Ducks), invasive species (Little egret and Night herone) and illegal hunting (Geese, Ducks, Siberian cranes and Bustards) have resulted in the decline of species abundance.. Regular conduct of surveys for important migratory bi...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Zahir Shah1 and Farmanullah Khan1 

... with large numbers of plants and microbial mats. In this regard, a pot experiment was carried out with the aim to assess the impact of different strains of cyanobacteria on rice crop growth and nutrients uptake under saline soil condition at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad Pakistan during summer 2016. A total of 18 experimental pots were induced with salinity of 7.0 dS m-1 and arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three r...
Ghulam Muhae-ud-Din1,4, Anam Moosa1, Umer Farooq Ghummen1, Muhammad Jabran1, Amjad Abbas1, Muhammad Naveed2, Abdul Jabbar1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1,3,*
... a huge number of crop plants. It also infects the ornamental plants resulting in a serious growth-limiting factor in ornamentals. In this study, the response of ten ornamental plants to M. incognita was assessed in pot experiments. All the ornamental plant species showed varying degree of infection of M. incognita. Rhapis excels and Ophiopogan japonicas were mo...

Muhammad Suhaib1*, Ijaz Ahmad2, Masooma Munir3, Badar-Uz-Zaman1, Bushra Atta4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

...cal parameters of crop plants however lower level of salicylic acid 0.25 mM was found more efficient then the higher level of salicylic acid. Salicylic acid induced improvement is significant regardless of stress environment or normal growth conditions.
 

...

Safdar Ali1*, Obaidullah Shafique1, Tariq Mahmood2, Muhammad Amir Hanif1, Ijaz Ahmed3 and Bashir Ahmad Khan

...by DNA transfer in the plants or nanoparticle-mediated gene. Biofuel production from biomass is estimated to speed up using nanotechnology. Researchers and manufacturers have to demonstrate that the application of nanotechnologies have no harmful effect on the atmosphere against the anomaly based only on small amounts of toxicological research and concerns about the safety of nanomaterials.

...

Qasim Iqbal1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Obaidullah Shafique1, Bashir Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Ihsanullah Khan4  

...e the distance between plants to plant was 30 cm. The seed was sown in the first week of August. The following parameters were studied in the experiment i.e. days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, plant height, days to maturity, stem diameter, head diameter, number of leaves, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per hectare. Quality parameters were consisted upon oil content (%), protein content (%), and fatty acid profile. The results showed that si...
Hongqun Li1, Xiaoli Liu2,*, Zhenmin Lian3,RenheWang4, Yongbin Wang4, Yongyao Fu1 andDingyi Wang5
...cess of brown-eared pheasants was negatively related to cover of shrubs, and first-order interaction between cover of trees and cover of shrub at a height of 1.0 m, suggesting bigger cover of shrubs, cover of trees and cover of shrub at height of 1.0 m were the best predictors of nest success from a diverse predator community. In addition, brown-eared pheasants have a preference for rock-cavities. Therefore, based on nest-si...
Huma Naz1,*, Sajid Abdullah2, Sidra Naz3, Sidra Abbas2, Wardah Hassan2, Shakeela Perveen2, Moazama Batool1, Laiba Shafique2
...e toxic effects of pollutants in aquatic systems. 
...

Saima Rani*, Hassnian Shah, Nusrat Habib and Muhammad Azeem Khan 

...in Pakistan. The determinants of willingness to pay of consumers estimated by using the probit model. The model contains the information of socioeconomic characteristics, awareness and preferences of organic vegetables and product attributes. The empirical findings indicate that age, employment status, income, education, number of children, taste, no chemical residual, high nutritional value, freshness and colour of the vegetables have positive effects on co...

Ghufran ul Haq1*, Muhammad Arif2, Asad Ali2 and Mian Inayatullah3 

...lies inoculated tomato plants. Transmission properties of the virus were determined by inoculation of tomato plants of susceptible cultivar, Roma-VF, by whiteflies, determining the minimum time required for acquisition and inoculation of the virus, latency period and the persistence capacity. The highest incidence of 9.47 percent of TYLCV was recorded in Mohmand Agency, followed by Malakand Agency with 8.2 percent, Shabqadar...

Fayaz Ahmad1*, Noorullah Khan1, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Qamar uz Zaman1, Shamsul Islam1, Muhammad Abbas Khan1 and Sair Sarwar

...plications. Mature tea plants (26 year old) of Qi-men variety were deeply pruned (30 cm from the ground level by completely defoliating the bushes) on five different dates i.e., November, December, 2012, January, February and March, 2013 having one month interval. Application of potash fertilizer @ 90,120 and 150 kg ha-1 was also compared with control for studying its role in the recovery and growth of deeply pruned tea. The earliest shoot sprouting (April, 20...
Abdul Samad1, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Olena Pokryrshko2 and Tauseef M Asmat1,*
...e of deadly food contaminants like Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and E. coli (O157:H7) in various types of food items consumed locally. Total of 800 most common food samples such as chicken, beef meat, raw milk, vegetables and salad samples were collected from retail market, the overall contamination of food samples with infectious agents was 48.37%. Campylobacter jejuni was recorded much higher (28.9...

Shamsher Ali1*, Sarmad Khan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Naveed ullah4, Muhammad Rashid3 and Wiqar Ahmad1 

...weeks after emergence. Plants growth was observed for three weeks after emergence. Statistical analysis of the data showed that both soils and varieties significantly (p<0.05) affected per cent emergence and growth. Interactions between soils and varieties were significant (p <0.05) regarding emergence and plant heights. From the interactions it is clear that under normal soil conditions, emergence percentage of Pirsabak-2004 variety was maximum (100 %),...
Wael S. El-Tohamy1,*, Russell R. Hopcroft2 and Nagwa E.M. Abdel Aziz3

Abdul Basit1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,4*, Sohail Ahmed2, Gohar Ali2 and Muhammad Javaid

...tation on bitter gourd plants and compared it with reduced-risk insecticide formulations of spinosad. Refractive sheets of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, black and white were installed in M. charantia beds at three different angles (30º, 60º and 90º). Results revealed that control treatment exhibited significantly higher fruit fly infestation (60%) with minimum marketable fruit yield (374g/bed) than all other treatments. Among treatments, yel...

Muhammad Fiaz1*, Muhammad Afzal1 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2 

...insect pests of citrus plants and a putative vector of Huanglongbing worldwide. Treatments were comprised of label-recommended (FD) and its half (HD) dose rates of spirotetramat and I. fumosorosea formulations. Both treatments were applied either alone or in binary combinations. There was a significant reduction in psyllid population for all treatment combinations as compared to control (F8, 107 = 70.36; P-value = 0.001 for 2016 and F8, 107 = 63.58; P-value &l...
Sukirno Sukirno1,2, Muhammad Tufail1,3,*, Khawaja Ghulam Rasool1Said El Salamouny1, 4, Koko Dwi Sutanto1 and Abdulrahman Saad Aldawood1
...sunlight. Many UV protectants were used to improve the efficacy of these viruses under field conditions. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plant extracts to improve the persistence of Spodoptera littoralis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) against beet army worm, Spodoptera exigua(Hübner) under harsh sunny field conditions in Saudi Arabia. A preliminary test of SpliMNPV was performed...
Amna Waseem, Sikander Ali* and Syeda Wajiha Khalid
...MMS. Among 13 mutant variants, EM-7 showing maximum lipase activity of 71±3.55 U/g, was selected. Resistance in the hyper producing strain was developed by exposing it with low levels of L-cysteine HCl to protect it from instability. It was observed that under optimum conditions at 30°C temperature, pH 7, and incubation period 64 h, the lipase activity was increased up to 124±2.48 U/g. The crude enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipi...
Naveed Akhtar1, Humaira Zareen2* and Rubina Sarmad3
...mn; 2.1. All the participants were unmarried, 108 (94.7%) liked traditional food, and 84 (73.3%) had a habit of daily breakfast intake. Most of the students (n=73, 64%) were consuming fast/junk food while 81(71.1%) of the students used to take meat and meat products three times a week. A total of 42 respondents (36.8%) were underweight while 41 (36%) were anemic. Positive association was found between eating habits and hemoglobin levels (p = 0.001). Relat...
Faisal Masood*1, Ranjit Kumar Sah2 and Ahmad Humayun Sarfaraz3
...rsquo;s fracture and warrants further randomized control trial study to establish its efficacy in such cases.
...
Mumtaz Akhtar, Iffat Naheed, Khadija Waheed* and Amna Khanum
...ean age of study participants was found to be 29.89±5.89 years while the mean gestational age was 38.86±1.38 weeks. Postpartum haemorrhage was observed in 35.45% cases. Blood loss was recorded in patients with a mean of 374±134.91 mL. Statistically, a highly significant difference was observed between the blood loss and postpartum haemorrhageamong the patients (i.e. p-value=0.000). A low frequency of postpartum hemorrh agein women experien...
Ayesha Noreen1, Dilara A. Bukhari2 and Abdul Rehman1,*
...e of environmental pollutants, smoke, tobacco, xenobiotic, drugs, medical materials, radiations, pesticides, industrial solvents and ozone. The processes running in the cell membranes, peroxisomes, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum also generate ROS. ROS can be activated by numerous external factors, and play an important role in cancer growth and metastasis. ROS and tumor cell interaction could activate the signalling pathways, promoting cell proliferati...
Hanif Ur Rahman1, Umer Saddique1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Kamal Shah1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Farhan Anwar Khan1Fazli Rabbani2, Muhammad Asif Hussain2, Attaur-Rahman2, Irshad Ahmad3,4 and Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*
...bers of MM in small ruminants suspected of CCPP in Northern region of Pakistan. A total of 300 samples, (150 sheep and 150 goats) were randomly collected from nasal discharge, pleural fluid and lung tissues, and streaked into Pleuropneumonia like organism (PPLO) medium for isolation and identification of Mycoplasma species. Confirmed mycoplasma isolates were subjected to species specific PCR to identify members of MM cluster. Results revealed that 79/30...

Jahangir khan* and Abbas Ullah Jan 

...entify important determinants of households’ WTP. Results show that 93% of respondents are willing to pay a price premium of PKR. 14. Empirical findings reveal that socio-demographic characteristics like age, education and income have positive significant effects on households’ willingness to pay. Findings of the study also reveal a significant influence of employment status of the household’s head on WTP, whereas household’s size has a...

Abdur Rehman and Zahir Shah 

...nt and root growths of plants. These results suggested that application of both Mo and Fe is necessary for pea crop enhanced nodulation, N2 fixation, yield, nutrient uptake and for improved soil fertility 

...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla

...;">Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an endemic disease in Hail, Saudi Arabia where outbreaks are regularly reported. This study was carried out to analyze nucleoprotein (N) gene of PPRV from fatal infections in small ruminants. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from suspected animal samples (n=18) and were screened by real time-PCR. Additionally, to assess the phylogenomics, the N gene was amplified and sequenced from s...
Wang-Dui Basang1, Tian-Wu An2, Luo-Bu Danjiu3, Yan-Bin Zhu1, Shi-Cheng He3, Xiao-Lin Luo2, Wei-Wei Ni4, Xiao Wang4, Shu-Zhu Cheng4, Jian Wang4 and Guang-Xin E4,*
...cleotide copy number variants, and 59 haplotypes were detected. The number of haplotypes within the population ranged from 17 (SN and JL) to 28 (DX). The haplotype diversity ranged from 0.9420 (SN) to 0.9770 (NR). The highest nucleotide diversity was found in the JL population (0.01479), whereas the lowest was found in the SN (0.00894) population. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these four populations separated into two haplogroups; the first included SN, ...
Riaz Aziz Minhas1,*, Muhammad Nasim Khan1, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Basharat Ahmad1, Syda Shaista Bibi1, Mohsin Hanif1 and Afsar Mian2
...tic differentiation constants among populations (Gst: 0.153±0.025) and within populations (Rst: 0.847±0.025) were calculated. Gene flow (Nm: 3.246±0.448) and genetic similarity (97-98%) between populations was high. UPGMA based dendrogram identified five distinct geographic groups, and Mantel tests (Rxy=-0.008, P>0.05) suggested a non-significant relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance. Phist P...
Qudsia Yousafi1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Aslam3 and Allah Ditta Abid4
...enty randomly selected plants. The percent fruit infestation in all three treatments was lower than control except on June 15 when infestation in control and in plots having light traps was not significantly different. Seasonal means for fruit infestation reduced fruit infestation by 16.1, 9.6 and 19.5 percent in T1, T2 and T3, respectively as compared to control.
...

Irfan Ali Sabir1, Saeed Ahmad1*, Muhammad Nafees2, Ahmad Sattar Khan1, Maryam3 and Ishtiaq Ahmad

..., whereas, total antioxidants (0.68 mM Trolox g-1), total carotenoids (TC) (52.0 µg 100-1) and flavonoids (1.79 µg 100-1) were significantly high in ‘Faisalabad Selection’. Faisalabad Selection and ‘Surkha Burma’ exhibited high score for taste, flavor, texture, aroma and pulp color compared to other indigenous and exotic varieties. It is concluded that ‘Faisalabad Selection’, ‘Surkha Burma’ and &lsquo...
Habib-ur-Rehman1*, Saima Mirza1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan2, Qurban Ali3, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir4, Muhammad Yasir5
...endly stored food protectants instead of hazardous synthetic pesticides.
...

Muhammad Zahid1, Naeem Iqbal1, Sohaib Muhammad2*, Summiya Faisal3, Wajid Mahboob3, Makhdoom Hussain4 and Zaheer ud din Khan2 

...prayed-glucose treated plants showed increasing trends in grain yield under drought. Physio-chemical attributes were also modulated by exogenously applied carbohydrates. Nitrate reductase activity and total soluble proteins were increased with increase in sugar treatments under drought. Osmotic and water potentials were reduced under drought but foliar glucose sprays of 10 mM and 50 mM applied at reproductive phase significantly reversed the adverse effects of...
Kiran Aqil1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan2, Asim Aslam2, Aqeel Javeed5, Rizwan Qayyum1, Farooq Yousaf,1 Farkhanda Yasmeen1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail3 and Sajid Umar4,*
...iv>Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important viral disease of sheep, goat and other small ruminants, imparting substantial economic losses. In current study, antiviral activity of six dilutions of Nigella sativa (N. sativa)alcoholic extracts against the PPRV was investigated in vitro. Vero cell lines infected with PPRV were treated with six dilutions alcoholic extracts of N. sativa (200, 100, 50, ...

Ghulam Abbas1, Khalid Pervez Akhtar1, Muhammad Ahsan2, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Fiaz Ahmad1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

...sh interspecific recombinants. In this study, 72 mung × mash interspecific recombinant genotypes and a susceptible mungbean variety Mung Kabuli were screened against Yellow Mosaic Disease (YMD) using disease severity ratings by visual scoring of symptoms to calculate percent disease index (PDI). Tested recombinants responded differently to the disease. None of the tested genotypes was found to be disease free (field im...

Ali Sher1*, Khalid Naveed1, Gulzar Ahmad2, Ayub Khan1, Muhammad Saeed1 and Shah Masaud1 

...ving N availability to plants improve biomass production and also increase the shoot Fe content and accumulation of Zn in wheat plants. Experiments were conducted at the Cereal Crop Research Institute (CCRI) Pirsabak, Noweshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 2014-15 and 2015-16 to study the response of wheat to N, Zn and Fe application. Treatments included three levels of N (90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1), three concentratio...

Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus1*, Olabode Mayowa Peter2, Muhammad Adamu Abbas3 and Mohammed Dauda Goni

...on of resistance determinants through horizontal gene transfer. This review focused on the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus. Understanding the concept of resistance development and transfer will immensely help in curtailing the global rise in antimicrobial resistance in bacteria.  

...

Ashraf Khan1*, Suliman Shah2, Maid Zaman3 and Komal Habib2

...tality was observed in plants treated with combination of Nitenpyram + Chlorfenapyr (99.20 and 99.89 %) followed by Flubendiamide (89.83 and 99.39 %) and Imidacloprid (89.31 and 98.77 %) after spray 1 and 2, respectively. Least effective insecticide was proved to be Melathion with 39.79 and 65.43 percent reduction in citrus psyllidspopulation except untreated plants with 9.27 and 15.94 percent decrease after first and second...

Nusrat Habib1*, Asim Zubair2 and Aisha Siddiqua3 

... find out to the determinants of sunflower area and yield in districts Swabi and Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2016. The study was conducted in two selected districts through purposive sampling for 100 farms in different locations of selected districts. The objective of the study was to estimate determinants of sunflower area and yield in the study area. To determine the role of different factors that were affecting th...

Muhammad Javed Iqbal and Muhammad Naeem* 

...xternal morphometric variants of Labeo rohita. A total of 75 fish samples @ 5 fish samples per aquaria were analyzed in present study. T1 showed the highest values for mean wet weight 11.32±1.78, Total length 10.54±0.51, Fork length 8.94±0.46, Standard length 8.27±0.44, Body depth 2.64±0.16 and Body girth 5.28±0.33. Pectoral fin length, pelvic fin length, dorsal fin length and caudal fin length also showed highest valu...
Imran Taj1,*, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Kamran Taj1, Deedar Ahmad2, Zahoor Ahmed2, Ghulam Mohammad2, Ajaz-ul-Haq1, Farooq Shahzad1 and Sabiha Azam3
...type D in small ruminants. A total of 204 fecal samples were collected from sheep and goats suffering from seasonal diarrhea. C. perfringens type D was identified through different biochemical tests and PCR. Antibiograms and lab animal trials were also carried out on local isolates of C. perfringens type D. Out of 204 analyzed samples, 89.18 % were found positive while 10.82 % were negative for C. perfringens type D. The division wise ...

Muhammad Abu Sufyan Ali, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Ghaffar Ali and Muhammad Fayaz 

...udy examined the determinants of farmland prices in central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan), using land transaction records for 2015-16. Results from Hedonic Pricing analysis show that location, environmental and agricultural characteristics of a farmland determine its price. Residential and commercial encroachment on fertile irrigated farmlands at urban fringe is alarming. More than half of the sampled transacted farmland parcels were used for residential and c...

Abdur Rehman1* and Shad Khan Khalil2 

...e drought tolerance in plants. Field trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar-Pakistan to study the effects of moisture stress and foliar application of chemicals at different growth stages on canola growth and phenology during 2015-16 and 2016-17. The experiment comprised of four moisture levels (optimum water, 10%, 20% and 30% reduced irrigation water), three chemicals (salicylic acid 0.5mM, potassium nitrate KNO3 1% and meth...

Shamsher Ali1, Zakir Ullah Jan1*, Zahir Shah2, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Farmanullah Khan2, Inayat ur Rahman3 and Shah Fahad3 

...0000 kg ha-1. The Azam plants were taller than hybrid. The treatment (T5) significantly yielded more grain (6806 kg ha-1) and (5106 Kg ha-1) from hybrid (CS-200) and a local maize Azam cultivar, respectively. Similarly, stover yield of hybrid (10378 Kg ha-1) and Azam (7708 Kg ha-1) were more in T5 than the other treatments. So, it is concluded that the combined application of farmyard manure and balanced inorganic fertilizer (Nitrogen + Phosphorus) gave signif...

Sajad Ali1*, Syed Asghar Ali Shah2, Jaffar Ali3, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal4, Arshadullah Jadoon5 and Farmanullah

.... Moreover, maximum merchants and Beoparis credited the output of peas from the farmers directly from the local market that is Mansehra and Haripur. It is worthwhile to mention that the public sale arrangement was not totally available in the local markets. Furthermore, the 68 percent in district Mansehra while, in the Haripur 46 percent farmers traded the pea’s output in the local markets. The left over peas output in both the selected districts were of...
Saima Shahzad Mirza1,*, Hafiz Muhammad Qamer2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3,*, Rana Shoaib Akram4
...of weaning process in infants above 6 months of age with their mothers’ literacy level, employment, physical and financial health. This study was conducted at Kishwar Fazal Teaching Hospital Lahore in an OPD pediatrics. For this purpose, cross sectional survey data of 34 conservative mothers was analyzed, obtained by means of questionnaire. Initiation of weaning process at proper time is found to be somewhat finance limited factor. Total 17 and 1 out of ...
Asad Ullah1, Umar Sadique Khattak2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Imad Khan1, Ibad Ullah Jan2, Irfan Khattak1, Raheela Taj3, Sahar Nigar4,    Naimat Ullah Khan1,Mumtaz Ali Khan5 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail6,*
...s (bTB) among large ruminants of the five districts (Peshawar, Nowshera, Charsadda, Mardan and Swabi) located in the central zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. A total of 2400 large ruminants were sampled by convenience sampling approach and tested by comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test (CCIT) for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Data regarding socio-demographic status, risk factors an...
Qudrat Ullah1,*, Huma Jamil1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Muhammad Saqib2 and Heinrich Neubauer3
...sk factors in small ruminants kept at nine government livestock farms of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 1000 blood samples (500 each from goats and sheep) were collected from animals kept at the respective livestock farms. An indirect-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA) was used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in the serum. Serological analysis revealed overall flock-level sero-prevalence of 92.3% which varied from 88.88% in sheep and 100% in...

Zulqarnain and Zafar Iqbal* 

...iments were conducted. Plants given the treatment as Penicillium + Fusarium showed slight yellowing of the leaves after 60th days of cultivation. Present results may help in exploiting the Penicillium sp. extract for isolation and structural characterization of its antifungal compounds. 

...

Shaista Naz1*, Noor Paio Khan1, Naveed Afsar2 and Ashfaq Ahmad Shah3

...possession of small ruminants (goats and sheep), while men were found dominant in large ruminants’ possession (buffalo and cattle). Women’s higher time allocation to livestock management activities depicted their higher level of participation in livestock management was found high as compared to their male counterparts. Women’s participation was found high in the indoor activities of livestock management li...

Asif Nawaz* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan 

...petencies of Field Assistants of the Agriculture Extension Department, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A sample of 234 out of total 543 Field Assistants were selected with the help of Sekaran Sampling Technique and the respondents were distributed in four Agro-ecological zones of the province with the help of proportional allocation sampling method. Data from the respondents were collected through pretested and validated interview sched...

Sher Nawab Khan* and Ghulam Hassan 

..."text-align: justify;">Plants contribute almost 93% of food and among the crops wheat has the largest contribution of about 80% to the total global cereal production. Eight wheat cultivars including a land race were crossed in 8×8 full diallel fashion during 2014-15 wheat growing season. In the succeeding crop season all the 56 F1 hybrids and their parents were evaluated during 2015-16 to study inheritance pattern of yield and yield related traits at Pes...

Aneel Salman1, Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Muhammad Ashfaq2, Mudassar Rashid1 and Usman Shakoor1 

...t focus on other determinants like education, role of media, and government policies that can affect farmers’ choices to adopt climate resilient farming practices.  

...

Amjad Ali1, Abbas Ullah Jan1, Lal Almas2, Noor Piao Khan1 and Khurran Nawaz Saddozai

... were considered determinants for cost function. Respondent age, farming experience, education, family size, off-farm income, farm to home distance, tenancy and extension contacts are determinants in allocative inefficiency model. Results of the study revealed that except farmyard manure and pesticides all other explanatory variables are significant influencing factors in total cost of sugarcane production in district Charsa...

Waqas Ali* and Mudasser Habib 

...bility to make escape mutants

...

Sabahat Noor*1, Shaukat Ali1, Hafeez-ur-Rahman1, Farhatullah2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali1 

...ed and non-transformed plants. It was observed that under drought and salt stresses, proline contents, sugar contents, chlorophyll contents and relative water contents (RWC) were significantly higher in transgenic plants as compared to non-transgenic plants. From obtained results it is concluded that, increase level of RWC, proline, sugar and chlorophyll in transgenic pl

Asma Sohail1*, Aina Rafique2, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi1 and Maryum Arif3 

...evated amount of antioxidants and have potential antimicrobial activity. Effect of drying methods (sun-, oven- and freeze drying) on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of date fruit powders from three varieties Zahidi, Aseel and Muzafati were investigated. The DPPH activity was significantly higher in Muzafati sundried date powder, whereas maximum phenolic and flavonoid contents were significantly higher in Muzafati freeze dried date powders. Results sug...

Umair Riaz1*, Muhammad Ali Kharal2, Ghulam Murtaza3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Sana Javaid4, Hina Ahmed Malik3, Humera Aziz3 and Zafar Abbas1 

...ic compounds that help plants to cope with stress conditions by reducing the intensity of stress through enhancing antioxidants activities, detoxifying toxic ions, regulating the uptake of nutrients and by mediating the transport and distribution of different hormones. Caffeic acid is actively involved in plant physiology and mechanisms of stress tolerance primarily utilized by plants for ...
Ghazunfar Rashid1, Muhammad Avais1, Syed Saleem Ahmad1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Rais Ahmed3,*, Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Naveed-ul-Haque4, Mehtab Ahmad5Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Naimat Ullah Khan6
...nt parts of the fodder plants were estimated qualitatively through the Diphenylamine Filed Test (DFT) and quantitatively by spectrophotometry. The nitrate levels were highest in Jowar, followed by Jai, Shaljam, Makai, Bajra and Sarson. The concentrations were lower in the afternoon in the leaves and in mature crops as compared to stem parts, immature plants, and in samples collected from plants
Sajid Ali Khan1, Mazhar Hussain Ranjha1, Azhar Abbas Khan2,*, Muhammad Sagheer1, Amjad Abbas1 and Zeshan Hassan2
...wo different medicinal plants (Dhatura alba and Calotropis procera) against two different strains of T. granarium. Plant extracts were obtained by Rotary Shaker apparatus by using acetone as solvent. Four different concentrations 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared by diluting in acetone. The data regarding mortality, growth regulation and repellency of T. granarium was observed. Repellency of plant extracts was tested using area pre...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ammarah Hasnain2, Ateeq ur Rehman1 and Rashida Perveen1 

...ronomic traits of rice plants. The reduction of disease in all the trials along with healthy crop stand in glass house and field indicated that these decoctions might play an important role in biological management strategies for the control of BLB of rice. The present research may provide an avenue for the formulation of new bactericides for future uses. 

...

 *Muhammad Waseem1, Dost Mohammad Baloch1, Ghulam Khaliq1,
M. Rashid1, Qurban Ali2 and Mustajab A. Khan3

INTENSIFICATION IN BAMBOO (Bambusa bambos L.) TRAITS IN RESPONSE TO ORGANIC AND CHEMICAL NITROGEN ALONG THE COAST OF ARABIAN SEA
...oo (Bambusa bambos L.) plants were grown with four fertilizer sources i.e. S = Control (0) kg N ha-1, S = urea (120 kg N ha-1), S = Farm Yard Manure (FYM 1% N), S = 0 1 2 3 Combination {50% N from urea (the recommended dose) + 50% N from Farm Yard Manure (FYM)}. A recommended dose of nitrogen was used as chemical source and applied at the rate of 120 kg N ha-1. Significant differences were reported for studied traits in response to treatments. The results indi...

 *Irum Javed1, Muhammad Asgher2, Sadia Noreen1, Humara Naz Majeed1 and Tanzila Sahar1

SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING AGRICULTURE RESIDUE AS SUBSTRATE
... nitrogen source. Surfactants like Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulphat (SDS) showed no effect on the citric acid.

...

 Muhammad Akram and Faheem Aftab

THIDIAZURON INDUCES IN VITRO BUD BREAK AND SHOOT DEVELOPMENT FROM NODAL EXPLANTS OF ORTHOTROPIC SHOOTS OF MAIDENHAIR TREE (GINKGO BILOBA L.)
...cut to prepare nodal explants (5-10 mm long), surface sterilized and inoculated on MS (Murashig and Skoog, 1962) medium supplemented with different concentration (0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1,2,3,4 or 5uM) of TDZ for 24 days. Highest bud break (100%) was obtained at 0.005 uM TDZ after 14 days of initial culture. The same cultures were further maintained and subsequently obtained with 20.6 mm shoot length and 7.2 average number of leaves for another 10...

 Tahir Abbas*1, Khawaja Raees Ahmad2, Asmatullah3, Khalid Pervaiz Lone4, Muhammad Ali Kanwal2, Sadia Suleman2

Reno-hepatic protective effects of Jambul against chromium induced anomalies in mice
...etals environmental toxicants especially Cr+6 is novel and cheapest; that should be sponsored for ethno-medicinal purpose.

...

Farah Deeba, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir, Muhammad Irfan, Javed Iqbal Qazi*

Chitinase production in organisms: a review
...fe (bacteria to higher plants and animals) as one of the most durable, richest biopolymers distributed widely in nature both in the terrestrial and marine environments. Chitinase are chitin degradable enzyme have control of phytopathogens, physiological functions and degradation of chitinous waste. Interest in chitin wastes utilization is increasing day by day because of its natural resistance against degradation. The review focused on different sources of nat...

 Muhammad Moosa Abro1, Ali Murtaza Dharejo2, Muhammad Munif Khan2, Nadir Ali Birmani2, Saima Naz2*

Description of first record of Petasiger exaeretus Dietz, 1909 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in avian host from Pakistan.
...rasitic species of Cormorants. However, it has not been reported from
Pakistan in Little Cormorant, Phalacrocorax niger prior to the present study.

...

 Anam Javed, Javed Iqbal Qazi*

Skin health implications of Chemical detergents and importance of biodetergents
...utilization of biosurfactants from domestic to industrial level. Biodetergents do not cause health complications, and as they are readily biodegradable so do not persist in environment. Our body’s protecting shield, the skin, has more chances of exposure and biodetergents have potential to eliminate the associated risk. Economical production of biosurface active substances at industrial level through utilization of bio-waste origin feedstocks would also ...

Shaukat Ali1,*, Sundas Nasreen1, Sobia Safeer1, Saiqa Andleeb1, Mubashir Ejaz1, Saira Bano2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3

Medicinal plants as therapeutic agents for cancer treatment
...ancer.

...

 Maleeha Manzoor1,2*, Ruijuan Ma2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabssum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1

Microalgal-bacterial consortium: a cost-effective approach of wastewater treatment in Pakistan
... of organic
pollutants, heavy metals and many other contaminants. The biodegradation approach of involving consortium might
attain self-sustaining level and may prove technically cheaper and advance technology. It will finally help in dealing
the dual mission of producing valuable metabolites and pollutants/nutrients removal from wastes/wastewaters.
Agricultural...

 Zubair Ahmed#, Muhammad Farhanullah Khan, Habiballah Rana*

Toxicological effects of Haloxylon recurvum Bunge ex Boiss (Khar Boti) whole plant extract and novel insecticide chlorantraniliprole against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky
...ecticides derived from plants have increased popularity in
stored products protection due to ecological concerns and insect resistance to
chemical insecticides. In these regards, a study were carried out to evaluate
toxicity of crude methanol extract of whole plant of Haloxylon recurvum (Khar boti)
and a novel insecticide chlorantraniliprole. A serial concentration of extract i.e.,
1.2%, 2.4%, 3.6%, 4.8%, 6.0% and insecticide...

 Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1*, Zafar Iqbal Khan2, Saira Batool2, Kafeel Ahmad2, Salma Begum2

Residual effect of lambda-cyhalothrin on abundance of insect pollinators in marigold field patch
...cticide treated
plants for one hour. The mortality rate of honey bees in the control and insecticide
exposed group was compared. Overall, a significant decline in plant pollinators was
observed after application of lambda-cyhalothrin on the patch of marigold plants.
Lambda-cyhalothrin caused significant mortality (15/20=75%) in honey bees in
semi-field experiment. It is concluded that lambd...

 Zafar Iqbal1, Muhammad Farooq Nasir1, Imran Bodlah1*, Rahmatullah Qureshi2, Ayesha Aihetasham3

Notes on three morphs of Bulaea lichatschovii (Hummel) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Northern Pakistan
...species
on many plants. In this study, three morphs of B. lichatschovii are reported during
2015-2017 from different localities of Northern Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad
Jammu and Kashmir). Three food plants of the coccinellid are, Krascheninnikovia
ceratoides, Artemisia vulgaris and A. maritima, are documented. Notes on
diagnostics of the species are given with illustrations and new ...

 Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan1*, Muhammad Zafar2, Munazza Perveen3, Munir Ahmad3, Asia Iqbal4, Asmatullah3

Efficacy of malathion and carbosulfan against crop invadedaphid types Aphis craccivora (Koch) and Aphis gossypii (glover) on bean and brinjal plants
...ed on brinjal and bean plants
respectively. In the laboratory, the vegetable plant leaves being applied by residual
film technique with tested Aphid population. The most toxic insecticide was found
to be malathion with LC50 as 20.11 μg cm-2 for A. craccivora and 25.28 μg cm-2 for
A. gossypii while carbosulfan was found to be least toxic with LC50 as 312.80 μg
cm-2 for A. craccivora and 322.25 μg cm-2 for A. gossyp...
Muhammad Muddassir Ali1,2 and İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci1,*
...he world. Many endemic plants all over the world have magical therapeutic potential. These could be explored further for medicinal purposes and hence can be preserved for their proper propagation. Thermposis turcica is endemic to Turkey. It’s general anti-oxidant and anti-cancerous activities are explored, but no study has been observed on liver cancerous cell line in term of its genotoxicty. So, genotoxic evaluation was carried out for the alcoho...

Ali Zohaib1*, Saima Yousaf1,2, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Tahira Tabassum1, Tasawer Abbas3, Wardah Muzaffar1 and Wasiq Ikram2 

...4 produced the tallest plants. In conclusion, seed inoculation of soybean improved the growth, allometric traits and dry matter yield of soybean, and could be employed for the betterment of crop productivity. 

...

Neelum Andaleeb1*, Munir Khan1, Syed Attaullah Shah1 and Rahmat Ullah2 

...a to investigate determinants of welfare of livestock farm households with special reference to women’s participation in livestock farming. A multistage sampling technique was used to collect a sample of 274 livestock farm households from six union councils of district Mardan. Data were collected through face to face interviews from female members of the selected livestock farm households in 2015-16. Data were analyzed by ordered logit model to determine...
Mirza Imran Shahzad1, Hina Ashraf2,*, Muhammad Arshad3, Sabeeha Parveen4, Amna Aslam4, Nargis Naz4, Zahid Kamran1, Sumbul Gohar Khalid5, Sajid Hameed1, Muhammad Ashfaq6 and Muhammad Mukhtar7

 

...en selected Cholistani plants against New Castle Disease Virus (NDV)-LaSota strain. All of these plants were reported for their different pharmacological activities but their antiviral potentials were not known before. The methanolic extracts were made and concentrated by rotary evaporator and finally dissolved in distilled water before taking their antiviral trials in 7-11 days old chicken embryonated eggs. The viral loads ...

Muhammad Salman Wazir and Mohammad Akmal 

...n maturity with taller plants at the split N application of NAT2 and NS3 as compared to the NS1. Likewise, better traits of wheat plant and hence the yield including grain wet gluten content were reported for the treatment NS3 as sole wheat crop, followed by the intercropped with fababean. Among the intercropping, IC-I with fababean showed better future scope of wheat crop production under the changing climate to produce higher production per unit area with su...

Amara Amjad Hashmi1,2,*, Maqbool Hussain Sial3, Waqar Akram4 and Maaida Hussain Hashmi5,6

...oach to find out determinants of food insecurity. Results suggest that female headship plays a significant positive role in caloric intake, among the other variable head education, households’ member with basic education and higher education, live stock ownership, consumption of livestock produced at home, farming, consumption of food crop produced at home and foreign and domestic remittances plays a significant positive role in caloric intake of food in...

Muhammad Tahir Amin, Khalid Usman*, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik and Nishter Ali

...h day) produced taller plants (139 cm) and more sympodial branches (18.3) compared to less frequent irrigations (10-19th day). However, 19th day irrigation interval significantly improved seed cotton yield and fiber quality traits (fiber length, fiber strength, micronaire, and fiber uniformity). Likewise, phosphorus at 150 kg ha-1 significantly improved seed cotton yield (3794 kg ha-1) and ginning out turn (39.1%) compared to other phosphorus levels. In conclu...

Nighat Seema1*, Muhammad Hamayun1, Husan Ara1 and Raham Sheer Khan

...lously with their host plants and may be more capable to solubilize nutrients from soil and provide it to their hosts. In current study, endophytic fungi inoculation significantly affected the soil properties such as soil texture, organic matters, EC and pH with or without 8% PEG induced drought stress. Upon inoculation of different endophytic fungi with or without drought stress, the trend in pH values of soil remain variable (7.61~7.96) compared with the pH ...

Saima Yousaf1,2, Ali Zohaib2*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum2, Tahira Tabassum2, Tasawer Abbas3, Sohail Irshad4, Usman Javed5 and Naila Farooq6 

...t availability to crop plants. A field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of seed inoculation with PGPRs on yield and quality of different genotypes of soybean. Seed inoculation treatments [control (no treatment), nitrogen fixing bacteria (Rhizobium japonicum) and phosphorus solubilizer (Pseudomonas fluorescens)] were applied to three different cultivars of soybean (EBR4V4, Freedom and Swat-84). The results showed that seed inoculation with R. ...

Salman Ali*, Inamullah, Muhammad Arif, Mehran Ali, Muhammad Owais Iqbal, Fazal Munsif and Arsalan Khan 

... maize crop and taller plants with higher number of grains ear-1, 1000-grain weight, biological and grain yield, and harvest index were observed in plots irrigated five times. Likewise, 75 kg K ha-1 application resulted in higher biological (plant height and biological yield) and grain yield (grains ear-1, thousand grains weight, grain yield and harvest index) components of maize. Increase in K levels beyond 75kg ha-1 showed a slight decrease in yield. It is c...
Shamesa Maryam1, Ajaz Ahmad Sandhu1, Imran Bodlah2*, Muhammad Asif Aziz2, Ayesha Aihetasham3

 

...d from twenty two host plants at six different localities of Gujranwala area of Punjab province, Pakistan. Total 12 species namely; Aphis craccivora, Aphis fabae, Aphis gossypii, Aphis nerii, Rhopalosiphum padi, Lipaphis erysimi, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Myzus persicae, Pentalonia nigronervosa, Sitobion avenae, Greenidea (Trichosiphumpsidii and Cinara (Cupressobium) tuj...

Shumaila Nazeer1, Iqbal Javed1*, Allah Bakhsh2, Mudassar Yasin2, Haroon Javaid3 and Kaniz Fatima1 

...d the margin and determinants of kinnow exports from Pakistan to international markets of UAE and USA by using the primary data. Primary data is collected through pretested questionnaire from 30 kinnow exporters out of total 40 exporters. Personal interviews were conducted by selecting convenient sampling technique. Along with export margin analysis of both markets, an effort is made to quantify impact of the major determinants<...

Khwaja Tariq Ziad1, Umar Hayat1, Muhammad2 and Muhammad Suleman Bacha3* 

... the response of participants an informal and formal supply chains for small-scale dairy farmers in Pakistan. The study aimed at explaining the costs of the chosen supply channels and their transaction costs, the role of the mid-agent opportunistic behaviour in the relative milk supply chain. Using case study and qualitative method approach, eight key informants including five farmers, one local middleman, and representative...

Muhammad Naveed Afzal1, Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Ahmad1, Khuram Mubeen2, Muhammad Ayaz Khan3, Muhamamd Umer Afzal4 and Shakeel Ahmad

...nsities (8.88 and 4.44 plants m-2) were assigned to main plot and four nitrogen rates (0, 50,100 and 150 kg N ha-1) were kept in sub plots with three replications. The PD was maintained by altering the within plant spaces keeping the row spaces (75 cm) constant. The results indicated that significant PD X N interaction was observed for plant biomass components i.e. the high PD (8.88 plants m-2) with 0-N produced 16.80%, 25.0...

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

...s parasite of small ruminants, and is a major cause of diseases and significant mortality in various cattle, sheep, deer, buffalo and goat, etc. Various synthetic anthelmintics have been used, on wide scale, to control the helminths infections.But the parasite worms have developed multiple resistances against the synthetic anthelmintics. Hence, various biological controls, vaccines and local medicinal plants are being explor...

Ali Awais, Charassri Nualsri and Watcharin Soonsuwon* 

...anicle length in both mutants were higher than that of control. Several mutants also revealed some notable phenotypic variations in the roots, seeds, panicles and leaf morphology. Phenotypic observations determined that the Dawk Kha 50 has more potential of variability than Dawk Pa-yawm towards EMS. Later selection in the advance generations might be useful to isolate agronomically useful mutants

Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Syed Burhan-ud-Din2, Muhammad Fahad Khan1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Naila Ilyas1

...resistance in mungbean plants by triggering the SA pathway. Induced resistance was assessed by evaluating the appearance of symptoms and detection of virus titter through ELISA. Different concentrations of SA and BTH were exogenously applied to activate the inherent resistance of mungbean by the production of defense associated compounds. All treatments were supportive in suppressing plant infection as compared to infected control, but the most promising outco...

Muhammad Aslam Rajput1,3, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan2, Rehana Naz Syed3 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi3* 

... development. Diseased plants produced profuse tillers, but of no use as emerging tillers were very weak. Significant positive correlations were found among the disease incidence and other traits as well as between numbers of whips and tillers. 

...

Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Muhammad Mohsin Raza2, Sami Ullah1, 3*, Malik Muhammad Yousaf2, Ahmad Mujtaba1, Mumtaz Hussain2, Muhammad Jahangir Shah2, Bashir Ahmad2 and Ijaz Ahmad4 

... plant population (7.2 plants m-2) and stem diameter (1.58 cm), cob length (19.1 cm), biological yield (19.5 t ha-1) and harvest index (37.0%), while lowest grain yield (3.08 t ha-1), number of grains per cob (319), 1000 grain weight (204 g), plant height (174 cm), plant population (6.2 plants m-2), stem diameter (1.28 cm), cob length (14.9 cm), biological yield (12.1 t ha-1) and harvest index (30.5%) were obtained from the ...

Rafiullah1*, Abdur Rahman2, Khalid Khan1, Anwar Ali1, Arifullah Khan2, Abdul Sajid3 and Naimatullah Khan3 

Fariha Latif* and Muhammad Javed
...arkers to assess contaminants impact on fish at earlier level of exposure. Fish from different species has diverse ecological needs and respond differently to the environmental stress conditions. Thus, the sensitivity, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacities of three major carps Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala towards metals mixture (Cd+Cr+Cu+Pb) were determined during present research work. Sensitivity of the three fish ...

Sabi-Ur-Rehman1, Anwar Khalid2, Qazi Najam Us Saqib3, Farooq Ahmad1, Shaheed-Ur-Rehman4, Neelam Zaman3, Ayeza Mehmood5 and Abdul Samad6*  

...otic drugs resistance, plants provide source for discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. This study was carried out, include in-vitro antibacterial and antifungal screening of aqueous methanolic extracts as well as crude saponins isolated from leaves and roots of Sarcococca saligna, using disc diffusion method. The tested bacterial strains include, B. subtilis, E. coli, S. aureus, P. fluorescens and fungal strains were Aspergillus. niger, A. flavus, and D. turci...
Owen Flanagan, Mona Letourneau and Wenqing Zhao
...ness, happiness of immigrants, and so on. The teams that produce the World Happiness Reports claim that six variables explain most -- as much as 70% -- of the variation in the rankings of happiness among nation states:

...

Ayesha Khan*, Zubair Ahmad Khan, Urooba Pervaiz And Mehmood Iqbal 

...s and 40% of field assistants were interviewed making a sample of 81 extension agents; 10 agricultural officers and 71 field assistants. The study results indicate that 77% field assistants were educated up to Matric with two years diploma while 10% agricultural officers had M.Sc. (Hons) degree with the majority of extension agents having job experience of more than 20 years. The main sour...
Catherine J. Allen
...in by focusing on inhabitants of Sonqo, a rural Quechua-speaking community in the highlands of southern Peru, where I have carried out research since 1975. I explore notions of well-being through vocabulary drawn from Southern Peruvian Quechua, including allin kawsay (well-being), pacha (world), ayllu (community), ayni (reciprocity), uyway (nurturance), hucha (sin) and animu (individuating energy), with par...

 Syed Turab Raza1,*, Zhu Bo1,*, Zulfiqar Ali2 and Tang Jia Liang3

...o recover nutrients of plants such as NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium). A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species (Eisenia fetida) and treating it with cattle dung, pig manure and biochar with crop (wheat straw and rapeseed) waste was established in upland areas of China. It was monitored for two months. Four treatments (T1 to T4) were prepared using crop residues i.e. wheat straw, rapeseed and cow manure in different concentrations...

Khadim Hussain Wagan1*, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1 and Abdul Ghani Lanjar2 

...6.67%) was recorded in plants inoculated with MPS16 isolate followed by MPS17 (43.33%) and MPS12 (43.0%). Similarly, length of necrotic lesions was also significantly higher in MPS16 (6.67 cm) followed by MPS17 (6.33 cm), MPS12 (6.30 cm), MPS15 (6.17 cm) and MPS 13 (6.07 cm). The predicted isolate (MPS16) was aligned with different species and observed that MPS16 belongs to M. phaseolina isolate. The sequence showed high identity with sequences with Macrophomi...

Salman Anwar1, 2*, Farhan Anwar Khan3 and Atta-ur-Rahman4 

...of Pakistan.. The inhabitants of this area are mostly engaged in the agricultural sector. Before the construction of KKH, their mode of agriculture system was subsistence and crude techniques were applied due to non-availability of modern machines and techniques. This was because of the remoteness and communication gap with the rest of the country. Therefore, this study is an effort to compare and analyze the impacts of KKH on the land use and Agricultural dev...

 Abdul Khaliq1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Akhlaq Ahmad2 and Yasir Iftikhar3

...nsect pests against fumigants is a serious threat to effective commercial use of fumigants in various quarantine treatments. Therefore, resistant strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Rhizopertha dominica (Fabricius) and Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus) were tested against phosphine and bio fumigants to check their fitness and potential following by F1 genera...

Saqib Bashir* and Bashir Ahmad 

...N ha-1 produced taller plants with height of 104.4 and 104.0 cm, heavier grains with 52.0 and 50.8 g weight per thousand grains, higher biological yield 11986 and 11859 kg ha-1 and optimum grain yield 4161 and 4147 kg ha-1. Results indicated that the integration of 90 days older pigeon pea green manuring with 90 kg nitrogen ha-1 can be the best recipe for better and sustainable wheat production. 

...
Muhammad Zain Saleem1,*, Raheela Akhtar1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Adeel Manzoor1, Bilal Ahmed Shah3, Rais Ahmed4 and Muhammad Yasin5
...to infect the small ruminants which may complicate the control measures of brucellosis because most of the control programs rely on serological screening of brucellosis rather than molecular assay which could confirm the particular species circulating in ruminants. In this study 960 and 471 serum samples of goats and sheep were collected, respectively. After screening with Rose Bengal test (RBT), all seropositive samples wer...
Ahmed Ali Samejo* and Riffat Sultana*
...ive pest to the useful plants. Morphology and morphometry of immatures of desert locust in relation to gaining of body length and weight at each consecutive stage was carried out for the purpose of investigating the role of immatures in destruction of plants in Thar Desert, Sindh. Hatchlings of solitarious S.gregaria were light green at the time of emergence, but turned over to black with yellow strips after two hours...
Bibi Nazia Murtaza1,2, Azhar Qayum3, Shamaila Inayat Nadeem1, Naif Awdh Al-Maliki4, Abdulaziz Alamri4 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,5,*
...d in two novel K RAS variants, p.E31K and p.G138V, identified in two CRC patients, which may account for transformative capacity by biochemical and signalling readouts in these patients. Dynamical implications and functional impact of variants were determined by in silico analysis and molecular docking of variants with GTP. MutationTaster was used for functional analysis of genetic vari
Muhammad Shahid Nadeem*, Maryam A. Al-Ghamdi and Jalaluddin Azam Khan
... microbes, animals and plants. The asparaginase of bacterial origin has been extensively applied in the treatment of childhood lymphomas and leukaemia. However, the glutaminase activity of enzyme can cause serious side-effects triggering a search for highly specific and more stable enzyme. In the present study the gene consisting of 972bp coding for 323 amino acids was PCR amplified from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM-465 was PCR amplified and reco...

Ragia S. Mohamed1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mamdouh. M. Hamoud1, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shimaa A.E. Nasr1, Manal M. Zaki1, ElShaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...se of effective disinfectants.  

...
Ashfaque Ahmed Nahiyoon1,*, Shahina Fayyaz2 and Nasira Kazi2
...associated with cotton plants in Sindh. During 2017–2018 extensive surveys were conducted at the time of cropping and at harvesting and soil root samples were collected from different fields in the cotton producing regions of five districts of Sindh viz., Sanghar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Mityari and Tando Allahyar. The analysis of samples resulted in the identification of one new species of soil nematode viz., Acrobeloides gossypii n. s...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...the emergence of new variants and, consequently, the emergence of a different evolutionary pattern of NDV in Egypt. Therefore, it is necessary to test if genotype II-based vaccines apply unique selective pressures on NDV glycoproteins and their role in changing the NDV evolution in Egypt. 

...
Zahra Nazir1, Saba Ijaz1, Roquyya Gul2 and Mahjabeen Saleem1,*
...enzymes, widespread in plants, fungi and microorganism, gain commercial importance for improving the yield and nutraceutical properties of juice processing industry, degumming of fibre plants and maximum oil recovery. These enzymes break down complex polysaccharide polymers of plant tissues into simpler monomer like D-galacturonic acids. In this study, polygalacturonase from grape skin was purified by salting out with ammoni...
Bushra Siddique1,*, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Naeem1 and Muhammad Ali2
...erent cues released by plants to increase the efficiency of foraging. Aphid endoparasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) have an ability to locate itshosts by responding to odours from aphid hostplants or by visual searching.The treatments with different combinations of plant extracts and semiochemicals were used for natural enemypreference experiment. The experiment was conducted with seven...

Muhammad Usman Ghani1*, Muti Ur Rehaman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Zubair Shabbir2, Li Bo3 and Naveed Anwar4 

Bina Khanzada1*, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Tajwar Sultana Syed1 and Nazir Ahmed2 

...l diets and ornamental plants on parasitoid performance. Among artificial diets tested were honey, sugar, protein hydrolysate solution to enhance fecundity and fertility of the parasitoid under laboratory conditions and compared with the provision of flower nectors such as ornamental sunflower, merry gold and hollyhock in the laboratory. The ornamental plants sunflower, merry gold and hollyhock were also tested in the field ...
Faraz Akrim1,2, Tariq Mahmood1,*, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem3, Siddiqa Qasim1, Shaista Andleeb1 and Hira Fatima1
... prey contributed 19%, plants 14%, grits 2%, and anthropogenic matter (plastic bags, and threads) 5%. In comparison, 17 dietary items were recorded in the diet of small Indian mongoose, including 10 wild, 1 (one) domestic and 6 plant species. Consumption of wild prey was 60%, domestic prey 17% plant matter 11%, grits 2% and anthropogenic matter ~10%. Dietary niche breadth of Indian grey mongoose was found broad (0.83) during autumn season but narrow (0.36) dur...

Zahin Anjum1*, Farhat Shehzad1, Amina Rahat1, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Saleem Khan3 

...the levels of these toxicants. Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons and heavy metals refer to a large group of chemicals that may be present in the environment as pollutants and can enter the food chain and might be carcinogenic to humans. The lead content was found high in fish with the mean value of 3.18mg/kg and the lowest values were observed in chicken with mean value of 1.38mg/kg. The chrysene, naphthalene, flourenthene and Diben...
Asma Yousafzai1,*, Muhammad Luqman2, Nisar Ahmed1, Muneeza Arbab1,Muhammad Murad1, Naheed Sajjad3, Sara Naudhani1, Shakeela Daud1, Abdul Hameed Baloch4, Khushnaseeb5, Sana Zahoor6, Zahid Rauf7, Muhammad Mohsin Javed6 and Jamil Ahmad1
...to determine genetic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nine variants were identified in BRCA1 and four were identified in BRCA2. In case of BRCA1, six missense substitutions (p.Asp343Tyr, p.Gly393Asp, p.Ser561Phe, p.Ser616Phe, p.Pro871Leu and p.Ser1613Gly) two frameshift (p.Ser423fs and p.Gly1770fs) and nonsense mutation (p.Glu1250X) was identified. In case of gene BRCA2, all the four var...
Shamsudin Bojang1, Idris Abd Ghani2, Jugah Kadir1, Adamu Saidu Paiko1, Yasir Iftikhar3 and Muhammad Kamran3,4,*
...e the greens and other plants in other part of the world then the probability for the specie to adapt to other hosts other than the family of poaceae under Malaysian climate should not be discounted. Therefore, screening and restriction of movement of planting materials be observed critically.
...
Lichao Feng1,2, Shaoqing Zhang4, Dianyuan Chen2, Sina Adl3 and Donghui Wu1,4*
... to different types of plants associated with their farmland habitat, as follows: mixed pollen and nectar of flowers (Erigeron annuus, Trifolium repens, Heteropappus hispidus, Potentilla chinensis, Hibiscus trionum), or leaves of grasses (Poa annua, Echinochloa crusgalli), or maize leaves (Songyu 419, a hybrid variety) as food sources to feed the adult of A. fuscicollis. The larvae were reared o...

Mehran Ahmad, Syed Attaullah Shah and Shahid Ali* 

...o identify major determinants that influence tomato yield and estimate allocative efficiency of tomato growers in district Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The study was based on primary data, collected from a sample of 105 tomato growers selected through multistage random sampling procedure. Data was collected through a well-designed interview schedule during January-July, 2018. Cobb-Douglas type production function was used to estimate effe...
Xiaohui Yu, Shuai He, Liqiang Wang, Mengyang Kang, Yanjiao Zhu, Shuhui Wang and Xiuzhu Sun*
...ect of different antioxidants on the semen cryopreservation in Guangzhong donkey by testing indices of sperm motility, mitochondrial activity, membrane integrity and arosome integrity. The results illustrated that compared with controls, above-mentioned indices of sperm were significantly improved under concentrations of Vitamin C (400 mg/L) and Vitamin E (600 mg/L) (P < 0.05). Moreover, physiological indices of donkey semen were significantly higher...

Muhammad Yasin1, Romana Shahzadi1, Muhammad Riaz2, Mahideen Afridi2, Wajya Ajmal3, Obaid Ur Rehman2, Nazia Rehman3, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1,3, Muhammad Ramzan Khan1,2,3* 

...veloping genome edited plants to prevent yield losses in canola in future. 

...

Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba1, Naglaa Fathy Saeed Awad1*, Gamelat Kotb Farag Kotb2, Amany Adel3 

...ictive antigenic determinants between these vvIBDV isolates and the classic vaccine strain (Bursin plus). These findings could explain the persistence of vvIBDV circulation in the Egyptian environment in spite of vaccination with classical vaccine strains.  

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Kamran Aziz1*, Aamir Saleem1 and Arshad Mahmood Malik2 

... role to decompose the plants parts such as roots, shoots, leaves and other parts. The present study was conducted to estimate the decomposition rate, litter fall production and elemental composition of Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the study area Dungagali, Taohidabad, Kuzagali and Khanspur situated around the Ayubia National Park. The research was carried from September, 2016 to August, 2017. Litter bag technique was used to estimate the decomposit...
Fatima Tufail1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2*, Khalid Abbas1, Laiba Shafique3
...zardous effects of pollutants. Therefore, this study was done to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan (END),deltamethrin (DM) mixture on hepatic catalase (CAT) activity of fish, Channa striata exposed to the sub-lethal concentration (1/3rd of LC50) for 14 days. The CAT was partially purified by using ammonium sulphate precipitation technique. Results of partial purification demonstrated that the exposure of insecticides mixture...

Abdul A. Mirani1,2*, Chee H. Teo2, Adel A. Abul-Soad3, Ghulam S. Markhand1, Tahira Jatt1, Ameer A. Mirbahar1,4, Najamuddin Solangi

... (Phoenix dactylifera) plants derived from immature inflorescences. In this study, three to four years old field grown tissue cultured date palm plants of cvs. Kashuwari and Gulistan derived from in vitro subculture 1-10 (block I) and 11-25 (block II) in multiplication stage were screened for type and nature of phenotypic abnormalities. Six phenotypic abnormalities were detected: 1) dwarfism, 2) excessive vegetative growth, ...

Muhammad Affan Khan* and Abdur Rab 

...ar were grown at three plants spacing i.e. 20, 30 and 40 cm and were evaluated for growth and seed production. Variety Arka Anamika had the maximum plant height (136.8 cm), number of branches per plant (1.42), number of pods per plant (26.33), number of seeds per pod (60.67), seed weight per pod (3.87 g) and seed yield (4.54 t ha-1). The plant spacing of 20 cm resulted in the maximum plant height (136.92 cm) but minimum values for all other attributes. 40 cm p...
Tariq Mukhtar1,* and Muhammad Arshad Hussain2 
... is concluded that the plants of moderately resistant cultivar Sanam suffered less damage and suppressed nematode infections at all inoculum levels and therefore, recommended for cultivation in root-knot nematode infested fields to abate yield losses and repress the nematode from further multiplication. 
...

Zafar Abbas1*, Muhammad Mubashir1, Umair Riaz1, Zeenat Javid1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Saeed ur Rehman1, Muhammad Javid Qamar1, Syed Ali Zulqadar1 and Shahzada Munawar Mehdi2 

... 15 ton ha-1 compost). Plants growth and yield parameters were determined like the total number of leaves per plant, plant height, fruit length, root and shoot dry weight, fresh fruit weight, the total number of fruits per plant, fruit yield and total yield increase. No significant increase was observed in the yield and growth of okra under control and full NPK fertilizer treatment. Application of organic fertilizers like poultry manure and compost as well as ...

Muhammad Shafique, Nosheen Noor Elahi*, Muhammad Rashid, Amjad Farooq and Kausar Hussain Shah

...lated and uninoculated plants were grown on mineral medium that were N-free either without NaCI or with a range of NaCI (20, 50,100, 200 and 300mM). Dry weight of plants was increased at 0-50mM NaCl and decreased at 100-300mM NaCI concentration. Inoculation effectively increased the dry weights of plants at salinity levels of 0-50 mM NaCI as compared to uninoculated pl

Ammara Saeed* and Noor-ul-Amin 

...wth and development of plants. A Randomize Complete Block Design experiment was laid with split plot arrangement at Ornamental Horticulture Nursery, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2014 and 2015. Cut flower rose cultivars were tested with treatments of 3 levels of phosphorus (30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) and potassium (20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1) each as well as combined. Results showed that when plants

Ayub Khan* and Ghaffar Ali 

...livelihood of the inhabitants in the area, have been severely hit by this problem. Human activities, such as deforestation, overgrazing and extensive agriculture have made soil resource more vulnerable to rain and flood water. Programs at government and society level are required to control soil erosion. The objectives of this study are to seek the farm household willingness to pay (WTP) for forestation based soil conservation program on communal land in the N...
Asad Abdullah, Muhammad Irfan Ullah*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Arshad and Muhammad Afzal
...e. Suitability of host plants is critical for the efficient management of this economically important insect pest. We studied the effect of various host plants on the growth, development and fecundity of S. litura. The larvae of S. litura were offered leaves of cabbage, alfalfa, sesbania and, maize in comparison to artificial diet under laboratory conditions (32±05 oC; 65±05 RH). Thelar...

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar, Muhammad Imran Hamid, Mubashar Raza, Waqas Raza*, Misbah Iqbal Qamar 

... promote growth of the plants and commercially used as bio-fungicide against soil borne plant pathogens. The present study was conducted with the aim to determine the efficacy of Trichoderma species using dual culture and pot assays against Phytophthora infestans (late blight) and Fusarium oxysporum (wilt) of tomato on different compost including carbon rich compost, nitrogen rich compost and nutrient enriched compost. The species of Trichoderma includes T. ha...
Hafiz Suboor ul Hassan and Saira Malik*
...ype. Thus, different variants of genotype -13910T/C and -22018G/A of the individuals were found to be associated with the development of lactose intolerance in patients of the studied population. Milk intake status and gastrointestinal disease are among the other factors that may influence the onset of lactose intolerance in patients and controls. 
...
Muhammad Tariq Adnan Khan*, Tariq Mukhtar and Muhammad Saeed
...hs and weights. As the plants of moderately resistant cultivar Brinjal Jamak suffered less damage and suppressed nematode infection considerably and therefore, recommended for cultivation in root-knot nematode infested fields to abate yield losses and repress the nematode from further multiplication. 
...

Muhammad Amin1,2*, Khalid Mahmood2 and Imran Bodlah3 

...d-finding, 11 new host plants and 71 new locality records in Pakistan. Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora were found infesting 8 tree species in 8 genera and 6 in 6 genera respectively. Rosaceae with 5 species in 4 genera carrying 9 aphid species in 5 genera was the most aphid-prone family. Systematics, host range, distribution of the related aphids and catalogue of host plant-tree species in the studied area from Pakistan are given herewith. 

...
Joyce Osarogie Odigie*
...y channel for the inhabitants of Agemokpa village in Ovia East Local Government Area of Edo State, as they are fully dependent on it for agricultural and domestic use, bringing its ecological integrity to question. These anthropogenic effects result in the deteriorating quality of the water, which hampers the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates and may be hazardous to the health of the inhabitant that consumes it on a daily basis. The goal of this study...

Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Mian Anjum Murtaza2, Ejaz Ahraf3, Zahoor Hussain4, Syed Muhammad Ali Zahid1 and Maryam Riaz1 

...pests attacking citrus plants in Pakistan. The study was conducted to quantify the leaf area damage of eight citrus cultivars caused by mining activity of CLM during summer 2016. The total leaf area and mine area per leaf were calculated by the image analysis method using Sigma Scan Pro 5.0 software. The results of the present study showed that CLM generated larger mines; 1.64 cm2 on Grapefruit, 1.44 cm2 on Kinnow and 1.40 cm2 on Succari compared to other five...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2,*, Hareem Mansoor1, Sana Khan1 and Mushtaq A. Saleem1
...wn insecticides and fumigants. The development of resistance can be delayed by using binary combinations of insecticides. Keeping in view the importance of synergism as well as the concerns about environmental hazards and emergence of resistance against these insecticides, the current project was designed to figure out the lethal concentration (LC50) of emamectin, abamectin and spinosad alone and in various conbinations such as abamectin:emamectin (...
Salma Javed1, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Irfan Ullah2, Sadia Tabassum1,*
...t included 2,400 participants, amongst which, 1,000 subjects were suffering from type II diabetes, including 432 males (43.2%) and 568 females (56.8%). Whereas 814 (81.4%) of them were over 40 years of age. Battagram district had the highest prevalence (24.2%) because of the lack of awareness about the disease, while Torghar exhibited the lowest prevalence (12.4%). The sociodemographic factors were analyzed one by one to assess their association with th...

Masood Ahmad* and Abdur Rab 

...demand for its quality plants especially cut flowers. Gladiolus is commercially propagated by corms. The quality and health of corm is one of the important factors that affect the production and quality of gladiolus florets and spikes as well as corm production. Keeping in view, the significant role of calcium in plants and its potential effects on vegetative attributes and quality production of gladiolus corms, an experimen...

Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Ayesha Zafar1 and Sher Muhammad2 

...he general response of plants to soil and water salinity depends upon climate, soil characteristics, topography and management strategies. Water, even may be saline, is becoming more precious natural resource. Hence, there should be more crops and jobs per drop while conserving the quality of present terrestrial and groundwater. Saline water has been used for production of fodder and forages in many countries. Managing soil and water salinity under prevailing ...
Sajida Sabahat1, Asif Nadeem1,*, Maryam Javed1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor1, Shahid Nabeel1 and Abu Saeed Hashmi2
Sabbah M. Allam, T.M. El-Bedawy, M.H. Bakr and A.E.M. Mahmoud*
...tuents, level of antioxidants in plasma, and presence and count of fecal pathogenic bacteria e.g. E. coli and Salmonella spp. Forty lactating Holstein cows, weighing 550±50 kg, with an average of 20 kg daily milk yield, were randomly divided into four groups (ten in each group). Animals were fed rations containing DOP at 0, 25, 50 and 75% substitution of yellow corn grains (R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively). Digestion trail was condu...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Naimat Ullah Khan3, Muhammad Asfandyar Khan2, Kashif Prince1,*, Mahboob Ali1, Ghazunfar Rashid1 and Azmat Ulah Khan2
Muhammad Zameer Khan1, Sair Sarwar1*, Ahmad Khan1, Razaullah Khan1, Munazza Yousra1 and Muhammad Ilyas2
...ake by wheat. Two extractants namely, AB-DTPAand NH4OAc were tested for K extraction from soils. The results showed a high positive correlation between AB-DTPA and NH4OAc extractable K, plant growth and yield parameters. The amounts of soil K had positive correlation with shoot K concentration and grain yield of wheat with r = 0.48 and 0.49, respectively for AB DTPA as compared to that of 0.40 and 0.42 for NH4OAc K. On the basi...
Manzoor Hussain*, Marie Maňasová, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek
...n were observed in the plants treated with Lecanicillium muscarium and both chemicals. Lecanicillium muscarium treatments alone or with nematodes had significant (P = 0.01) positive effects on plant shoot and root growth among all other treatments in the experiment. After L. muscarium and the chemicals (Vydate and Basamid), Stropharia rugosoannulata ranked second in reducing the nematode numbers of galls,...
Qudsia Yousafi1*, Muhammad Aslam2 andShahzad Saleem1
...ves per plant and four plants per plot and averaged per leaf. Numbers of ladybeetles were recorded from the whole plant by sampling three plants per plot. Seasonal mean number of aphids per leaf was at the maximum on the variety Black Beauty and lowest on Nirala, during the 2013-14 growing season. During the 2014-15season the maximum number of aphids per leaf was recorded on the variety Round Black and lowest on Nirala. When...

Faleye Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas1,2*, Adewumi Moses Olubusuyi1, Olayinka Olaitan Titilola3 and Adeniji Johnson Adekunle1,3 

...ine cell culture supernatants (CCS) (collected between 2016 and 2017) from RD and L20b cell-culture-tubes with NR-CPE, were analyzed. The tubes had been previously inoculated with stool suspension from children (<15 years) in Nigeria with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). All CCS were screened for Enteric Adenoviruses (EAVs) and group A Rotavirus (GARV) using a rapid immunochromatographic test kit. Subsequently, they were passaged in HEp-2 cell line. All isola...

Adewumi Moses Olubusuyi1, Ogunsakin Temitope Rachael1, Ogunrombi Sefiu Babatunde1, Ojeamiren Iduda1, Olawole Alaba Samuel1, Faleye Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas1,2* and Adeniji Johnson Adekunle1,3 

...enteroviruses in supernatants of cytopathic effect (CPE) negative RD and L20B cell culture tubes in which faecal suspension from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases were cultured. Samples analyzed were collected in 2017 as part of the AFP surveillance program in Nigeria and declared negative for enteroviruses because they did not produce CPE in RD and L20B cell lines. In all, 120 cell culture supernatants (60 each on RD and ...
Tahsin Razzaq*, Muhammad Fareed Khan and Shahid Iqbal Awan
... impact of NCLB. Maize plants were artificially inoculated at four to six leaf stages. Thirty genotypes were screened in first field trail in June 2016. Genotypes had significant differences for NCLB severity and reactions and were classified into resistant, susceptible and moderate categories on the basis of 0-5 disease severity scale. The percent disease incidence ranged from 20-60% and area under disease progressive curve (AUDPC) 22-362dsu (Development stag...

Muhammad Khuram Razzaq1,2*, Saeed Rauf1, Mohsin Khurshid3, Shahid Iqbal1,4, Javaid Akhter Bhat2, Ayaz Farzand5, Adeel Riaz1,6, Guangnan Xing2 and Junyi Gai

 

...e substantial stage in plants and fertile pollen are important for proficient plant reproduction. Abiotic stresses reduce the photosynthates production, thus genotypes also reduce the reserve mobilization for tapetum cells which induce the significant reduction in pollen fertility. Therefore, pollen fertility index can be exploited to discriminate resistant and susceptible genotypes under abiotic stresses. High heritability in the segregating generation warr

Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Imran Khan1, Muhammad Afzal1, Azhar Abbas Khan2, Syed Muhammad Ali Zahid1, Muhammad Saqib1, Asad Abdullah1, Saba Kousar1 and Maryam Riaz1 

...odifies the ability of plants to resist against insect feeding is an interesting and important component in an integrated pest management program. In the present study, water stress was applied to field grown cotton with two Bacillus thuringiensis transgenes (CIM-602 and CIM-599) and one non-transgenic genotype (CIM-554) for the performance of H. armigera feeding The difference in leaf injury, relative consumption and growth rate of H. armigera was detected am...

Nosheen1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2* and Khalid Abbas1 

...th a wide range of pollutants. Heavy metals are important contaminants of aquatic system and can cause oxidative stress in fish. Evaluation of antioxidant in fish can reveal metal toxicity in the water ecosystem. Therefore, this experiment was planned to assess the acute affect of lead (Pb+2) on peroxidase (POD) activity in tissues viz. liver, gills, kidney, muscle, heart and brain of fish Catla catla exposed for 4-day. Afte...

Mazhar Habib1, Aamir Saleem1, Arshad Mahmood Malik2*, Sarfraz Ahmed3 and Sameera Arshad4 

...lly, proportion of its plants with vegetative stage declined. This decline of plants with vegetative stage can cause distraction to livestock depending on the species for grazing purposes. It is suggested that two month clipping stage should be applied on Blue panic grass to get sustained grass vigor and optimum herbage yield. 

...

Hala Rajab1, Muhammad Sayyar Khan1*, Safdar Hussain Shah1 and Syed Mehar Ali Shah2 

...nctions to protect the plants against different forms of stresses. In this study, the feedback-insensitive serine acetyltransferase (SAT); a rate-limiting enzyme for Cys biosynthesis from tobacco i.e. NtSAT4 was successfully cloned into three types of overexpression constructs i.e. pBinAR_NtSAT4 (targeted to cytosol), pBinAR-TKTP_NtSAT4 (targeted to plastids) and pBinAR-SHMT_NtSAT4 (targeted to mitochondria). For stable transformation of B. napus floral-dip an...

Jahangir Khan1*, Abbasullah Jan1, Kar Ho Lim2, Syed Attaullah Shah1*, Aditya R Khanal2 and Ghaffar Ali1 

...were significant determinants of their WTP. In addition, health concern and environment concern of pesticides use also influence the WTP. Findings from this study help in assessing the market potential for pesticides-free fruits in Pakistan 

...

Tanveer Ahmad1*, Muhammad Mujtaba Rafiq1, Waqas Ahmed Dogar2, Abid Mahmood Alvi3, Qumer Iqbal4, Muhammad Azam5 and Arshad Ali Khan6 

...ca L.). Healthy phalsa plants were fertilized with P2O5 @ 50g, 100g and 150g plant-1. Data were recorded on number of fruit bush-1, yield bush-1 (kg), single fruit weight (g), fruit diameter (cm), number of fruiting nodes, length of new shoot (cm), number of sprouted shoots cane-1 and leaf area (cm2). Treatments were applied under Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in triplicates and means were compared by Tukey’s HSD test. Association of the biolog...

Muhammad Abdul Qayyum1*, Farhat Bashir2, Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool3, Anser Ali3, Saqib Bashir1 and Qaiser Abbas4 

...ed a severe threat for plants seed germination because it has highest concentration of soluble salts. This study aims to examine the effect of NaCl salt at 100 mM and 200 mM concentrations on linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) germination, plant growth, nutrients and soluble salts uptake. The results revealed that tested four linseed genotypes showed an overall germination rate of 86-94% at 100 mM NaCl (T2) and 78-84% at 200 mM NaCl (T3) and seedling survival ra...

Sibgha Noreen*, Sumrina Faiz, Muhammad Salim Akhter, Kausar Hussain Shah 

...gn: justify;">Osmoprotectants are highly soluble, neutral and non-toxic chemical compounds which have low molecular weight. These molecules help the plants to regulate osmotic adjustment and to enhance abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study was aimed to examine mitigation effects of different osmoprotectants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, prolin...

Shahid Ali1*, Farhan1, Murtaza1, Neelum Andaleeb2 and Amjad Ali1 

...nt as compared to the tenants. Farm size was having negative and significant effect on inefficiency while age and farming experience of the sampled respondents were statistically insignificant. It is recommended that extension department should train farmers to improve their farming skills and provide them formal as well as informal education to enhance the technical efficiency of wheat growers. 

...

Betül Ayça Dönmez, Sarbesh Das Dangol and Allah Bakhsh* 

...and internode (100%) explants was observed in cv. Desiree using Agrobacterium strain GV2260, while the highest gene transfer efficiency rate for leaf and internode explants in S. chacoense M6 were obtained with AGL1. The highest callus formation for both cv. Desiree and S. chacoense M6 was obtained on cv. Desiree leaf explants, transformed via the Agrobacterium strain GV2260. The lowest ca...
Muhammad Furqan Shahid1*, Tahir Yaqub1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu2, Asim Aslam2, Saima Yaqub1, Aziz-ul-Rahman3, Muzaffar Ali1
...fferent AIV (A/H9N2) variants isolated from commercial, backyard poultry and fancy birds (partridge). Commercial broiler birds were infected experimentally at the dose of 106 EID50 by using these three isolates. Results revealed that onset of clinical signs was started at 2nd day post infection (DPI) followed by severity in redness and swelling of eyes, sneezing and lacrimation at 3rd DPI that lasts up to 5th
Hafiz Muhammad Arsalan1, Maria Altaf1, Zeemal Seemab Amin1, Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan2, Anum Shahzadi1, Hina Mudasser1, Iqra Maqsood1, Nazia Gulshan1, Saira Naseem3
...elation between Anti-Oxidants and Biochemical status in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients. 60 clinically diagnosed Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients and 50 healthy persons were included in this study. 5 ml Blood was drawn and serum was separated. Anti-Oxidant Biomarkers, Serum micronutrients, serum Electrolyte balance was measured through spectrophotometric procedure. Serum MDA level jump high in patients (14.19) as compared to normal subjects (3.26). Serum Gluta...

Manzoor1*, Ahmad Khan1, Amir Sohail2, Shahzad Ali1, Fawad Ali Shah3, Junaid Iqbal3, Muhammad Owais Khan4 and Sultan Nawaz4 

...rs excluding number of plants at harvest. Full irrigation (10 irrigations) had significantly more plant height (189.25 cm), 1000 grain weight (211.25 g), leaf area (425.95 cm2), number of leaves (16.23), grain yield (3352.75 kg), biological yield (10726.08 kg) and shelling percentage (47.78). Whereas one irrigation missing at six leaves stages produced maximum Harvest index (33.99 %). In case of planting methods, ridge planting had significantly higher plant h...

Hassnain1, Abdul Basit1*, Mehboob Alam1, Imran Ahmad1, Izhar Ullah1, Noor Alam2, Inayat Ullah3, Muhammad Areeb Khalid1, Muhammad Shair4 and Noor ul Ain1 

...) were given to tomato plants from 15 days after transplantation. Results showed that various application of chitosan and water stress interval had a significant (P< 0.01) effect on almost all studied parameter. Tomato plants treated with 6 days water stress interval had maximum average plant height (82.69 cm), average number of leaves (104.02), leaf area (81.47 cm2), chlorophyll content (71.31 SPAD), relative water ...

Noorullah Khan1*, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Fayaz Ahmad1, Sabaz Ali Khan2, Imtiaz Ahmed1, Muhammad Abbas Khan1, Shamsul Islam1, Abdul Waheed1, Basharat Hussain Shah1 and Hussain Shah

...5 cm) were recorded in plants treated with 3000 ppm IBA. Contrarily the longest roots of 50.7 cm were observed with IBA concentration of 5000 ppm. Correlation analysis revealed that SSR % and growth of kiwi seedlings are strongly associated with NFARP as we found strong correlation (P<0.001) among NFARP, SSR% and plant height. In addition, the main root length also showed moderate correlation (P<0.05) with plant height but it was not correlated with SSR%...
Bibi Nazia Murtaza1, Mazhar Saeed Chaudry2, Shamaila Inayat Nadeem1, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem3 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori4,*
...s112445441 and other variants involved in NHL pathogenesis. 
...

Asim Munawar1,2*, Farooq Ahmad1, Aqsa Arshad1, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi3 and Chengjuan Liang4 

...tic pyrethroids and fumigants some major pests of stored grains has develops resistance against them. Resistance mechanisms in R. dominica and T. castaneum against these control agents at different geographical locations was largely unknown. To overcome this gap our research was undertaken to evaluate the resistance mechanism in lab and field collected strains of R. dominica and T. castaneum against deltamethrin and phosphine. Results indicated significant dif...
Umer Iqbal1,* and Tariq Mukhtar2
...nation and survival of plants. Doses also had a significant effect on the germination and plant survival. Maximum germination and survival were recorded where the seeds were treated with a concentration of 150 ppm and minimum was recorded in case of 50 ppm concentration. With a decrease in the concentration, the germination and survival decreased significantly showing a direct relationship between concentrations and plant survival. Benomyl at 150 ppm concentra...

Muhammad Akbar Ali Shah1, Gamze Özel2, Christophe Chesneau3, Muhammad Mohsin4, Farrukh Jamal5* and Muhammad Faheem Bhatti6 

... to discover the determinants of the rice production of Pakistan to improve the production and fulfill the increasing demand. The study conducted in district Lodhran (Punjab province) and 31 villages selected as samples randomly. Time series data collected from Crop Reporting Service (CRS) for the period of last 10 years (2005-2014) containing 516 cases and 14,964 observations. Two different multiple linear regression (MLR) models are applied to study the rela...

Ghulam Murtaza1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Fakhar Mujeeb2, Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1 and Ayesha Zafar1  

...h as height of sorghum plants, diameter of stem, number of plants/ m2, total biomass of fresh plants were noted. Among all the treatments, T7 (T1 + organic matter @ 10 Mg ha-1) performed the best which produced the highest values of growth parameters. However, the treatment T3 (water of EC 3.0 dS m-1) proved inferior to all others with respect to height of sorghum pl<...

Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz*, Khalil Ahmed, Ghulam Qadir, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Faisal Nawaz and Muhammad Sarfraz 

.../m-2, number of leaves/plants, root length, bulb diameter, forage yield and total bulb yield. Results revealed that all the studied parameters were significantly improved with nitrogen application @ 80 and 100 kg ha-1 in ridge sowing. However, 80 kg N ha-1 in ridge sowing documented maximum economic benefit as compared to other treatments and is suggested as most cost-effective technique for turnip production under moderately salt-affected soils. 

...

Saleha Ashfaq1, Manzoor Hussain1, Nazish Bibi2, Jan Alam1, Muhammad Junaid2 and Sabi-Ur-Rehman3*

... C.C. a narrow endemic plants of northern areas of Pakistan. The antimicrobial potential of H. gilesii extracts in different solvents was assessed using agar well diffusion method against bacterial and fungal strains, while cytotoxic activity was studied in the methanolic extract using brine shrimp’s lethality assay. All the extracts showed significant biological activity against Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and selected fungal strains. Acetone,...
Doulat Khan1, Hamayun Khan1, Nazir Ahmad2, Muhammad Tarique Tunio3, Muhammad Tahir2, Muhammad Saleem Khan2 and Rifat Ullah Khan1*
...ctive management of ruminants. We attempted to explore the effectiveness of a marketable ELISA test kit for assessment of Pregnancy Associated Glycoproteins (PAGs) in peripheral blood for early pregnancy identification in cattle, buffalo, goats and sheep. A total of 120 blood were taken from jugular vein of different breeds of cattle (Achai, Achai x Jersey, Holstein Friesian and Jersey), buffalo (Nilli Ravi, Aza Kheli and non-descript), goats (Beetal, Teddy an...

Farheen Shafique1, Shaukat Ali2,*, Saiqa Andleeb1, Abdul Rauf1,3, Syed Ayaz Kazmi1,3, Sadia Idrees4, Faisal Farooq1,3, Faiq Nawaz Khan3,4, Muhammad Saad-ul-Hassan1,3, Raja Awais Mumtaz1,3, Saba Khalid1, Zaheem Ashraf1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2 and Fazal-ur-Rehman5

...l the understudy participants were interviewed through questionnaire method. After taking written consent from each participant or guardian, 5 ml of blood was collected from each participant and brought to the working laboratory for HBV and HCV screening through ICT kit method. All ICT positive samples were further confirmed through ELISA. Individuals 25(8.2%) were found positive for both hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and Anti hepatitis C antibody (Anti-...
Ahsan Anjum1, Asim Aslam1, Raheela Akhtar1, Tahir Yaqub2,  Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Rizwana Sultan3, Saba Usman1Aneela Zameer Durrani4 and Muhammad Usman4*
...ssociated economics, warrants the implementation of control measures to mitigate the economic losses associated with the disease.
...
R. Yasmeen1*, S. Shaheen1, B.N. Khan2, S.S. Bokhari1, U. Rafi1 and A.W. Qurashi1
...re exposure to air pollutants noticed for Lahore zoo compared to Bahawalpur zoo.
...

Shahzad Khan1*, Inayatullah Jan1 and Syed Fahad Shah2 

... identify the role of tenants in informal tenancy contracts. Three villages of District Charsadda Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, were purposely selected for the study. A total of 30 respondents were interviewed with the help of a pre-tested questionnaire. The findings of the study reveal that skillful and experienced tenants were given preference by the landlord. But due to non-availability of extension department and its tra...

Asif Yaseen1, Muhammad Israr2*, Allah Bux Khan1, Ahsan Javed3, Nafees Ahmad4 and Zia Ullah

... the significant determinants of farmers’ reliance on high value marketing channels. To this end, policy makers need to give due consideration to certain exogenous factors such as price expectation, delay of payment, trust in buyer, price fluctuation, and provision of farm services. 

...

Nosheen Noor Elahi1, Muhammad Shafique1, Muhammad Imtiaz2, Umer Farooq3* and Muhammad Rashid1 

...ng levels of NaCI. The plants treated with 50 mM NaCI had maximum amount of protein contents as compared to those at 0mM NaCI level. Varieties CM91 and CM2000 had higher protein contents than CM44 and CM98. At I/50 level of salinity the total protein contents were found more than inoculated control at 0mM NaCI. From this study, it is concluded that PGPRs can play an important role to mitigate the salt stress at different concentrations for better crop yield.&n...
Erum Yawar Iqbal1*, Ashfaque Ahmed Nahiyoon1, Shahnaz Dawar2 and Shahina Fayyaz1
...own that different formulants of EPB produced significant effects on Aphid mortality, change in population density, population reduction and fecundity. Cell-free supernatant of new EPB species Xenorhabdus steinernematis n.sp. strain PAK. CB10 (KU097324) and the other X. indica PAK. S.B.56 (MF521953) resulted in both the highest mortality rate [(94.33±2.05, 100.00±0.00)%] @ 300µl/10ml at 30ºC and the lowest fecundit...

Mohammad Aquil Siddiqui1*, Muhammad Tahir Khan1, Ghulam Shah Nizamani1, Shafquat Yasmeen1, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan1, Abdullah Khatri1 and Nighat Seema Soomro2 

...netic structure of the plants as an indispensable tool for crop improvement. This field study was initiated to evaluate three potential mutant lines of lentil against their parent (M-85) and two check varieties (NIA-Masoor-05 and NIA-Masoor-16). The pooled data of the crop, after two years of evaluation, indicated the earliest maturity in the mutant AEL-40/30 (92.0 days). Plant height was observed to be low in all the studied mutant lines (AEL-40/30, AEL-13/30...
Muhammad Faheem Akbar1,*, Muhammad Abdul Haq2, Imtiaz Ahmad1, Vasileva Viliana3 and Amjad Sultan1
...nd degradation rate constants and half-life were calculated. Conventional pesticides were found to be more persistent in the crop (Average half-life: 2.94, 4.06 and 2.74 days for imidacloprid, endosulfan and profenofos respectively) than bio pesticides (Average half-life: 3.87 and 1.81 days for spinosad and biosal respectively). The crops treated with bio pesticides were found safer for human consumption even after few hours of spray compared with codex and EU...
Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Arshad1, Sajjad Ali2, Asad Abdullah1, Samina Khalid3, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif4, Syed Muhammad Ali Zahid1, Muhammad Afzal1 and Jaima Molina-Ochoa5
...nt.

...
Abdul Kabir¹, Amjad Hussian Mirani¹, Jam Kashif1, Shumaila Manzoor2, Abdullah Iqbal3*, Ihsan Ullah Khan4 and Muhammad Abubakar2
...ion system of small ruminants and on-going disease outbreaks in the target area.
...

Muhammad Rasheed*, Tayyaba Naseer, Asma Hassan, Fayaz ul Hassan, Rifat Hayat, Ghulam Jilani, Samman Gul Vaseer and Muhammad Bilal Ali 

...on the roots of legume plants. To ensure an optimum rhizobial population in the rhizosphere is necessary that improves the nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of legume crops. The experiment was conducted to access the effect of isolated bacteria from nodules on growth and nodulation of the lentil cultivars. Different cultivars were used in this experiment; Markaz 2009, Masoor 2009 and NIA 2005 treatments were used viz BS0 (control), (Pseudomonas stutzeri), BS2...

Amna Qazi1, Ghulam Shah Nizamani2*, Muhammad Tahir Khan2, Shafquat Yasmeen2, Shahla Karim Baloch1, Muharram Ali1, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan2, Sagheer Ahmad3, Muhammad Rashid Nizamani4 and Mohammad Aquil Siddiqui

...egetatively propagated plants through in vitro culture. This study was conducted to establish the optimal concentrations of plant growth regulators and sucrose for micropropagation of sugarcane. Sugarcane is cultivated through cane sets and therefore, multiplication of any new genotype through traditional practices requires interminable period of time. Eight sugarcane genotypes viz. NIA-2004, SPF-234, NIA-2012, BL4, AEC92-1208, Thatta-10, Gulabi-95 and NI...
Fatima Hashim Abbas1,2* and Alaa Tareq Shakir Al-Hassnawi1
... balance between antioxidants and oxidants in favor of the later can cause serious problems such as abortion. So the investigation of the oxidants/antioxidants status during early stages of pregnancy is urgently needed to help us solving such health issues. In this current study, One hundred and thirteen aborted women (73 known causes group, 40 unknown g...
Mubashra Salim1, Omeira Ibrahim1, Hugo Vilhena2,3,4, Carla Maia5, André Pereira5, Maria Shahzeen1, Shabana Kalsoom1, Asim K. Mahmood6 and Furhan Iqbal1*
...ats, dogs, domestic ruminants, pigs, rodents and humans. The present study was designed for the molecular detection of Mycoplasma haemofelis and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum in feline blood samples collected from various pet clinics in Pakistan, by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), using 16S rDNA as the target sequence. Clinical and epidemiological data was collected in all animals included in the study. M. haemofelis and C. Mycopl...
Ahsan Numan1,4, Khadija Irfan Khawaja2, Abdul Basit Qureshi3Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf4, Imtiaz Rabbani4, Hafsa Zaneb5 and Habib Rehman4*
...erum biochemical determinants. Prevalence of DSP was found to be 31.48% when 2,290 diabetes mellitus Type-2 subjects were screened. The patients with DSP were older (p < 0.05), had longer duration of DMT2 (p<0.01), elevated systolic blood pressure (p<0.05), blood sugar (p < 0.05), HbA1c (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.01), LDL (p<0.001), triglycerides (p<0.05) and more obese (p<0.01) when compared with the diabetic patients wi...
Ahmet Ozer Sehirli1,2, Serkan Sayiner3*, Ayliz Velioglu-Ogunc4, Nedime Serakinci5, Emel Eksioglu-Demiralp6, Berrak Yegen7, Feriha Ercan8 andGoksel Sener2
...ombination with anti-oxidants.
...
Sumaira Akram1, Sajid Aleem Khan1*, Nazir Javed1 and Saeed Ahmad2
... eggs were observed in plants treated with in aloe vera extract. Protective and curative treatment with plant extracts, biocontrol agents and chemicals suppressed the disease and enhanced plant height and root weight. All treatments evaluated in this study exhibited suppression of MG. Therefore, these treatments can be used in combination against MG infestation on wheat.
...
Jiao Qin,Qian-Qian Su and Quan-Sheng Liu* 
... resistance to anticoagulants with repeated and long-term application of anticoagulant rodenticides in southern China. Fertility control is considered as an alternative strategy for management of this pest. Cabergoline can inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and was applied in fertility control for animal, however, the physiological and behavioral mechanisms of cabergoline as a sterilant in practice remain little known. This study determined the effects of diffe...

Reda Mohamed1, 2 

... abdominal aorta in ruminants. In most cases, the celiac artery originated independently, while in few cases it originated by a celiacomesenteric trunk with the cranial mesenteric artery. The branches of the celiac trunk in ruminants varied and originated either directly or indirectly according to the species. The right ruminal artery originated either from the splenic, left gastric or celiac arteries. The epiploic branch de...

Asmaa A. Darwish 

...ements and total antioxidants capacity concentrations significantly (P< 0.05) decreased in the three diseased groups. Both of MMP-2 and MMP-9 yielded a sensitivity and NPV as 100% in the sheep pneumonia, arthritis and enteritis and correlated with some parameters in PG and EG. Ovine inflammatory conditions usually result in different clinicopathological changes. Monitoring of them may be useful in improving our therapeutic intervention and enhancing the ani...
Syed Basit Rasheed*, Ahmad Yar, Farrah Zaidi and Qaisar Jamal
...e: small;">Taxonomically ants are the most neglected group of insects to be studied in Pakistan. The current study was conducted to collect ants from all three tehsils: Charsadda, Tangi and Shabqadar of district Charsadda. Ants were collected randomly from indoor (rooms, kitchen and washrooms) and outdoor (streets, crop fields, barren ground and grave yards) sites by using buccal aspirator...
Mehtap Bayir*
...-known enzymatic antioxidants because of their central role in the antioxidant defense system. In this study, the phylogeny, gene structure, and conserved gene synteny of sod1 and sod2 genes in fugu—a model organism—were determined. Maximum amino acid similarity identity was found between putative fugu Sod1 and Sod2 proteins and their orthologs from teleost fish and tetrapods. Phylogenetic clustering was seen between sod genes ...
Housh Muhammad Solangi1, Javaid Ali Gadahi1*, Mansoor Tariq2, Bachal Bhutto1Zubair Ahmed Laghari1, Jamila Soomro3, Taufeeq Ahhmed Khosa1 and Abdullah G Arijo1
...e parasite of small ruminants producing the economic losses. The present study was conducted to explore the immunogenic properties of H. contortus crude proteins (HcCP). Protein profile of HcCP was checked by SDS PAGE and immunogenic proteins were recognized by the antisera produced by using the HcCP as antigen. Infective stage of the H. contortus (L3) was used for the challenge infection. Protein band pattern ranging from 10 to 170 kDa was obser...

Ihsanullah Kakr1, Sarwar Khan2, Khalid Khan3* and Sajjad Ahmed

...ups viz settled, transhumants and nomads were interviewed in Districts, Musa Khail and Jhal Magsi during the year 2011. The direct as well as indirect economic losses due to camel Trypanosomiasis based on the prevalence of Trypanosomiasis, mortality rate, abortion and perceptions of the respondents were recorded. The camel dies due to Trypanosomiasis in direct visible losses and invisible losses include reduced fertility, meat loss, low quality of hide, loss o...

Muhammad Zamin1*, Abdullah Khan1, Ibadullah Jan1, Fazli Rabbi2, Shahen Shah3, Rashid Ali1, Kaleem Ullah1 and Muhammad Amin4 

...cations. There were 10 plants in each replication. The highest number of florets per spike (11.42) were obtained at treatment combination of nitrogen and potash (100N +200K kg/ha) where other parameters of plant height, number of leaves, leaf length and spike length were at par with their respective maximum results. However, the lengthiest spike (88.10cm) was produced at 100kg/ha nitrogen. Similarly, the application of nitrogen at the rate of 200 kg/ha produce...
Naseeb Ullah1, Assad Ur Rehman1, Aamir Khan1, Rabia Noushin2Shahid Naiz Khan1, Syed Ishtiaq Anjum1, Sajida Afzal1, Asma Naseem1Kenza Javed1, Ujala Rauf1 and Kalim Ullah1*
...ck (large and small ruminants) from December 2017 to April 2018 to examine the prevalence of FMD. The current study indicated that overall FMD in Livestock was 14.31% with 16.37% in small ruminants and 12% in large ruminants. A significant difference in sero-positivity was observed in small, young and adult of both small and large ruminants. The sero-pos...

Pushpa1, Nighat Seema Soomro1, Shahla Karim Baloch2, Mehmooda Buriro1, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro1, Muhammad Tahir Khan3, Qamar Uddin Jogi1*, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro1 and Farheen Deeba Soomro1 

...ns. The powder of weed plants produced significantly (p<0.05) harmful outcomes on all growth parameters of wheat varieties as compared to the control treatment. The maximum seed germination (82.16a %), shoot length (27.70 cm), root length (14.90 cm), shoot fresh weight (2.19 g), root fresh weight (1.16 g), shoot dry weight (0.54 g), root dry weight (0.27 g), and seed vigor index (3483.5) were recorded in variety Amber under the control (where no allelopathi...

Ahmad Naeem Shahzad1, Muhammad Kamran Qureshi2, Samee Ullah1, Muhammad Latif3, Shakeel Ahmad1 and Syed Asad Hussain Bukhari1* 

...tify;">Use of osmoprotectants is a possible strategy for plants to survive under adverse environmental conditions. The current study emphasizes the ameliorative role of trehalose, in mitigating the detrimental effects of salt stress, in cotton plants. Three concentrations of trehalose (0, 5 and 50 mM) were applied to plant foliage, subjected to varying levels (0, 11 and 17 dSm-1) of salini...
Muhammad Sarmad, Syed Muhammad Zaka* and Syed Muhammad Tahir Abbas Shah
...tems and seeds of host plants. Being a serious pest of many important crops, the present work will study on biology and bionomics of O. laetus on three different hosts Gossypium hirsutum, Abelmoschus esculentus and Helianthus annuus. Shorter nymphal duration was observed on Gossypium hirsutum 20.00±0.14 days as compared to Abelmoschus esculentus 21.00±0.26 days and Helianthus annuus ...

Saira Bano, Muhammad Naeem* and Samrah Masud 

...dy weight. The blood variants were studied like Lymphocytes (LYM), Monocytes (MON), Granulocytes (GRA), Red Blood Cells (R.B.C), Hemoglobin (Hgb), Hematocrit (HCT), Mean Corpuscular volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), Red Blood Cell Distribution Width when measured with Standard Deviation (RDW-SD), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Platelets (PLT), Plateletcrit (PCT), Mean Platelets Volume (MPV), Platelets Distribution Width (PDW...

Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Muhammad Zubair Khan1, Ayesha Bibi2, Muhammad Shehzad Khan1*, Bashir Ahmad

...combinations on tomato plants. This research study was performed at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar-Pakistan. Different biochemical tests were conducted to confirm stem rot pathogen. Boron was applied at the rates of 1.97, 2.96 and 3.95 g seedbed-1. Plant extracts were neem (Azadirachta indica) and ghwaraskay (Dodonaea viscosa). Morphological traits such as plant height, maximum number of fruits plant-1 and yield were observed and severity of...

Muhammad Safdar Hussain1*, Muhammad Farrakh Nawaz2, Muhammad Ayyoub Tanvir2 and Noor-E-Hira

...ion, drought-resistant plants should be sorted out. The objective of this study was to explore the growth behavior of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (recommended for waterlogged areas) and Tamarix aphylla (recommended for arid regions) under water stress. Therefore, a pot experiment was carried out with three treatments: Well-watered, 25% and 50 % drought to achieve said objective. It was found that drought negatively affected plant growth. The mean heights of E. ca...

Umar Hayat1, Khalid Khan2, Saima Liaqat3 and Guo Xiangyu4* 

... study evaluated determinants of rice production in the district Nasirabad, Balochistan by employing Neo-Classical and Cobb-Douglas production functions. The findings of the study show that education, fertilizers, rent, training and total area under the rice crop (wetland), labor, capital, availability of input, and rice prices are the key components that leave a positive and noteworthy impact on rice production in the District. Nevertheless, physical capital,...

Aqsa Ahmad1, Iftikhar Ahmad1* and Malik Fiaz Hussain Ferdosi

... treatment substrates. Plants grown in substrates containing SD + PH + PM (experiment I) indicated that plants grown in these soilless compositions died before flowering, while those grown in silt (control) performed best. While in experiment II, the highest quality plants were grown in 50% CC + 40% RH +10% PM. Quality was defined as plants with shortest...
Aamir Mushtaq1,2, Rukhsana Anwar1 and Mobasher Ahmad1,2,* 
...of extract) and anti-oxidants (IC50 value = 59.60 µg/ml found by DPPH method) in plant extract. Higher inflexion ratio (0.25 ± 0.05), most of time spent in dark area (158.34 ± 4.88 sec), increased no of hole pokings (34.16 ± 2.01), significant (P < 0.001) elevation in superoxide dismutase (17.36 ± 0.49 U/mg), catalase (1.42 ± 0.05 U/mg) glutathione (37.56 ± 1.89

Iqbal Javed1, Abdur Rehman2*, Iftikhar Nabi3, Amar Razzaq4, Raheel Saqib5, Allah Bakhsh6, Muhammad Mohibullah7 and Muhammad Luqman

...ng partner. If Pakistan wants to improve its export value of basmati rice, there must be an effective strategy to control the inflation in Pakistan or at least need to make policy for minimizing the impact of inflation for the rice producers. If it is very difficult to control the inflation there must be subsidies for rice growers for inputs used in the basmati production. The high rates of inflation in trading partners have positive and significant impact on ...
Sajjad Ali1,*, M. Irfan Ullah2, Asif Sajjad1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed2, M. Aslam Farooqi1, M. Shahid Rizwan3, Qaiser Shakeel4, Sohail Akhter1,Muhammad Raheel4 and Muhammad Arshad2
...rs with different host plants in terms of their physicomorphic attributes has been the subject of great interest with point of their integrated pest management. Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae; Lepidoptera) -being highly polyphagous- is the pest of many crops and exhibits high fecundity and migrating efficiency. The present study aimed to evaluate its physicomorphic responses towards different host plants. The highest...
Shaista Abbas1,Imtiaz Rabbani1, Hafsa Zaneb2, M. Shahbaz Yousaf1, Saima Ashraf2, Abid Hussain Shahzad3, M. Afzal Rashid4 and Habib Rehman1,*
...ransition period in ruminants is defined as a phase of 3 weeks preceding and post parturition. It is characterized by metabolic stress, reduced feed intake, intense mobilization of energy reserves, increased nutritional requirements and changes in dams’ metabolism. Yeast Supplementation has been found to increase the production performance and nutrient digestibility in ruminants. However, when compared with large rumin...
Yue Qin Song, Hui Zhong Sun* and Jun Feng Dong
...nd discrimination of odorants. On the basis of female and male antennal transcriptomes of Yemma signatus adults, a total of 66 candidate Y. signatus olfactory receptor genes (YsigORs), including one olfactory co-receptor (Orco), were identified in this study. All the sequences were further validated by cloning and sequencing. Tissue expression profiles of all YsigOR genes in the antennae of females and males were analyzed using real-time quantita...

Anila Latif, Zaheer Abbas, Farhatullah and Ghulam Muhammad Ali* 

...kaloid and produced by plants of family Berberidaceae. Berberine Bridge Enzyme (BBE) gene involved in the synthesis of berberine was isolated from Berberis lyceum and over expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. The integration of the BBE gene in transgenic lines was confirmed through PCR while the expression was confirmed by Reverse Transcriptase PCR. Whole plant bioassay confirmed 100% mortality in DBM within 72 hours. The present investigation concludes that the...

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Waqas Raza1*, Waqas Wakil2,3, Imtiaz Hussain4 and Misbah Iqbal Qamar

...ify;">Pre-treatment of plants with chemical elicitors can induce systemic resistance against plant pathogens and insect herbivores. The plan of the study was to study induction of defense responses and protective effects against Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and sucking insect pests of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with application of salicylic acid (SA) and β-aminobutyric acid (BABA). Concentration of SA and BABA (2, 4 and 5 mM) were applied to ...

Ahmad Kiani1*, Shapour Zarifian1, Hosein Kouhestani1 and Hosein Karimzadeh

...l regions and many immigrants from rural regions to urban regions have been recorded. So, this research tries to prioritize the criteria of establishment and development of agricultural industries in the rural areas in Tehran Province. The result shows the items which refer to market and financial issue have greater weight, So, it is necessary to develop transportation to streamline access to market and also the industries need investors to be flourishing; Acc...
Tehreem Usman1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2*, Khalid Abbas1, Laiba Shafique3 and Qaisra Siddique1
...ends on the type of toxicants and exposure duration.
...
Afzal Nimra1, Zulfiqar Ali1*, Safdar Sidra 2, Rida Ahmad1
...y emit trace metal pollutants
 

Abid Khan*, Mukhtar Alam and Yousaf Jamal 

...her LAI (0.99), taller plants (89 cm), higher CGR (8.76 g m-2 day-1), delayed maturity (171 days) and more chlorophyll a and b (1.95 and 0.64 µg ml-1) were achieved while using NS6 as compared to other nitrogen sources. Significantly more leaves and leaf area tiller-1 (5.2 and 34.3 cm2), higher LAI (1.18), taller plants (93.8 cm), higher CGR (10.27 g m-2 day-1) and greater chlorophyll a and b (2.30 and 0.75 µg ml...

Muhammad Medrar Hussain*, Asad Jan* and Sayyar Khan Kazi 

... rice calli transgenic plants were regenerated and established in greenhouse. For the evaluation of OsTZF8 gene role in drought stress tolerance, two weeks old rice seedling were subjected to drought stress. OsTZF8-OX transgenic indica line A and B displayed 69% and 64% survival rates respectively compared to 33% of control. These results confirmed that due to overexpression of OsTZF8 gene, transgenic line A and B displayed considerable level of drought stress...

Gulnaz Parveen1*, Salma Gul2, Muhammad Ather Rafi3, Ashfaq Ali Khattak4 and Hikmatullah Jan

...d the growth of tomato plants. Infection % of all test fungi included Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani was significantly controlled by leaf powder (LP) and shoot powder (ShP) when applied alone and with combination. While combinations of 3% LP + 3% ShP, 3% LP + 5% ShP, 5% LP + 1% ShP, 5% LP + 3% ShP, 5% LP + 5% ShP completely controlled the infection of Macrophomina phaseolina. Similarly combination of 5% LP +...

Samman Gul Vaseer1, Muhammad Rasheed1*, Muhammad Ansar1, Yamin Bibi2, Saqlain Shah1, Asma Hassan1, Lubna Ayub Durani1, Muhmmad Asif3 and Zuhair Husnain

... the nodules of legume plants. However, the variable reports for Cobalt (Co) effects on plant growth and crop yields urged to research and verify if the Co is an essential component particularly for leguminous crops. A greenhouse study was

Ayesha Zafar1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Sarfraz2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Sher Muhammad3 and Ghulam Murtaza

...lture in Pakistan. The plants in saline environment are negatively affected due to several issues like low osmotic potential, specific ion effect, and nutritional imbalance. The fertilizer behavior in salt stress conditions is quite different as compared to the normal soils. Linseed is an important oil seed crop. Its 50 % yield reduction occurs at ECe 5.9 dSm-1 and ESP value of 25-30. A field experiment was conducted on saline sodic soils to determine fertiliz...

Iram Fatima1*, Imran Pasha1, Ambreen Saddozai2, Shahid Nadeem3, Amer Mumtaz4 and Saqib Jabbar4 

...r eight different adulterants tested. Sugar samples were free of any adulteration while in beverages two other adulterants were found in 22% of samples. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) under two way factorial indicated significant statistical difference (P<0.05) in mean value of microbial count in different location while between different samples it was non-significant (P>0.05). Thus, the conducted&nb...

Wajiha Anum1*, Liaquat Ali1, Umair Riaz2*, Abid Ali1, Nadia Manzoor3, Laal Hussain Akhter4, Asad Ur Rahman5, Naeem Maan6 and Ijaz Ahmad

... metabolic function in plants. However, it is not readily available to the crop because of its immobile nature. In order to ensure its efficient uptake by crop, an experiment was conducted to appraise the effect of various P placement methods and fertilizer rates on wheat. The fertilizer treatments were F1=150-00-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F2=150-30-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F3=150-60-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F4=150-90-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F5=150-120-60 NPK k...
Majeeda Rasheed1*, Tanveer Akhtar1, Nadia Mukhtar2, Muhammad Furqan Shahid2, Muhammad Imran3, Saima Yaqub2
...;">Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) caused by PPR virus (PPRV), is a contagious disease of domestic and wild small ruminants. The disease is endemic in developing countries of African and Asian worlds including Pakistan, where several clinical cases in small ruminants (sheep and goat) have been frequently reported. Despite PPRV is endemic in Pakistan, information on disease serosurvei...
Fehmina Ashraf1*, Muhammad Irfan2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Shaukat Ali3, Muhammad Khan1
...s species of bacteria, plants and in different genera of fungi. Laccases have been purified by various methods. It involves in di-oxygen to water reduction and 1e- oxidation of phenolic and its allied parts. Laccases are mostly used in different industries like food, paper and pulp, pharmaceutical and textile etc. Both laccases and mediators have been used in different process like delignification of pulp. Laccases from bacterial species are used in dye decolo...

Md. Al-Amin Tan1, Mst. Antora Akter1, Md. Sabuj Rahman1, Marzia Rahman2 and Md. Mahmudul Alam1* 

... choice of skin disinfectants and methods of skin preparation is still aberrant in veterinary practice. The study was, thus, conducted to standardize pre-surgical skin preparation with various formulations of Chlorhexidine gluconate, Chlorxylenol, and Povidone-iodine (PI) in goat. Seven surgical fields were prepared for evaluating seven formulations of these antiseptics. The bacterial swabs collected at different stages of skin preparations were transferred in...

Zubair Aslam and Ali Ahmad* 

...ize hybrid P30B74. The plants were harvested 45 days after sowing and the evaluation was done on the basis of various morphological (root length, shoot length, root fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, number of leaf, leaf length, stem girth) and physiological parameters (relative water contents (RWC), chlorophyll contents and membrane stability index (MSI)). The obtained results indicated that vermi-fertilizers and chemical fer...

Nasrullah1*, Ahmad Nawaz Khoso1, Jamila Soomro2, Ilahi Bakhash Marghazani1, Masood-ul-Haq Kakar1, Abdul Hameed Baloch1, Sarfaraz Ahmed Brohi1 and Muhammad Asif Arain1* 

...th species of small ruminants showed significant weight gain and different feeding behavior of the consumption of various summer fodders. 

...

Hafiz Abdul Ghafoor1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Luqman2, Muhammad Arshad Javed2, Syed Wasim Hasan3 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed

...as compared to control plants. Results of 2nd experiment also clearly demonstrated a significant impact of different treatments on the mealybug infestation (F12, 103 = 58.75, P < 0.001; HSD at α = 0.05) as compared to control. At both 3 and 7 days post-treatment, maximum reduction of mealybug infestation was recorded in plots treated with spirotetramat (87.75±3.91%) and lambda-cyhalothrin (85.52±4.42%) in combination with EPF followed by...

Jawad Ali Jan1, Ghulam Nabi1, Maqsood Khan1,2*, Shehzad Ahmad1, Peer Sikandar Shah1, Saddam Hussain1 and Sehrish

...re applied to the crop plants in different farms to improve its production and nutritional value. This experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Institute (ARI) Tarnab, Peshawar during summer 2016. Two factors i.e. Chilli varieties (Magma and High fly) and humic acid levels (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 g L-1) were applied in the field during experiment. The results of the experiment showed that High fly variety took minimum days to produce flowering (33 days)...

Khalid Khan1, Marguerite Wotto2, Saima Liaqat3, Gulawar Khan1, Balach Rasheed1, Sara Rafiq4 and Guo Xiangyu5* 

...district and its determinants. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from one hundred tomato growers. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used for selection of the farmers. The Cobb-Douglas production function was used to estimate the technical efficiency and performance of the farmers. The study results disclosed that all explanatory variables have a positive impact on the farmers’ technical efficiency apart from pesticides. Add...

M. Hammouchi1*, G. Sebbar1, N. Touil2, C. Loutfi1, Y.S. Malik3, M. El-Harrak1 and O. Fassi-Fehri4 

...;">Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) has caused a serious outbreak of disease in small ruminants recently in 2008 in Morocco. The field data obtained during the outbreak indicated that there were marked differences in breed susceptibilities to PPRV infection. In the field exotic breeds of Alpine goats were observed to be highly susceptible to the disease, with mortality rates approaching 100%, contrary to local breeds ...

 Salman Khan, Irfan Ullah*, Shahid Ali and Murtaza

...d analyzed major determinants of potato yield in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A three-stage random sampling technique was used to collect data from 100 respondents during 2018. A Cobb-Douglas type production function was used to approximate effect of determinants on potato yield. Major shares of the input cost per acre incurred in the study area were seed (Rs. 18720), followed by land rent (Rs.15890) and la...

Javed Iqbal1, Ali Zohaib1*, Muzzammil Hussain1, Adnan Bashir1, Muhammad Hamza2, Wardah Muzaffer3, Muhammad Tahir Latif1 and Naeem Faisal1 

...mproved the emergence (plants per m2), number of productive tillers per m2 and grain yield (3-7%) of all wheat varieties although productive tillers per plant, number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight was decreased. Faislabad-08 performed better regarding grain yield and related components among all varieties. Seed rate and varieties did not interact significantly for studied traits. Correlation analysis revealed that grain yield was positively correla...

A. S. M. El-Nuby1† , S. A. Montasser2 and I. A. El-Khadrawy

Control of root-knot nematodes using wild plants colonized Sinai, Egypt
...N). The selected seven plants viz., Artemisia judaica, A. monosperma, Bassia muricata, Cornulaca monacantha, Salsola kali and Zygophyllum album with different dilutions (25%, 50%, 75% &100%). The potent nematicidal efficacy observed in the extract of A. judaica followed by A. monosperma. In vivo trial post inoculation treatments were effective than pre one, the maximum reduction in nematode population was recorded by A. judaica (87.0%) followed by A. monos...

 M. M. A Youssef and W. M. A. El-Nagdi †

Effect of some temperature changes on the population density of some plant parasitic nematode species
...parasitic nematodes on plants viz., date palm and olive in both soil and roots was investigated. These nematodes were negatively correlated with the prevailing average soil temperature during four seasons (autumn= 20°C; spring= 22°C; summer= 27°C and winter= 14°C).

...

 Tajwali Khan1*, Ihtzaz Qamar1, Feroz Shah2, Kareem Akhtar2, Rehman Akhtar3

MODEL FOR FUEL DROPLET EVAPORATION IN COMBUSTION CHAMBER OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES
...burning of liquid propellants droplets is very important to avoid combustion instability and to get higher
specific impulse from liquid rocket engines. Combustion takes place in gaseous phase and reaction is fast. So, the
time consumed by a droplet for complete burning is the time taken by a droplet to get evaporated. An analytical
mono component fuel droplet evaporation model is developed and proposed for droplet evaporation in liquid roc...

Rashid Nawaz*1, Iftikhar Hussain1, Sikandar Bilal Khattak1 

KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IDENTIFICATION AND PRIORITIZATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN PAKISTAN USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS
...nting
24 cement plants were analyzed using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The proposed KPIs are supposed to
assist the decision makers in achieving environmental sustainability. Among the 11 KPIs identified, the KPI “Total
amount of Emissions in Metric tons of CO2 equivalent per year” was identified as having the highest impact on
environmental sustainability.

...

Shafiullah1*, Mohammad Nafees2 

MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COAGULATION/ FLOCCULATION PROCESSES VIA OPTIMIZATION OF INOCULATION DOSE AND SETTLING TIME
...ective removals of pollutants were obtained by using ferric chloride and calcium
hydroxide in ratio of 2:0.5 mL for settling time of 13 minutes. As treatment results, not only removed suspended
solids (86%) but a tremendous decrease was observed in color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity by
96%, 66% and 89%, respectively.

...

Razaullah1*, Iftikhar Hussain1 

A TWO-WAREHOUSE SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION WITH CROSS-ROUTE COSTS AND BUDGET, MAXIMUM FLOW AND CAPACITY CONSTRAINTS
...uction capacity of the plants, stocking capacity of owned and rented
warehouses and traffic factors on the supply routes in the mathematical model further broadened the problem. A case
study is solved to analyze how the model performs with the changing network characteristics. 

...

Nazish Huma Khan1, Mohammad Nafees1, Adila Bashir1, Farooq Ahmad1 

STUDY OF POLLUTION LAOD IN PAPER MILL EFFLUENTS AND ITS RECYCLING BY SUNDRY PLANTS AT HAYATABAD INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, PESHAWAR
...ia recycling of sundry plants. For this
purpose a detail study was conducted at paper mills and sundry plants at Hayatabad Industrial Estate. The plants
were examined for operation and sampled for waste water. Total 7 waste water samples were collected from selected
points of Paper mills, Industrial drain and Sundry plants. Samples w...

Asif Nawaz1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1, Rehmat Ullah1, Arshad Farooq2 and Abdul Hassan2

Assessment of Weed Management Competency of Field Assistants in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...cial for the Field Assistants to be competent in providing extension services to the farming community regarding weeds management. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the weeds management competency level of Field Assistants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agriculture Extension Department. Data from 234 randomly selected Field Assistants were collected through pre-tested and validated interview...
Kemi F. Omotesho*, Adedamola V. Adetayo, Adeniyi F. Akinrinde and Deborah A. Olabode
 
Challenges to the Adoption of Agricultural Innovations: The Case of Yam Minisett Technology in Kwara State, Nigeria
... in its use. The determinants of farmers’ adoption were also investigated. A four-stage sampling procedure was used to select 205 respondents on whom an interview schedule was administered. Descriptive statistics, Probit Regression Analysis and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation, were used to analyse data. Result reveals that the farmers were mostly males (71.2%), middle-aged (50.7years,) with an average of 28 years of farming experience. Only 58...

Inamullah Khan1*, Amjad Usman2  and Rahamdad Khan2

The Mortality Rate of Pupae and Adult of Fruit Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) Affected by Different Submerging Time and Soil Types under the Laboratory Treatment
...tion of fruit fly host plants standing in clay loam or silt clay loam soil texture may help in controlling the overwintering pupae in the orchards.

...

Sajjad Haydar*, Zunaira Asif*, A. A. Bhatti**, Obaidullah Nadeem***, Ghulam Hussain*, Nadeem Abbas*

EFFICIENCY OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN THE PUNJAB TANNERY SECTOR: A CASE STUDY OF DADA TANNERY
...v>wastewater treatment plants to address the issue. This study aims to evaluate the performance of wastewater
treatment plant (WWTP) of a local tanning industry. Raw wastewater showed high concentration of organic matter
and Chromium. Phosphorous concentration was found deficient for satisfactory biological treatment. WWTP showed
overall removal efficiency of 88.81, 84.54 and 62.31% for total suspended solids (TSS), five day...

Shahida Nasreen Zakir*, Samina Siddiqui**, Nasreen Ghaffar*

MAJOR ELEMENTS CONCENTRATIONS IN CALCAREOUS SOILS
...ence is unavailable to plants. Calcareous soil has more than 15% of CaCO3 at pH ranged from 7.5 to 8.4. Iron was also found to be low in calcareous soils. Such soils are required an improved nutrient management in such a manner that soil contact of P, K and Fe can be minimized.
...
Naeem Ejaz*, Daulat Khan**, Usman Ali Naeem*, Muhammad Ali Shamim*, Muhammad Fiaz Tahir*, Faisal Shabbir*, Jawad Hussain*
DETERIORATION OF ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT AND FLY-ASH BASED GEO-POLYMER CONCRETES DUE TO SULFATE ATTACK UNDER THE ACTION OF SULFURIC ACID AND WASTEWATER
...d wastewater treatment plants has been a major problem but this issue has not been resolved satisfactorily yet. Generally, deterioration happens due to sulfuric acid reaction with treatment units and sewer materials. Geo-polymer binders especially fly ash (FA) is an acid resistant and can be used as a substitute binder for sewer construction. This research work highlights the laboratory results of fly ash based geo-polymer concrete and effe...

Asif Nawaz*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Rehmat Ullah, Khalid Nawab and Urooba Pervaiz

Investigation of Professional Competency Level and Training Needs of Field Assistants in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
...ing needs of Field Assistants of Agriculture Extension Department Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A sample of 234 respondents was selected and personally interviewed through pre-tested and validated interview schedule. Paired sample t-test and dummy variable regression model were used to achieve study objectives. It was found that Field Assistants were highly competent in conducting farm/home visits followed by conducting meetings and o...

Shahid Ali1, Habib Akbar2, Shamsher Ali3*, Adnan Nasim1, Muhammad Ismail1, Nur Ul Haq1 and Muhammad Usman4

Effect of Planting Sources, Cane Portions and Setts Placement Methods on Sugarcane Yield Attributing Traits
...lso found that tallest plants with maximum biological yield were recorded in canes top portion with triple setts placement methods. Minimum results were observed for all the traits when bottom portion from trenched planting source was planted at single setts. Study suggests that planting fresh cane top portions with double and triple setts placement methods are better than trenched planting for cane yield and yield attributing traits.

...

Muhammad Riaz1*, Naureen Akhtar1, Salik Nawaz Khan1, Muhammad Shakeel1,2 and Ateeq Tahir1

Neocosmospora rubicola: An Unrecorded Pathogen from Pakistan Causing Potato Stem Rot
...bicola infected potato plants were necrotic stem lesions near the collar region. Causal organism was isolated from the infected tissues, purified and identified on the basis of morphological characters, nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and partial beta tubulin gene. Phylogenetic analysis was also conducted to determine the phylogenetic relationship of this species with other reported species of this genus. Pathogenic potential o...

Saba Iqbal1*, Muhammad Luqman1, Hafiz Muhammad Nasrullah1, Asmat Ullah1 and Hafiz Muhammad Akram2

Response of Cotton to Application of Organic and Inorganic Source of Nutrients in Semi-Arid Climate
...ent resulted in taller plants (121 cm), more number of sympodial branches (19.9), more number of bolls per plant (26), higher boll weight (3.6 g), higher seed cotton yield (1792 kg ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (BCR) (1.8:1) followed by the treatment where 30 kg urea ha-1 was applied in combination with 8 t ha-1 slurry. In conclusion, combined application of urea and FYM @ 30 kg ha-1 and 8 t ha-1, respectively could be the economical approach to attain the high...

 Amir Naveed1, Unsia Habib1, Fouzia Parveen2, Syed Naveed Ul Hasan1, Muddasar Habib1, Irfan Shah1

AN INVESTIGATION OF HEAVY AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL DEPOSITS OF MAKARWAL PAKISTAN AND THEIR POSSIBLE IMPACTS ON SURROUNDING WATER-CASE STUDY
...d with heavy metal pollutants.

...

Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta1,2*, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar3*, Muhammad Shoaib4, Wangyuan Yao3, Muhammad Asif5, Shah Nawaz6, Moazam Ali7 and Ayesha Kanwal8

Exploratory Study on the Psychological Impact of COVD-19 on Students
.... Recruitment of participants was done from different universities of Pakistan. The results showed that the students are more concerned about their family members (p=0.00). Under this influence they have increased the frequency of handwashing and use masks when they have to go outside. More than half of the students (53.09%) were afraid of the COVID-19 and similar pattern was noted about depression (54.86%). About 57.5% students were willing to take part in on...

Sikander Hiyat1, Nazim Hussain1, Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani2*, Muhammad Nasir Abbas2, Smana Raza3, Javed Shabbir Dar4 and Tauqeer Ahmad Yasir5 

..., widely spaced cotton plants (RS3, 75 cm) without application of mepiquat chloride produced maximum seed cotton yield as compared to all other spacing levels. Ultra-narrow row spacing (RS1, 25 cm) Combination of narrow row spacing (RS2, 50 cm) and mepiquat chloride application slightly higher seed cotton yield. Ultra-narrow row spacing must carefully use to exploit in the cotton production system was appeared to be a viable alternative approach for successful...

Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal1*, Ijaz Ahmad2, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed Basra3, Abu Baker Ijaz4, Zahid Hassan Tarar5, Muhammad Ansar6, Umer Iqbal7, Tayyaba Naz4, Bilquees Fatima8, Muhammad Akram9, Allah Wasaya10, Asif Iqbal11, Shakeel Ahmed Anwar12, Khalid Saif Ullah Khan13, Azeem Khalid14, Asif Aziz15 and Rashid Mehmood16 

... index (MSI) and antioxidants activities in heat stress. Moreover, foliar application of chemicals during normal and late planting improved the grain yield by increasing both the grain number and size. Foliar spray of SA, AsA and H2O2 may induce heat tolerance by improving antioxidant activities which stabilized membrane and maintaining relative water, chlorophyll and nutrient content in ear leaves of maize during heat stress. 

...

Haiyan Yang1, Hongxia Liu1, Wenlong Wu1*, Weilin Li2 and Lianfei Lyu

...t stress analysis. All plants were grown in pots under greenhouse conditions, and were subjected to 20-day drought stress by withholding irrigation, followed by re-watering for 5 days. The changes in leaf water content (LWC), electrolyte leakage (EL), concentrations of photosynthetic pigments, protein, soluble sugar, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and pero...

Mazhar Abbas1*, Kishwar Jam1, Rashid Iqbal Khan1, Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye2, Tariq Rafique3 and Zahid Mahmood

...lyphenolics and biostimulants are used across the globe for enhancing productive and qualitative tarits of horticultural plants. A field trial was carried out in 2018-19 aiming at the evaluation of impacts of new commercial products “Quantis” and “Acevit-C” on growth, yield and antioxidative behaviour of bottle gourd cv. Aakash F1. Three level of Quantis (6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml) and Acevit-C (100 ppm, 150 ...
Muhammad Khan1, Tehmina Ameer Khan1, Aziz Ud Din2, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Irfan Ullah3,*, Kalim Ullah4, Sadia Tabassum1,*
Kui Li1, Lijun Li1, Jialun Fu2, Yi He2, Zhaohui Song2, Shuiping Zhou2Luobu Gesang1* and Rui Liu2*
...lthy low-altitude inhabitants residing in Beijing were randomized to two treatment sequences, receiving either 270mg CDDPs or placebo during an 11-day trip in Tibet, China, at an altitude of more than 3000 m. The Lake Louise Scoring System (LLSS) was also utilized to access AMS incidence and severity, twice a day, during the research period. AMS was further diagnosed when headaches and LLSS≥ 3 were present. A total of 54 subjects completed the study and no ...

Ali Hazrat1*, Mohammad Nisar1, Khan Sher2, Jehandar Shah2, Tour Jan1 and Abid Ullah1

Taxonomic and Medicinal Study of Papilionaceae of District Upper Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...e uses of these native plants were recorded such type of study was concluded for the first time in the selected area of Dir (Upper). In view of the fact that these plant species are scarcely distributed, hence struggle should be made to protect them. The key objective of the present study was to file the taxonomic knowledge and the local and medicinal uses of the root juice of Desmodium elegans DC, combined with the bark juice of Bauhinia malabarica for the tr...
Muhammad Rizwan1*, Bilal Atta1, Ana Maria Marino de Remes Lenicov2, Roxana Mariani2, Arshed Makhdoom Sabir1, Muhammad Tahir3, Misbah Rizwan4, Muhammad Sabar1, Ch. Muhammad Rafique1, Muhammad Afzal5
...hoppers and their host plants were studied in the “Kallar” tract of the Punjab, Pakistan (an important growing area of the world for producing Basmati rice). Planthoppers are considered the most important pests of rice. Delphacidae and Cixiidae are families of planthoppers with the most harmful species. Delphacids are primarily vector of the viruses, whereas Cixiids are vectors of phytoplasmas, mycoplasmas and prokaryotes-like associated to th...
Shagufta Parveen1*, Kousar Perveen1, Muhammad Afzal1, Syed Amir Gilani2, Muhammad Musadaq3
...on of malnutrition in infants with the age at which weaning was started. This is an observational, cross-sectional study which was conducted in the Pediatric Medicine Department of DHQ Hospital, Chakwal, Pakistan from January 2020 to February 2020. All infants that presented to the hospital from January 2020 to March 2020 were included in the study after obtaining informed consent from their accompanying parent or guardian. ...

Muhammad Ismail1, Tufail Ahmad2, Shamsher Ali2*, Shahid Ali1, Nur Ul Haq1 and Naveedullah3

Heavy Metals (Pb and Ni) Pollution as Affected by the Brick Kilns Emissions
...al content of soil and plants around the brick kiln chimneys was studied in 2009-2010. The research was carried out on Peshawar Ring Road’s south direction between chimneys of bricks preparation that were named A and B with distance of 300 m. The kilns were positioned such that Southern direction of chimney of A was north for the chimney B. A total of 36 (18+18) soil and wheat leaf samples were collected in four directions. Samples were collected at vary...
Zubair Ahmad1, 2, 4, Hamed A. Ghramh1, 2, 3,Khalid Ali Khan1, 2, 3*, Farhat Khan4 and Shujauddin5
...alistic relation between ants and aphids is considered as one of the best examples of inter-specific mutualism between species that produces net benefits for the participants. In this paper, the interaction between aphid M. sacchari and their attending ants on sugarcane (Saccharum officinerum) was studied. The presence of ants, especially, ...

Muhammad Ahsan Naseer1, Mehdi Maqbool1, Saima Rafiq2*, Noosheen Zahid1, Abdul Hamid1 and Syed Zulfiqar Ali Shah1

Comparative Analysis of Physical and Biochemical Attributes of Edible Fig (Ficus carica L.) Collected from Three Districts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Located at Different Elevations
...ics (5.93 %) and antioxidants (17.33 %) were found in figs harvested from Khoiratta locality of District Kotli. Based on the results obtained during study, it is suggested that District Bagh is more suitable for growing fig as compared to other two locations of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. However, detailed studies are needed to establish its supply chain system and storage conditions for its marketing at national and international level.
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Safina Naz1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi2*, Bushra Siddique3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar4 and Abdur Rehman5 
 
Exogenous Application of Selected Antioxidants and Phyto Development Directors Influenced the Development, Output and Biochemical Attributes of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)
...yacetic acid and antioxidants i.e. Ascorbic acid and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid on development, fruit bearing, output along with biochemical attributes of Lycopersicum esculentum fruits during 2014 and 2015. Foliar spray of GA3(100 ppm) and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (200 parts/million and 100 parts/million) give rise to significantly taller plants and greater leaf area while, shorter plants and low...
Murtaza, Shahid Ali*, Syed Attaullah Shah, Mehran Ahmad, Irfan Ullah and Jahangir Khan
Adoption of Hybrid Maize Technology in District Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...ion of the major determinants of adoption of hybrid maize technology in district Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A sample of 255 respondents in the study area was randomly chosen using a multistage random sampling technique. The logit model was used to measure the probability of adoption of hybrid maize technology. The estimated results of the model revealed that younger farmers were comparatively more adoptive of the hybrid maize technology. Education...
Arif Alam1*, Faridullah2, Ikram Shah1, Shahzad Khan3, Noor Elahi1 and Ehsan Inamullah1
Estimation of Farm Level Technical Efficiency in Maize Production at the High Mountain North Region of Pakistan
... yields of different peasants were due to inefficiency. The overall average technical efficiency of maize farmers was estimated 73.6%. It was inferred that the productivity can be enhanced by reducing the inefficiency from the ecological factors, peasants’ personal characteristics and farming conditions.

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Tabassum Yaseen1*, Shehzad Ahmad1, Khushnood Ur Rehman2, Fayaz Asad1, Abdul Waheed1, Rani Gul3, Hussain Gulab4 and Naveed Akhtar2
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Spore Density and Root Colonization in Weeds of Carrot field at Charsadda, Pakistan
...otic associations with plants through roots. It forms the multi colonization systems with the roots and provide benefits to the host plants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence and distributions of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizospheric soil of major weeds of District Charsadda. In the present study roots and rhizospheric soil of 15 weeds species belonging to 12 families were collected from C...

Muhammad Arsaln1, Sair Sarwar2*, Rizwan Latif1, Junaid Nawaz Chauhdary3, Munazza Yousra2 and Shahbaz Ahmad2

Effect of Vermicompost and Microbial Inoculants on Yield, Soil Fertility and Economics of Wheat under Rainfed Conditions
...ents and microbial inoculants not only maximize the crop production and economic returns but also improve the soil health. A two years field study was conducted in the farm of Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal (32o55’33”N, 72 o43’30”E) to evaluate the integrated impact of vermicompost (VC) and microbial inoculants on wheat yield and economics. Eight treatments i.e., control; recommended ...

Mohammad Javad Golmohammadi1, Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust Chamanabad1*, Bijan Yaghoubi2 and Mostafa Oveisi3

GIS Applications in Surveying and Mapping of Rice Weeds in Guilan Province, Iran
...t species with 9 and 8 plants/m2, respectively. Echinochloa crussgalli and C. difformis with a density of 5 plants/m2. Weeds were non-uniformly distributed in various families including Cyperaceae, Poaceae, Lythraceae, Polygonaceae, Asteraceae, and Salviniaceae that accounted for 36 species (54.5 percent). Accurate and specific weed maps are the key to achieving all the benefits of weed management. When in an area the distri...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Obinna Oragwa Arthur2, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1, Sarah Joseph1, Geoffrey Chibueze1, Joshua Adetunji1, Joseph Ameh Okwori3, David Ochola Amanyi4, Otobo I. Ujah5 and Onyemocho Audu6

Seroprevalence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection among Slaughtered Ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria
...RVFV in slaughtered ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 100 livestock (cattle and goats) at selected slaughter locations in Jos Metropolis. Questionnaires were administered to obtain information on animal species, sex, and localities of origin. The blood samples were screened for RVFV antibodies using competitive Enzyme Linked-immunosorbent Assays (C-ELISA) to detect anti-RVFV IgG/IgM. Eleven out of 100 samples tested po...

Shahid Nadeem1*, Taj Naseeb Khan1, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Adnan Younis2 and Iram Fatima3

Influence of Plant Growth Regulators by Foliar Application on Vegetative and Floral physiognomies of Gladiolus
...ition among ornamental plants due to its captivating spikes, with plane ruffle and deeply crinkled sepals, and it mainly used as cut flower and greatly demanded in floral markets. In order to achieve the maximum outcomes for the purchaser or community, a comprehensive study was conducted on gladiolus to enhance its vegetative and floral characteristics with the foliar application of growth hormones i.e. gibberellic acid (GA3) and salicylic acid (SA). The resul...

Yasir Arafat1*, Syeda Nabahat2, Hafiz Ullah3, Afaq Ali Muluk4 and Azra5

An Analysis of Energy Supply and Oil Price Shocks on Agricultural Productivity of Pakistan
...ry variables and determinants of agricultural productivity in Pakistan. The study uses Autoregressive Distribution Lag model (ARDL) to measure the correlation between dependent and independent variables. In order to know the stationarity of variables, unit root test is used by employing Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test. It is found that energy supply and foreign direct investment affect agricultural productivity positively and significantly while oil prices ...

Tahseen Ullah* and Noor ul Amin

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts
...ties of four medicinal plants, Silybum marianum, Berberus lycium, Peganum harmala and Curcuma longa and standard antibiotic tetracycline was carried out in the biosafety level 3 Microbiology Lab, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK. Two different concentrations (low, 5 mg/ml and high extracts, 300 mg/ml) of these plants were evaluate against two different bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus subtilis an...

Shahzad Khan*, Munir Khan, Inayatullah Jan, Mahfooz Khan and Fida Muhammad Khan

Determinants of Sugarcane Yield in District Charsadda, Pakistan
...d to investigate determinants of sugarcane crop in district Charsadda in the year 2018. Three villages viz. Kamran Kalay, Aspandehri, and Sarfaraz Kalay were selected purposively. Primary data were collected with face to face interview method from 41 randomly selected sugarcane growers through structured questionnaire. The selection of farmers was based on proportional allocation technique in the selected villages. For data analysis, profit margin, gross margi...

Shaiza Rasool1, Iftikhar Ahmad1*, Khurram Ziaf1, Irfan Afzal2, Muhammad A.S. Khan1, Muhammad Aashir Sajjad1 and Muhammad Zain Ali1

Seed Conditioning Effects on Germination Performance, Seedling Vigor and Flower Production of Zinnia elegans
...) produced the tallest plants (104 cm) with longer internodes and the largest canopy diameter (42.4 cm). Using MLE along with MTW produced greater plant fresh weight (137 g), more flowers (27.5), and larger flower diameter (9.7 cm) similar to the results of using MTW alone. In summary, seeds primed with MLE in combination with untreated water or MTW resulted in improved plant growth and yield characteristics and may be recommended to commercial growers of zinn...

Muhammad Zamin1*, Anees Muhammad1, Ibadullah Jan1, Hidayat Ullah1, Shahen Shah2, Muhammad Amin3 and Haroon Ur Rashid4

Production of Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) as Affected by Bulb Size and Planting Medium
...es. Tallest (43.08 cm) plants, maximum number of leaves plant-1 (22.17), florets spike-1 (22.79) and number of bulblets produced plant-1 (22.03) were found in soil amended with humic acid. However, the least days (85.22) to flowering were observed in planting medium amended with potting soil and largest bulblets (2.14cm) were found in compost amended sandy soil. As far as the effect of bulb size is concerned, maximum days to flowering (97.44), plant height (43...

Muhammad Zamin1*, Anees Muhammad1, Ibadullah Jan1, Hidayat Ullah1, Shahen Shah2, Muhammad Amin3 and Haroon Ur Rashid4

Production of Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) as Affected by Bulb Size and Planting Medium
...es. Tallest (43.08 cm) plants, maximum number of leaves plant-1 (22.17), florets spike-1 (22.79) and number of bulblets produced plant-1 (22.03) were found in soil amended with humic acid. However, the least days (85.22) to flowering were observed in planting medium amended with potting soil and largest bulblets (2.14cm) were found in compost amended sandy soil. As far as the effect of bulb size is concerned, maximum days to flowering (97.44), plant height (43...

Moazam Ali1, Wajid Ali2, Ayhan Ceyhan2 and Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta3*

Pigmentation Genome Influence in Animals and Human Interventions in its Course of Action
...ogs, cats, pigs) new variants of coat pigmentation are achieved by generating mutation in MC1R and ASIP allele. A row of scientists is working on genome sequences and mutations for getting a better and healthier pigmentation besides animal welfare. This review article contains a complete elaboration about the worth of pigmentation in animals, natural pigmentation process and new mutation and deviation in animal genome related to their pigmentation for human an...

Nadeem Abbas Shah1*, Ejaz Ashraf1, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Zaheer ud Din Mirani3, Usman Rafique1 and Raees Abbas Shah4

Assessing Perceptions of the Households-heads Regarding Food Security Status in Drought-hit Areas of District Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan: A Case Study for Agricultural Extension
...vements among the inhabitants of Tharparkar to revitalize the status of food security in the study area.

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Sri Nuryani Hidayah Utami*, Andin Muhammad Abduh, Eko Hanudin and Benito Heru Purwanto
Study on the NPK Uptake and Growth of Rice under Two different Cropping Systems with different Doses of Organic Fertilizer in the Imogiri Subdistrict, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia
...-align: justify;">Rice plants are commonly cultivated in a grid system with a plant spacing of 25 cm x 25 cm. The modification of spacing to increase nutrient uptake by providing plant free area (PFA) for better air circulation and sunlight distribution needs to be further studied. This study examined the differences in NPK uptake and rice growth in organic farming using the grid system and the cropping system with longitudinal rows given space in between. The...

Khan Sher1*, Muhammad Subhan1, Muhammad Nisar2, Ali Hazrat2, Zahid Fazal1, Gul Rahim2, Imran Ahmad1, Riaz ul Haq1 and Shamia Bibi1

Genetic Diversity in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgarus L.) Collected from Different Ecological Zones of Malakand Division (A Part of the Sino Japanese Region of Pakistan)
...total of 70% genetic variants. Finally, it was found that a high degree of variance was identified in all germplasm collected from Malakand sections with some additional unique characteristics, such as early cooking, high productivity and protein significance as compared to other parts of the world, which could be utilized for evolving better quality and high yielding cultivars of P. vulgarus.

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Malik Abdul Rehman1, Shafqat Ali1, Muhammad Babar Shahzad Afzal1, Muhammad Nawaz Khan1 and Mujahid Ali2*

Efficacy of Chemicals and Botanical Extracts to Control Citrus Canker on Kinnow in Sargodha Region
...earing trees of Kinnow plants. There were nine treatments, control (no chemical was applied), Neemsol @ 5 ml, copper oxychloride @ 3 g, streptomycin sulphate @ 1 g, potassium acetyl benzoic acid @ 10 ml, difenoconazole @ 0.5 ml, extracts of Acacia nilotica @ 10 ml, Datura alba @ 10 ml, and Allium cepa @ 10 ml. These treatments were used by mixing in 10-liter water. The foliar spray was applied four times a year, i.e. March-April and August-September. The resul...

Muhammad Imran1,2*, Shahbaz Talib Sahi1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Amer Rasul3

Brown Leaf Spot: An Exacerbated Embryonic Disease of Rice: A Review
... the defense system of plants and reduces the disease. The plants which are scarce nutrients are more prone to disease as compared to nutrient deficient. The pathogen damage is compensating by a specific nutrient that reduces the disease through tolerance. Good management practices are those which include all possible combinations of cultural, biological, chemical, induce resistance, nutrient management, natural byproducts, ...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Dorcas Yilger Gotom1, Noble Allison Chiehiura1, Julius Ocheme Okojokwu1, David Ochola Amanyi2, John Otumala Egbere1, Joshua Adetunji1, Otobo Innocent Ujah3 and Onyemocho Audu4

The Seroprevalence of Zika Virus Infection among HIV Positive and HIV Negative Pregnant Women in Jos, Nigeria
...the HIV positive participants, p=0.013. No association with educational level, employment, marital and resident, gestational trimester, fever, yellow fever vaccination, rashes and parity was found for anti-ZIKV IgG positivity in the groups. Our results showed high seroprevalence among the pregnant women, an indication that the ZIKV antigen that triggered the antibodies response is in circulation, therefore, suggest the need for ZIKV surveillance and larger stu...
Abida Parveen1, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Nazir Javed1, Anam Moosa1*, Khushboo Javaid1, Hina Safdar1 and Asma Safdar2
...nificantly enhanced in plants treated with MO extracts, SK and their combinations compared to MI treated control plants. The total number of infective juveniles/g root and soil, galls, egg masses, females were highest in MI treated plants while lowest in plants treated with a combination of MI + SK + aqueous MO + ethanolic MO after 60 days of inoculation...

Muhammad Tariq-Khan1*, Syed Zanib Ali Gardazi1, Abu Daud Ahmad Khan1, Muhammad Ilyas2 and Ishaq Ahmad3,4

Virulence and Distribution Trends of Root-Knot Nematode (RKN) Fauna on Summer Vegetables in District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Pakistan)
...ment host and non-host plants in cultivated fields of Bagh district, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Total of 111 vegetable fields from 82 locations of study areas was surveyed during summer 2013, 2014, 2016 and 2017. Okra, Eggplant, tomato, cucumber, chilies, beans and cucurbits were found most frequently cultivated vegetables in the area. RKN was found on 80 fields, with 68 out of 82 surveyed locations with 72% field incidence. Okra was found with highest field infe...
Ammara Gull-E-Fareen1, 3, Imran Bodlah1*, Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1, Yasir Niaz2, Muhammad Adnan Bodlah2, Muhammad Asif4 and Nasir M. Khokhar5
...tic relationship between ants and aphids is a very common and widespread phenomenon. It has been studied in various parts of the world. In this relationship, aphids provide food to the ants, while in return ants provide them protection from natural enemies. Ants also protect aphids from different diseases. Aphids (serious crop pests) can be divided into ...
Wajahat Azeem1,*, Tariq Mukhtar1 and Tooba Hamid2
...ration of antagonistic plants with the antagonistic fungi may be useful for the better control of plant parasitic nematodes.
...
Hassam Ud Din1*, Huma Rizwana1, Rameez Raja Kaleri2, Kaleem Ullah2 and Muhammad Din2
Evaluation of Production Performance and Marketing of Small Ruminants in District Dukki, Balochistan
... marketing of small ruminants during the year 2018. The information on various aspects was collected from the small ruminants farmers of five union councils i.e. Vialla Dukki, Thal, Nana Sahib, Sadar and Nasar Abad of district Dukki of Balochistan. The sample size was composed by producer (50), wholesalers (50) and retailer (50) for convenient sampling contribution of each selected producer involved in the business area. The...
Amir Aziz1*, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-us-Sabah1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Sher Muhammad2
Effect of Rice and Wheat Straw and K-Silicate Application on Maize Growth
...tant for the growth of plants particularly under stress. Silicon is considered as quasiessential element for plant growth. The benefits of silicate fertilization are often correlated with the amount of silicon uptake by plants. In order to evaluate the growth and yield behavior of maize crop in response to different source of Si (straw and potassium silicate), a pot experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Univers...
Zulekha Zameer, Samreen Mohsin, Ammarah Hasnain, Asma Maqbool* and Kauser Abdulla Malik
Influence of Explant Sources on in vitro Callogenesis and Regeneration in Maize (Zea mays L.)
...fficiency of various explants sources for maize tissue culture, especially the immature embryos. However, the manipulation of immature embryos as explants is hampered due to its unavailability throughout the year and low regeneration response. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of various explants sources for callogenesis and regeneration in maize (Pioner 3025). The main ...

Malik Abdul Rehman1*, Hafiz Muhammad Ehsan2, Tehseen Ashraf2, Zulfiqar Ali Gurmani3, Sajjad Khan3 and Mujahid Ali2

Effect of Growing Media on Plant Growth of Rough Lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) and Poncirus (Citrus trifoliata)
...cirus rootstocks. Five plants per treatment were growing in black polythene bags filled with the required media using a Completely Randomized Design with three replications. Data of stem length stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, and survival percentage was recorded. Chemical analysis of leaf was done by taking samples from treatments were analyzed for determination of N, P, K. Results indicated that stem length, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf a...

Muhammad Yaseen1*, Muhammad Luqman1*, Zahoor Hussain2, Usman Saleem3, Asif Nawaz1, Tahir Munir Butt4 and Muhammad Umer Mehmood1

Assessment of Knowledge Level and Information Sources of Vegetable Growers regarding Tunnel Farming in District Sargodha
...y and distance between plants and rows of plants were also answered quite satisfactorily. Farmers do not know how to overcome the increasing attack of insects, pests, and diseases in tunnel farming. Some areas were identified, which require the attention of responsible authorities for the relevant knowledge.

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Taqiur Rahman1, Tabassum Yaseen1*, Ali Mujtaba Shah2, Samiullah3, Ghulam Jelani3, Gul Nawaz1,Qudratullah Kalwar2
... the leading medicinal plants used by local communities for the treatment of animals and document the threatened herbal knowledge from the elder formers (R1, R2 and R4) this study labels the ethno veterinary practices in different villages of District Shangla, where the documentation process is carried out through semi-structured questionnaires in 2017 (R1) where about seventy plant species belonging to different families of spermatophytes have been collected,...
Jian Yang1, Guangxiang Tong2, Zhipeng Sun2, Xianhu Zheng2, Weihua Lv2, Dingchen Cao2, Xiaowen Sun2 and Youyi Kuang2*
...pe (WT) siblings, the mutants showed no significant differences in the 5 gene expressions. Among different development stages, the expression levels and patterns of the 5 genes in the mutants were similar to that of WT zebrafish in both embryonic and post-embryonic development stages. Furthermore, the results of histological analyses of the muscle fiber showed that there were no significant differences in muscle fiber densit...

Turgay ÅžiÅŸman1,*, Muhammet ÇaÄŸrı Keskin1, Hatice Dane1, Åžeymanur Adil1, Fatime GeyikoÄŸlu1, Suat Çolak2 and Esra Canpolat1

...highest effects of pollutants in frogs were at the agricultural sites in June.
...
Mushtaq Ahamd Khan1, Ziaul Islam2, *, Amin Ullah Jan3, Kamran Khan2 and Abdullah Shah3
...vere abnormalities in infants such as hydrocephalus and mental retardation. The present study was conducted to estimate seroprevalence and potential risk factors in acquiring T. gondii infection by child-bearing age women in Dir Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted and data regarding risk factors were recorded through questionnaire. A total of 405 women of child bearing age were serologically tested for T. gondii a...
Muhammad Ramzan, Unsar Naeem-Ullah*, Mudssar Ali and Hasan Riaz
... like branches of host plants. The male and female mean longevity was 6.0 ± 1.171 and 11.4 ± 1.70 days. Pale reddish brown lines were present on the dorsal side of female forewings. Female forewings were broader than male wings with dark reddish brown thorax, head and abdomen. Adult hind wings were grayish with reddish brown outer margins. The biological and morphological information of Trilocha varians described in current paper will lead...
Mehwish Saleem Khan
Evaluation of Changes in Zinc Levels in Patients Suffering from Cancer
... and environmental pollutants. In this study zinc level in serum of cancer patients was observed. For this purpose, the blood of 50 cancer patients was taken from MAYO HOSPITAL Lahore. The patients are suffering from different type of cancers such as, breast cancer, lung cancer, uterus cancer, oral cavity cancer, esophageal cancer, urinary bladder cancer, blood cancer and brain tumor. In addition to serum zinc level of cancer patients many other parameters wer...

Agustine Christela Melviana1, Rizkita Rachmi Esyanti1*, Roy Hendroko Setyobudi2, Maizirwan Mel3, Praptiningsih Gamawati Adinurani4 and Juris Burlakovs5

Gene Expression Related to Steviol Glycoside Synthesis Produced in Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Shoot Culture Induced with High Far-Red LED Light in TIS RITA® Bioreactor System
... propagation of Stevia plants using in vivo methods, an alternative technique of propagation using in vitro methods is needed. The micropropagation method with the RITA® (Recipient for Automated Temporary Immersion System) is used in the production of a large amount of stevia biomass in approximately a short period. The forming of flowers is one of the limiting factors interfering with the metabolite production, as the content of steviol glycoside will dec...