Yashab Tur

 

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2
...science that attempts to extract God from the explanatory hypothesis.

 

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Asma Noshad1, Mudassar Iqbal1*, Zafar Iqbal1, Hamida Bibi2, Saifullah3, Salma Bibi4, Hamid Ullah Shah1

...ity of the ethyl acetate extracts from fruit bodies, mycelia and fermentation filtrate obtained from Pleurotus ostreatus also known as the oyster mushroom. The percent mortality of Macrosiphum rosae (rose aphids) and the LC50 values were calculated and used as an indicative of insecticidal potential. The maximum mortality of aphids was achieved at 80 µg mL-1 and the LC50 for the fruit body extract...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...50 L ha-1, sorghum water extracts @ 15 L ha-1 (twice) and 25 L ha-1 (once and twice) and sunflower water extracts @ 15 L ha-1 (twice) and 25 L ha-1 (once and twice), sorghum water extract @ 15 L ha-1+1.25 L ha-1 Dual Gold and sunflower water extract @ 15 L ha-1+1.25 L ha-1 Dual Gold. In interculturing the land space in between two rows of ...

Nazish Huma Khan*, Mohammad Nafees and Adila Bashir

...-orchard fields and were extracted with Aqua-regia and Mehlich-3 extracting solutions for total and available metals respectively. Wheat crops from both fields (orchard and non-orchard) were collected and analyzed with aqua-regia for heavy metals contents. Results showed that the average concentrations of metals in soils of orchard and non-orchard fields were as chromium (Cr) 56.9 and 52.2 mg kg-1, Ni 29.8 and 27....

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...eated), eucalyptus water extract at 10, 20 and 30 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10, 20 and 30 g kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 10 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 20 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 20 ml kg-1 soil and eucalyptus powder at 30 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 30 ml kg-1 soil. Data showed that all the treatm...

Felwa A. Thagfan1, Mohamed A. Dkhil1,2* and Saleh Al-Quraishy1

...lamic countries.The root extracts of S. persica has been tested for its anticoccidial activity against Eimeria paillata induced infection in mice jejunum. Three different doses, 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg were used after infection of mice with sporulated oocysts. A dose of 300 mg/kg reduced the number of oocyst output in mice faeces by about 56.8 % and also improved the body weight. In addition, the root extract de...

Aqila Shaheen and Mehwish Matien

...ailable phosphorus (AP), extractable potassium (K) and pH. Statistically (p ≤ 0.05) higher SOC contents of Inceptisols and Mollisols were 14.18 g kg-1 and 23.42 g kg-1, respectively under forest land use. At both sites forest soils had higher SOC and AP while K was higher in grassland use. Forest soils had slightly acidic pH and lower BD than cultivated land uses. Data combined over locations illustrated that Mollisols containe...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

...xamined. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR using specific primers for GPR54 and GNRHR splice site exons. Mutations were analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and/or sequencing. No mutation was identified in GPR54 gene, while two mutations in GNRHR gene were observed in one sporadic case of isolated HH. The first was a synonymous substitution mutation of T to G at nucleotide position 123, which did not replace valine with any...

Pan-pan Guo1, Wei Liu2, Yan Li2, Rui-yu Ma2, Wang Zaigui1*, Kai Zhan2*, Jun-ying Li2 and Sheng-nan Liu2 

...in the present study. We extracted DNA from blood samples and analyzed polymorphisms of HTT gene as wells as possible association with egg production performances including age at first egg (AFE), laying rate (LR), egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), average egg weight (AEW). Two polymorphisms (G50831C and G62976A) were detected and located in exon 42 and intron 54 in HTT gene, respectively. One of them (g. 50831 G>C) was a missense mutation. Genotype and...

Taghreed A. Hafiz1, Murad A. Mubaraki1*, Mohamed A. Dkhil2,3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy2

...psicum annuum methanolic extracts. The extract of Capsicum annuum was prepared by maceration method and the total polyphenolic and flavonoids contents were determined using a spectrophotometric method. The antiradical scavenging property and the maximum nontoxic concentration of the extract was determined using DPPH assay and MTT method, respectively. Serial concentrations of the

John G. Bruno

...s were developed against extracted lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of E. coli O157 and the so called “Big six” non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) serovars (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145). These aptamers were assessed by enzyme-linked aptamer sorbent assay (ELASA) to rank their relative affinities and discriminatory ability for distinguishing between each of the STEC serovars. The most specific biotinylated aptamers from the ELASA screeni...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...ous and methanolic plant extracts of Camellia sinensis (Green tea), Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) was evaluated against identified isolates. Agar well diffusion assay was used to monitor the antimicrobial activity of these strains both in mono culture and mixed culture. Streptomycin sulphate (10 μgml-1) and Amphotericin B (5 mgml-1) were used as positive controls. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal...

Sidra-Tul-Muntaha1, Muhammad Sagheer1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan1 and Shahbaz Talib Sahi2

...efficiency of five plant extracts (Azadirachta indica, Melia azadirach, Pegnum hermala, baryosma and Zingiber officinale) and three synthetic pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin) on three geographical populations of Callosobruchus chinensis collected during 2013 from Faisalabad, Multan and Nankana districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Three concentrations of each plant extract (5, 10, 15 and 20%) and synthetic p...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...s. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of PDB medium gave significant results against selected phytopathogens compared to GNB medium and selected for further study. Crude (1 µg.mL-1 ) obtained from PDB medium showed 2.50 ± 0.64 mm and 1.97 ± 0.21 mm inhibition zone against X. campestris and C. michiganensis respectively compared to positive reference (streptomycin) and negative refrence (EtOAc) using disc diffusion method. However, the same conce...
S. Bushra1,*, M. Tariq1, M. Naeem1, M. Ashfaq1, I. Bodlah1 and M. Ali2
...erve the effect of plant extracts and semiochemicals on physiology and performance of endoparasitoid of aphids, Diaeretiella rapae. Seven different treatments of semiochemicals and plant extract were applied on aphid pests, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi and parasitoid was released. The data regarding emergence, parasitism, sex ratio, tibia length, adult weight and adult longevity of parasitoid <...
Muhammad Mohsin Javed*, Muhammad Azhar Nisar, Bushra Muneer and Muhammad Usman Ahmad
...by using vegetable waste extract as substrate. The power production was analyzed for three days. Maximum power density of 88990mW/m2 with a current density of 314.4mA/m2 was observed on the second day of process with minimum internal resistance comparatively i.e. 123.23Ω. The higher power density shows efficiency of this U-shaped design compare to other dual chamber MFCs.
...
Farkhanda Manzoor1, Iram Amin2,*, Muhammad Shahid2,Samia Afzal2,Hania Ramzan1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah2 and Muhammad Idrees3
...ber of 2012 to 2014. RNA extracted from each mosquito larvae pool was tested by nested PCR for detection of dengue virus. Out of total 50 pools of Aedes aegypti larvae, DV-2 was the most prevalent serotype. DENV-1 was not found in any pool. While all pools of Aedes albopictus were negative for dengue virus. Our study showed that the main cause of spreading of dengue virus was Aedes aegypti. Serotype DENV-2 was dominant in the field collect...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...(ToLCNDV) from plant extracts of Nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated with ToLCNDV. To immunocapture the ToLCNDV, two antisera raised against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-coat protein (TYLCV-CP) and African cassava mosaic virus-coat protein (ACMV-CP) were used. However, immunocapture of ToLCNDV could only be achieved by using the TYLCV-CP antisera followed by PCR detection by using specific and degenerate primers. ToLCNDV is geographically wide ...

Muhammad Asif Zahoor1, Zeeshan Nawaz1, Abu Baker Siddique1, Sajjad ur Rahman2 and Shahid Ali1*

...subjected to genomic DNA extraction to detect Mycoplasma spp. using multiplex-PCR. Isolation and identification data showed that a total of 58/96 samples (60.41%) were positive for Mycoplasma infections whereas a total of 61/96 blood samples were also found positive using serum plate agglutination. However, the multiplex-PCR detected Mycoplasma in all of the tissue samples, either one of the species or simultaneous infection. M. gallisepticum was found in 39/9...
Hamayun Khan1,*, Momen Khan2, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3, Shakoor Ahmad1, Ali Gohar4, Hameed Ullah5, FarmanUllah6, Arab Hussain7, Pershotam Khatri8, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Hamid Rehman1 and Azmatullah Khan1
...ign: justify;">Green tea extract is plant–dervied natural antioxidant. The objective of this study was to explore the antioxidative effect of green tea extract on the cryopreserved bull semen. Experiments were carried out on Achai breeding bulls of similar age at the Semen Production Unit, Harichand, District Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Collection of semen was done using artificial vagina (42°C) for three weeks....
Ahmed Mujtaba1, Tariq Masud1, Asif Ahmad1, Waqar Ahmed3, Saqib Jabbar3* and Robert E. Levin2
...culated. Aliquots of the extracts at known concentration of chlorogenic acid were then applied against different bacterial strains for antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of isolated compound was also measured. Two antibiotics were used as references compounds for antibacterial activities. The aqueous ethanolic extract having 968.125 µg/ml of chlorogenic acid inhibited significantly the growth ...

K.N. Ahmed, S.H.A. Pramanik, M. Khatun A. Nargis M. R. Hasan

Efficacy of plant extracts in the suppression of insect pests and their effect on the yield of sunflower crop under different climatic conditions
...y of five kinds of plant extracts or botanicals viz., Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil, castor ( Ricinus communis) oil, a mixture of Neem seed oil and sesame oil, leaf extracts of custard apple (Annona squamosa ) and Bara Bishkatali ( Polygonum orienta) were tested against the pest infestation. The treatment of custard apple leaf extract produced the most favourable result in respect of ...

S. K. Mukhopadhyay and M. V. Santha Kumar

Studies on the biosafety of botanical insecticides to native natural enemies of mulberry ecosystem
...ongamia oil and Nicotine extract in different conc./combinations along with dimethoate and dichlorvos on four coccinellid bio-control agents (Micraspis crocea, Micraspis discolor, Brumus suturalis and Scymnus bourdilloni ). All botanicals tested showed least mortality and was on par with unsprayed control. Dimethoate (0.1%) was highly toxic causing 100% mortality. Whereas, dichlorvos (0.1%) was least toxic in comparison to dimethoate. Botanical insecticides te...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
...ne (100 %), tobacco leaf extract (20 % ), mehgoni seed oil (5 % ), castor seed oil (5 % ) and neem seed oil (5 % ) were used to assess their effects on the mortality of P. marginatus . It is evident that tobacco medicine exerted the best result in terms of control followed by neem seed oil, mehgoni seed oil, castor seed oil and tobacco leaf extract (20 % ).

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P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...fy;">Botanicals or plant extracts from Cathranthus roseus, Coleus aromaticus , Manilkara zapota and Azadirachta indica was studied by poisoned food technique, seed germination and under green house experiments for control of Colletotrichum capsici, fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose disease in bell peppers (Capsicum frutescence L.). The results showed that all the selected plants have potential to inhibit the radial mycelial growth of C. capsici in-vi...

Lakshman Chandra Patel and Chandan Kumar Mondal

Management of causal agents of chilli leaf curl complex through bio-friendly approaches
...y approaches i.e. garlic extract, spirit and alternate use of garlic with spirit, one predator insect Chrysoperla carnea and untreated control. The lowest population of thrips, mites and white fly was recorded with application of diafenthiuron at 15 days interval from seedling to early fruiting stage. Among the ecofriendly options, alternate use of garlic with spirit performed better than their single repeated use starting from seedling to early fruiting stage...

Anil Sehajpal, Saroj Arora and Parminder Kaur 

 

Evaluation of plant extracts against Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight of rice
...ungal effect of 44 plant extracts and 8 plant oils against the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Out of 44 plants tested, 36 plant extracts showed varied degree of antimicrobial effect at different concentrations against the pathogen whereas 8 plant extracts, viz. Abrus precatorious, Acacia auriculiformis, Bougainvillea glabra, Convolvulus arvensis, Hibisc...

K. K. Hegde and B. S. Nandihalli 

Bioefficacy of some indigenous products in the management of okra fruit borers
...E (5%), GCKE, sweet flag extract (5%), garlic extract (5%), cow dung (10%) and cow urine (10%) were tried individually and in combinations along with endosulfan (0.07%) and untreated control. Repeated sprays of GCKE recorded least number of eggs (1.40 eggs/plant) followed by NSKE (5%) alternated with cow dung 10 per cent (1.71 eggs/plant). Repeated sprays of cow dung and cow urine used individually were not effective against...

Sujoy Mondal and S. S. Ghatak

Bioefficacy of some indigenous plant extracts against epilachna beetle (Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr.) infesting cucumber
... viz; Neem Azal, Rhizome extracts of Acorus calamus with petroleum ether as solvent and seed extracts of Annona squamosa with methanol as solvent in controlling epilachna beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata, Fabr; Both Neem Azal and seed extracts of Annona squamosa were used at 4ml, 5ml and 6ml (per Lt. of water) while this was 1ml, 2ml and 3ml (per Lt. of water) in case of petroleu...

Shyam Singh and L.P. Awasthi

Plant products for the management of yellow mosaic disease of mungbean and urdbean
...icacy of a few botanical extracts on the yellow mosaic of mug bean. Maximum reduction in disease incidence recorded were 66.70 and 63.65 percent in mungbean and Urdbean, respectively by eight sprays of Clerodendrum aculeatum. Whereas, eight sprays of Boerhaavia diffusa root extract could reduce the disease incidence by 60.27 and 58.20 per cent followed by Azadirachta indica leaf extract by...
Fariha Imtiaz1, Muhammad Islam1, Hamid Saeed2,*, Bushra Saleem1, Maryam Asghar1 and Zikria Saleem2
...wth promoting effects of extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves. The extracts of powdered leaves were obtained in various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and distilled water) using hot and cold extraction methods. Phytochemical analysis of leaves was performed on powder and extracts of leaves using already reported m...

Furukh Faiz1,2, Muhammad Issa Khan2, Masood Sadiq2 and Haq Nawaz3

...ostly wasted after juice extraction around the world which contains compounds that have positive effects on the health of animals and poultry. In the current studies the citrus waste is dried and mixed with the broiler feed replacing maize from the feed at 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%. 225 birds were reared in 5 treatments and 3 replications of each treatment having 15 birds in each replication. The chicks were being provided with the standard conditions for lig...
Ayesha Ilyas1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,* and Abdul Qadir1,*
...nt effects of crude leaf extracts of six indigenous plants viz., amaltas (Cassia fistula), datura (Datura alba), neem (Azadirachta indica), niazboo (Ocimum basilicum), yellow kaner (Thevetia peruviana) and safeda (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) against the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), at 2% concentration in a free choice bioassays. Acetone, chloroform, petroleum ether and ethanol were used fo...
A. Hamid1,*, M. Ilyas2 and S. Kalsoom3
...ignin and cellulose) was extracted from wheat and maize, while ß glucan was extracted from barley and sorghum. Male rats (n = 32), weighing 200-220 g were induced with hypercholesterolemia and were equally divided into 5 groups to study the effect of purified diet-AIN-93 G, wheat bran feed (WBF) , maize bran feed (MBF), sorghum ß glucan feed (SGF) and barley ß glucan feed (BGF) on plasma total cholesterol (...
Saba Irshad1,*, Ayesha Ashfaq1, Ammara Muazzam1 and Abida Yasmeen2
...t-align: justify;">Plant extracts have been used as an active antimicrobial compound since long. The present study was intended to validate the antimicrobial, antidiarrheal and anticancer activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), used in Pakistani cuisine to enrich flavour and to treat infectious wounds. Their crude ethanol and methanol extracts were tested against five importa...
Ghulam Abbas1,Asif Nadeem1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Muhammad Sajid Tahir3, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3, Muhammad Tayyab1 and Maryam Javed1
...nt localities. After DNA extraction and quantification, amplification of gene was done by polymerase chain reaction. PCR products were sequenced bi-directionally, aligned and single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Bioinformatics tools were applied for construction of phylogenetic tree and genetic diversity analysis. Lower genetic diversity was observed. The finding of this research is prerequisite for future research.
...
Muhammad Aslam Farooqi1,*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan2, Sohail Akhtar1Muhammad Arshad2, Muhammad Naveed Aslam3 and Muhammad Rafay4
... these insecticides were extracted using ethyl acetate. Honey samples were spiked at 0.1 and 0.01 mg/kg. The mean recoveries of these insecticides in the spiked samples were 74-92% with relative standard deviation less than 20%. The residues of imidacloprid, endosulfan and deltamethrin were detected with a range of 0.005-0.055 mg/kg while other insecticides were not detected in any samples. The results obtained, point the urgent need to establish reliable moni...

Fawad Ali1*, Hidayat Ullah2, Ikhtiar Khan1

... food contamination. The extractable concentration of metals viz Pb, Cr, Cd and Zn through ammonium bicarbonate diethylenetriaminpenta acetic acid (AB-DTPA) showed significant differences between the two studied localities. Linear regression analysis indicates that concentration of the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn) in vegetables are significantly correlated at R2 value of 0.956 at P≤0.001 with their extractable concent...
Tanveer Ahmad1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Azeem Khan2 and Shahid Zia3
...e sisal decorticator for extracting fibre from sisal leaves. A prototype of sisal decorticator was designed and fabricated at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. The prototype machine was tested for fibre extraction. Results indicated that sisal fibre production capacity of this machine was 15.94 kg h-1 (dry fibre). Average yield of dry sisal fibre w...

Jawad Anwar* and Zafar Iqbal 

...ent conditions and their extracts were evaluated, using disc diffusion method against tomato wilt causing bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris and Clavibacter michiganensis). Extracts that resulted in strong activity were fractionated into acetonitrile and ethyl acetate followed by testing against human pathogenic bacterial strains (Eschericia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) using 96 well microtitre plate...
Asad Abdullah1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Waqar Hassan2,    Samina Khalid3, Yasir Iftikhar4, Muhammad Arshad1 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa5,6
...fectiveness of neem seed extract (NSE) for the management of Bemesia tabaci Gennadius, (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Amrasca biguttula Ishida, (Homopter: Cicadellidae) infesting Bt and non-Bt cotton cultivars. Foliar application of neem seed, Azadirachta indica extract was applied upon reaching economic threshold levels of B. tabaci and A. biguttula. The insect pest population ...
Asim Gulzar1,*, Ather Maqsood1, Munir Ahmed1, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Ali2 and Rahmatullah Qureshi3
...biocontrol agents, plant extracts etc. In the present study the extract of Citrullus colocynthis in different solvents were evaluated on second instar larvae of H. armigera under laboratory studies for toxicity, sublethal and antifeedant effect. The result showed that ethanol based extract was the most effective to control the H. armigera followed by the ethyl a...
Habibun Nabi1, Saher Islam2, Amna Arshad Bajwa2, Imran Rashid1,*, Haroon Akbar1, Wasim Shehzad2, Kamran Ashraf1, Nisar Ahmad1 and Aneela Durrani3
...opy examination. DNA was extracted from positive fecal samples for coccidian parasites and a T. gondii PCR was performed. Five sets of primers were designed using PrimerSelect tool for PCR to amplify SAG2 gene 5’ and 3’ regions. Sequences of 5 fragments of SAG2 were annotated and analyzed using DNASTAR Lasergene. After phylogenetic analysis with 3 clonal types and atypical strains, and on the basis of restriction map of HhaI and Sau3AI, our ...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
... damage to the plants by extracting the sap, and indirectly it is a vector to 16 plant viruses. The study presents data referring to the external morphological characteristics, to the biometrical measurements and to the life cycle of Aphis nasturtii. The researches have been carried out for a period of four years on the potato and for a period of two years on the orchards from Romania. At the Aphis nasturtii species the smallest length of the bod...
Jiandong Wu, Miao Ye and Zaigui Wang*
... optimized for effective extraction and purification of total flavonoids from corn silk, and the anti-hyperlipidemic activities was analyzed in rabbits by feeding experiment. Firstly, the high extraction yield (5.32 mg·g-1) of total flavonoids were obtained under the optimal extraction conditions, which are 80°C for 3 h with corn silk over 60% ethanol ratio of 1:30. T...
Ayesha Aihetasham1,*, Muhammad Saeed Akhtar1, Maryam Umer1, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Muhammad Imran Din3
...n buildings. Efficacy of extracts of Foeniculum vulgare and Ocimum basilicum was studied against this termite. Chemical composition of plant extracts by chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed five different compounds in F. vulgare: Piperidine, 3-isopropyl, Bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, 1,3,3-trimethyl, Benzaldehyde, 4-methoxy, Estragole, 11-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester and 9-Octadecenoic acid...
Mubashir Hussain1,Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Ijaz Ahmad2*, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3 and Sohail Latif4
...ve analysis of seed bank extraction methods revealed higher weed seeds density, weed frequency with more diversity of weed species under sieving method in comparison to seedling emergence method. Therefore, sieving method was considered superior over seedling emergence method. The feasibility analysis of seed bank extraction methods indicated that sieving was cost-effective, less time consuming, more user friendly with highe...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Madeeha Khalid1, Rehman Shehzad1, Sana Mughal1 and A.R. Shakoori2 
...tained and processed for extraction of extracellular proteins at pH 9.5 using Tris-Glycine buffer. Placental lactogen was purified by gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex-G100 and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE- Sepharose, employing a linear salt gradient. SDS-PAGE was used to monitor the purification steps, and protein band was located by immunoblotting technique. Bubaline placental lactogen was purified to homogeneity and showed a molecular weig...

Imran Ali Rajput1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Imran Khatri1 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi2 

...the indigenous botanical extracts have been used effectively against various sucking pests of cotton but only few studies have been attempted to observe their action against bollworms. Therefore, the present study has been designed to observe the dual action of transgenic cotton and botanical extracts against pink bollworm during two consecutive growing years (2015 and 2016). The three local ext...

Naila Riaz1 , Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2* , Khizar Samiullah3

...e effectiveness of venom extracted from Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) against Rhopalosiphum erysimi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the laboratory. R. erysimi were treated orally as well as topically with different concentrations of the crude venom. All aphids died within 6 hr with oral treatment at 1.5µl of the venom dose. However, at the same venom dose, 100% mortality was achieved at 8 hr posttreatment when applied topically. Similarly, oral ad...

Ayesha Aihetasham1*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2, Syeda Rida Hasan1, Imran Bodlah3

...trations of aqueous leaf extracts of three medicinal plants viz., Carica papaya (paw paw), Helianthus annus (Sunflower) and Bougainvillea glabra (Paper flower) against Heterotermes indicola. The leaf extract of C. papaya caused highest mortality i.e. 100% of 10%, 5% and 3% concentration. Bougainvillea glabra and H. annus caused 100% mortality at 10% and 5% concentration while 96.4% mortality on 3% concentration after exposur...
Faiza Hassan1, Mubshara Saadia1,*, Muhammad Sher1, Mian Anjum Murtaza2, Muhammad Arshad3,Asam Riaz4 and Mahmood Ahmad Khan5
...nd petroleum ether (EGE) extracts compared to black cumin (Nigella sativa oil; NSO) and insulin. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were post treated with plant extracts (150 mg/kg) and serum samples were collected from overnight fasted diabetic rats on day 15 to observe thepercent changes in blood glucose levels and lipid profile. Garlic extracts have shown the significant (p<0.001) ...
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
...l health.Viral RNAs were extracted using R Neasy Minikit (Qiagen) according to instruction manual. After extraction RNAs were eluted in 60 ul elution buffer and stored at -70C. Each strain of FMD virus was serially diluted to -5dilution in order to check the efficacy of test. Reaction was completed in 1 hr and 10 min at temperatures 600C. It was also tested in hot water bath on same temperature. Results were same ...

Ayesha Bibi*, Musharaf Ahmad and Shaukat Hussain 

...nd platted on YDC (Yeast extract-Dextrose-CaCO3) for bacterial growth. For identification of the characteristic bacterial colonies Cmm-specific primers CMM-5 and CMM-6 were used for amplification of 614bp product from pat-1 gene of bacterial plasmid. The whole bacterial DNA was used as template, extracted with standard procedures using commercially available kit i.e. protinase-K (sigma). 27 out of 34 isolates were confirmed ...
Alim-un-Nisa1*, Sajila Hina1, Sania Mazhar1, Imran Kalim1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Naseem Zahra1, Shahid Masood1, Muhammad Khalid Saeed1, Qurat-ul-Ain Syed1 and Maida Asif2
...current research aims to extract edible yellow color from Marigold (Tagetes erecta) flower by using cheap and safe techniques and making it stable for long period of time in food products as well as in extracted form by using preservatives and antioxidants like citric acid and determining its usefulness by applying on food products. Natural edible color was extracted from T. erec...

 Aneela Afzal, Tanvir Ali, Munir Ahmad, Humera Amin and Samina Saki*

...ation in crop production extracted more vital role than their counterparts in rural areas.

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 S. Shahid Shaukat*, Mian Sayed**, Aly Khan, M. Azhar Khan* and Babar Qazi***

...al nematicides and plant extracts significantly reduced the population densities of all three nematodes. Carbofuran was most effective against all the nematodes. Apart from other three treatments, Tridax procumbens emerged as an effective phytonematicide. Helicotylenchus indicus, Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita had similar population density levels and were more or less equally suppressed by all the treatments in the order: Carbofuran > T...

Tariq Mahmood, M. Sudheer Tariq, Khalid Mahmood Khokar, Hidayatullah and Syed Ijaz Hussain*

...ffect of different plant extracts (neem seed, neem leaves and tobacco leaves) and insecticide permethrin dust alone or mixed with dung, were conducted against red pumpkin beetle in the field at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad during kharif 2008. Permethrin (0.5%) alone or mixed (0.05%) with dung ash as dust controlled the attack of red pumpkin beetle on the crop with no mortality of plants. Highest mortality of plants due to foliage eating by ...

 Sarfraz Ahmad, Shaista Koukab, Nayyar Razzaq, Muhammad Islam, Aneel Rose*, and Muhammad Aslam**

...rious growth stages, oil extraction techniques, mechanized flower picking, drying/storage techniques and cultivation practices in the existing cropping patterns.

...

 Rahila Nazli, Tehmina Sohail, Bushra Nawab and Zahra Yaqeen*

...n this regard, Ethanolic extract of Gliricidia sepium in different concentration was used to investigate its antimicrobial activity against gram +ve and gram-ve bacteria. The study was also extended to some species of fungi. Results showed that the activity was more pronounced against gram +ve organisms and fungi. Maximum inhibition activity was calculated against all the groups of organisms, which was between 0.5 and 1mg ml-1 against bacteria and 2.5 mg ml-1 ...
Promy Virk
...ecum (fenugreek)seed extract and to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the prepared nanopcomposite. Antidiabetic potential of orally administered bulk aqueous extract of Trigonella (TBE) and Au/Ag nanocomposite with Trigonella seed extract (TN) on streptozotocin (70 mg/kg) induced diabetic rats was assessed for a period of 7 weeks. Metformin was used as a standard dru...

 Abdul Rehman Roonjho*, Waseem A. Gillani**, Awais Rasool**, Naheed Akhtar**, Tariq Mahmood**, Arsalan A.***, M. Afzal*, Iqbal Khan* , M. Asghar Ranjha**** , M. Irfan**** and Javed Khan**

REPELLENCY EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS TO COTTON MEALY BUG, TINSLEY (HEMIPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE)
... (Asterales: Asteraceae) extracts each in petroleum ether, acetone and ethanol were evaluated at the concentration of 1000, 500 and 250 ppm against cotton mealy bug ( ) in a free choice bioassay for two weeks. The ethanol extract of was the most effective against cotton mealy bug having highest repellency (72.5%) at 500 ppm dose. The lowest average repellency (26.3 %) was observed in acetone extract<...

 Rashid Mahmood*, Elizabeth Stephen Wagchoure* and Ghulam Sarwar*

INFLUENCE OF SUPPLEMENTAL DIETS ON APIS MELLIFERA L. COLONIES FOR HONEY PRODUCTION
...colonies each. The honey extracted from the T (soybean diet), T (gram 1 2 diet), T (maize diet) and T (sugar only) was 21.3 kg ± 0.22, 24.4 kg ± 0.29, 3 4 19.3 kg ± 0.11 and 16 kg ± 0.11 respectively. The honey produced after the treatment of pollen with gram (T ) was significantly better than that 2 produced by the bees fed on other pollen supplemental diets. There was no significant difference for royal jelly production.

...

 Aniqa Iram*, Javed Khan**, Nadeem Aslam**, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Habib Iqbal Javed**, Muhammad Irfan*, Awais Rasool*, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi** and Sumera Aslam* 

EFFICACY OF PLANT DERIVED OILS AND EXTRACTS AGAINST WHITEFLY, BEMISIA TABACI (GENNADIUS) ON SESAME CROP
...the effect of some plant extracts of mint (Mentha spp.) and geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) and soybean oil (Glycine max), mustard oil (Brassica spp.) and taramera oil (Eruca sativa) against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci on sesame crop. The data were recorded 24h before and 24h, 48h, 72h and 168h after application of each spray material. The results showed that whitefly population was significantly suppressed by both the botanical oils and <...

 Rashid Minhas*, Iftikhar Ahmad Khan**, Faisal Saeed Awan**, Lal Hussain Akhtar*, Syed Awais Sajid Shah* and M. Shahjhan Bukhari* 

ESTIMATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND HYBRID IDENTIFICATION IN AMERICAN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) BY PCR BASED RAPD ANALYSIS
... their ten F hybrids was extracted successfully from their immature leaves to estimate 1 genetic diversity and hybrid identification. Out of the 26 RAPD primers used for DNA amplification, 14 primers produced polymorphic bands, while 12 produced monomorphic bands. These 14 primers yielded total 96 RAPD markers, out of which only 40 were found polymorphic which resulted in 41.66% polymorphism among the genotypes studied. The number of RAPD markers produced rang...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai*, Amer Mumtaz*, Nouman Rashid*, Shahzada Arshad Saleem**, Saeeda Raza* and Muhammad Naeem Safdar*

COMPARISON OF INDIGENOUSLY DEVELOPED TANGERINE-ORANGE MARMALADE WITH BRANDED MARMALADES AVAILABLE AT LOCAL MARKETS
..., Islamabad. Juices were extracted and kept in sterilized and sealed glass bottles. Samples were subsequently analyzed for Total Plate Count (TPC), yeast, moulds, pH, sugars and vitamin C contents. Marmalade was prepared from blended juices of orange and tangerine. Branded marmalades i.e., National, Mitchells and Salman’s were purchased from local markets and compared with non-branded (orange and tangerine) marmalades. Both marmalades were analysed for m...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Abdul Razzaq*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASSES AND IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON FORAGE QUALITY
...CF), total ash and ether extract (EE)). The results revealed that there were significant differences in dry matter (DM) among different grasses. DM content of low palatable grasses was generally high (70-75%) as compared to Ipil ipil leaves (45-55%). DM content among mixtures was also variable. For the treatment grass 75% + Ipil ipil 25%, DM range was 65-70%, for grass 50% + Ipil ipil 50%, it was 60-65% and for grass 25% + Ipil ipil 75%, it was 55%. The CP val...

 Muhammad Mudasar Aslam ⃰, Muhammad Jamil**, Ijaz Malook**, Amana Khatoon*, Ali Rehman*, Abdur Rahim***, Pirzada Khan*, Shakir Ullah Khan Shakir*, Shahid Irfan*, Faizan Ullah****, Khair Ul Bashar**, Mahideen Afridi** and Shafiq Ur Rehman*

PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA, TAMARIX APHYLLA AND PEGANUM HARMALA ON PLANT GROWTH OF WHEAT AND MUSTARD
...0% and 25%) of all plant extracts. Roots of both wheat and mustard were highly affected by plant aqueous extracts at all concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) but shoots were inhibited by higher concentrations (20% and 25%). This study revealed that wheat is more sensitive to different plant extracts as compared to mustard. It is thus concluded that inhibitory effect increases with th...

 Asif ullah Khan*, Faizan Ullah*, Sultan Mehmood*, Muhammad Irshad* and Farhat Ullah Khan**

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF L. PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS
...otential of leaf aqueous extract was investigated on seed germination and seedling development of L. Extracts were applied at 25%, 20%, 15%, 10% and 5% as seed soaking for 8 hours prior to sowing. Phenolics compounds were found in aqueous extracts and were higher in 25% extract (52.72 mg gallic acid eq. / gm of extract...
Asmatullah1, Chaman Ara1,*, Shagufta Andleeb2, Maha Tahir1, Beenish Zahid1 and Madeeha Arshad1
... this study, guava fruit extract was tested for its ameliorative effects on congenital defects induced by cadmium in developing mice. For this purpose, different aqueous concentrations of cadmium chloride i.e. 0.00, 6.25, 12.50, 25.00 µg/g B.W of mice were given orally to pregnant mice on days 6-12 of gestation daily. Another series of mice were treated with different concentrations of cadmium chloride and also with an antidote (guava fruit
Ali Haider Saleem1,*, Khalid Javed2, Masroor Ellahi Babar3, Tanveer Hussain3, Asad Ali2, Afzal Ali2, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Zahid Farooq1 and Muhammad Dawood2
...the flock. After the DNA extraction from blood samples, a 1486 bp fragment of exon three was amplified and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed single nucleotide polymorphism (T>A at position 483) and a sheterozygous condition (T>W at position 483). Generalized linear model was used to minimize the environmental effects. The variation i.e. “W” type heterozygous condition showed a higher average daily weight gain. Sequence analysis of ...

Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Abdul Malik2*, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak2, Naveedullah1, Naeem Ijaz3 and Ishaq Ahmad4 

...he numbers of tube wells extracting ground water are increasing rapidly. The wells discharges of the sampled tube wells varied from 2 to 14 l/s and the horse power of the pumping units ranged from 2 to 30 hp and the pumps efficiencies of the wells ranged from 22 to 73% with an overall average of 42%. The number of hours the farmers operates their well ranged from 2 to 10 hours per day. The water quality reveals that pH of the water varies from 8.2-8.9 while EC...
Humaira Jabeen and Nazia Jamil*
...y (FTIR) analysis of the extracted bio-plastic indicated the presence of the C=O functional group specific for the presence of polyhydroxyalkanoates, the absorbance peaks were specifically at 1600 cm-1. Ribo-typing of all the six strains were carried out, strains identified as Exiguobacterium indicum, Bacillus acidiceler, Acinetobacter seohaensis, Serratia proteamaculans, Trabulsiella guamensis and Serratia grimesii and showed 98 to 10...
Sherin Reda Rouby
...es were subjected to DNA extraction followed by 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RPO30) together with tissue culture-adapted cattle LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain and two Sheep poxvirus vaccinal strains as control. LSDV yield amplicon differed in length by 21 nucleotides from those produced from SPPV either field or vaccinal strain. Among different LSD clinical samples, skin nodules and scabs are proved excellent sample materi...
Felicia NkechiEkeh*, Ifeanyi Oscar Ndimkaoha Aguzie, Joy Ihuoma Nzei, Chinenye Maria-Goretti Ohanu, Godwin Ikechukwu Ngwu and ChukwudiebubeUgolo
...> was studied. Ethanolic extracts of P. guineense and C. annum fruits were prepared using Soxhlet extractor. In a split-plot design comprising the two extracts in different concentrations, a total of 63 sundried adult C. gariepinus of mean weight 111.47 ± 2.34g were randomized into three treatment groups A – C for each extract
Ayesha Munir, Hafiz Muhammad Umer, Anjum Nasim Sabri and Imran Sajid*
... mutans. The natural extracts of Streptomyces strains significantly inhibited and delayed the biofilm formation by S. mutans and a profound effect was observed in case of the extracts of Streptomyces strains HU-09 and HU-10, which delayed biofilm maturation and even decreased biofilm formation with the passage of time. The micro well cytotoxicity assay against Artemia salina showed the cytotox...
Asad Sultan1,*, Shahroom Khan1, Sarzamin Khan1, Naila Chand1, Muhammad Shuaib Khan2 and Hamza Maris3
...tein, crude fibre, ether extract and metabolizable energy increased significantly (P<0.05) in OA-1.5 and OA-2. In conclusion, addition of OA in drinking water at the rate of 2 ml/L improved weight gain, feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, and tibial mineralization of Ca and P in broiler.
...
Nina Bao1,*, Yongguang Yin2 and Panpan Wang3
...Using petroleum ether to extract an antimicrobial cerebroside from the liposoluble constituent of cervus nippon antler velvet layer was studied in this paper. Single-factor experiment was used to research the effect of liquid-to-solid ratio, standing time and centrifugation time on the extraction of crude cerebroside. The optimal extraction conditions for the cerebroside as follows: liquid...
Jia Chen*, Yuanxi Deng and Hui Xu
... protein from mutton was extracted, and separated by SDS-PAGE. With the positive and negative sera of rats, the special allergen was identified with the Western Blot, showing that the 12kDa was the specific allergen. The protein of 12kDa was then analyzed by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS search on the Internet. The results indicate that the protein was diamine- N-acetyltransferase.
...
Bin Wang1, 2, Qianji Ning1,*, Qian Wang2, Wei Peng2, Tong Hao2,*and Jinsheng Sun2,*
... interaction network was extracted from the global PPI, which contains 35 proteins and 32 interactions. By analyzing the subcellular annotation of the molting interaction network, the subcellular localization of 12 proteins was obtained. Half of these proteins located on the cell membrane, indicating the close relationship between molting process and the changes of membrane. The results of this work provide a theoretical basis of the further elucidation of the...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
...through PCR. Toxins were extracted, quantified, formalized and adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide gel. Safety, sterility and stability of the toxoid were ascertained. Bacterin toxoid of C. perfringens type D was procured from Veterinary Research Institute Peshawar. The immunogenicity of toxoid vaccines and bacterin toxoid vaccine were studied and compared initially in rabbits and then in goats and sheep. Experimental trials were conducted on 54 healthy...
Sukirno Sukirno1,2, Muhammad Tufail1,3,*, Khawaja Ghulam Rasool1Said El Salamouny1, 4, Koko Dwi Sutanto1 and Abdulrahman Saad Aldawood1
...e effectiveness of plant extracts to improve the persistence of Spodoptera littoralis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) against beet army worm, Spodoptera exigua(Hübner) under harsh sunny field conditions in Saudi Arabia. A preliminary test of SpliMNPV was performed to determine the lethal concentrations of this virus against the first and second larval instar of S. exigua. The potency of ten plant
Maaz Ahmad1*, Mussab Ahmad2 and Tehreem Munir3
...iveness of carica papaya extract (CP) in preventing functional dyspepsia in human volunteers. 
Methodology: A community based, placebo-controlled, double -blind, multi-centered, and randomized clinical trial through systematic random sampling was conducted in Lahore urban community.After initial diagnostic investigations in 200 patients diagnosed as cases of FD fulfilling Rome III criteria were recruited after taking written consent and...
Munir Ahmad1, Aisha Hameed2*, Saba Khaliq3, Hamid Saeed Malik4 and Shahida Mohsin5
...and immunophenotype. RNA extraction was performed and RT-PCR procedure was conducted to detect TEL-AML1 fusion oncogene.
Results: Out of 66 samples, frequency of TEL-AML1 fusion oncogene was detected in 5 subjects (7.6%). Almost all TEL-AML1 positive patients carried FAB ALL-L1, B-Lineage immunophenotype, mean hemoglobin level of 6g/dl and age from 3 to 5 years. All these features are related to good prognosis.
Conclusion:
Maryam Javed*, Farwa Saghir, Naveera Aziz, Maham Saeed, Asif Nadeem and Wasim Shehzad
...ing (n=20 each). DNA was extracted, purified, quantified and amplified through PCR by using specific primer set. Then Sanger’s method of DNA sequencing was used. Multiple sequence alignment demonstrated that sheep and goat were having the wild base Guanine against which the cattle and buffalo depicted the mutant form Adenine. Results of this study illustrated the genetic tendency of large domestic bovines towards aggression and attack, so they should be ...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla

...or this purpose, RNA was extracted from suspected animal samples (n=18) and were screened by real time-PCR. Additionally, to assess the phylogenomics, the N gene was amplified and sequenced from sheep and goats (n=12). Nucleotide identity among Hail strains was identified to be 96.2-100%, while identity with previously sequenced Saudi Arabian strains and with reference PPRV retrieved from GenBank was found to be 94.1-98% and 81.2-100%, respectively. Phylogenet...
Mudassar Javed1,Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Sufyan1, Sajjad Ali2 and Muhammad Afzal1
... and different botanical extracts were screened against these pests on okra variety ‘Pusa Sawani’ under field conditions during 2015 and 2016 in a randomized complete block design. The average number of lepidopterous larvae in plots treated with the synthetic insecticides was 1.87 and 2.12 larvae/plant in 2015 and 2016, respectively, compared with 6.5 larvae/plant in untreated control plots. For the botanicals, an average of 2.57 and 2.92 la...
Riaz Aziz Minhas1,*, Muhammad Nasim Khan1, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Basharat Ahmad1, Syda Shaista Bibi1, Mohsin Hanif1 and Afsar Mian2
...r (AJK) and succeeded in extraction of DNA from 23 samples, which were used for further genetic analysis. RAPD makers (n=8) produced 245 bands (30.62±2.87 Mean±SE / primer) of different molecular weights (126-3342 bp), of which, 96 were population specific. Polymorphism was (37.71±5.29%; mean ± SE), with the highest in Muzaffarabad population (54.29%), followed by Poonch (43.67%) and Neelum (36.73%). Values of Shannon’s (I: 0....
Habib-ur-Rehman1*, Saima Mirza1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan2, Qurban Ali3, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir4, Muhammad Yasir5
...of each of the plant was extracted on rotary shaker using four solvents viz.; methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and n-hexane separately. Periodic analysis for the repellent effects was carried by impregnating each filter paper (half-disc of filter papers) with micropipette at three concentrations (5, 10 and15%) of each of the plant extract. The repellence was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h of the treatments applic...

Muhammad Sajid Mahmood1*, Muhammad Ashraf1, Ijaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Sohail Latif4 Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar5 and Waqas Ahmad6 

...nfluence of barley water extract alone and in combination with low doses of pendimethalin (pre-emergence) for weed control in mungbean during summer season, 2009. The treatments were: Control (weedy check), Hand weeding (30 and 45 DAS), Pendimethalin herbicide @ 1.5 kg a.i. ha-1 (recommended dose), Barley W.E. @ 12 L ha-1 (20, 30, 40 and 50 DAS), Barley W.E. + pendimethalin @ 12 L ha-1 + 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1, Barley W.E. + pendimethalin @ 12 L ha-1 + 0.75 kg a.i. ...
Kiran Aqil1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan2, Asim Aslam2, Aqeel Javeed5, Rizwan Qayyum1, Farooq Yousaf,1 Farkhanda Yasmeen1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail3 and Sajid Umar4,*
...>N. sativa)alcoholic extracts against the PPRV was investigated in vitro. Vero cell lines infected with PPRV were treated with six dilutions alcoholic extracts of N. sativa (200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 µg/mL). The antiviral effects were judged by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide colorimetric (MTT) assay. Plaque reduction assay was used to test the mode of action. Out of six...
Xiaqing Chen, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...th and its ethyl acetate extracts caused high mycelial growth inhibition and germination inhibition of S. shiraiana, with the inhibition value up to 80% and 90%, respectively. An apparent increase in mycelial growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner was observed when ethyl acetate extract and carbendazim were applied individually. The EC50 of T. hamatum ethylacetate extra...
Dan Yü, Chuchu Li, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...rnatant and ethylacetate extracts from T. hamatum inhibited mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum, with EC50 value of 0.54 µl/cm2 and 2.99 µg/ml, respectively. The sclerotia production of S. sclerotiorum decreased when treated with ethylacetate extracts. The level of additive inhibition on S. sclerotiorum using both fungal ethylacetate extrac...

Madiha Naz1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1*, M. Jamil Khan1, Obaid Ullah Sayal2, Asim Afridi3 and Aziz Ullah Sayal3 

...tter, total nitrogen and extractable phosphorus was significantly altered amongst the treatments. Tomato showed positive response to the organic fertilizers applied along the foliar nutrients in terms of growth, yield and quality. It may be concluded that poultry manure applied along with NAA was comparable with the inorganic fertilizer in improving the growth and yield of tomato, but had the advantage over the inorganic fertilizer in improving the soil proper...

Safina Naz1, Khushbo Hussain1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2* and Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3
 

...ylic acid and orange oil extract on physical and chemical parameters gave significant response. NAA promotes vine length upto 12.66 feet while chlorophyll content was 72.50 SPAD Value, while fresh weight of leaves is 5.1g, dry weight is 0.41g, while fresh weight of fruit is 121.66 g and fruit length is 14.11 cm. Salicylic acid promoted vine length upto 11.33 feet while chlorophyll contents were calculated as 71.09 (SPAD Value), while fresh weight of leaves was...

Sana Rana1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2* and Khalid Abbas1 

...was noted from the crude extract of control fish gills (140.66±0.71UmL-1) as compared to DM+END exposed fish (99.23±0.71UmL-1). After desalted the CAT activity in gills of both control and insecticides exposed fish was calculated as 73.45±0.71 and 42.77±1.36UmL-1, respectively. The highest specific activity was observed in crude CAT extract from gills of control fish (112.53±0.28 Umg-1) as ...
Nimra Naseer, Adeela Fatima and Imran Sajid*
...iling of each methanolic extract by TLC and HPLC-UV signified the presence of unique and diverse metabolic compounds. The study predicts that the seactinomycetes strains are a potential resource to cope up with evolving multi drug resistant pathogens. Furthermore, these secondary metabolites can be identified by comparative studies and these actinomycetes can be grown on larger scale to obtain high yield of potentially useful secondary metabolites.
...

Zulqarnain and Zafar Iqbal* 

...± 3.26 %) and its extract showed 9.20 ± 0.14 mm zone of inhibition at 1000 mg·L-1 against the Fusarium wilt. Based on its higher in vitro antifungal activity, in vivo screen house experiments were conducted. Plants given the treatment as Penicillium + Fusarium showed slight yellowing of the leaves after 60th days of cultivation. Present results may help in exploiting the Penicillium sp. extract for isola...

Bushra Qadir1, Muhammad Asim2 and Mohammad Akmal1* 

...ed with overnight in bio-extracts solution made of perennial tree leaves. The study compares early growth performance of alfalfa varieties for forage biomass production. The seed was soaked overnight (14 h) in extracts made from dry powdered leaves of Bakayn (Azadir achtaindica), Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) and water (H2O) and planted in pots on the next morning. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design a...

Inzimamul Haq1*, Shahid Sattar1, Bashir Ahmed1, Qamar Zeb2 and Amjad Usman

...+ T. chilonis, Neem seed extract + T. chilonis and release of T. chilonis alone were applied to the Jalal variety. For C. partellus infestation, the data was recorded on the basis of leaf injury scale from 1 to 5 and percent dead hearts. Results showed that Imidacloprid + T. chilonis resulted in significantly lower leaf injury m-2 (1.32) and dead hearts (4.16 %) closely followed by the plots treated with emamectin benzoate + T. chilonis with leaf injury m2 (1....
Ashraf M. Mounir, A.N. El shahat* and A.M. Abdul Azeem
...ate frankincense aqueous extract (GFAE) against ISO-induced MI in rats were the two aims of this study. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids of frankincense has been significantly increased under the effect of gamma-rays in this work. Injection of isoprenaline hydrochloride (100 mg/ kg B.Wt./day) to rats resulted in cardiac oxidative stress, inflammation, hyper-lipidemia and increase cardiac marker enzymes. Treatment of rats with GFAE (45 mg/kg/day<...

Asma Sohail1*, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi1, Maryum Arif2 and Fatima Najam1 

... research deals with the extraction and encapsulation of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo). Pumpkin seeds contain many active ingredients including polysaccharides, vitamins, proteins, essential amino acids, carotenoids, fatty acids like linoleic acid and linolenic acid, lignans, minerals and various phytochemicals. Due to the presence of two unsaturated fatty acids, these oils can reduce their biological activity on heating, volatilization, and other paramete...
Sajid Ali Khan1, Mazhar Hussain Ranjha1, Azhar Abbas Khan2,*, Muhammad Sagheer1, Amjad Abbas1 and Zeshan Hassan2
...>T. granarium. Plant extracts were obtained by Rotary Shaker apparatus by using acetone as solvent. Four different concentrations 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared by diluting in acetone. The data regarding mortality, growth regulation and repellency of T. granarium was observed. Repellency of plant extracts was tested using area preference method while for the growth regulatory potential of plant

Nadia Khan1*, Abdul Waheed1, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Naveed Ahmed1, Zafar Iqbal2, Seemab Ali1, Madiha Bashir1 and Hina Gul3  

...nus sativus L.) seed oil extract was analyzed for the presence of potential non-volatile phytochemicals and in vitro antibacterial activity against two phytopathogenic bacterial species (Clavibacter sp. and Xanthomonas sp.) and a human pathogenic bacterium (Escherichia coli) in 2016. Experiment was carried out by using complete randomized design with three replications in vitro. Phytochemical analysis reveals that the methanolic fraction of oil possesses metab...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ammarah Hasnain2, Ateeq ur Rehman1 and Rashida Perveen1 

... of BLB of rice. Aqueous extracts of fifteen different plant parts either individually or in combination were tested at various concentrations under in vitro conditions by poison food and disk diffusion techniques while best effective seven were trialed in glass house and field experiments to determine their efficacy against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. In vitro and in vivo studies under different conditions showed significant response of Mentha piperita, Az...

 *Irum Javed1, Muhammad Asgher2, Sadia Noreen1, Humara Naz Majeed1 and Tanzila Sahar1

SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING AGRICULTURE RESIDUE AS SUBSTRATE
...also observed that Yeast extract in 1% concentration was the best nitrogen source. Surfactants like Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulphat (SDS) showed no effect on the citric acid.

...

 Sumera Siddique1,†, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Muhammad Irfan1

Screening of some agri-wastes for economical cultivation of Candida tropicalis SS1
... was obtained in aqueous extracts of 2% WM peels and the yeast cells attained up to 33% protein content on dry weight basis. In 2% aqueous extract of WM, the yeast strain yielded maximum biomass up to 6g/L with corresponding absorbance(600 nm) of 3.49±0.05 after 48 h of incubation at 37 ºC, pH 7.0 and under non aerating conditions. These results indicate important biochemical attributes of the abundantly produced...

 Tahir Abbas*1, Khawaja Raees Ahmad2, Asmatullah3, Khalid Pervaiz Lone4, Muhammad Ali Kanwal2, Sadia Suleman2

Reno-hepatic protective effects of Jambul against chromium induced anomalies in mice

 Shagufta Andleeb*

Teratogenic potential of pyrethroids: a review
...culture purposes and are extracted from the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum) in late 1900s. An extensive data on multiple aspects of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, reproductive toxicology and neurotoxicology is available except teratogenicity. This review concludes the teratogenic potential of sublethal doses of different types of pyrethroids in various groups of animals in systematic way. On line available ...

 Zubair Ahmed#, Muhammad Farhanullah Khan, Habiballah Rana*

Toxicological effects of Haloxylon recurvum Bunge ex Boiss (Khar Boti) whole plant extract and novel insecticide chlorantraniliprole against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky
...xicity of crude methanol extract of whole plant of Haloxylon recurvum (Khar boti)
and a novel insecticide chlorantraniliprole. A serial concentration of extract i.e.,
1.2%, 2.4%, 3.6%, 4.8%, 6.0% and insecticide 0.00224%, 0.00448%, 0.00896%,
0.01792%, 0.02688%, respectively, were topically applied to adult S. zeamais.
Contact toxicity assayed by topical application showed that 3.6% concentration o...
Haniya Mazhar1, Naaz Abbas2, Tehseen Zamir3, Zahid Hussain1, Syed Shahid Ali4*
...nd maltose whereas yeast extract was found to be the best nitrogen source, showing 55U/mL enzyme activity. The best inoculum size for the growth of this strain was 4-5%. Optimum pH was 8 and best temperature was 40oC for the reported strain. Addition of divalent Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions resulted in 2-fold increase in enzyme activity while SDS completely inhibit the lipase activity to zero. 
...
Atiq-ur-Rehman1,2,*, Abida Latif1,*, Rukhsana Anwar1, Nasir Abbas1, Sajid Nawaz2 and Hamid Turab Mirza3
... fractions of methanolic extract of the aerial parts of this plant. Various fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) from the most active methanolic extract were prepared. Hypoglycemic potential was investigated by α-amylase inhibitory assay. Different concentrations of fractions (20-100 µg/ml) were subjected to in vitro α-amylase inhibitory assay. Assessment of anti-hyperglycemi...
A.M. Abdul Azeem, A.N. El Shahat* and Ashraf M. Mounir
...diated pomegranate peels extract (GPE) against biochemical alterations of lead induced testicular and hepato-toxicity in rats. From the results, it was obtained that gamma irradiation induced significant increase in the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of pomegranate peels powder. Concurrent treatments of lead-injected rats with GPE induced significant reduction in serum activities of liver enzymes, level of hepatic and testicular lipid peroxida...
Muhammad Muddassir Ali1,2 and İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci1,*
...the alcoholic and hexane extracts of T. turcica. Methanol extracts showed the highest DNA damage (20±1) at 200 µg/ml concentration and 11.67±2.52 at 50 µg/ml. Ethanol extracts showed the 2nd highest DNA damage (19±2)at 200 µg/ml concentration and 11 ±1at 50 µg/ml. While least was observed in the hexane

Misbahullah, Shad Khan Khalil, Asim Muhammad*, Afza Tabassum and Shah Fahad  

...ance crop yield. Sorghum extract and their application times on weed dynamics, phenology and leaf tracts of variety Atta Habib was sown at the Research Farm of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan throughout 2015-16. Used of sorghum extract with three concentrations (1:3, 1:4, 1:5), weedicide (affinity) with three different levels (1/3, 1/ 2, 2/3 of the recommended dose) and 3 times of application (emer...
Mirza Imran Shahzad1, Hina Ashraf2,*, Muhammad Arshad3, Sabeeha Parveen4, Amna Aslam4, Nargis Naz4, Zahid Kamran1, Sumbul Gohar Khalid5, Sajid Hameed1, Muhammad Ashfaq6 and Muhammad Mukhtar7

 

... potential of methanolic extracts of eleven selected Cholistani plants against New Castle Disease Virus (NDV)-LaSota strain. All of these plants were reported for their different pharmacological activities but their antiviral potentials were not known before. The methanolic extracts were made and concentrated by rotary evaporator and finally dissolved in distilled water before taking their antiviral trials in 7-11 days old c...

Nighat Seema1*, Muhammad Hamayun1, Husan Ara1 and Raham Sheer Khan

... increased the amount of extractable P and K in growth media compared to soil samples before experiment and after experiment in control samples. In case of micronutrients, only copper was decreased in endophytic treated soil, whereas iron, zinc and manganese did not follow any specific trend with or without drought stress. Hence, it is suggested that all these endophytic fungi should be evaluated under open field drought stress conditions before final recommen...

Sahar Shibli1,2*, Farzana Siddique1, Saeeda Raza2, Zaheer Ahsan3 and Irum Raza4 

...re more suitable for oil extraction and peanut butter development because of their high oleic acid to linoleic acid ratio (2.3-2.4). Bard-92 was less preferable cultivar for product development owing to its high linoleic acid (42.56%) and low O/L ratio (0.93) that attributed to its oxidative instability. Sensory evaluation of peanut butter samples showed overall good acceptability of product among the people. Storage study of peanut butter samples demonstrated...
Aqeel Mehboob, Syed Muhammad Zaka*, Muhammad Sarmadand Maryam Bajwa
...e methods like botanical extract in the control of this pest consider greater importance nowadays. The antifeedant and oviposition deterrent index of Moringa oleifera, Murraya paniculata and Piper nigrum leaf extracts were evaluated against S. litura by choice and no choice method under laboratory controlled conditions. In M. oleifera extract, the maximum...
Hao Gu*, Zhi Yang, Weiqiang Yu, Kan Xu and Yuan-fei Fu*
...s sanguis. Capsaicin extracted from chili peppers were selected to explore the antibacterial activity against the four cariogenic bacteria in terms of acid producing and biofilm. The antibacterial activity of capsaicin was evaluated by the minimal bactericidal concentration, change of pH in the first 12 h and OD values of biofilms. Besides, fluorescent images of exopolysaccharides and living bacteria of Streptococcus mutans were measured with confoc...
Dur-E-Shahwar1,2, Riaz Ahmad Sheikh1, Nazia Jamil2*
...roduced during petroleum extraction from subsurface in which hydrocarbons are found as a main environmental pollutant. Present study is focused on production of biosurfactants from indigenous bacteria, isolated from produced water and produced water contaminated soil samples collected from three selected sites of Eastern Potwar, Punjab, Pakistan. Forty seven bacteria were isolated out of which five (F1, F3, F20, F23 and C16) were selected on the basis of high ...

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

...and 8 mg/ml of ethanolic extract and motility of the worms was examined after every two to eight hours. Both A. lebbeck and C. sinensis exhibited 88% and 95% mortality at 6 & 8 mg/ml after 8 hrs of treatment. In conclusion, the ethanolic extracts of A. lebbeck L. and C. sinensis L. showed in vitro anthelmintic activity against H. contortus at concentrations tested.<...
Muhammad Usman Ahmadand Ikram-ul-Haq*
...lsiflex prepared oxyrase extracted from cytoplasmic of membrane fragments of E. coli. For this purpose, 88 E.coli isolates from 30 intact poultry intestines were cultured and identified preliminary on the basis of microscopy and biochemical testing. E. coli strain EC4 was screened as best oxyrase producer with activity of 0.41±0.008U/mL/min with 41% reduction in dissolved oxygen at pH 7.5, temperature 37°C, 25mM lactate as H
Hafiz Abdullah Akbar, Zafar Iqbal, Waqas Raza*, MuhammadUsman Ghazanfar and Salman Ahmad
...ffect of different plant extracts /allelochemicals and salicylic acid on the growth of Penicillium digitatum causes citrus green mould by using 7 plant extracts alone and in combination with wax and 3 concentrations of salicylic acid alone and in combination with wax. The study revealed that in case of plant extracts maximum growth inhibition (35.90 %) was shown by Anar followed by ...

Sabi-Ur-Rehman1, Anwar Khalid2, Qazi Najam Us Saqib3, Farooq Ahmad1, Shaheed-Ur-Rehman4, Neelam Zaman3, Ayeza Mehmood5 and Abdul Samad6*  

...ng of aqueous methanolic extracts as well as crude saponins isolated from leaves and roots of Sarcococca saligna, using disc diffusion method. The tested bacterial strains include, B. subtilis, E. coli, S. aureus, P. fluorescens and fungal strains were Aspergillus. niger, A. flavus, and D. turcica. The maximum zones of inhibition, 23.00±0.56 mm and 25.00±0.50 mm was given by ethyl acetate fraction of leaves against P. fluorescens and A. niger res...
Tahira Moeen Khan* and Amat ul Mateen
...gents. In this work leaf extracts of Melia azedarach (commonly known as dharaik) a species of family Meliaceae and Morus nigra (commonly known as Shahtoot) family Moraceae were used for bio reduction of copper ions to CuO nanoparticles in place of harmful and expensive chemical/physical methods. A cheaper, simple to perform method giving high yield without by products is employed here. The leaf extract act...
Madeeha Khalid and Amtul Jamil Sami*
...nomic DNA from blood was extracted, and the selected region was amplified using PCR. Sequencing of the amplified product was performed using Sanger sequencing, and the resulting sequence was analyzed. We have recorded 11 SNPs in total that occur in the VDRE region, 5’ UTR and untranslated region of exon 1. A greater number of the SNPs were observed to coincide with the reported data from various sources. Two SNPs at position -62 and -56 (relative to tran...
Faiz-ul Hassan1,*, Muhammad Sajjad Khan1, Muhammad Saif-ur-Rehman1, Syed Muhammad Raihan Dilshad2 and Muhammad Amjad Ali3
...rovince. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples and amplified by PCR using 40 RAPD primers. PCR products were separated on an agarose gel electrophoresis and scoring of bands was performed. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by UPGMA method to determine the genetic similarity among the horse breeds. Thoroughbred and Arab horse breeds showed a higher similarity with Pakistani indigenous breeds, suggesting that these two exotic breeds had contributed si...

Amer Mumtaz2*, Muhammad Suhail Ibrahim1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui2, Muhammad Naeem Safdar2, Masooma Munir2, Aqsa Qayyum2, Sahar Shibli2 and Muhammad Khalid Ibrahim3 

...cation in meat industry, extraction of bio actives, dairy industry, Enzyme technology, fruit and vegetable juice industry, water, waste water treatment, starch modification and removal of food allergens from food. 

...
Aisha Khalid1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Tahir Yaqub2, Ali Raza Awan1, Muhammad Wasim1, Shagufta Saeed1, Sehrish Firyal1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori3
...ith 1% glucose and yeast extract enhanced the production of recombinant thermostable cellulase. Enzyme showed strong potential for its use in paper and poultry feed industry. Under the optimal conditions we could able to produce 48 U/mL of recombinant cellulase.
...
Bushra Siddique1,*, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Naeem1 and Muhammad Ali2
...nt combinations of plant extracts and semiochemicals were used for natural enemypreference experiment. The experiment was conducted with seven treatments and five replications at Glass house situated in Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi field area during Feb-April, 2015. The Coccinella septempunctata were collected from wheat crop plants. They remained starved for two days before Olfactometer bioassays. For D. rapae, mummi...
Hayat Zada1, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1,*, Ijaz Ali2, Bashir Ahmad1, Abdul Waheed Khan2 and Shabeer Ahmad2
...akistan. Genomic DNA was extracted from 30 overwintering larvae of each population of Matta, Madyan and Kalam regions. Out of 30 tested primers, 21 amplified 157 polymorphic bands in three populations. The mean gene frequency (f), genetic distance (I) and Shannon’s information index (h) for three populations were 1.336, 0.304 and 0.437, respectively. Nei’s unbiased measures of genetic identity and genetic distance revealed that higher genetic dista...
Hafiz Abdul Ghafoor*, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Asam Riaz and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed
...evaluated the methanolic extracts and essential oils of eight indigenous plant species for their insecticidal potential against 2nd instar D. mangiferae individuals. Standard twig-dip method was used for toxicity bioassays according to Completely Randomized Design. Mortality of mealybug individuals varied with plant materials and increased along with the extract concentration and exposure time. Botanical

Amjad Ali1*, Wiqar Ahmad1, Muhammad Zeeshan1, Farmanullah Khan2 and Muhammad Motasim Billah1 

...ta acetic acid (AB-DTPA) extractable soil Fe after < 2, 2-5, 5-10 mm particles size treatments and the control was 2.48, 2.06, 1.99 and 1.81 mg kg-1, Zn was 0.41, 0.36, 0.33 and 0.31 mg kg-1, Mn was 1.23, 1.05, 1.02 and 0.89 mg kg-1, and Cu was 0.51, 0.38, 0.37 and 0.26 mg kg-1, respectively. Bizote-N and Rhizogold treatments OM (1.5 and 1.48%) showed 3 and 0.7% increase over the control (1.47%), respectively,. Bizote-N induced increase in Fe, Zn, Mn and...
Xuefeng Cao1, Guangneng Peng1, Xiaobin Gu1, Changliang He1, Guizhou Yue2, Jun Shi3,* and Zhijun Zhong1,*
...DV) without nuclear acid extraction, we established a direct amplification TaqMan real-time (RT)-PCR method (DARPM) to detect CPV and CDV in clinical samples. We compared this new method against real-time PCR/(RT)-PCR and it showed no cross-reactivity with other pathogens. Sensitivity testing showed the minimum detection limits of real-time (RT)-PCR were 7.44×101 copies·μL-1 (CPV) and 4.20×101 copies&middo...

Sadaf Rahim and Mudassar Iqbal* 

...imization conditions and extraction of insecticidal compounds effective against two major insects pests including Diuraphis noxia and Tribolium castaneum. The pure fungal strain of Trichoderma was grown using two different nutrient media including Glucose Peptone Yeast Broth (GPYB) and Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) and the effect of organic extract was investigated against selected insects’ pest. From this study it was f...
Aqsa Javaid and Nageen Hussain*
...l. First genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood and then amplified by using specific designed primers. Gradient PCR was performed and the product length was 197 bps which was further analyzed on 1% agarose gel. Sequencing was done through genetic analyzer (3500 ABI). No mutation was observed in FOXP3 gene exon 1of Pakistani HIV patients.
...

Asad Ali Khaskheli1*, Gulfam Ali Mughal1, Gul Bahar Khaskheli2, Allah Jurio Khaskheli3, Arshad Ali Khaskheli4, Abdul Samad Magsi5, Ghulam Shabir Barham2, Arab Khan Lund5 and Maqbool Ahmed Jamali4 

...r concentration of ether extract were found prominently higher compared to all other vegetations. Alhagi maurorum was significantly rich in nitrogen free extract. Zea mays held significantly top, while Alhagi maurorum possessed significantly bottom percent of crude fiber. Acacia nilotica and Alhagi maurorum though were statistically similar to each other but found prominently rich in total carbohydrate content. It could be c...
Muhammad Waheed Mushtaq1,*, Muhammad Waqar Younas2, Jamil Anwar2, Syed Mustansar Abbas3 and Shahid Bashir3
...work, the separation and extraction of three different enzymes (alpha-amylase, cellulase and pectinase) from aqueous system has been studied by applying novel concept of unidirectional freezing. To separate the enzymes from their aqueous system, directional freezing was applied horizontally through synthetic enzyme contaminated water samples, called radial freezing. After complete freezing, the samples were collected from various sections of the frozen mass an...
Joyce Osarogie Odigie*
...ersity analysis with the extracted data for water quality analyzed via Weighted Arithmetic Index and pollution tolerance Index via pollution sensitive group. The dominant benthos group was Chironomidae: making up 20.99%, 18.47% and 16.65% of the benthic community. The results of WQI calculated across the three study stations were above the 100 benchmark. However, the PTI values recorded at the three study stations were less than 10, correlating with WQI indica...

Syed Muhammad Hassan Raza1*, Syed Amer Mahmood1, Syeeda Areeba Gillani1, Syed Shehzad Hassan1, Muneeb Aamir1, Muhammad Saifullah1, Mubashar Basheer1, Atif Ahmad1, Saif-ul-Rehman2 and Tariq Ali1 

...composite. The satellite extracted areas under rice cultivation, were compared with CRS reported areas by applying linear regression and generated the regression equation. The NDVI of rice crop in 2018 was 0.72 and the predicted yield was estimated as 2.05 ton/ha. Satellite derived rice area in 2018 was 689580 ha, which was substituted in the regression equation to predict the CRS based area that was 654966 ha. The net rice production for the year 2019, was pr...

Matiullah Khan*, Shameemul Sibtain Shah, Atiqullah Khan, Muhammad Sarwar and Shoaib Ahmed 

...elds SSP of almost X/2 % extractable P2O5”. The P was applied @ 57.5 kg P2O5 ha-1 both from prepared SSP and DAP to wheat crop on equal P2O5 basis. Also, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) were tested in this experiment for yield and P uptake of the crop. The results showed that smaller the mesh size of HRP 200 mesh gave maximum available P2O5 14.27% followed by 160 mesh with 14.21%, from the stock grade HRP containing 28% total P2O5. The free acid co...
Sabbah M. Allam, T.M. El-Bedawy, M.H. Bakr and A.E.M. Mahmoud*
...ibility of nitrogen free extract which was significantly (P≤0.05) decreased by feeding experimental rations by increasing replacement level of DOP to more than 25% (R2). Blood constituents of experimental cows on all rations were within normal range for platelets, red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit, hemoglobin (Hb, g/dl), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total protein (g/dl), albumin (g/dl), creatinine (mg/dl) and urea. However, whi...
Mohammed Al Bratty1,*, Hassan A. Alhazmi1,2, Desam Nagarjuna Reddy3, Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab3, Sadique A. Javed1 and Zia ur Rehman1,4
...ituents of the ethanolic extract was evaluated by GC-MS. The ethanolic extract was tested against selected strains of microorganisms for its antibacterial and antifungal activities. The major classes of compounds indentified in the extract were fatty acid esters and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Methyl-(7Z)-7-hexadecenoate, methyl-(9E)-octadecenoate and methyl tetracosanoate were found to be the...
Muhammad Zameer Khan1, Sair Sarwar1*, Ahmad Khan1, Razaullah Khan1, Munazza Yousra1 and Muhammad Ilyas2
...an and to correlate soil extractable K with yield components, N, P, K concentration and uptake by wheat. Two extractants namely, AB-DTPAand NH4OAc were tested for K extraction from soils. The results showed a high positive correlation between AB-DTPA and NH4OAc extractable K, plant growth and yield parameters. The amounts of soil K ...
Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Asma Ashraf 2*, Iram Liaqat2, Bushra Mazhar2, Shaukat Ali2 and Saiqa Andleeb3
...cterial activity of leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem Plant) was also checked against the pathogenic bacterial isolates. The bacterial pathogens isolated from eye infections were identified as Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Neisseria sp., and Bacillus sp. These bacteria commonly caused corneal infections. All the pathogenic bacterial isolates showed sensitivity against all the compounds except Streptococcus sp. (BS1) and it ...

Faleye Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas1,2*, Adewumi Moses Olubusuyi1, Olayinka Olaitan Titilola3 and Adeniji Johnson Adekunle1,3 

...es were subjected to RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, three (5l-UTR, VP1 and EV Species C [EV-C]) different PCR assays and sequencing of amplicons. EVs were further subjected to [‘]Illumina sequencing. All CCS were negative for EAVs and GARVs. Four CCS produced R-CPE in HEp-2 cell line, three of which were positive for the 5l-UTR assay. Of the three isolates, two and none were positive for the VP1 and EV-C assays, respectively. One of the two VP1 amplicon...

Adewumi Moses Olubusuyi1, Ogunsakin Temitope Rachael1, Ogunrombi Sefiu Babatunde1, Ojeamiren Iduda1, Olawole Alaba Samuel1, Faleye Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas1,2* and Adeniji Johnson Adekunle1,3 

...ls were subjected to RNA extraction, RT-snPCR, amplicon sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Eleven and one of the 30 pools of RD and L20B cell culture supernatants, respectively, were positive for the RT-snPCR. Nine of the 11 amplicons from RD and the only from L20B were sequenced and identified as seven EV types; Coxsackievirus A4 (CV-A4), CV-A6, CV-A13, CV-A17 (both RD and L20B), CV-B2, Echovirus 9 (E9) and Enterovirus A76 (EV-A76). Our findings suggest so...
Qi Ren, Shufeng Sun, Chen Niu, Yuhong Li, Yingzhi Chong, Biao Li, Guoying Zheng and Fumin Feng*

 

...Genomic DNA and RNA were extracted from cells; Methylation was inhibited by treating HL7702 cells with 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (AZA), and the level was analyzed via the methylation-specific PCR (MSP) methods. The increases in the methylation rate of CpG islands in the CYP1A1 promoter region and expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). And then the CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression decreased with cell damage, thus suggesting that elevated methylation...
Muhammad Izhar Shafi* and Muhammad Sharif
...wed mix trend in AB-DTPA extractable P at day zero of incubation and then a rapid mineralization and weekly turnover were increased up to 84 days of incubation period. Maximum mean available P of 14.32 mg kg-1 was recorded in soils which were amended with DAP and 10 kg HA ha-1, whereas the lowest available P concentration of 8.09 and 7.82 mg kg-1 was recorded in soils where SSP and NP were applied, respectively, without any ame...
Riaz Shah1* and Margaret Appleby2
...ues), only garlic/chilli extract gave relatively acceptable levels of mortality 72.0+5.8% while bifenazate caused 95.2+3.7% mortality. TSSM females laid significantly more eggs on the garlic/chilli treated leaf discs in both contact and residual bioassays. When sprayed directly (contact bioassay), all of tested low-risk pesticides mortality of 85.2-100% to P. persimilis except DE. All of tested low-risk pesticides were moderately harmful to N. fallac...

Muhammad Shahzad Akbar*, Maria Aslam, Muhammad Rehan Khalid, Shahid Iqbal, Muhammad Luqman and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed 

...e toxicity of methanolic extracts of eight flowers i.e. Mexican marigold (Tagetes lucida), African marigold (Tegates erecta), tecoma (Tecoma stans), calendula (Calendula officinalis), basil (Ocimum basilicum), oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare), lily (Lilium longiflorum) and chrysanthemum (Glebionis segetum) against the worker individuals of subterranean termite Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera: Termitidae). Bioassays were conducted using filter paper disc method...

Matiullah Khan1*, Motsim Billah2, Shoaib Ahmad1, Raza Ullah Khan1 and Muhammad Sarwar1 

...ighest soil post-harvest extractable P content of 5.42 mg kg-1and rice-plant P uptake (17.50 kg ha-1) were also recorded in the treatment PECat 6 Mg ha-1 as compared to other treatments. The residual effects of PEC applied at the rate of 6 Mg ha-was superior by producing 36.2%, 14.2% and 7.0%increased grain yields over those of control, PLC and SSP, respectively. The post-harvest soil extractable P value and plant P uptake w...

Muhammad Naeem Khan* and Asad Jan 

...ents of methanolic crude extract (MCE) and various solvent fractions and in-vitro antimicrobial activities of whole plant of D. botrys. Qualitative phytochemical screening of MCE and solvent fractions of D. botrys showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and sterols, however in n-hexane fraction (HxF) only flavonoids and saponins were detected. In quantitative analysis, among all the solvents, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) had hi...
Shahid Sherzada1,2,4,*, Muhammad Naeem Khan4, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Idrees3, Abdul Wajid2, Muhammad Nauman Sharif3, Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal3, Iram Amin3 and Muhammad Shahid3
...species. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood and short segment COI gene (680bp) was amplified by PCR. The sequences were evaluated by using bioinformatics tools. The average K2P conspecific, congenric and confamilial genetic distances were 0.22%, 6.71% and 12.33%, respectively. Findings of the present study revealed that DNA barcoding using COI gene is an efficient molecular technique for the exact identification of typical fish species.
...
Chaman Ara1*, Asmatullah1, Sehrish Kanwa1, Asma Chaudhary2, Ayesha Siddiqua1
...m anaesthesia. Blood was extracted through cardiac puncture and viscera were dissected out for further analysis. Levofloxacin induced reduction in body weight while caused a noticeable increase in liver, kidney and testis weights. Significant increase in levels of total alkaline aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin was observed in blood plasma. Urea level showed a remarkable decrease, whereas creatinine...

Syeda Naila, Muhammad Ibrar, Fazal Hadi* and Muhammad Nauman Khan 

...icroscopy, ash analysis, extractive values and fluorescence analysis were also studied. Preliminary phytochemical screenings of different extracts of Oxalis pes-caprae L. showed the presence of carbohydrates, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponin, fats and oils 

...

Ghulam Hussain1, Muhammad Asrar1, Dilbar Hussain2, Khurum Zia3, Abdul Rashid4*, Hina Anwar5, Muhammad Azeem1, Saddam Hussain1 and Sabeen Asghar1 

...genously available plant extracts. The efficacy of following insecticides and plant extracts viz. Cascabela thevetia leaf extract @ 300ml/acre, Azadirachta indica @ 300ml/acre, Profenofos @600ml/acre., Crown 70WS @125gm/acre, Match 50EC@250ml/acre, Helmat 40EC@600ml/acre and Confidor 20SL@ 250ml/ acre were evaluated on cotton against 3rd instar cotton mealy bug. Data was collected after 3,...
Sumaira Abbas1, Muhammad Sultan Haider2,*, Fatima Kafayet1, Sana Ashraf2, Atifa Masood3 and Moazma Batool4
...grinded. Organic solvent extraction was carried out by hexane and acetone mixture (1:1 v/v). Carotenoid concentration was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and found satisfactory. By mixing fish meal, sunflower meal and rice polish four treatment diets, T1, T2, T3, were prepared and citrus peel powder was added @ 200g, 400g and 600g/ 1000g, respectively. While fourth one, control diet (To) was without cit...

Waseem Abbas1, Shakeel-ur-Rehman2, Abdul Rashid2, Muhammad Kamran3, Muhammad Atiq2 and Muhammad Ehetisham ul Haq3* 

...isease incidence. Leaves extracts of four plant extracts i.e. Calotropis gigantea, Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa and Azadirachta indica were evaluated at 3 % concentration against eggs hatchability and adult emergence of the whitefly in lab condition. Two consecutive sprays were applied to assess the relative impact of different plant extracts against adult whitefly population and the d...

Saleha Ashfaq1, Manzoor Hussain1, Nazish Bibi2, Jan Alam1, Muhammad Junaid2 and Sabi-Ur-Rehman3*

... potential of H. gilesii extracts in different solvents was assessed using agar well diffusion method against bacterial and fungal strains, while cytotoxic activity was studied in the methanolic extract using brine shrimp’s lethality assay. All the extracts showed significant biological activity against Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and selected fungal strains. Acetone, chlor...
Sameh S. Tawfik, Ahmed A. Elkady* and Ehab T. Mohamed
...indus indica L. seed extract (TSE) efficacy against γ-rays-induced nephrotoxicity in irradiated rats was investigated. Forty albino-rats were divided into four groups: Control, rats were orally administered the vehicle for 6weeks, TSE-treated (each rat received 230mg TSE; once daily, for 6weeks), irradiated (animals subjected to whole body γ-rays (8Gy), and TSE-treated and irradiated (each rat received 230mg TSE; once daily for 6week, then one-...
Erum Yawar Iqbal1*, Ashfaque Ahmed Nahiyoon1, Shahnaz Dawar2 and Shahina Fayyaz1
... supernatant, crude cell extract, bacterial culture and methanol extract in in vitro and green house condition have been exploited. The results have shown that different formulants of EPB produced significant effects on Aphid mortality, change in population density, population reduction and fecundity. Cell-free supernatant of new EPB species Xenorhabdus steinernematis n.sp. strain PAK. CB10 (KU097324) an...
Yun-Feng Liu, Yong-Mei Guan, Dan Chen, Jia-Le Chen, Chen Jin, Wei-Feng Zhu, Lu Wu and Li-Hua Chen*
...nation of Strychni Semen extract (SSE) and Paeoniae Radix Alba extract (PRAE) by in vitro skin permeation were observed. The penetration quantity, infiltration rate and skin retention quantity of paeoniflorin in co-administrated with SSE were increased significantly (P<0.05). In the skin and brain, the peak concentration (Cmax) and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0→t
Abdüssamet Aydın1 and Ş. Canan Bölükbaşı2*
...he effects of pennyroyal extract supplementation at different levels (0, 32.5, 65 and 130 mg/kg) and 50 mg/kg BHA (Butylated hidroxyanisole) into diets of laying hens on performance, egg quality traits, thiobarbituric acid reactive substans (TBARS) of yolk, the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismütase (SOD) and glutation peroxidas (GSHPx) in serum. Sixty Lohman LSL white layers, 40 weeks of age, kept in individual cages were assigned random...
Irfan Shahzad Sheikh, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa, Nadeem Rashid, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa, Mohammad Masood Tariq*, Majed Rafeeq, Abdul Samad, Tauseef M Asmat and Asad Ullah
...mg/l) and DNA (100 mg/l) extracted from chicken liver were separately offered on days 1-21, 1-42 and 22-42 in experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Under standard broiler management conditions, birds were divided into five treatment groups of 48 with four replicates. Commercial pre-starter feed, starter feed and finisher feed were offered on days 1-12, 13-25 and 26-42, respectively. Birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bursal di...
Rafia Sadaf1, Ishrat Younus2*, Sidra Maqbool2, Talha Bin Fayyaz3Sarah Jameel Khan1, Sidra Siddique1 and Rida Fatima1
...iety activity of ethanol extract of Pulsatilla nigricans leaves. The acute oral toxicity shows that, plant extract up to 5000 mg/kg produces no signs and symptoms related to toxicity and also no mortality was observed. Antianxiety activity of Pulsatilla nigricans was examined by using elevated plus-maze paradigm and hole-board paradigm in rats at two different doses i.e. 250 and 500 mg/kg, and significant anxio...
Sumaira Akram1, Sajid Aleem Khan1*, Nazir Javed1 and Saeed Ahmad2
...control agents and plant extracts. Among chemicals, cartap was most effective with lowest egg hatching and among biocontrol agents Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson (PL) produced highest egg hatching while, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (TH) caused lowest egg hatching. In plant extracts the highest egg hatching was recorded in clove at S concentration and lowest by neem extract<...
Godwin Ikechukwu Ngwu1*, Maria Ifeyinwa Ngwu2, Fabian Chukwuemenam Okafor1, Aruh Ottah Anaga3 and Christopher Didigwu Nwani1
...ects of methanolic crude extracts of Ipomoea stolonifera on 4th instars larvae of both laboratory-reared and field-collected Aedes aegypti were carried out. The 4th instars larvae of laboratory-reared and the field-collected A. aegypti mosquitoes were exposed to 5000mg/L, 2000 mg/L, 1000 mg/L, 500 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 50 mg/L of the extract. The solvent for the e...
Asad Ali Khaskheli1*, Gulfam Ali Mughal1, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Gul Bahar Khaskheli3, Allah Jurio Khaskheli2 and Arshad Ali Khaskheli1
...eral matter (ash), ether extract, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen free extract and total carbohydrate contents) were included. Comprehensive survey indicated year round availability of 19 different vegetations at study areas whereby dry matter contents in Calligonum polygonoides (93.63%) recorded significantly high, and in Trifolium alexandrinum it was low, while moisture content appeared vice versa to dry...
Muhammad Yahya1, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Imtiaz Sarwar1, Khurram Shehzad2, Muhammad Luqman3 and 
Sher Muhammad Shahzad2
...ingtails and mites) were extracted from composite soil samples using Tullgren-Berlese funnel. Impact of collection seasons (i.e. spring, summer, autumn and winter) and impact of different land-use types or categories on the population abundance of soil microarthropods was assessed. Moreover, soil physico-chemical and microbiological properties were also determined in order to find out the main edaphic drivers which can explain the population dynamics of...

Arjumand Nizami1, Muhammad Zulfiqar2*, Jawad Ali1, Naushad Khan2 and Imran Sheikh

...tity of irrigation water extraction particularly keeping in view the climate change scenario and saving in cost of energy that is used for tube well operation ultimately adding to profitability of the farmers. These results are in line with a number of earlier studies. The respondent farmers also claimed improvement in paddy yield but along with AWD technique and laser land leveling there might be other agronomic factors adding to yield improvement as this stu...
Sikander Ali* and S. Wajiha Khalid
...on from the crude enzyme extract. The molecular weight of enzyme was found to be 86 kDa, as determined by SDS poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. 
...

Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Muhammad Zubair Khan1, Ayesha Bibi2, Muhammad Shehzad Khan1*, Bashir Ahmad

...nt doses of boron, plant extracts and a bactericide in different combinations on tomato plants. This research study was performed at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar-Pakistan. Different biochemical tests were conducted to confirm stem rot pathogen. Boron was applied at the rates of 1.97, 2.96 and 3.95 g seedbed-1. Plant extracts were neem (Azadirachta indica) and ghwaraskay (Dodonaea viscosa). Morphological ...

Aqsa Ahmad1, Iftikhar Ahmad1* and Malik Fiaz Hussain Ferdosi

...ontaining CC, silt (soil extracted from canal) and PM (1:1:1; v/v/v) substrate for seedling development and transplanted at the two to four leaf stage into lily crates with the treatment substrates. Plants grown in substrates containing SD + PH + PM (experiment I) indicated that plants grown in these soilless compositions died before flowering, while those grown in silt (control) performed best. While in experiment II, the highest quality plants were grown in ...

Bilal Atta1*, Muhammad Rizwan1, Arshed Makhdoom Sabir1, Muhammad Dildar Gogi2, Muhammad Sabar1, Bakhtawar3, Faizan Ali3 and Mehran Sarwar

...icacy of different plant extracts viz. Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was compared against T. castaneum infesting stored wheat. The results have suggested that mortality and repellency in T. castaneum increased as the dose rate of crude plant extracts and exposure interval increased. The maximum mortality (86.67%) was achieved with the high...
Aamir Mushtaq1,2, Rukhsana Anwar1 and Mobasher Ahmad1,2,* 
... brain parts. Methanolic extract of Pimpinella anisum (meP.a) dried seeds was explored qualitatively and quantitatively for analysis of phytoconstituents along with anti-oxidant activity. Anti-amnesic activity was found by behavioral and biochemical studies for which male albino mice were grouped into seven groups. Mice were subjected to elevated plus maze, hole board and light dark paradigm on (day 7th and 8th), for behavioral stu...
Ambrin1*, Ghulam Dastagir1, Jehan Bakht2 and Muhammad Adil1
...ies of different solvent extracted samples of Ziziphus mauritiana var. spontanea and Oenothera biennis against different microbes. Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts of Z. mauritiana var. spontanea measured the highest zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. The MIC values of ethyl acetate and ethanolic
Lei Wang1, Lu Yang2, Lei Luo1, Yaqi Gao1*, Jian Gao1 and Ping Liu1
...nd northern Xinjiang. We extracted total RNA from 18 samples and synthesized cDNA via reverse transcription. Then, Illumina sequencing was performed and unigenes were identified after assembly and clustering. The resulting unigenes were then compared to homologous sequences using NCBI-NR, Swiss-Prot, KOG, Pfam, eggNOG, KEGG, COG, and GO for functional annotation and classification. Some differences in the regularity of distribution and the time of eclosion of ...
Sohail Ahmed1,*, Muhammad Waseem Saleem1, Abid Ali1, Muhammad Shahid Nisar2, Rashad Rasool Khan1 and Abdul Rashid3
Shaheen Rahman1, Kafeel Ahmad1*, Niaz Ali2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Waqar Ali4
...i>were isolated on yeast extract mannitol agar (YEMA) medium. The isolated strains were confirmed as A. tumefaciens on the basis of morphological, biochemical and pathogenicity tests. The bacterial cells were rod shaped having rounded ends. The strains were Gram positive. Results confirmed the pathogenicity of the isolated strains as shown by development of tumours on carrot and potato discs. The pathogenic potential of the isolated strains demand for p...

Muhammad Salim1*, Ayhan Gökçe1, Muhammad Nadir Naqqash1 and Orkun Ersoy

...t is combined with plant extracts. 

...

Ayesha Zafar1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Sarfraz2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Sher Muhammad3 and Ghulam Murtaza

...pH value 8.57, medium in extractable K and scarce in P and organic matter. The selected field was sandy loam having 70% sand, 18% silt and 12% clay. The soil was prepared, leveled, and crop was sown with seed rate of 7.5 kg ha-1. Treatments included various rates of NPK {0 (control = T1), 75 % (T2), 100 % (T3), 125 % (T4), and 150% (T5) of recommended dose (150-150-75 kg ha-1) of NPK fertilizer). The experimental design was RCBD with three replications. Interc...
Saira Saleemi1*, Zafar Iqbal1, Abdul Nasir Khalid2
...rent culture media; Malt extract agar (MEA), Corn meal agar (CMA), Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and Potato dextrose agar (PDA). The inoculated culture plates were incubated for 5-8 days at 28-32 oC. The fungal growth in the form of colonies of different shapes and colour appeared in agar plates. Four Aspergillus spp.; Aspergillus terreus (8.40%), A. flavus (17.06%), A. fumigatus (24.02%) and A. niger (50.52%) were...

Hassan Boulahyaoui1,2*, Sanaa Alaoui Amine1,3, Marouane Melloul4, Farida Hilali5, Elmostafa El-Fahime1,3, Saad Mrani1,2 and Nadia Touil1,5* 

...™. After RNA virus extraction, the rotavirus VP7 and VP4 genes were amplified. The DNA was purified, sequenced and genotypes were determined using the RotaC online classification tool. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood method applying the Tamura 3-parameter model in MEGA 6.06 package and statistically supported by bootstrapping with 1000 replicates. The amino acid sequences of the antigenic regions of the outer capsid prote...

S. Ahmed† , L. Yue, Q. Liu and H. Jian

Evaluation of media for mass production and fermentation of Pseudomonas spp. for integrated management of cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae)

A. S. M. El-Nuby1† , S. A. Montasser2 and I. A. El-Khadrawy

Control of root-knot nematodes using wild plants colonized Sinai, Egypt
...ivity of some wild plant extracts located in North and South Sinai, Egypt was examined against root-knot nematode (RKN). The selected seven plants viz., Artemisia judaica, A. monosperma, Bassia muricata, Cornulaca monacantha, Salsola kali and Zygophyllum album with different dilutions (25%, 50%, 75% &100%). The potent nematicidal efficacy observed in the extract of A. judaica followed by A. monosperma. In vivo trial post...

Feroz Shah1, Mohammad A. Irfan1, Kareem Akhtar1, Abdul Shakoor1, Naeem Khan2

EFFECT OF POROSITY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DIE CAST ALUMINUM ENGINE BLOCK
...ctions. The samples were extracted from thick and thin sections of
the engine block, having section thicknesses of 20 mm and 5 mm, respectively. Mechanical testing of these samples
was carried out to show effect of section thickness and its associated porosity on ductility and ultimate strength.
The three-dimensional porosity of an AA 384.1 engine block was analyzed through computed tomography (CT) scan.
Samples from thick and thin ...

Zahooruddin1*, Muhammad Altaf1, Ayaz Ahmad1, Farooq Alam1 

GRADIENT ASCENT INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS ALGORITHM FOR TELECOMMUNICATION SIGNALS
...or un-mixing and feature extraction of the fixed
input block lengths. In case of varying block lengths re-adjustment of the maximum number of iterations and the
step size parameter is required. In this paper, we introduced an Adaptive Step size Gradient Ascent ICA (AS-GAICA)
technique for varying block length that can also controls the maximum number of iterations adaptively. The performance
of the proposed technique is compared wit...

Kulsoom Iftikhar1, Shahzad Anwar1, Izhar Ul Haq1, Muhammad Tahir Khan1 and Sayed Riaz Akbar1 

AN OPTIMAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE FOR BREAST CANCER DETECTION
...set of
previously extracted features provided by Wisconsin and Essex Universities. For the established neural networks comparative
analysis is performed to study the optimum parameters required for prime mass classification. The execution
of suggested methodology is estimated using ROC curve. The accuracy rate of developed method is 93.1% or 0.93
with sensitivity of 0.99 and specificity of 0.83 according to the receiver operating ch...

Muhammad Masood Tahir1, Ayyaz Hussain2, Saeed Badshah3, Qaisar Javaid2 

RULE-BASED IDENTIFICATION OF BEARING FAULTS USING CENTRAL TENDENCY OF TIME DOMAIN FEATURES
...ts, and various TDFs are extracted. It is worth mentioning that fluctuations in random vibration
signals may alter the feature values. Therefore, each of the TDFs is processed statistically to approximate its reliable
central values (CVs) against the respective faults. In this way, every feature provides a set of CVs, which are
equal in number to that of faults. Separating distances among normalized CVs (NCVs) in a set provide the criteria...

Sajjad Hussain, Nisar Mohammad, Zahid Ur Rehman, Noor Mohammad, Ishaq Ahmad, Naseer Muhammad Khan, Salim Raza 

EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND SILVER BY CYANIDATION PROCESS FROM COMPLEX ORE OF SHOUGHUR AREA CHITRAL, KYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...g parameters for maximum extraction of gold and silver from complex ore of Shoughur area of district Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa on laboratory scale testing. The research work was carried out into two parts. In first part the cyanidation parameters like grinding time, dosage of pH, cyanidation time, dosage of sodium cyanide (NaCN) and dosage of lime Ca (OH)2 were optimized. The samples were subjected to differential grinding time varying from 20 to 35 minutes...

 Sikandar Afridi*, Muhammad Irfan Khattak**, Nasim Ullah***, Gulzar Ahmad**, Muhammad Shafi**

PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF FACE RECOGNITION SYSTEM USING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS MERGED WITH DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORMS
...eatures of the image are extracted by calculating the Eigenface of the image with size already
reduced by taking DWT. As a result of this process the size of database will reduce to one-fourth of the conventional
PCA in which the facial features are extracted directly from the image by calculating the Eigenface. The size of the
train database is reduced with the proposed technique which re...

Atta Ur Rehman, Laiq Hassan, Nasir Ahmad, Kashif Ahmad, Shakirullah

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE AND HAMMING DISTANCE USED FOR IRIS RECOGNITION
...ormalization and feature extraction, the Rubber Sheet
Model and one-dimensional (1-D) Log-Gabor Filter are used respectively. Finally for classification/matching of iris
patterns, Hamming Distance and Support Vector Machine (SVM) are applied. The evaluation results on CASIA V.1
dataset show that Hamming distance algorithm is more suitable for the classification (with average accuracy of
93.85 %) of iris patterns....

 Sajjad Hussain1*, Nisar Mohammad1, Zahid Ur Rehman1, Noor Mohammad1, Ishaq Ahmad1,

Naseer Muhammad Khan2 and Salim Raza1
EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND SILVER BY AGITATION CYANIDATION PROCESS FROM COMPLEX ORE OF SHOUGHUR AREA CHITRAL, KYBER PAKHTUNKHWA PAKISTAN
...ssing technique used for extraction of gold utilizing

different cyanidation parameters likes grinding time, pH, cyanidation time, sodium cyanide (NaCN) and lime CaO..
The efficiency of cyanidation process depends on dosage of each parameter. In present research work the extraction
of gold and silver by cyanidation process from shoughur area of district Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa was carried...

Nisar Mohammad*, Mohammad Mansoor Khan* Noor Mohammad*

CHARACTERIZATION OF TALC-CARBONATE ROCK OF MINGORA EMERALD MINES, DISTRICT SWAT, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
...ped after excavation and extraction of emerald crystals. Present research work was undertaken for devising a suitable and commercial processing technique for the said talc carbonate rocks. Thorough investigations were conducted using SEM-EDX X-Rays Dif...

Nisar Mohammad٭, Mohammad Mansoor Khan٭, Noor Mohammad٭

EXTRACTION OF HIGH QUALITY TALC FROM TALC-CARBONATE ROCK OF MINGORA EMERALD MINES BY FLOTATION AND LEACHING
...ped after excavation and extraction of emerald crystals. Controll of environmental threat caused by these rock dumps is an additional benefit of the research. Two step froth flotation process with AF65 (Poly propylene Glycol, Cyanamid) as frother, Sodium hexa metaphosphate as depressant for carbonates, equal mixture of oleic acid and kerosene oil as collector gave encouraging results. It was found that talc can be separated as float at pH 6 - 7±0.2...

Saeed Gul*, Muhammad Irfan*, Hazrat Bilal*, Atta-ur-rehman*, Umair Khan*, Sadaqat ullah khan*

RECYCLING OF USED ENGINE OIL USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND DISTILLATION
...ign: justify;">A solvent extraction process has been used to recycle the used engine oil. The solvent used for the treatment of used engine oil is a mixture of ethanol, 1- butanol and toluene. The effect of operating parameters on the recycling process has been investigated for optimal conditions. The process parameters considered were agitator speed for blending, boiler temperature and solvent to used oil ratio. The maximum recovery for refined oil was 72% us...

Muhammad Irfan*, Saeed Gul*, Mohammad Younas*

SOLAR STILL PERFORMANCE FOR SEA WATER PURIFICATION: A STATISTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
...renewable energy used to extract the fresh water from sea water. The principle objective of the study is to purify the sea water by using solar energy. A pilot scale solar still has been designed, fabricated and optimized for maximum evaporation rate of model sea water. The various parameters such as water depth in still, average day temperature and average water temperature in still were studied experimentally and verified statistically th...

Zahid Hassan Tarar1, Muhammad Salik Ali Khan2*, Shahzada Munawar Mehdi3, Raza Salim4, Irfan Ahmad Saleem1, Saima Nazar5, Munir David2, Tahir Majeed6, Muhammad Sufyan Mughal7, Muhammad Saleem8, Umer Iqbal9, Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal10 and Muhammad Khalid Shaheen

...ine Penta-Acetate (DTPA) extraction methodology. Quantification was carried out by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Hot water-soluble (HWS) Boron (B) was determined spectrophotometrically. Additionally, soil samples were also analysed for electrical conductivity (EC), soil pH and soil organic matter (SOM) contents. These characteristics were correlated with plant available micronutrients. The DTPA-extractable Zn, ...

Syeda Farzana Bibi* and Siraj-ud-Din

Fluorescence Analysis, Extractive Values and Cytotoxic Screening of Crataeva adansonii DC Leaf and Bark through Brine Shrimp Larvae Assay
...tic studies like finding extractive values and nutritional values play a vital role in the determination of adulterated or exhausted drugs. It lays down parameters for authentication and standardization of drugs. The cytotoxic study helps in the evaluation of a drug for its toxicity, which is determined by the prevention of growth and replication. Such drugs can be used to treat cancer, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. During the present study etha...
Muhammad Khan1, Tehmina Ameer Khan1, Aziz Ud Din2, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Irfan Ullah3,*, Kalim Ullah4, Sadia Tabassum1,*
...utation. Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal swab using Phenol: Chloroform: protocol. The target genes were amplified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified gene products were sequenced and compared with the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) Accession-No. N_012920.1. Four mutations in 16S-rRNA gene have been identified viz mt-2552T>A, mt-1811A>G, mt-1888A>G and mt-2467A>T and two are novel, mt- 2552T>A and m...
Muhammad Rizwan1*, Bilal Atta1, Ana Maria Marino de Remes Lenicov2, Roxana Mariani2, Arshed Makhdoom Sabir1, Muhammad Tahir3, Misbah Rizwan4, Muhammad Sabar1, Ch. Muhammad Rafique1, Muhammad Afzal5
...rds as well. Records are extracted primarily from field data and specialized reference sources. Seven species from two different families of Fulgoromorpha were related to rice ecosystem (Cixiidae, one species and Delphacidae; six species). Three Delphacid species, whitebacked planthopper Sogatella furcifera, brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus are well-known vectors of severe rice ...
Tehmina Aslam, Shagufta Saeed*, Muhammed Tayyab, Huma Mujahid, Ali Raza Awan, Sehrish Firyal and AbuSaeed Hashmi
... mg/100 mL), while yeast extract decreased the amount of PHB. The outcomes of the present data indicate that agricultural wastes can be used for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate that will help in the solid waste management.
...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,*, Samina J.N. Ahmad1,2,*, Mubashir Ahmad Malik1, Abid Ali1, Muhammad Ali3, Ejaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Tahir2 and Muhammad Ashraf2
... identification, DNA was extracted through CTAB method and polymerase chain reaction was performed using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene based primers. Gel electrophoresis of the PCR products of desert locustsindicated a 710bp amplified DNA fragment on 1.5% agarose gel. DNA sequence analysis of PCR product indicated that specimens shared a 99-100% identity with Schistocerca gregaria gregaria)(Forskål, 1775). Molecular phylogenetic an...
Gregory Ejikeme Odo1,*, Juliana Ekenma Agwu1, Nkechi Nweze2, Clara Ikegbunam2,Felicia Ekeh N1, Vincent Ejere1, Ngozi Ezenwaji1, Reginald Njokuocha2, Godwin Ngwu1 and Fabian Okafor1
...ffects of ethanolic leaf extracts of Duranta erecta (L) in 48 albino wistar rats, Rattus norvegicususingbiochemical and haematological indicesof toxici
Shikun Ge1, 2, Yanli Yang3, Brindha Chelliappan4, 5, Antonysamy Michael5, Fagang Zhong1 and Xiaoying Zhang1, 2, 3, 4*
...antibodies. However, the extraction methods and storage stability of IgY antibodies from egg yolk for feed supplements remain major problems in mass production. Based on Based on IgY antibody titer, IgY thermostability, IgY acid and alkali resistance, resistance to trypsin and pepsin, four different IgY purification methods (PEG extraction, water dilution method, the effect of liquid egg yolk and egg yolk powder preparations...
Safia Arbab1, Rehana Buriro1, Shams Uddin Bhugio1, Atta Hussain Shah2,  Jamila Soomro3,Qudratullah Kalwar4, Saqib Ali Fazilani1 and Waseem Ali Vistro5*
...crude as well as ethanol extract of Aloe Vera were used. During this experiment, total 50 wound samples were collected from donkey wounds. All 50 samples were found contaminated with different bacterial organism, among all those 45, 35, 33, and 25 were recorded positive for S. aureus, E. coli, Shigella and Salmonella spp respectively. However, out of 50 sample, 34 (68%) were found to have different bacterial species and 16 (32%) were recorded wit...

Muhammad Ismail1, Tufail Ahmad2, Shamsher Ali2*, Shahid Ali1, Nur Ul Haq1 and Naveedullah3

Heavy Metals (Pb and Ni) Pollution as Affected by the Brick Kilns Emissions
...nalysis revealed AB-DTPA extractable Pb and Ni for chimney A and B as (0.11- 0.13, 14.2 and 15.0 mg kg-1) respectively. Here again the Pb and Ni do not show toxicity, yet it cannot be ignored for future with persistent addition. Likewise, the collected dust samples showed a huge load of pollution amounting to 23.8 to 46.0 g m-2 month-1 (dustfall 50 m away from chimney). The samples collected for dust indicated that Ni and Pb are absorbed by the surroundings at...

Khalil Ahmed1*, Amar Iqbal Saqib1, Abdul Rasul Naseem1, Ghulam Qadir1, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1, Muhammad Khalid2, Imtiaz Ahmad Warraich3 and Muhammad Arif4

Use of Hyacinth Compost in Salt-Affected Soils
...cal conductivity of soil extract) = 5.02 (dS m-1), GR (gypsum requirement) = 10.18 (t ha-1), BD (bulk density) = 1.66 (Mg m-3), HC (hydraulic conductivity) = 0.35 (cm hr-1). Rice and wheat, crops were grown in the rotation. Data analysis showed that gypsum and hyacinth compost remarkably improved the soil SAR, pHs, ECe, BD, HC, growth and yield characteristics of rice and wheat crops, however at the same time use of gypsum and hyacinth compost in combination p...

Iram Bilqees1, Yasir Iftikhar1, Mustansar Mubeen1,2*, Qaiser Shakeel3, Ashara Sajid1, Zahoor Hussain4, Aqleem Abbas2, Muhammad Aamir Sohail2, Judith Jeruto Kiptoo5 and Shehzad Iqbal2

Use of Nutrients and Plant Extract to Manage Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease (OYVMD) in Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...rent nutrients and plant extract. Plant extract and multi-nutrients were used to manage the disease to avoid the hazardous effect of chemicals on human health and being the eco-friendly. Four varieties of okra viz., Indian Rachna, Sabz Pari, Desi Bhindi, and Rama Krishna were grown under RCBD. Five treatments viz., 2% garlic extract, 2% multi-nutrients, silicon (1 and 1.5%) s and water as ...
Shahid Ali*, Aijaz Ali Channa, Waqar Ahmad, Rafia Akram and Imbasat Yousaf
...ical mutation and forced extraction, dam developed the signs of peritonitis, subcutaneous edema and labored breathing.
...

Arshad Ali Essani1, Bhai Khan Solangi1, Muhammad Ilyas Abro2, Sultan Ahmed3, Karim Bakhsh Sial3, Muhammad Saleem4, Ali Asghar Gola5, Ghulam Ali6, Moula Dad6, Mujeeb ur Rehman6, Habibullah Kakar6 and Mitha Khan6*

Comparative Efficacy of Botanical Pesticides against Sucking Insect Pests of Mustard Crop
...t sprayed with neem seed extract followed by plot sprayed with neem oil (24.47%), tobacco extract (22.00%) and akk plant extract (19.83). Neem seed extract showed higher efficacy (81.01%) against thrips population on mustard crop followed by neem oil (66.13%), tobacco extract (58.20%) and akk plant

Rabab Rafaqat1, Habib Ahmed Rathore1, Tariq Masud2, Imran Hayat1* and Imtiaz Hussain1

Determination of Different Chemical Constituents of Fruit, Leaves and Oil of Olea cuspidata (Wild Olive) Grown at Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
...ontent and nitrogen free extract of fruit and leaves were studied. Extracts of wild olive fruit and leaves were made in four different solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone and water). Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of fruit and leaves extracts in these solvents were determined. Oil was extracted from wild olive fruit by th...

Tahseen Ullah* and Noor ul Amin

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts
...s (low, 5 mg/ml and high extracts, 300 mg/ml) of these plants were evaluate against two different bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus subtilis and E. coli using disc diffusion method to uncover antibacterial potential of the plants extracts. The antibacterial investigation was performed in three replicates using disc diffusion technique using Nutrient Agar Media for the growth of B. subtilis and E. coli bacteria. The ANOVA for i...

Shaiza Rasool1, Iftikhar Ahmad1*, Khurram Ziaf1, Irfan Afzal2, Muhammad A.S. Khan1, Muhammad Aashir Sajjad1 and Muhammad Zain Ali1

Seed Conditioning Effects on Germination Performance, Seedling Vigor and Flower Production of Zinnia elegans
...iment, a 3% moringa leaf extract (MLE) showed the earliest (2.8 d) and the highest germination rate (90%) with an average root length of 4.2 cm. Hydro-priming resulted in the largest seedling fresh weight (0.8 g), seedling shoot length (5.8 cm), and seedling vigor index (980). The seedling vigor index was determined by multiplying the percent germination with the seedling length (cm). In the second experiment, seeds treated at 25 mT for 5 min. showed the highe...

Malik Abdul Rehman1, Shafqat Ali1, Muhammad Babar Shahzad Afzal1, Muhammad Nawaz Khan1 and Mujahid Ali2*

Efficacy of Chemicals and Botanical Extracts to Control Citrus Canker on Kinnow in Sargodha Region
...hemicals and plant-based extracts to find suitable chemicals against the canker in Kinnow. The study was carried out at the citrus farm of the Citrus Research Institute, Sargodha, Punjab-Pakistan during 2011-13 on ten-year-old bearing trees of Kinnow plants. There were nine treatments, control (no chemical was applied), Neemsol @ 5 ml, copper oxychloride @ 3 g, streptomycin sulphate @ 1 g, potassium acetyl benzoic acid @ 10 ml, difenoconazole @ 0.5 ml,

Muhammad Imran1,2*, Shahbaz Talib Sahi1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Amer Rasul3

Brown Leaf Spot: An Exacerbated Embryonic Disease of Rice: A Review
.... While, the use of phytoextracts and antagonist are considered to be safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective economically and biodegradable. The use of plant activators as another new strategy that activates the defense system of plants and reduces the disease. The plants which are scarce nutrients are more prone to disease as compared to nutrient deficient. The pathogen damage is compensating by a specific nutrient that reduces the disease through tolerance. Good...
Asmat Ullah1,2, Shahid Iqbal1,2 and Furhan Iqbal2*
...riegata’s leaf extract on selective aspects of albino mice behavior in a gender specific manner. Seven week old female and male albino mice were used as experimental animals. Mice were orally supplemented either with 300 mg/ml solvent/Kg of body weight Bauhinia variegata’s leaf extract or with saline solution (0.9% NaCl) for 17 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurologica...
Abida Parveen1, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Nazir Javed1, Anam Moosa1*, Khushboo Javaid1, Hina Safdar1 and Asma Safdar2
...nga oleifera L. (MO) extracts and Steinernema kraussei Steiner (SK) as stand-alone treatments and in combination was assessed to suppress the reproduction and development of MI. Highly susceptible variety of tomato cv. ‘Money Maker’ was tested for the invasion and development of MI. Aqueous and ethanolic MO extracts were tested in combination with SK at three different concentrations and time intervals...
Oluwatoyin Adenike Fabiyi1*, Olubumi Atolani2 and Gabriel Ademola Olatunji3
Toxicity Effect of Eucalyptus globulus on Pratylenchus spp. of Zea mays
...alyptus globulus ethanol extract fractions (ECSG/EtOH) showed moderate effect, while the chopped leaf materials used as soil amendment (ECSG/AMDM) exhibited the least potency among all the treatments. Spectroscopic analysis by GCMS revealed the presence of terpenoids and phenolics as major constituents of E. globulus. The essential oil showed the presence of 1,8-cineole (23.3%), citronella (18.1%), geranial (17.6%), isopulegol (10.4%), myrcene (13.0%), cuminal...
Muhammad Umer Khan1,2*, Muhammad Farooq Sabar1, Atif Amin Baig3, Arif-un-Nisa Naqvi4 and Muhammad Usman Ghani1
...unteers. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples and subjected to PCR amplification using specific primers for the control region of mtDNA (covering positions 16024–16569 and 1–576), including the three hypervariable segments (HVS1, HVS2, HVS3). The PCR products were subjected to cycle sequencing and further evaluated through computational analysis. A total of 75 different haplotypes were identified in Shin people; among them, 72 were un...

Syeda Farzana Bibi* and Siraj ud Din

Unraveling the Bioherbicidal Potential, Elemental Analysis and Nutritional Evaluation of Crataeva adansonii Dc Leaf and Bark
...toxic study of ethanolic extract of Crataeva adansonii DC. leaf and stem bark for assessment of its bioherbicidal potential. Elemental and nutritional analysis of the plant parts was also done to accentuate this plant’s use in the nutritional and agricultural industry. Elemental analysis of C. adansonii stem bark and leaf was assessed through atomic absorption spectrophotometry to detect ten essential macro and microelements, including Na, Ca, Co, Cd, Cu...
Ayesha Talib1,2, Khanzadi Nazneen Manzoor1, Wajahat Ali1, Maria Saeed1, Muhammad Asif Gondal1, Malik Badshah3 and Abid Ali Khan1*
...d from the aqueous fruit extracts of Ficus sycomorus and their physico-chemical properties as well as antimicrobial activity against Multidrug Resistant (MDR) bacteria is evaluated. The total formation of the Cu nanoparticles was observed visually with a color change and confirmed by the appearance of peak through UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis. The electron microscopy imaging revealed that the biogenic Cu nanoparticles were spherical in shape and had a d...
Zhi Chen1, Toshifumi Minamoto2, Longshan Lin3 and Tianxiang Gao4,*
... of aquatic species. DNA extracting was an indispensable process to employ this method. In eDNA extracting of macro-organisms, DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit was commonly used, but its price was about 80 RMB/sample, which was too expensive. Cheaper eDNA extraction kit was a potential aspect for improvement to expand further application of eDNA analysis. In order to examine some cheaper kits&r...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Shahzad Akbar1, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Mustaqeem2, Muhammad Luqman3, Ijaz Asghar4 and Muhammada Asam Riaz1
...size: small;">Methanolic extracts and essential oils of ten indigenous plant species were evaluated for their insecticidal and repellency potential against the subterranean termite Odontotermes obesus Ramb, a destructive insect pest of wooden infrastructures, agricultural crops, orchards and forest plantations. Standard filter paper disc method was used for both toxicity and repellency bioassays according to completely randomized design. The response of...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Afzal1,Muhammad Asam Riaz1,Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Luqman2, Mehar Zubair Shehzad1, Muhammad Bilal Tayyab1, Mujahid Tanvir1 and Saadia Wahid1
...nge of Pakistan. Acetone extracts (10%) of forty plant species were evaluated against Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri), armyworm (Spodoptera litura), house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus) and subterranean termite (Odontotermes obesus) using twig-dip, leaf-dip, aqueous exposure and filter paper-dip bioassay methods, respectively. Results revealed that the extracts of Mentha longifolia
Tafail Akbar Mughal1, Shaukat Ali1*, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1, Shumaila Mumtaz1, Samaira Mumtaz1, Ali Hassan1 and Syed Akif Raza Kazmi2
...he effects of an aqueous extract of Berberis lycium Royleroot bark on lipid profiles of Swiss albino mice in which diabetic phenotype was induced by alloxan. A single injection of Alloxan (150 mg/kg) was applied intravenously to induce diabetic phenotype. Alloxan induction raised the overall level of triglycerides, low density- lipids (LDLs), and cholesterol and reduced the level of high density lipids (HDLs). Oral administration of 200 mg/kg aqueous

Muhammad Shahzad Akbar, Farrukh Sajjad, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Luqman, Muhammad Asam Riaz and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed*

Field Evaluation of Promising Botanical Extracts, Plant Essential Oils and Differential Chemistry Insecticides against Subterranean Termites Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera: Termitidae)
...some promising botanical extracts (Dodonaea viscosa, Gardenia jasminoides and Nerium indicum), plant essential oils (Allium sativum, Citrus aurantium and Cymbopogon citratus) and differential-chemistry insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, emamectin, indoxacarb, pyriproxyfen and triflumuron) against subterranean termites (Odontotermes obesus) attacking sugarcane crop. Setts of sugarcane variety HSF555 were sown on the ridges under RCB design after t...
Li Yao1,2,3, AnQing Zhang1,2,3, HaiYan Zhang2, Jian Shao1,2,3, Ming Wen2,4, ChangAn Wang5, HaiBo Jiang1,2,3,* and Ming Li6,*
...liver (EUO) bark aqueous extract on growth performance and nutritional composition of rainbow trout (145.56 ± 4.12 g) (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed five different diets, including 0 (EUO-0), 5 (EUO-5), 10(EUO-10), 20 (EUO-20) and 40(EUO-40) g kg-1 EUO bark aqueous extract. The muscle lipid of fish in EUO-40 was significantly higher than that in other groups (p < 0.05), and fish in EUO-0 showed ...
Muhammad Riaz1*, Zahida Tasawar1, Muhammad Zaka Ullah2 and Zawar Hussain3
Parasitological and Molecular Survey on Theileriosis of Sheep and Goats and the Related Risk Factors in Musa Pak Shaheed Town, Multan, Pakistan
...eria piroplasms. DNA was extracted from collected samples and subjected to PCR amplification to determine ovine and caprine theileriosis. Through a questionnaire, the data regarding animals as well as herds characteristics were gathered to define the risk factors favors the spread of Theileria spp. infection. 24% and 8.5% Theileria infection identified through PCR and microscopic examination during present investigation. The PCR detected 14.5% and 9.5% Theiler...

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Waqas Wakil2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi3 and Waqas Raza1*

Influence of Resistance Inducers on Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Contents of Susceptible Chickpea Cultivars after Inoculation with Ascochyta rabiei
...hydroxide (KOH) or plant extracts of neem (A. indica A. Juss.), datura (D. metel L.) and garlic (A. sativum L.) were investigated 7 and 14 days after inoculation with Ascochyta rabiei. Elevated nitrogen (2.95%), potassium (1.05%) and potassium (533.00 ppm) contents in the tissues decreased disease severity (79.3%) in cv. C-44. These increases were significant (P ≤ 0.05) after 14 days of inoculation with plant pathogen in plants pretreated with chemicals. Th...

Muhammad Tariq Mahmood1*, Muhammad Akhtar2, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Saleem2, Ali Aziz2, Irfan Rasool2, Zeshan Ali3 and Muhammad Amin2

An Update on Biology, Extent of Damage and Effective Management Strategies of Chickpea Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera)
...l measures (use of plant extracts, virus/bacteria based insecticides). In case of pod borer outbreaks, chemical insecticides remain as last option for farmers. However, management of chickpea pod borer through use of resistant cultivars, adopting recommended cultural practices and biological control measures have been found more effective, economical, sustainable and eco-friendly.

...
Sana Mehmood1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1*, Muhammad Summer1, Sher Muhammad Sherawat2, Shaukat Ali1*, Sajida Naseem3
...ical identification, DNA extraction and sequencing. We identified 38 morph-species, representing 22 genera and 8 families. Accuracy of morphological identification was confirmed by barcode analysis of tissue samples. A standard barcode sequence of COI (Cytochrome c Oxidase I) was recovered from 90 specimens of spiders. Percentage accuracy of morphological identification was 92.10%. Four morphologically misidentified spiders were allotted to correct taxon after...

Muhammad Shahid1*, Unsar Naeem-Ullah1, Waheed S. Khan2, Shafqat Saeed1 and Kashif Razzaq3

Application of Nanotechnology for Insect Pests Management: A Review
...bacteria, viruses, plant extracts, fungi, and protein. This review article climaxes the latest mileposts accomplished for the production and imminent perspective of nanoparticles for the controlling of insect pests. 

...
Eslam Moradi-Asl1*, Behnam Mohammadi Ghalehbin2, Kamran Akbarzadeh3, Jafar Mohammad-Shahi4, Hajar Afshin4
...18 September 2019.Larvea extracted manually from thumb finger of left foot and sent to Medical Entomology Laboratory of the School of Public Health, Ardabil University of medical Sciences for identification. This case is a first time was reported from Ardabil province, northwest of Iran and the Diabetics, Blindness and Physical inability to protect the wound were the most important factors in wound myiasis in this report. 
Nasir Rashid1,2*, Javaid Iqbal1,2, Umar Shahbaz Khan1,2, Mohsin Islam Tiwana1,2 and Amir Hamza1,2
... processed using feature extraction approach and finally classified into movements using classification techniques. This research article mainly focuses on classification of motor movements recorded in the form of EEG signals of four limb movements. The database used in this study has already ben been utilized by the researchers earlier with different combinations of classification techniques based of feature extraction. The...
Javeria Afzal, Muhammad Abid, Faisal Hussain* and Alia Abbas
...reas of Karachi. Aqueous extracts (2, 6 and 10%) of these five plant species were made for the experiment. All selected plant species inhibited egg hatching and caused larval mortality. Maximum reduction (24.3%) in egg hatching was recorded in C. album stem extract at 2% concentration. The minimum reduction (0.33%) was observed in the leaf extract of A. viridis at 10% concent...
Faheem Ahmed Khan1*, Sarzamin Khan2, Qurat-ul-Ain3, Saqib Ishaq1Muhammad Salman1, Abdul Rehman1, Ikram Ullah4, Kalsoom5 and Johar Jamil5
...ctively. Utilizing yeast extract, peptone and dextrose maximum biomass was produced by S. cerevisiae isolate recovered from peach (SCP-1) i.e. 4.83 g/l. Using isolate SCP-1 higher biomass of S. cerevisiae was produced on sugarcane molasses (6.42 g/l) followed by orange peels. Microbial biomass produced on the sugarcane molasses was rich in crude proteins (56 %) followed by that from orange peels. Highest percentage of alanine (24.72%) and ...
Muhammad Ayub1*, Munir Hussain2, Sher Ahmad2, Syed Arif Hussain Rizvi3, Shahid Hussain1, Muhammad Qasim2, Muhammad Din2, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi4 and Tajudin2
...of white grub. Fermented extracts of four herbs Sophora alopecuroides, Artemisia sieversiana, Peganum harmalla and Tagetes minuta were evaluated against white grub under field conditions for two consecutive growing seasons during 2018 and 2019. The minimum per cent infestation, number of white grubs per plot, yield loss and maximum tuber yield was recorded in plots treated with S. alopecuroides fermented
Wenyou Huang1, Dan Yü1, Song Huang1,2, Jian Xiao2, Ping Qi2, Anhua Song2* and Zhen Huang1*
...ernatants and the EthOAc extracts derived from the MlUV-40b mutant were 1.2-3 times more potent than that of the wild type. A simple approach coupling mutagenesis and growth & second metabolites were used to isolate strains with increased stress resistance and virulence. Increased virulence in some of the mutants correlated with increased insecticidal activity in cell-free extracts that could potentially be used directly...
Muneer Abbas1*, Dilbar Hussain2, Muhammad Saleem2, Abdul Ghaffar2Sohail Abbas3, Niaz Hussain1 and Abdul Ghaffar1
...in based baits, D= plant extracts and E= A+B+C+D were used during 2015-16. Data of % infested fallen fruits, total flies/trap, total flies captured/year, % fruit punctures, pupal population, % fruit infestation and market value of fruits was collected at regular intervals. Results indicated that when all the components were applied in a combined way they gave significant reduction of fruit losses. As a result of continuous sanitation practices the fruit fall r...
Muhammad Naeem1,2, Nasir Rajput1,2, Sher Ali3, Asmatullah Kaka2, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro2, Mehvish Rajput2 and Tian Wang1,*
...an AH and CWR, the ether extract (EE) were higher and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were lower (P<0.05) in AH and TRS-II, while the crude protein (CP) were higher and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were lower (P<0.05) in AH than other groups. The concentration of acetate, butyrate and iso-butyrate were almost similar in TRS-II, AH and CWR; valeric and iso-valericwere lower (P<0.05) in CWR and TRS-I than AH and TRS-II, while the propionate a...

Saleem Maseeh Bhatti1*, Aslam Khan Gadehi1, Inayatullah Rajpar1, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro2, Mukesh Kumar Soothar1 and Zohaib Ur Rehman Bughio1

 

 

...pinach. In soil, the EC, extractable Na+ and soluble Cl- concentrations were greatly increased as a function of saline waters. Our findings suggest that the selected spinach genotypes may be irrigated with salt-water (up to 4 dS m-1) for an acceptable level of yield reduction (≤ 27%), however more preference be given to English spinach in saline environment.
...
Muhammad Qayash Khan1,2, Muhammad Zubair Anjum2, Muhammad Adnan3, Abbas Khan1, Hafsa Zahid1, Javed Nawab4, Sher Zaman Safi5Muhammad Ishaq Ali Shah6, Atif Kamil7 and Abid Ali1*
...ts mitochondrial DNA was extracted and subjected to molecular characterization by amplifying and sequencing the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene. The sequencing data revealed rich genetic diversity among fish specimens belonging to the genus Schizothorax. For the genus Tor, as was commonly believed of having two species (Tor putitora and Tor macrolepus), the sequencing data was not in agreement with the morphol...

Ahmad Ur Rahman Saljoqi, Muhammad Salim* and Iftikhar Ahmad 

 

...s aurantium L.) peel extract @ 5%, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extract @ 5%, neem oil @ 3%, green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea @ 3 eggs plant-1,were applied three times. A total of 30 plants in each treatment were selected randomly for the data collection at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days intervals. Peak population of thrips (51.27 plant-1) was noticed during the last week of April. Resu...
Sheza Shehzadi1, Mohammad Umar Farooq2*, Rukhsana Kausar1, Ijaz Ali1*, Muhammad Arshad Ullah3 and Maqbool Shahbaz4
...tent, crude fiber, ether extract, and total digestible nutrients. Significant results were obtained by applying ANOVA test on the data retrieved. All three factors (BP, CC and CS) showed maximum results after 60 days of growth. The result indicated that after the 60 days interval the animal unit per month gave the maximum fodder (7.0667 AU/M/Ha) that proposed to be grazed for large ruminants and then 21 small ruminants on the same biomass and also maximum fora...
Hagar E. Mohammed1, Ranwa A. Elrayess2 and Heba N. Gad El-Hak2*
...e rats with the combined extract of different doses of A. monosperma or M. piperita attenuated the deleterious damage to the testes, the sperm index and the sex hormones. This study indicated that the traditional use of these two herbs as a mixture has no effects on male reproductive health.
...
Haris Setiawan1, Aris Winaya1,*, Herwintono Herwintono1, Mulyoto Pangestu2 and Yayuk Kholifah3
 

Uwem E. George1, Oluwadamilola A. Arowolo2, Oluseyi A. Olayinka3, Ijeoma M. Ifeorah4, Temitope O.C. Faleye3,5, Bolaji Oluremi6, Arthur O. Oragwa7, Ewean C. Omoruyi8, Emmanuel E. Udoh9, Oluwadamilola G. Osasona1,10, Emmanuel Donbraye11, Olufunke P. Adeniji12, Olubusuyi M. Adewumi3,13* and Johnson A. Adeniji3,13,14

...uently, nucleic acid was extracted from the suspension and Illumina sequencing performed. ARGs in the raw reads were determined and assembled using the KmerResistance tool v2.2. From the 2,763,954 reads generated, 14 ARGs with statistically significant reads were identified. Precisely, 90.5% (12/14) of the ARGs detected target drugs that inhibit translation, of which 66.6% (8/12) were tetracycline resistance (TC-r) genes, while remaining 9.5% (2/14) inhibit ce...
Muhammad Farooq1*, Allah Rakha2,Jawad Ul Hassan2, Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi1, A. Shakoor3, Muhammad Bakhtiar4, Muhammad Noman Khan5,Shoaib Khan5, Ibrar Ahmad6, Shabir Ahmed7 andWang Yunyang1*
 

...de fat and nitrogen free extract of muffin were non-significant and effect on ash and crude fiber were significant when 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% mushroom powder based muffin were prepared. The effect of mushroom powder supplementations on loaf weight of muffin was significant and resulted in gradual decrease. However, the effect on loaf volume of muffins was non-significant. The effects of mushroom powder on texture and color value of muffin were highly signi...

Oluseyi A. Olayinka1, Temitope O.C. Faleye2, Oladipo O. Omotosho3, Oladapo A. Odukaye3, Bolaji Oluremi4, Ibipeju H. Ibitoye1, Oludayo O. Ope-Ewe1, Uwem E. George5, Oluwadamilola A. Arowolo6, Ijeoma M. Ifeorah7, Ewean C. Omoruyi8, Emmanuel Donbraye9, Olufunke P. Adeniji10, Olubusuyi M. Adewumi1,11* and Johnson A. Adeniji1,11,12

...ubjected to nucleic acid extraction, cDNA synthesis and Illumina sequencing. Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) in the raw reads were determined and assembled using the Kmer Resistance tool v2.2. From the 2,974,257 reads generated, 21 ARGs with statistically significant reads were identified. Almost all targeted broad-spectrum antibiotics with over 50% targeting Tetracyclines. Five (ant(6)-Ia_3, tet(40)_1, tet(Q)_1, tet(W)_5 and tet(O/W)_4) of the ARGs were pr...

Memoona Tehseen1, Sajila Hina2*, Alim-un-Nisa2 and Naseem Zahra2

... efficacy of the spinach extract was evaluated by addition in sunflower oil (SFO) as natural antioxidant. Three different concentrations of spinach extract, SFO-800, SFO-1600 and SFO-2400 ppm were supplemented to sunflower oil at 25oC and 60oC along with standard synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxianisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The stabilization of sunflower oil with spinach extr...

Safdar Hussain1, Muhammad Naeem Mushtaq5, Ali Bakhsh3, Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Muhammad Sarwar1, Muhammad Jan4*, Muhammad Abdul Qayyum2 and Arif Husain2

...wth regulators and plant extracts. Wheat genotypes (Triple dwarf-1, Aas-2011; Faisalabad- 2008) were exposed to critical drought stage. The plants were exposed to normal irrigation, application of bio stimulants like 2µM ABA, 10 mM SA, 15% MLE and 10% MBLE were applied at grain filling stage but skipping irrigation. Maximum growth related parameters were observed by applying full irrigation. Comparing the bio stimulants application, the application of AB...

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Waqas Wakil2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi3, Waqas Raza1* and Mahmood Ahmad Randhawa4

...trend was shown by plant extracts where in neem extract induced higher amino acid contents. The cultivar C-44 responds efficiently as compared with other two cultivars. The results of the current study showed that amino acids play significant role in resistance and susceptibility of chickpea cultivars against A. rabiei.

...

Raza Ullah Khan1*, Ahmad Khan1, Mohammad Zameer Khan1, Fayyaz Hussain1, Zafar Islam2 and Muhammad Asad Hameed2

...ntial to be used for the extraction of humic substance, a macroorganic molecule. The humic substances were extracted quantified and characterized using techniques such as spectrophotometer, High Performance Liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis showed the presence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites. The Fourier infrared spectroscopy analysis sho...
Aneeqa Saleem1, Muhammad Islam1, Hamid Saeed1* and Mehwish Iqtedar2
...ts of both peel and pulp extractives of Cucumis melo L., in mice model of nephrolithiasis. Extractives of peel and pulp were obtained using hot and cold methods. Ethylene glycol (0.75% V/V) was used IP for 10 days to develop mice model of nephrolithiasis. Extracts were administered at a dose of 400 µg/g for 11 – 21 days. Outcome measures included serum creatinine, uric a...
Chaman Ara1*, Asmatullah1, Saima Hanif1, Shagufta Andleeb2, Beenish Zahid3 and Madeeha Arshad4
...eutic potential of onion extract against aluminum (Al) induced toxicity in male albino mice, Mus musculus. Eighty, 8-9 week old mice were divided randomly into eight groups, each containing 10 mice and exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations (37.5µg/g; 18.7µg/g; 9.37µg/g B.W) of aluminum, with and without onion extract. Control and antidote groups were treated with distilled water and onion equous...

Bushra Baig and Saeeda Yousaf*

...nd aphid).The methanolic extracts of Black pepper and Neem were analyzed for identification of phytochemicals by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The result showed that Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Terpenoids and Phenolic compounds were found both in Black pepper and Neem.Quantitative analysis indicated 21 active componentsin Black pepper which were dominated byCaryophyllene (32.3%), Delta-3-carene (18.7%) and Cinene(15.5%). Neem showed 17 active...
Mohammed  Akinlabi Rufai1*, Abideen Akinkunmi Wahab2, Kamil Ayo Fasasi1, Quadri Olusegun Adeshina1 and Mary Tolulope Awotidebe1
...tion method of nematodes extraction. The five different concentrations of H. bacteriophora were made in distilled water (µg/l); one sample not treated with nematode was served as control. Biocidal efficacy was achieved by collecting soil samples, sterilized and kept into experimental plastic plates labelled as A, B, C, D, and E. This was further divided by weight into five equal portions labelled as A1-A5, B1-B5, C1-C5, D1-D5, and E1-E5, respectively. Th...

Qaiser Shakeel1*, Rabia Tahir Bajwa1­, Yasir Iftikhar2, Mustansar Mubeen2, Muhammad Luqman3, Waqas Ashraf1 and Ifrah Rashid4

...tion consisting of crude extracts of different plants and fungicides were performed for determination of antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum, a plant pathogenic fungi responsible for ginger soft rot. Petri dish were used to conduct bioassay through poisoned food technique with triplicates. The crude extract of all the plants showed a better inhibitory effects on the pathogen’s (P. digitatum) mycelial grow...

Khan Tamoor1*, Hafsa1 and Hanif Maryam2

...chistan, Pakistan. Crude extracts, essential oils and fixed oil of these selected plants were tested separately. The crude extracts of Z. multiflora and F. oopoda showed higher mortality as compared to A. santolina and N. cateria. The results showed a maximum mortality of 76% by Z. multiflora and F. oopoda at highest dose of 3 g/ liter which was followed by 72% of N. cateria and 49% by A. santolina at the same dose. However,...

Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Sana Majeed1, Muhammad Arshad1, Nimra Altaf1, Muhammad Luqman2, Asad Abdullah1 and Muhammad Afzal3

...e). The P. hysterophorus extract at 50 mg concentration was comparable to the alone application of emamectin benzoate in terms of reduced digestibility and survival of S. litura. Overall, 42.7% relative consumption rate (RCR), 74.3% efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), 72.3% efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), 87.5% relative growth rate (RGR), 11.04% approximate digestibility (AD), and 47.6% assimilation rate (AR) were reduced after ap...

Rahat Rukhsana1, Shahnaz Rashid2, Asma Fatima2, Owais Iqbal Khan3, Syed Babar Hussain Shah4, Mumtaz Ali4 and Ghulam Abbas2*

...ned by using the acetone extraction technique. Ponds water sample (50 liters) was filtered through plankton net of 20 µm pore size and preserved in 4% formaldehyde for the analysis of phytoplankton. Subsequently, the phytoplankton were counted under microscope. Result showed that water quality parameters of all fish farms were suitable for farming purpose excluding Shamimul Hassan Farm, Fish Farm Green Co. and Ghulam Ali Nizamani Farm, where high level o...

Weenghar Ali Chandio1, Tajnees Pirzada1*, Abdul Majid2 and Farzana Rashid3 

...objective of this was to extract and characterize humic acid (HA) from agriculture soil and to investigate its effect on wheat (Triticum indicum) seed growth. HA was conventionally extracted from soil sample of agriculture lands of Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan by International Humic Substance Society method and confirmed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and characterized by spectral features obtained by using different techniques suc...

Samra Aftab1, Saleem Ullah1 and Farida Anjum2*

...ultures and their enzyme extracts to check their effect on cellulose hydrolysis. Microbes were isolated from soil by using serial dilution method and were selected on efficiency basis (screening of microbes on the basis of their activities as cellulose degrading agents). The cellulose and related constituent of saw dust and sugarcane bagasse showed that cellulose (49 %), hemicelluloses (23.5 %) and ash (1.8 %) were higher in sugarcane bagasse, while lignin (7....
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Irfan Shahzad Sheikh1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Khalid Mehmood1, Rana Muhammad Bilal2 and Tauseef Asmat1
...fects of ethanolic crude extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and jir (Artemisia scoparia) on the performance of broiler chickens. The study used 120 unsexed Hubbard one day old broiler chicks randomly divided into three groups of 40 chicks that were each further divided into four replicates of ten chicks. Extracts were introduced at 200 mg/Kg as feed supplement to two groups of broilers and the third group was ...
Hesham M. Abd El Halim1, Maysa M. Hegazy1,2, Aishah Alatawi3, Imtiaz Ali Khan4 and Munawar Saleem Ahmad5*
...ize: small;">Since plant extracts have long been known to be chitin inhibitor and agents for developmental arrest, chitinase genes and genes that are vital for starting the differentiation program of cells at discrete steps during development are major targets for biocide plant extracts. The current study evaluates the in vitro toxic effects of golden piller (Cupressus macrocarpa) and galangal (Alpinia officinarum<...

Fahrauk Faramayuda1,2*, Totik Sri Mariani3, Elfahmi1,4 and Sukrasno1

...The profiling of ethanol extracts of callus of two varieties O. aristatus were carried out using solvent system toluene-ethyl acetate- formic acid-water (3:3:1:0.2).  The results of monitoring TLC suggest that callus obtained from Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) media can proceed to the suspension culture stage because it showed brighter fluorescence spot than other callus and plant extracts, especially for rosmarinic acid....

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

June

Vol. 37, Iss. 2, Pages 331-713

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