Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

 

Life Sciences International Journal Issue 7 Volume 1
...ature of circulating FMD virus, samples were collected from suspected outbreaks in Southern Punjab. The virus was primarily detected with RT-PCR with P1/P2 and 1F/1R universal primer pairs directly from field samples including tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using ser...

Sehrish Kanwal, Ali Saeed, Muhammad Munir, Memoona Arshad

 

British Journal of Virology
...ature of circulating FMD virus, samples were collected from suspected outbreaks in Southern Punjab. The virus was primarily detected with RT-PCR with P1/P2 and 1F/1R universal primer pairs directly from field samples including tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using ser...

Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology
... 

...

Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
...he mosquito-borne Dengue virus is one of the pathogens benefitting from this. The related virus Japanese encephalitis virus is the most important cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in the world, and is maintained in avian reservoirs and amplified by pigs. The occasional spill-over of the virus into humans results in more than 60 000 clinical cases of J...

Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

British Journal of Virology
...ature of circulating FMD virus, samples were collected from suspected outbreaks in Southern Punjab. The virus was primarily detected with RT-PCR with P1/P2 and 1F/1R universal primer pairs directly from field samples including tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using ser...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...reaks of avian influenza viruses (AIV) of subtype H5N1 in poultry since 2008. Since then, these viruses continue to evolve. In 2006-2008, outbreaks were reported mostly during the winter season, but in 2009-2012 they occurred year round. H5N1 AIV succeeded in infecting not only domesticated birds but also many other avian species and mammals. Infections of humans were accompanied by mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protei...

Lei Chen, Ling Zhu, Zhi-Wen Xu, Wan-Zhu Guo

 

Molecular Genetics of Aichivirus C (Porcine Kobuvirus) in China
...p>

 

...

Reviewed by Rick Repetti, Kingsborough Community College, CUNY; Email: Rick.Repetti@kbcc.cuny.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
...n calls “the faith virus.” It is replete with pithy aphorisms, guidelines, strategies, talking points, dialectical examples and analyses of real-life “interventions” designed to progressively tutor armies of atheist evangelists in the art of demolishing faith, which Boghossian claims is “pretending to know things one doesn’t know.”

...

Yanina Panzera1*, Nicolas Sarute1, Lucia Carrau1, Jaime Aldaz2, Ruben Perez1

....

...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

... subtype avian influenza virus (H9N2 AIV), which has been in circulation for two decades, has become the predominant subtype in China, attracting considerable attention due to human infections and the contribution of internal genes to H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses. Multiple H9N2 AIV genotypes have been identified from various species, including birds and mammals. H9N2 AIVs could spread through water, air, and live bird mar...

Nicola J. Stonehouse

...f foot-and-mouth disease virus. The aptamers are able to inhibit the function of the enzyme both in vitro and in the context of a sub-genomic replicon and highlight the future potential of this technology in many aspects of virus research as well as in diagnostics and therapeutics.

...

Kathryne E. Taylor1 and Karen L. Mossman1,2*

...tein from herpes simplex virus is complex and frequently contradictory, meaning that although this protein has been implicated in a wide variety of diverse functions, the mechanisms through which it produces these effects continue to be elusive. Recent investigations into the ability of ICP0 to block the activation of antiviral signaling have revealed a potential explanation for some of this confusion – namely, that ICP0 has important functions in the cy...

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...certain known strains of virus or bacterium are present through deliberate inoculation with a particular virus strain or bacterial species and being maintained free of unwanted microbiota in sterile isolators. The sterile surgical derivation and gnotobiotic status of the pigs allow studies of the infection, disease and immune responses caused by a specific pathogen in the absence of interfering maternal antibodies, other mat...

Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

...a is a disease caused by viruses of the genus Pestivirus in cattle worldwide. Herein, we present the current status of the disease in Brazil showing its nation-wide distribution. In Brazil, BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and ‘HoBi’-like viruses are frequently reported whereas BVDV-2 has a higher frequency when compared with other continents. It is important to reinforce that currently Brazil h...

Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

...ically important morbillivirus infection of sheep and goats, is widely distributed in Middle East, Central and South Asia, China and Africa. Whereas PPR antibodies were first reported in Kenyan small stock as early as 1995, the clinical disease was observed later in 2006 following dramatic and devastating PPR outbreaks in Turkana County. In this context, an outbreak of PPRV was observed in Tukana County in 2011 and the current study detail the clinical, pathol...

James Ayukepi Ayukekbong1,2

E-mail | james.ayukekbong@microbio.gu.se

...ecific therapeutics. The virus and its vector are widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics regions of the world. Dengue and malaria are endemic in Nigeria. Two independent studies among febrile patients revealed dengue IgG seroprevalence of 73% and malaria prevalence of 80% in some areas of the country. The diagnosis of the disease is further complicated by the fact that, dengue fever mimics malaria fever and the prevalence of dengue-malaria co...

Weili Kong1, Guangpeng Ma2 and Jinhua Liu1*

...e virulence of influenza virus by multiple mechanisms. Due to C-terminal ‘tail’ (CTT) truncation of NS1, there are length variation types of NS1 in different subtype influenza viruses. CTT functions in several ways to defeat the cellular innate immune responses. Here, we discuss those different effects of CTT truncation or elongation of NS1 protein in different genetic backgrounds of influenza experimentations. C...

Muhammad Ashraf Khan1, Hizbullah Khan1, Abid Farid2

...rmigera nu- cleopolyhedrovirus (HaNPV) applied to eggs of Sitotroga cerealella Olive, on emergence of and para- sitism by female Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) emerged from HaNPV- treated host eggs. The percent emergence (mean) of tiny parasitoid from host eggs treated during egg, larval and pupal stages with the virus at field dose (x), 2x dose, and 0.5x dose ranged from 83.2- 87.3%, 87.1- 91.6%, and 83.7- 89.7%, respectivel...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

...ste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a highly contagious disease in both domestic and wild small ruminants, and in camels. Based on sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) gene, the PPRV has been classified into four lineages. Serological investigations in Tanzania indicate that peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was introduced in 2004 in Ngorongoro district bordering Ken- ya before official confirmation of the disease in most districts of Northern Ta...

Paulo Eduardo Brandao

...als in inhibiting rabies virus intracellular cycle both in vitro and in vivo, and the high failure rate of this treatment in human patients, the use of RNA interference (RNAi) for Post-transcriptional Gene Silencing (PTGS) has witnessed an increasing interest from those concerned with a cure for rabies, inspired on the success obtained for other viral diseases. This review is intended to present the current situation of RNAi against rabies, as well as insights...

Nayle Maria Oliveira da Silva1*, Ricardo do Carmo Zanella2

 

...: justify; ">Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a serious public health issue, and it is estimated that 3% of the world’s population is infected with the virus. Patients in hemodialysis units have an increased risk for contracting HCV, and high prevalence rates have been found in hemodialysis units around the world. HCV induces chronic liver disease, which is characterized by a persistent hepatic parenchyma inflammatory proces...

Qingzhong Yu

 

...of the Newcastle disease virus. Recently, inserting a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene upstream from the GE sequences of the viral genes and subsequent quantitative measurements of the GFP fluorescence intensity, we have concluded that the P and M junction region is the optimal insertion site for a high level of foreign gene expression by a NDV vector.

...

Suresh V Kuchipudi* and Kin-Chow Chang

 

...e to immune response and virus pathogenesis are increasingly recognized. Recent evidence strongly indicated that skeletal muscle cells fully support productive replication of influenza A virus (IAV) and could play an important role in disease outcome. We are of the opinion that skeletal muscle could be a key innate immune tissue/organ in the pathogenesis of influenza and other systemic viral infections which warrants further...

Galina N. Leonova1*, Ilya G. Kondratov2, Sergei I. Belikov2

 

...ics of three Louping ill virus (LIV) strains in the south of the Russian Far East isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks and one strain was isolated from the blood of a person after a tick bite. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains are related to LI/A and LI/K strains isolated in England and Scotland.

 

...

Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

...ity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the major determinants for the clinicopathological manifestations in infected hosts. Recent studies showed that the host innate immune responses to infection play important role in the pathologenesis of NDV, and correlate with the severity of the clinical disease. Virulent strains of different genotypes induce distinct pathological manifestations in chicken organs, especially in lymphoid tissues. Genotype VIId of ...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is a major concern for the swine industry and causes high degrees of morbidity and mortality. The intracellular signalling cascades of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immune dysfunction. Studies of the innate immune responses to...

Hai-Bo Wang, Qiu-Hua Mo, Ze Yang*

...ion of diarrhoea related viruses. This mini review overviewed the basic principle of RT-NASBA and discussed the significance of these new findings.

...

Huaichang Sun

...lign: justify;">Many RNA viruses undergo rapid mutations which compromises the immune protection of conventional vaccines. RNA interference (RNAi) has becoming a feasible strategy against various virus infections. Recently, a significant advance in RNAi technology is the use of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) to fight virus infections. However, different strategies are needed to prevent

Guoyi Li1, Haiyan Tong1, Jiansheng Chen2, Jinliang Wei2, Xiaoming Zhao2, Guoping Zhang2, Zixue Shi2*

E-mail | shizixue@gmail.com

.... It is caused by the JE virus (JEV), which belongs to the family Flaviviridae. JEV is endemic to many parts of East Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia, where periodic outbreaks take thousands of lives. With rapid globalisation and climatic shift, JEV has started to emerge in previously unaffected areas. Scientific evidences show that JEV would remain a global pathogen and might cause worldwide pandemics. Currently, more research is required to be app...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...n: justify;">Hepatitis E virus is a foodborne and waterborne virus commonly transmitted faecal-orally and through the transplacenta. Hepatitis E virus is one of the viruses that causes acute and self-limiting infection with a high risk of developing chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised individuals usually leading to liver cirrhosis. Individuals living ...

Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye1, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji1, 2 *

...re subjected to panenterovirus 5l-UTR, partial VP1 and EV-C-3Dpol/3’-UTR PCR assays, amplicons sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Both sites yielded two isolates each on MCF-7 cell line while on RD cell line one site yielded one and the other seven isolates. None of the twelve isolates replicated on L20B cell line. All were positive for both the panenterovirus 5l-UTR and partial VP1 PCR reactions while o...

Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco1*, Gaby Dolz1, Danilo Montero-Caballero2, Juan Jose Romero-Zuniga2

...odies against bluetongue virus (BTV) by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 290 sheep from fourteen different flocks, distributed in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar, and Central Pacific) determining regional seropositivity between 63.5% and 100.0%, as well as an overall prevalence of 80.8 %. The within flock seropositivity percentages ranged between 0% and 100.0%. Flocks with...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...cause they are enveloped viruses. Disinfection against avian influenza viruses at the poultry farms would significantly reduce and/or limit the chance for its transmission and outbreaks. Many disinfectants have been evaluated for their inactivation ability, but there is still a need for their evaluation under different conditions and in different ways. In the present study, representative disinfectants from ch...

Shumaila Manzoor1, Afshan Ahmed1 and Muhammad Abubakar2*

...r foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) structural antibodies detection in terms of their sensitivity and specificity. These methods were performed by using set of sera collected from cattle with foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. The pattern of antibody titers in animals of different age groups was observed as less than 1 year, 1-2 years and more than 2 years for both ELISA and SNT. The peak immune response measured by SNT was 2.8log

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...ansmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and identification of the main breeding sites of Culicoides. From April 2009 to March 2010, the study was carried out at 14 sites distributed across the country. Results indicated that the two most abundant Culicoides species were Culicoides imicola (94.2-95.85%) and Culicoides newsteidi (2.21-2.72%). The rate of prevalence of these species was bi-phasic and higher from April to June, and October to Nove...

Tomas Jinnerot1*, Karin Malm1, Erik Eriksson1 and Jonas Johansson Wensman2

E-mail | Tomas.Jinnerot@sva.se

...various respiratory viruses and co-infection can exacerbate the clinical signs. CIRD is highly contagious and can spread rapidly, especially among dogs in close quarters. Fast and accurate diagnostics enables the selection of proper management. Our objective was to develop a sensitive and specific real-time PCR for detection of B. bronchiseptica in samples from dogs with respiratory signs. A genome comparison program was used ...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

...ed alongside metagenomic virus discovery. The field of metagenomics from clinical specimens promises the identification of novel, yet unknown, infectious diseases and etiologies.

...

 Shubhada K Chothe, Bhushan M Jayarao and Suresh V Kuchipudi

...infections. Cellular and virus encoded lncRNAs are emerging as novel regulatory factors which can escape the anti-protein environment in the virus infected cells and are likely to be conserved across the species. Here, we summarize our current knowledge about the role of lncRNAs in influenza virus infection and the exciting prospect of exploiting lncRNAs as targets to develop novel anti-vi...

Kang-Seuk Choi

...ous bursal disease (IBD) virus-like particles (VLPs) comprising only viral capsid proteins mimic the naive configuration of authentic IBD virus particles. The VLPs show intrinsic immunogenicity and a high safety profile.  Thus, VLPs are considered one of the most promising approaches to vaccine development and are an alternative to inactivated IBD vaccines. In addition, VLP technology has many applications. This paper r...

Rongfei Lu1, 2, Zhiyang Liu1, Peng Fang1, Guangyi Chen1, Feng Sun1, Yongjian Fan1, Yijun Zhou1, Tong Zhou1*

... in the current field of virus detection and disease dynamics.  The validity and the reliability of generated data can be enhanced significantly appropriate measures. As a standard for the relative expression of target genes, the selection of reference genes is crucial. This review describes the history of the RT-qPCR technology, emphasizes the importance of reference genes and enumerates several algorithms to screen reference genes to normalize the RT-qP...

Jonas Johansson Wensman1*a, Karl-Johan Leuchowius2,3 a, Jiting Yan1, Anna-Lena Berg4, Liv Bode5, Hanns Ludwig5, Sandor Belak6, Ulf Landegren2, Ola Soderberg2, Mikael Berg6

... justify;">Borna disease virus type 1 (BDV) comprises highly conserved neurotropic non-segmented negative strand RNA-virus variants causing neurological and behavioral disorders in a wide range of mammalian animals, possibly including humans. Viral persistence in the brain has been frequently observed, however, the exact mechanisms behind BDV’s ability to establish persistence despite a prominent immune response are no...

Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

...;">Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is generally a noncytopathogenic virus in cell cultures. The development of reporter CSFV has provided an excellent option to directly detect viral replication without the use of secondary labeling. This mini-review discusses the applications of reporter CSFV in the study of CSFV biology, including efficiently screening the antivirals against CSFV and viral receptors, conveniently tracki...

Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

...zoonotic disease and the virus is transmitted mainly to the humans through hard tick bite and direct contact with blood of the infected animal. The occurrence of CCHF outbreak in Pakistan is increased quite significantly near Eid-ul-Adha. Haemorrhages are the major signs of this fatal disease. No treatment of CCHF is available currently but Ribavirin antiviral drug is used to cure this disease. There is currently no commercially available vaccine for this dise...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El Naggar2, Ahmed M. Helal3, Hussein Ahmed Hussein1 and Neil LeBlanc4

...ns of the pigeon paramyxovirus type I (PPMV-1) from pigeon in Egypt during 2014. Pathotyping, based on the mean death time (86 hours) in eggs and the intracerebral pathogenicity index (1.2), and the amino acid motif, (112KRQKR116), at the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein indicated the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of the F and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes indicated that the isolate clustered with the PPMV-1 strains recen...

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...ss="s1">Aleutian disease virus (ADV) infection in mink typically cause hypergammaglobulinemia, plasmacytosis and immune complex disease. Due to lack of success in eradicating Aleutian disease (AD) by stamping out, a new strategy for disease control with focus on evaluation of disease progression has been proposed. For estimation of antibodies in serum and dried blood samples collected from mink, a VP2 ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

Moustafa Kardjadj

...ntly, 3 serotypes of FMD virus (O, A and SAT-2) and 06 lineage are circulating in the North Africa, of which serotype O is responsible for most of the outbreaks. However, the rapid spread of SAT2 and other exotic FMDV lineages in Libya and Egypt demonstrated the need for a robust surveillance system to detect and respond effectively to exotic infections. Emergence and re-emergence of FMD ...

Mohammed M. Islam1, 3 *, Damian F. J. Purcell2 and George Kannourakis1,3

...icient identification of viruses is paramount to not only define the cause of uncharacterized infections but also to estimate the dynamics of viral population in the infected hosts. Several recent methodologies and chemistries have been proposed for viral diagnostics with variable outcomes and successes. In this review, we discuss a novel approach to identify the least transcripts of viral genomes using suppression subtractive hybridization that can be adapted...

Ashley C. Banyard1* and Satya Parida2

...des petits ruminants virus causes an economically important disease of small ruminants that causes extensive livestock losses across areas where it is endemic. Further the recent description of the disease in naïve populations of animals have demonstrated an expansion of the distribution of the disease. Having been in the shadow of rinderpest virus for decades little is understood regarding factors that influence th...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...tion of a single lineage virus and most importantly effective planning and implementation of the vaccination programme. Sharing the experiences on the PPR control strategies adopted by some of the states in India may motivate other Indian states or other countries of similar socio-economic and small ruminant rearing pattern to vaccinate and control PPR.

...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important plague of sheep and goats that serves as a major constraint in the development of the small ruminant’s production within an infected area. The virus is endemic across much of the developing world and has spread into the developed European borders. The small ruminants industry within an infected state or region is often disproportionately affected wi...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud1, Muaz Abdellatif 2, 3*, Luai Shazali1

...s petits ruminants (PPR) virus antibodies in sheep, goats and camels at Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples (n=400), collected during 2012–2013 from sick and clinically healthy herds, were subjected to antibodies detection using c-ELISA. Out of examined animals, 83 (62.9%) goats and 70 (33.2%) sheep were detected positive against PPRV antibodies, whereas camels appeared to be seronegative. Based upon the seasonal variations in t...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...p caused by a morbillivirus of the family paramyxoviridae is a major threat to small ruminant farming. Global announcement of PPR eradication by 2030 has opened lot of research gaps for the development of vaccines and diagnostics for differentiating infected and vaccinated animals. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, recombinant protein based vaccines and/or diagnostics are being tested in various heterologous systems across the globe ...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

...and characterize the PPR virus (PPRV) circulating in Bangladesh. Twelve local isolates of Bangladeshi PPRV were successfully detected from post mortem samples (lymph node, spleen and trachea) of goats and a sheep during the year 2008-2012. The partial N gene of ten isolates and partial F gene of eight isolates were amplified by RT-PCR, and were sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that PPRVs circulating in Bangladesh belonged to Lineage IV and they fo...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...s of PPR. The active PPR virus (PPRV) infection was confirmed by antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR in both swab and body tissue samples. The molecular characterization revealed clustering of the PPRV within lineage IV with significant substitutions in the nucleoprotein (NP) gene. Genetic variations within NP gene, and possibly in other proteins which are essentially mediating protective immunity, may explain the extreme infectious nature of the

Hassan Tarik Atmaca

...molecular biology of the virus and to consolidate national and international strengths to eradicate the disease from the planet. This Editorial highlights recent research articles and reviews that have provided up-to-date and current research trends in the field to further facilitate disease eradication campaigns. 

...

 Shaoling Lin and Jiamiao Hu

...pUL23 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays an important in the virus pathobiology, however, its role in viral assembly and replication is poorly defined. In this study we demonstrated that HCMV pUL23 interacts with an essential component of capsid, the minor capsid protein (mCP, pUL85). Interaction was determined and confirmed with yeast two-hybrid, GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. This interaction may ser...

Adedeji A.J, Sati N.M, Pewan S.B, Ogbu K.I, Adole J.A, Lazarus D.D, Ijiwo S.J, Okpanachi A, Nwagbo I.O, Joannis, T.M and Abdu P.A

...nfectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). As part of investigation to screen for co-infection of CIA and IBD in the flock, the BF was also screened for the presence of chicken anemia virus (CAV) using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IBDV antigen was detected by AGID while CAV by PCR. This confirms the diagnosis of concurrent infection of CIA and IBD in the affected flock. This is the first case report of a concurr...

Taghreed A. Hafiz1, Murad A. Mubaraki1*, Mohamed A. Dkhil2,3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy2

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...ste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the causal agent of a highly contagious disease that affects domestic and wild small ruminants, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Due to the important economical losses caused by this virus in Africa and Asia, the development of more effective, targeted and successful treatments for the disease are necessary. Like other Morbilliviruses, PPRV induces...

Giselle R.R. Ayres* and Brandão P.E

...genes.

...

Hira Akhter1, Bilal Aslam2*, Naveed Shahzad3, Tanzeela Farooq4, Muhammad Umer5 and Muhammad Hidayat Rasool2

...s against H9N2 influenza viruses and its molecular detections in asymptomatic commercial layers from Faisalabad district of Punjab, Pakistan. Overall 120 blood samples, 24 tissue samples from each organ (trachea, lung and intestine) were collected from the 12 commercial layer flocks selected randomly at the age of 35-50 weeks without any direct clinical manifestation of avian influenza. Serum collected from 120 birds was tested for antibodies against H9N2 by u...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole, Oloke Julius Kola and Awoyelu Hilda Elukunbi

...alth.

...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...ste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important disease of small ruminants that causes extensive livestock losses across areas where it is endemic. A serological survey on the prevalence of antibodies to PPRV was carried out in sheep and goats of Jatoi and surrounding areas in Muzaffargarh districts South Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 965 serum samples were collected from sheep and goat’s farms from January to December 2015 with n...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

... petits ruminant’s virus (PPRV) causes a highly contagious disease in both domestic, wild ruminants and camels. Sera from non-vaccinated sheep (n=683), goats (n=624) and camels (n=155) of all ages and sexes were collected in a cross-sectional study in Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah. Saudi Arabia. The seroprevalece was determined by NP-epitopes based competitive ELISA. The overall prevalence was 59.9%, goats had a significantly higher sero-prevalence of...
Farkhanda Manzoor1, Iram Amin2,*, Muhammad Shahid2,Samia Afzal2,Hania Ramzan1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah2 and Muhammad Idrees3
...identification of dengue virus from larvae of Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) by using PCR. During this study, larvae of A. aegypti and A. albopictus were collected from different localities of Lahore during May to September of 2012 to 2014. RNA extracted from each mosquito larvae pool was tested by nested PCR for detection of dengue virus. Out of total 50 pools of Aedes aegypti ...
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
...es for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) requires continuous disease surveillance and understanding of field NDV strains. The NDVs, a prototype of Avian Paramyxoviruses (APMV-1), have been reported previously both in chicken and feral birds (natural reservoirs) in Pakistan; however, their molecular characterization is largely inadequate and requires continuous evaluation. In this study, sequencing and molecular analysis of fusio...

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

...nfectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus, a dsRNA virus that causes an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The first line of defence against the virus is innate immunity whose activation is independent of the antigen and depends on the ability of the host to recognize pathogens by mean...

Pam D Luka, Frank N Mwiine, Bitrus Yakubu, Joseph Erume, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez, Hermann Unger and David Shamaki

...disease is caused by ASF virus (ASFV), the only DNA virus with an arthropod vector of the genus Ornithodoros, involved in its transmission. Tick involvement has been reported in Europe, East and Southern Africa to be part of ASFV transmission cycles. Ticks in an ASFV infected area have been reported to influence the emergence of genetic variation and long-term persistence of the virus in a...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
...l transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in the Aedes mosquitoes and its (DENV) transmission through other factors mainly tyres trade. DENV was detected in Aedes aegypti (57%) and Aedes albopictus (43%) adults (n=1050) and larvae (n=550). The samples were collected from four (Shuba Bazaar, Tarnab Farm, Wazir Bagh and Hayat Abad) dengue suspected locations of district Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. A semi-nested multiplex PCR wa...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
... are threatened by plant viruses worldwide as they hack the host machinery for their reproduction. Plants have undergone continuous evolution and have equipped themselves with counter defense and tolerant strategies against viral infections. In the 21st century, considerable progress has been made in understanding the available natural resistance in plants against viral threats. The review aims to explain the molecular mechanisms involved in trigger...
... of books on the mononegaviruses of veterinary importance. The rebranding of the journal is a part of the journal’s re-structuring process to expand the avenue from regional to global audiences. With heavy contributions from authors around the world, we aim to publish quality publications, both critical reviewers and cutting-edge research, in coming issues of the Hosts and Viruses.
...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...e the detection of plant viruses from plant species containing various forms of PCR amplification inhibitors. In current study, IC-PCR was used for the detection of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) from plant extracts of Nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated with ToLCNDV. To immunocapture the ToLCNDV, two antisera raised against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-coat ...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
...ed by various avian retroviruses which induce a variety of benign and malignant neoplasm in domestic chickens with subsequent economic losses to poultry industry. Effected birds show lymphocyte tumor, abnormal proliferation and series of tumors in connective tissues and other visceral organs. To evaluate the status of lymphoid leukosis virussubgroup A (ALV-A) infection in free-range chickens in five different cities of Anhui...
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...ered by pathogenic coronavirus causing watery diarrhea and high mortality in piglets. This post-viral syndrome results in severe economic losses in the pig industry. However, limited information on the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus-infected pigs is available. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify transcriptomes with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) of piglets, Large White x...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1,*, Samia Afzal1, Zareen Fatima1, Sadia Zahid1, Usman Ashraf1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...re susceptible to Dengue virus infection. Moreover serotype-2 was the main causative serotype of the 2013 outbreak of dengue fever.
...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

...with field strain of IBD virus collected from bursa of clinically infected chicks, No morbidity and mortality were observed. During present study, some milder infection with field strain of IBDV almost a week ago recorded were also found in the control group when challenged with IBDV, IBD vaccines in the presence of specific maternally antibodies of IBD could no induce antibodies titer 1500 with live vaccines were protective against the IBDV. Based on the find...
Uzma Farid Durrani1,*,Sagar Mal Goyal2, Asim Khalid Mahmood1,Cathleen Hanlon3, Susan Moore3, Muhammad Waqas1 and Raheela Akhtar4
...te their maternal rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer (mRVNA). All puppies were whelped by dams regularly vaccinated with high quality inactivated rabies vaccines. Rapid Fluorescence Focus Inhibition Technique (RFFIT) revealed mRVNA titer (>0.5 IU/mL) in 29 puppies while 48 puppies showed mRVNA titer less than minimum protective level (0.2-0.4 IU/mL). RFFIT did not reveal mRVNA in 23 puppies that were declared lacking maternal rabies immunity. One basi...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...thogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) subtype H9N2 are highly prevalent in the Middle East and are causing economic losses in the commercial poultry production sectors. Due to potential of H9N2 infections in human, LPAI H9N2 poses serious public health risk. Therefore, development of new potent and cost-effective influenza vaccines is urgently needed to safeguard poultry and to contain zoonosis. The primary goal of this study was to develop H9 plasmid-based...
Syed Ishfaq Ali Shah1,*, Tassawar Hussain Malik2, Imran Rafi Khan1 and Zahid Hussain
... for Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease with promising local varieties tolerant to the disease. After screening, the most resistant accessions of USDA were USG-14-2464 and USG-14-2478. However, USG-14-2481 and USG-14-2484 were recorded as partially resistant to CLCuV disease. Among the local germplasms, all accessions screened were found extremely susceptible. Disease index increased with day after planting (DAP) and high infestation level of whitef...
Urooj Fatima1, Arslan Mehboob2, Muhammad Abid3, Muti-ur-rehman Khan4 and Tahir Yaqub4*

 

...n: justify;">Canine parvoviruses (CPV) are posing significant threats to the dog population, around the globe. To ascertain the current situation and genetics of CPVs in Pakistan, a total of fifty samples from sick dogs suspected for parvovirus infection were collected from different geographic areas of the country. Samples were screened for positivity and verified for CPV using PCR. From a 30% positive samples for hemagglut...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...on and identification of viruses has been a challenge since the advent of the discipline of plant virology over a century ago.Agreat variety of methods have been developed that permit differentiation of viral pathogens.These methods, initially based solely on identifying the distinct biological characteristics of different viruses, were soon supplemented with methods based on light or electron microscopy and serology and sub...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...verities of nematode and virus infection were also reduced significantly with allamanda spray. Active compounds in allamanda leaves have been separated and identified.Formulated trichoderma effectively controlled soil-borne diseases including root-knot nematode. Mahogany oil spray reduced infestation of stem borer,leaf hoppers of rice; shoot & fruit borer of brinjal and fruit flies of vegetables.Biopesticides (formulated trichoderma) and bio-agents (bracon...

Bushra Afreen, Geetesh Baghel, Akil A. Khan and Q.A. Naqvi

Virus- vector relationship of yellow vein disease of calendula and the whitefly
...tefly could transmit the virus and showed 20.55% infection and fifteen whiteflies were required for 100 percent transmission. The minimum acquisition access feeding period and minimum inoculation access feeding period for the present virus were 10min and 30min, respectively. Acquisition access feeding period and inoculation access feeding period was 100 percent at 6hr and 3 hr respectively. A pre-acquisition access feeding p...

Sunita J. Magar and D.D. Nirmal

Effect of plant spacings and cultivars on spread of Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) disease
...ad of yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV) disease in different plant spacing 30 x 30 cm, 50 x 30 cm, 60 x 30 cm, 60 x 60 cm and 60 x 40 cm and using two cultivars, i.e., cv. Parbhani Kranti and Local indicated that the first appearance of symptom was earlier in cv. Local and late in cv. Parbhani Kranti. The rate of infection was higher at 45 to 60 days after sowing in both kharif and summer while in cv. Local it was higher at 30 to 45 days after sowing. Less infec...

A. Sajeena and T. Marimuthu

Efficacy, stability and persistence of Ganosol, a Ganoderma based fungicide against plant pathogens
...y Groundnut Bud Necrosis virus in cowpea by 88.39% when compared to the inoculated control, suggesting the antiviral potential of the formulation. 

...

Lakshman Chandra Patel and Chandan Kumar Mondal

Management of causal agents of chilli leaf curl complex through bio-friendly approaches
...sion of chilli leaf curl virus. An attempt was made to find out the cost effec-tive management schedule to minimize the crop loss. Seven treatments were taken up for study including two chemicals i.e. profenophos and diafenthiuron, three ecofriendly approaches i.e. garlic extract, spirit and alternate use of garlic with spirit, one predator insect Chrysoperla carnea and untreated control. The lowest population of thrips, mites and white fly was recorded with a...

Shams Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif and Abdul Mateen 

 

Soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Pakistan
... on important soil-borne viruses of potato were conducted in Hazara and Malakand Divi-sions during potato growing seasons in 2011-12. Incidence and distribution of Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV) and Tobacco rattle tobra virus (TRV) was reported on the basis of characteristic symptoms expression, bait test, infectivity assays and double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
...nfectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The Bursa of fabricius was collected from poultry flocks of Punjab Pakistan for isolation of IBD virus by inoculating in embryonated chicken eggs through chorioallantoic membrane. The two hundred birds were divided into 4 groups A, B, C and D). The birds in group A were commercial broiler chicks having maternal derived antibodies and were challenged with IBDV field isolate at the rate o...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

...tify;">Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza viruses (AIVs) H5N1 are endemic in Egypt and extensive vaccinations are being applied for chicken flocks, which have maternal derived antibodies (MDA) for these viruses. To understand the interference of maternal derived immunity impact of maternal derived immunity interference in vaccination regimen in poultry, a total of one hundre...

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...and is caused by the LSD virus (LSDV). LSD is endemic in most countries of Africa and Middle East and can be transmitted either by mechanical as well as intrastadial and transstadial routes. Since capripoxviruses are serologically identical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. In this study, we analysed the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) genes of two LSDV isolates from...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...lance of avian influenza viruses in Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan was carried out from April 2013 through September 2014. Pooled morbid material and fecal samples from 600 different locations across the region were analyzed for isolation. Isolation was carried out on embryonated chicken eggs. Identification of H protein was undertaken through hem agglutination Inhibition (HI) test while N typing was done using reverse transcriptase polymerase ch...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Amanullah1, Zafar Islam2*,Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Umair4, Mehmood Ayaz5, Asghar Ali Khan6, Muhammad Asif2 and Ya Sakina3
...f spot and Yellow mosaic virus.
...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...thogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain H5N1 in 2006 in Egypt caused severe economic losses for both commercial and backyard poultry production sectors. Owing to public health risk, effective control of the virus in imperative. DNA vaccination is a promising new approach for the prevention and treatment of many viral diseases because of its ability to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against antigens e...

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

...bsp;H9N2 avian influenza viruses are currently endemic in Pakistan and outbreaks are continuously being reported with high morbidity, drop in egg production and reduced weight gain. Besides economic losses to the poultry industry, these viruses pose a significant threat to public health. Owing to significant involvements of neuraminidase (NA) gene in virus pathobiology by mediating

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...dy revealed that PPR-FMD viruses were circulating in the region and warrants proper control measures. 
...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,Waqas Wakil2 andMuhammad Hussnain Babar3

 

...y;">Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) is an important potential pathogen which can control a wide range of bollworm larvae in both agricultural and horticultural crpos. Flubendiamide is a new chemistry insecticide which also controls bollworm effectively and relatively safer for natural enemies and beneficial arthropods. Present investigations were carried out to determine their impact on larval mortality, pupal and adult emergence of 2nd and 4t...

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

...align: justify;">Several viruses are associated with enteric diseases in avian species, causing decreased growth performance and mortality. In this study, 59 pools of intestinal content of layers, broilers, and breeders were investigated from different Brazilian regions for the presence of rotavirus (RVA, RVD, and RVF), avian coronavirus (ACoV), and avian astroviru...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...primary entry points for viruses into host cells. Amongst these, respiratory tract is prone to direct and continuous exposure to viral infection. Respiratory viruses including influenza virus, coronaviruses and herpes viruses are important pathogens that cause significant losses in the poultry industry. However, succes...

Rabia Tahir1*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muti-u-Rehman Khan2, Farah Khan1, Hassan Bin Aslam1 and Arslan Mehboob

...on pattern of avian adenovirus serotype 4 (AAV-4) causing hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) by transovarian route. For this purpose, liver and spleen samples (n=90) were collected from day-old-chicks derived from breeders at 14, 21 and 30 days of post-infection with AAV-4. The presence of AAV-4 DNA was detected through PCR. Chicks from virus-challenged breeders failed to show a clear and expected PCR positivity. The connotatio...

Lucas Pedroso Colvero1, Paulo Eduardo Brandão2*, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales2, Hanny Swam3 and Laura Yaneth Buitrago Villarreal1 

 

Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
...suspect fertile eggs for virus vaccine production.
...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
... is a vector to 16 plant viruses. The study presents data referring to the external morphological characteristics, to the biometrical measurements and to the life cycle of Aphis nasturtii. The researches have been carried out for a period of four years on the potato and for a period of two years on the orchards from Romania. At the Aphis nasturtii species the smallest length of the body found for aphids captured in Romania was 1.10 mm, while the ...
Rana Fartab Shoukat1, Shoaib Freed1,*, Kanwar Waqas Ahmad1 and Ateeq-ur-Rehman2
...nt> (WNV), avian pox virus (APV) etc. in rural and urban areas. To mitigate these problems study was conducted by using binary mixtures of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (isolates Bb-01, Bb-10), Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (isolate Ma-11.1, Ma-2.4)and Isaria fumosorosea (isolates If-2.3, If-02) and chemical insecticides i.e., bifenthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, triazophos, spinosad, pyripr...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
... under-diagnosis of this virus in Pakistan and warrant additional investigation and continuous surveillance at the molecular level to identify circulating strains for control and prevention of future outbreaks.
...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

...ogenic Newcastle disease virus in the broiler model. Three-week-old commercial broilers were inoculated with either vNDV, E. coli serotype O78 or both agents simultaneously or 3 days apart. The birds were clinically observed and swabbed daily. They were killed at 4 and 14 days after single or dual inoculations and were inspected for gross lesions. Samples of the respiratory organs (trachea, lungs, and air sacs) were taken for histological analyses. All ...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Ather Javed Khan2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Ahmad Kamran Khan4 

...are of hoeing, leaf curl virus and biological control of insects-pests. Before integrated pest management all the farmers used pesticides haphazardly while 1.3% used after it. 90.7%, 86.7% and 97.3% farmers were aware of economic threshold level of harmful insects, use of pesticides at economic threshold level and clean cotton picking respectively. 94.7% growers adopted thinning of plants, 91.3% knew pest scouting, 87.3% used pesticides after pest scouting whi...
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
...font> (FMD) is a RNA virus, member of Picornaviridae. It has seven serotypes with no cross protection among these. FMD is responsible for heavy economic losses in cattle and buffalo. So rapid and accurate diagnosis of FMD is uttermost need of this time. Several lab.techniques are developed for rapid detection of FMD but these are expensive and time consuming. Elisa, cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase (RT-PCR) and real time PCR need specific high quality e...

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

...ies are Cotton leaf curl virus susceptible, poor in fiber quality and high input demanding unapproved varieties. Almost all these varieties employed Monsanto Cry1Acgene (MON 531) as it was not patented in Pakistan. A positive development was approval of Monsanto plan to introduce advanced genetically modified (GM) crop technology in Pakistan by Government of Pakistan during 2009. In this regard Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MINFA) has been working on a two...

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

... chiefly by canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine parvovirus (CPV). While, CPV is considered the most important cause of diarrhea, studies have shown an increasing prevalence and importance of CCoV around the world. Fatal CCoV infections have been described, however, there is limited information on the molecular diversity of CCoV in many parts of the world. In this study, canine fecal samples from diverse States of Brazil wer...
Saba Rafique1,2,*, Khalid Naeem1, Naila Siddique1, Muhammad Athar Abbas1, Aamer Ali Shah2, Akbar Ali1, Abdul Rahim1 and Farooq Rashid1
...an Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) recovered from a suspected case of avian infectious bronchitis from commercial poultry. Initially the isolated IB-virus was characterized by RFLP using enzymes Alu I, Hae III, BstYI and XcmI. On the basis of its distinct RFLP pattern from other known IBV vaccine strains, the isolate was named as KU145467_NARC/786_Pakistan_2013 (also named as Pak-786) was subjected to Spike gene sequencing...
Muhammad Rasool1,*, Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Ismail Khan1, Qadeem Khan2 and Khalid Khan1

 Muhammad Hanif Munawwar*, Asghar Ali* and Shahid Riaz Malik*

IDENTIFICATION OF RESISTANCE IN MUNGBEAN AND MASHBEAN GERMPLASM AGAINST MUNGBEAN YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS
...n yellow mosaic (begomo) virus (MYMV), 64 lines of mungbean and 21 of mashbean were evaluated under field conditions. Out of 64 mungbean lines, 6 were found as resistant (R) and 35 moderately resistant (MR). Sixteen accessions were graded as susceptible (S) whereas 7 were found highly susceptible (HS). In mashbean, 12 out of 21 accessions were resistant (R) and 8 moderately resistant (MR), whereas, only one was susceptible. Although resistance against MYMV in ...

 Frasat Saeed*, Jehanzeb Farooq*, Abid Mahmood**, Tassawar Hussain***, Muhammad Riaz* and Saghir Ahmad****

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN UPLAND COTTON FOR COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE, EARLINESS AND FIBER QUALITY
...tion is cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD). For estimation of genetic diversity regarding CLCuD tolerance, fiber quality and some yield contributing traits, 101 cotton genotypes imported from USA were evaluated. Different statistical procedures like cluster, principle components (PC) and correlation analysis were employed to identify the suitable genotypes that can be further exploited in breeding programme. Significant associations were found between yiel...

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool*, Abuzar Muhammad Afzal*, Abu Baker Siddique*, Waseem Akram**, Muhammad Saqalein*, Madiha Basit* and Muhammad Farooq Tahir***

ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF VIRO CARE GZ-08 AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN POULTRY AND ITS IN-VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY
...rfaces against different viruses in general and NDV in particular. However, in-vivo use of GZ-08™ in poultry against NDV is recommended only as pre-treatment with ND vaccines as it significantly reduced morbidity and mortality as compared to the use of vaccines alone. However, further work is recommended in future on GZ-08™ for its use as post-treatment of ND as well as on other antiviral compounds of natural origin to develop a novel antiviral dru...

 S. Talat Gilani*, Shahid Hameed* and Hussain Shah* 

OCCURANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POTY VIRUSES INFECTING GARLIC IN PAKISTAN
...distribution of the poty viruses causing diseases in garlic (Allium sativum) from major garlic growing areas of Pakistan. The yellow stripes, mosaic and chlorotic spot symptoms of the disease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. Altogether 690 samples were collected from 29 locations of Punjab and 40 locations of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa to determine the prevalence of Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV) ...

 Ummad-ud-Din Umar*, Muhammad Aslam Khan**, *Ateeq-urRehman*, Abdul Hannan***, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi*, Azhar Ali Khan****, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar****

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF POTATO LEAF ROLL VIRUS DISEASE PREDICTION MODEL BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS FOR FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN
...del for Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) was developed based on a ten year dataset of disease incidence and environmental variables and validated by two years data collected in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Maximum and minimum air temperatures, relative humidity and rainfall were employed as independent variables while PLRV disease incidence served as the response variable. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to select potentially useful predictor variables for mo...
Dildar Hussain Kalhoro1,2,, Shan Liang1, Muhammad Saleem Kalhoro2, Shoaib Ahmed Pirzado2, Nasir Rajput2, Muhammad Naeem2, Fahmida Parveen2 andYongjie Liu1*
... (above 98%) to the H3N2 viruses from dogs in China. On the comparison of gene sequence four unique mutations were found in the amino acid of HA (A144T, R158K, D291N, L383F) and NA (T19A, V33L, V82A, S336N). The HA and NA genetic evolution analysis revealed that one isolate was most similar to the newly isolated H3N2 viruses from dogs in China and had the same evolutionary branching. The result provided a foundation for furt...
Aitezaz Ahsan1*, Muhammad Usman1, Ihsan Ullah2, Aamer Bin Zahur3 and Adnan Rasheed Malik4
Ahmad Farooq1, Usman Waheed2,3, Hasan Abbas Zaheer2,3, Abdul Rauf4, Abida Arshad5, and Muhammad Arshad1,*
Ligia Neves Scuarcialupi, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra, Julia Rosas Hochheim, Rodrigo Martins Soares, Fabio Gregori*
...in Brazil.
...

Osama Elshazly1, AbdelSatar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2, Ismaeil M. Reda2 and Hussein A. Hussein2*

...div>...
Lotta Wahldén1, 3, Ulf Emanuelson1, Torsten Møller2 and Jonas Johansson Wensman1*
...vation. Canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) are two infections threatening the survival of this species. Based on a limited number of animals, live attenuated vaccines have been suggested to provide protective immunity in the African wild dog; however, their use has been hampered by the fear of vaccine-induced disease. Kolmården Wildlife Park in Sweden has used a live attenuated vaccine without any...
Jehangir Khan1,*, Rasheedullah1, Bakht Tarin Khan2, Ayaz Ahmad3, Muhammad Salman4 and Khalid Khan5
Amna Kausar1,2, Sana Anwar1, Naila Siddique2, Safia Ahmed1 and Javid Iqbal Dasti1,*
...lence of avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes (AIV H9, AIV H7 and AIV H5) in non-vaccinated wild and domesticated bird species across Pakistan. During January-December 2013, in total 700 samples were collected from different species of non-vaccinated birds inhabiting diverse ecological zones of Pakistan. Altogether, 507 tissue and swab samples were screened for the presence of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Same samples ...

Ghufran ul Haq1*, Muhammad Arif2, Asad Ali2 and Mian Inayatullah3 

... Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and the population of its vector, whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), and determine the transmission properties of the prevalent isolate of the virus in the major tomato growing areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). For this purpose, surveys were conducted in the hilly areas of Mohmand Agency and Malakand Agency and plains of Shabqadar, Charsadda and Peshawar during 2011, 2012 and 2013, to determi...
Jia-kui Li1,2,*, Kun Li2, Zhao-qing Han2, Hui Zhang2, Xiao-qiang Wang2, Hou-qiang Luo2, Yan-fang Lan2 and Gang Qiu1,2
Hazrat Nabi1, Irshad Hussain2, Muhammad Adil3, Amar Nasir3,*, Arbab Sikandar3, Saeed Khan1 and Nasrullah Khan3

 

...ainst New Castle disease virus, feed consumption, weight gain, relative weights of lymphoid organs and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broilers were investigated. Chicks fed aflatoxins (group B) alone manifested significantly reduced feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. However, no variation in weight gain and FCR was found between the controls (A, B and C) and mycotoxin binders fed groups (experimental group E and F). Significantly red...

Fatma Abdallah1*, Ola Hassnain2, Elsayed Attar3, Haytham Ali3,5, Mohamed Megahed1 and Venugopal Nair

...with the Eurasian origin viruses in an independent taxonomic unit distant from the North American strain.  

...
Musrrat Fatima, Muhammad Saad Khan, Hamid Rashid, Asim Mehmood, Sumaira Kanwal, Muhammad Asif Rasheed and Farrukh Jamil*
... of ZIKV.
...
Xi-wen Chen1,2, Qian Wang1,3, Miao Yin1, Zhong-hui Pu1,2, Ai-wei Guo3, Lian Li 1,3, Wen-tao Luo1,3 and Xiong-qing Wang1,*
...and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) for the global swine industry a rapid and practical early detection assay is required. This study established a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PRRSV. Four primers were designed targeting the ORF5 gene of PRRSV were designed. Reverse transcription and amplification of the viral RNA using AMV reverse transcriptase was optimal at a constant temperature of 65 °C. The...
Abdul Wajid1,*, Asma Basharat2, Muhammad Akbar Shahid3, Sidra Tul Muntaha1, Abdul Basit4, Tanveer Hussain5, Muhammad Farooq Tahir6, Muhammad Azhar7, Masroor Ellahi Babar1 and Shafqat Fatima Rehmani2
...eas.
...
Sukirno Sukirno1,2, Muhammad Tufail1,3,*, Khawaja Ghulam Rasool1Said El Salamouny1, 4, Koko Dwi Sutanto1 and Abdulrahman Saad Aldawood1
...rmyworm.
...
Bo Wu1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,7, Yan Zhao1, Bin Jiang1, Chengjun Xue3, Muhammad Tariq Javed6, Fazul Nabi2, Zhaoqing Han5,* and Houqiang Luo4,*
Sana Rafique1, Hina Saqib1, Khushi Muhammad2, Nazia Akbar2, Abdul Rauf3, Muzafar Shah4,*
...evalence of Dengue fever virus in district Mansehra, Pakistan. Patients were selected with the convenience sampling which were admitted in Al-Khidmat foundation and King Abdullah hospitals in Mansehra, Pakistan, where patients were screened for dengue virus non-structural protein using Rapid Diagnostic kit for Dengue virus (DENV) i.e. SD BIOLINE Dengue IgG/IgM. Data was obtained fro...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...ext-align: justify;">Orf virus is the most studied poxvirus next to Vaccinia virus that has been used as vaccine candidate for small pox infection in humans. This virus causes contagious form of disease, mainly but not limited to sheep and goats, which lead to high economic impact in developing countries including India. The causative agent, Orf
Kiran Aqil1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan2, Asim Aslam2, Aqeel Javeed5, Rizwan Qayyum1, Farooq Yousaf,1 Farkhanda Yasmeen1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail3 and Sajid Umar4,*
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2, Sumaira Maqsood3, Ishita Ahuja4 and Atle M. Bones4
...itura nucleopolyhedroviruses (SltNPV) were collected from infected larvae fed on natural cotton crops. The NPV was isolated from the larvae and viral occlusion bodies (VOBs) were detected using a light microscope. The toxicity of native isolates against S. litura also studied by testing different concentrations (1 x 102 POB (Polyhedral occlusion bodies) mL-1- 1 x 1010 POB mL-1) from the occlusion bodies pr...

Ghulam Abbas1, Khalid Pervez Akhtar1, Muhammad Ahsan2, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Fiaz Ahmad1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

...bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is an important constraint of mungbean during the summer season in Pakistan. The use of resistant varieties is the only way to reduce the losses caused by YMD. Resistant sources had already been reported in mungbean, but no such information seems to be available for mung × mash interspecific recombinants. In this study, 72 mung × mash interspecific recombinant genotypes and a susceptible mungbean variety Mung ...
Zain ul Abidin1, Aisha Khatoon2, Abdul Whab Manzoor1,*, Nida Arooj1, Sajjad Ali1 and Muhammad Numan1
...v>...

Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1*, Maryam Bisola Adebayo2, Bashiru Shafa Abubakar3, Ibrahim Abubakar Yusuf2 and Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi1  

...gn: justify;">Human parvovirus B19 is a member of the family Parvoviridae. It can be transmitted congenitally from an infected mother to the foetus. The virus has been implicated in hydrops foetalis, spontaneous abortion, aplastic crisis and acute symmetric polyarthropathy. The present study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Human Parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM antibodies and ...
Ejaz Mahmood Ahmad Qureshi1,*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Seemal Vehra3 and Atif Yaqub4
...l transmission of dengue viruses is a crucial phenomenon responsible for persistence of the viruses during inter-epidemic period (s) of the disease. In the present study, distribution and seasonality of horizontally transmitted dengue viruses in Aedes mosquitoes was investigated in the metropolitan city Lahore, Pakistan during 2011, 2012 and 2013. Adult Aedes aegypti, were ca...

 Ihsan Ali1#, Asim Aslam1*, Habib-ur-Rehman2, Beenish Zahid3, Ishtiaq Ahmed1

Effect of fish oil on growth performance and immune response in experimentally infected broiler chicken with avian influenza virus H9N2
... were challenged with AI virus (H9N2) on 21 day of age, group B and C were
treated with 3% FO while group A and D were treated with cooking oil. For isolation
of virus, 21 samples were collected, out of which 8 (40%) were positive for H9. The
virus titer was ranged from 1:64 to 1:512. The body weight gain of FO
supplemented broilers was higher than broilers rece...
Mirza Imran Shahzad1, Hina Ashraf2,*, Muhammad Arshad3, Sabeeha Parveen4, Amna Aslam4, Nargis Naz4, Zahid Kamran1, Sumbul Gohar Khalid5, Sajid Hameed1, Muhammad Ashfaq6 and Muhammad Mukhtar7

 

Ghulam Ali1,3, Wopke van der Werf2 and Just M. Vlak1,
...>Insect-pathogenic baculoviruses have established potential as biological insect pest control agents. However, slow speed of kill relative to chemicals and continued feeding following application limit their effectiveness in preventing crop losses. Here we studied the food consumption and weight gain of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura following application of two viral doses of Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus...
Muhammad Saqib Shahzad1, Amina Arif1,*,Saeeda Kalsoom2, Javed Iqbal3, Shahnam Shafique2, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem4 and Rafique Ahmed5
...) therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Overall, 590 HCV patients were evaluated pre and post combined drug therapy during the period 2015-2017. Distribution of HCV genotypes, age groups, viral load and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values were recorded and analyzed for rapid virologic response (RVR), non-rapid virologic response (NRVR), sustained virologic response (SVR) and non-sustained virologic response (NSVR). Among the evaluated patients RVR was...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Saleem Haider1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Ashfaq1, Muhammad A. Aqueel2 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah2
...div>Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are potential biological pest controller which can regulate an extensive range of bollworms larvae in both Agricultural and Horticultural crops. Spodoptera litura is a commercial pest of diverse field crops comprising cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). Current inspections were carried out to determine their impact on larval mortality, pupal and adult em...

Omer Baris Ince* 

...o investigate the active virus circulation and determine the antibodies formed against the nonstructural proteins (NSP) of Foot and Mouth Disease and evaluation the carrier rate in the region and the risk of infection and given information on the immune ratio of the animals. As a result, prevalence was observed to be 6.6% for breeding enterprises, 13.3% in bovine animals and 1% in ovine animals individually. Prevalence was found 13.3% throughout Konya. Generic...

Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Syed Burhan-ud-Din2, Muhammad Fahad Khan1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Naila Ilyas1

...itefly transmitted Begomoviruses diseases have appeared as irresistible problem in different crops of Pakistan. The research was carried out to estimate the probable role of induced systemic acquired resistance in mungbean against Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) disease. Exogenous use of Salicylic acid (SA) and Benzothiadiazole (BTH) as elicitors enhanced the resistance in mungbean plants by triggering the SA pathway. In...

Ahmed Samy1*, Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba2, Gamelat Kotb Farag3 and Ahmed Abd El Halim1 

...ype VI Newcastle disease viruses (NDV), that designated pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (PPMV1) commonly isolated from pigeons (family Columbidae). PPMV1 not only represent a potential threat to pigeon but also it can infect chickens and its virulence enhanced upon passaging in chickens causing clinical signs and deaths. In the present study brain samples were collected from twelve pigeon flocks exhibiting signs of nervousness and di...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

... to mention here that no viruses or any bacteria has been reported from a singly tree in whole of the Indian sub-continent. Although the involvement of the insect’s species has been recorded and authenticated by various scientists reporting that these acts as the carrier of the fungal spores and produce tunnels in the bark of the trees. Since, many extensive filed surveys of forests, avenues, road sides and canal banks has been made to calculate the tota...

 Attaur Rahman1, Sadeeq ur Rahman1,*, Ashfaq Ahmad2, Abdul Sajid1, Muhammad Asif Hussain1, Mian Muhammad Salman1, Niamat Ullah Khan1, Kamran Khan3, Fazli Rabbani1, Muhammad Akbar Shahid4, Irshad Ahmad5 and Shakoor Ahmad6

...PS) induced by fowl adenovirus-4 (FAdV-4) in ostriches was compared with that of broiler chicken kept as standard. A 106.25/ml/bird (chicken lethal dose 50 (CLD50)) was injected to ostriches and broiler (control) and were clinically observed for 7 days. Our results showed that a peak cloacal temperature was recorded on day 3 and day 4 with a 2.3°F and 1.2°F maximum rise in broiler and ostrich, respectively. A decrease in feed and ...

Ragia S. Mohamed1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mamdouh. M. Hamoud1, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shimaa A.E. Nasr1, Manal M. Zaki1, ElShaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...tify;">Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is still a havoc to the poultry flocks and outbreaks have occurred even in vaccinated flocks. Commercial Newcastle disease virus vaccines can provide various levels of protection against challenge with different NDV genotypes, raising the importance of the relationship between vaccines and field strains. The aim of the current work is to evaluate the effect of moisture percentage and pH o...
SiRui Wang1,2, Fekede Regasa Joka1,2, XiaoLong Wang1,2,* and SuYing Bai2,*
...birds.
...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...ogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype VII in poultry manure in compare to LaSota vaccine strain as a model of genotype II. Velogenic NDV of genotype VII are a major threat to the Egyptian poultry industry since 2011 onwards with continuous evolution and diversity. In the present study, manure from specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks was contaminated with allantoic fluid of NDV and kept at room temperature ranged from 20 to 25oc which is nearly the s...

Muhammad Rehan1, Asim Aslam1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Muhammad Abid2, Shakeel Hussain3, Javeria Umber4, Ahsan Anjum1 and Altaf Hussain2* 

... caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) is an important disease of avian species and continuously cause outbreaks in commercial poultry throughout the world. Despite intensive vaccination, ND is endemic in Pakistan and locally known as Ranikhet. Wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and some common resident or migratory wild birds are associated with outbreaks of ND in commercial pou...

Muhammad Usman Ghani1*, Muti Ur Rehaman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Zubair Shabbir2, Li Bo3 and Naveed Anwar4 

...rom those induced by pox virus. A new parapox specific and sensitive PCR assay based on amplification of B2L gene was applied against conserved gene of Orf virus. Crusted scraps and biopsies from different portion of skin and blood were taken as sample for PCR. Gross, histopathological, hematological examination was carried out to rule out possible cause of infection and adopt preventive measure so that further losses may be...

Mehboob Arslan* and Xin Yang 

... order to succumb hosts, viruses have evolved strategies to manipulate specific cellular metabolic pathways that aid the production of viral particles. Viruses need to breach a complex network of metabolic intrinsic factors and microenvironment established within the host cells. The pressure exerted by invading pathogen disrupts the internal balance and dictate the host-pathogen niches. For absolute survival, proliferation, ...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosad, Fatema Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali Abdel Maged, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...thogenic avian influenza virus in 2011, the virus has distributed rapidly and widely in different poultry sectors in Egypt causing severe economic losses and the problematic situation in poultry production especially with a co-infection with other circulating pathogens. In this study, 1026 confirmed positive H9N2 cases by RT-PCR out of 23182 different examined samples of different species and sectors in Egypt, with a prevale...

Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba1, Naglaa Fathy Saeed Awad1*, Gamelat Kotb Farag Kotb2, Amany Adel3 

...nfectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were reported in Egypt despite vaccination. Therefore, this study was conducted to characterize infectious bursal disease (IBD) viruses circulating in Egypt during the period of 2017 - 2018. Sixteen pooled bursal tissue samples were collected from IBD suspected (9 Egyptian balady and 7 broiler) chicken flocks located in different localities at Sharkia governorate, Egypt. These sampl...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosaad, Fatma Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan  

...thogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) in 2011, the virus has been distributed rapidly and widely in different Egyptian poultry sectors causing severe economic losses and the problematic situation in poultry production especially with a co-infection with other circulating pathogens. In this study, a total of 23182 cloacal and tracheal samples were collected from suspected cases between 2015 and 2016 and submitted to the Re...
Xuefeng Cao1, Guangneng Peng1, Xiaobin Gu1, Changliang He1, Guizhou Yue2, Jun Shi3,* and Zhijun Zhong1,*
...pidly detect canine parvoviruses (CPV) or canine distemper virus (CDV) without nuclear acid extraction, we established a direct amplification TaqMan real-time (RT)-PCR method (DARPM) to detect CPV and CDV in clinical samples. We compared this new method against real-time PCR/(RT)-PCR and it showed no cross-reactivity with other pathogens. Sensitivity testing showed the minimum detection limits of real-time (RT)-PCR were 7.44...

Ali Mahmoud Zanaty, Naglaa Mohammed Hagag, Neveen Rabie, Mahmoud Saied, Karim Selim, Saad A. Mousa, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Abdel-Sattar Arafa and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...tify;">Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a highly contagious disease in poultry, also considered as a major threat for commercial and traditional poultry industry in Egypt, even in vaccinated flocks. A total of 8121 different samples (organs and swabs) that represented 588 NDV suspected flocks were collected from poultry farms showing respiratory manifestation and/or drop in egg production during 2015-2018. Out of 588 NDV outbreaks 95 flocks were confirmed posi...

Shaikh Abdul Lateef, Zhou Lin, Wu Jian, Junjie Qian, Jonathan Hartanto Tan and Zheng Shusen*
 

...n: justify;">Hepatitis B virus (HBV) as a deadly viral pathogen and crucial challenge for mankind is directly involved in the progress of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) subsequently affecting 250 million human population. Due to the complex viral genome of HBV, complete recovery from hepatitis is not achieved. Epidemiologically, it has been classified into infectious and serum hepatitis. The pattern of disease progression manifests liver inflammation, chronic ...

Wesam Mady*, Nahed Yehia, Mohammed Hassan Elhussieny, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Moataz Mohamed El Sayed, Neveen Rabie Bakry, Asmaa Shaaban, Abdel Satar Arafa, Afaf Abdel Baset Mahmoud and Wafaa Mohammed Hassan 

...thogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8 in November 2016 in Egypt, it caused severe economic losses for both the commercial and backyard poultry production sectors. The aim of this work is to study the Situation and molecular characterization of HPAIV (H5N8) in backyard poultry production sector in Egypt. In this study, a total of 7505 samples of tracheal swabs representing 1180 backyard poultry flocks were collected based on the surveillance conducted by ...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1, Samia Afzal1,*, Zareen Fatima1 and Muhammad Idrees2
Aqsa Javaid and Nageen Hussain*
...i>Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) becomes one of the most severe endemic viruses that advance around the world in a deadly manner. It is a serious issue in Pakistan as well and so far 130,000 HIV cases in Pakistan have been identified by the National AIDS Control Programme. Nuclear transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) gene is involved in tolerance mechanism so failure of tolerance can lead to mutations ...
Nida Zia1, *, Ayesha Maqbool2, Muhammad Safdar3, Umm-I-Habiba1, Altaf Mehmood4, Muhammad Usman5, Zahid Iqbal6, Javed Iqbal6, Shahid Mehmood6, Amanullah Khan7 and Sajid Umar8
...ry every year. Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) associated with HHS could disturb growth, viability and immunity in commercial broilers. The main aim of the present study was to detect and characterize FAdVs. Liver tissues were collected from poultry flocks showing clinical signs of HHS and investigated using PCR assay for FAdVs. The FAdVs were detected in 8 samples collected from different flocks. Positive PCR amplicons were sequenced to genetically identify the FAd...
Gul Afshan1,2,*, Soumble Zulfiqar2, Sumaira Mehboob2, Muhammad Tahir Javed Khan1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,*
Tahir Iqbal1, Umer Rashid1*, Naveed Shahzad2, Amber Afroz1Muhammad Faheem Malik3 and Muhammad Idrees4

 

...;positive-sense RNA virus causing hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS) in chickens. To the best of our knowledge the circulation of aHEV in chicken has not been studied in Pakistan so far. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to isolate and identify aHEV from layer chickens of Pakistan. The bile fluids, liver and spleen tissues were collected from overnight dead layer chickens (n = 8) from Pattoki region of Punjab province, Pakistan, during July to ...
Irfan Irshad1, Asim Aslam1,*, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Kamran Ashraf2, Beenish Zahid3 and Abdul Wajid4
...nic H9N2 avian influenza viruses are presently endemic in Pakistan and repeated outbreaks are continuously being reported with high mortality in poultry and non-poultry avian species. In this study, five AAvV-1s have been pathotyped and genetically characterized from vaccinated birds collected between 2013-14. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to sub-genotype VIIi with high similarity of 97.9 to 99.8% with similar

Faleye Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas1,2*, Adewumi Moses Olubusuyi1, Olayinka Olaitan Titilola3 and Adeniji Johnson Adekunle1,3 

...algorithm requires enterovirus (EV) isolates to produce reproducible cytopathic effect (R-CPE) in RD and/or L20b cell lines. Samples with non-reproducible CPE (NR-CPE) are considered negative for EVs. We investigated whether there could be EVs lurking in samples with NR-CPE. Fifty-nine cell culture supernatants (CCS) (collected between 2016 and 2017) from RD and L20b cell-culture-tubes with NR-CPE, were analyzed. The tubes had been previously inoculated with s...

Adewumi Moses Olubusuyi1, Ogunsakin Temitope Rachael1, Ogunrombi Sefiu Babatunde1, Ojeamiren Iduda1, Olawole Alaba Samuel1, Faleye Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas1,2* and Adeniji Johnson Adekunle1,3 

...likely presence of enteroviruses in supernatants of cytopathic effect (CPE) negative RD and L20B cell culture tubes in which faecal suspension from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases were cultured. Samples analyzed were collected in 2017 as part of the AFP surveillance program in Nigeria and declared negative for enteroviruses because they did not produce CPE in RD and L20B cell lines. In all, 120 cell culture supernatants ...
Muhammad Siddique1, Muhammad Shafique2,*,Abdul Mateen3, Naveed Shahzad4, Bilal Aslam2, Nasir Ahmad1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar2
Beenish Zahid*1,2,7, Javed Iqbal Qazi2, Amir Zohaib2, Asim Aslam3, Raheela Akhter3, Haleema Sadia4, Qurat ul Ain5, Razia Sultana6, Irfan Irshad3 and Sobia Alyas7
...ze the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in ducks. For this purpose, a total of 100 samples of cloacal and 100 oropharyngeal swabs of ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected from different villages of four tahsils of Sheikhupura during period (May to July 2017). NDV was isolated from field samples by inoculating the suspected samples into embryonated eggs of 9-11 days. Isolated virus was confirmed t...
Muhammad Furqan Shahid1*, Tahir Yaqub1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu2, Asim Aslam2, Saima Yaqub1, Aziz-ul-Rahman3, Muzaffar Ali1
...thogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H9N2, which can bring exceptional abatement in trade of poultry products in endemic countries such as Pakistan. The current study was conducted to evaluate the infectious and antigenic potential of three different AIV (A/H9N2) variants isolated from commercial, backyard poultry and fancy birds (partridge). Commercial broiler birds were infected experimentally at the dose of 106 EID50 by using these t...

Khaled Kaboudi* 

...n influenza H9N2 subtype virus is considered among important respiratory pathogens in poultry worldwide. It was isolated from many species of domestic and wild birds. Infection in commercial poultry flocks causes important economic losses, related to high mortality, decrease in animal performance and aggravation of infection by other pathogens. Although H9N2 is endemic in many regions of the world, such as Middle East and North Africa, where the first outbreak...
Syed Maaz Nadeem1*, Muti ur Rehman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh1, Arfan Ahmad1* and Muhammad Anees2
Tanweer Kumar1, Sahib Zada2,3,Muhammad Irfan4,*, Huma Batool5 and Wasim Sajjad2,6

Waseem Abbas1, Shakeel-ur-Rehman2, Abdul Rashid2, Muhammad Kamran3, Muhammad Atiq2 and Muhammad Ehetisham ul Haq3* 

...nst the cotton leaf curl virus vector (Bemisia tabaci) and indirectly the disease incidence. Leaves extracts of four plant extracts i.e. Calotropis gigantea, Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa and Azadirachta indica were evaluated at 3 % concentration against eggs hatchability and adult emergence of the whitefly in lab condition. Two consecutive sprays were applied to assess the relative impact of different plant extracts against adult whitefly population and th...
Huanxin Zhang1,2, Hongshuo Tang3, Jun Chen1, Yu Zang1,2, Xuexi Tang1,2,* and Ying Wang1,2,*
...ere identified in rabies virus associated TLRs (TLR3 and TLR7); we speculated that the virus associated TLRs were mainly under purifying selection. In conclusions, the TLR genes were mainly shaped by purifying selection, and the limit number of positive selection codons may be resulted from ancient functional adaptation in the carnivores.
...
Mubasher Ahmad Malik1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad2, Muhammad Jalal Arif1 and Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,*
...la xylostella granulovirus (PxGV) and Azadirachta indica (AZA) on mortality and development of P. xylostella under laboratory conditions. Both AZA and PxGV were applied alone and in integrated manners at LC20 and LC50 dose rates. The combination of 349.3 parts per million of AZA and 4.8×104 occlusion bodies per millimeter of PxGV, resulted in synergistic interaction after 3rd, 5th a...
Umm-i-Habiba1,*, Ayesha Maqbool2, Muhammad Safdar3, Nida Zia1Altaf Mehmood4, Muhammad Usman5, Mehwish Sharif6, Amanullah Khan7 and Sajid Umar8

Naglaa M. Hagag1*, Mervat E. Hamdy1, Mary A. Sargious1, Sara M. Elnomrosy1, Nahed A. Ahmed1, Ayman A. Hamed1, Ahmed R. Habashi1, Essam I. Ibrahiem1, Mahmoud A. Abdel-Hakim2 and Momtaz A. Shahein

...">Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a severe, highly contagious, and economically devastating viral disease worldwide. FMDV affects animals with cloven hooves, including domestic and wild bovids. In this study, 100 FMDV field samples were collected in 2018 and early2019 from governorates in Egypt. Molecular and genetic characterization indicates that serotype SAT2 is widespread (in 96 cases), while only four cases of Serotype O were detected. Phylogenetic...

Bamigboye Olutoyin Omolara1, Fapohunda Funmilayo Omotoyosi1, Oladipo Elijah Kolawole1,2, Oni Mattthew Olujenyo1, Ajibade Oluwatosin Akinola1, Kaka Mary Oluwatosin1* 

...">Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection have been associated with reduced survival, increased risk of liver disease and hepatotoxicity despite undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study aims to determine the prevalence of serological markers of HBV based on serological markers among infected individuals with HIV. Ninety-three sera samples of HIV positive individuals were collect...

Anand Kushwaha, Amit Kumar, Aparna Madhavan, Durga Goswami, Golmei Poulinlu and Gnanavel Venkatesan* 

...align: justify;">Capripoxvirus (CaPV) infections are highly contagious and OIE notifiable viral diseases of sheep, goats and cattle. They are endemic in most parts of the globe associated with significant production losses due to high morbidity, high mortality rate and animal trade restrictions. Though several diagnostics including molecular tools are available, recombinant protein based diagnostic assays namely ELISA is safer and robust to handle large sample...

Hamoudi Naoual1, Alloui Nadir2*, Barberis Abdelhak2 and Boudaoud Amine2 

...e of the avian influenza virus (AIV) introduction. In 2016, following the first official detection of the H9N2 subtype circulation in broiler flocks in Eastern Algeria, a preliminary descriptive study is conducted to identify and enumerate in wetland areas, migratory bird species, known to carry the AIV. The Anatidae population peaked in January 2017 with a total of 8064 birds. The 6 frequent species observed are: Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Eurasian teal (A...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2*Mubasher Ahmad Malik1, Mujahid Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir2,  Zubair Aslam4, Sumaira Maqsood5, Ishita Ahuja3 and Atle M. Bones3
... isolated Nucleopolyhydrovirus (NPV) from Spodoptera litura and Spinosad (0.01 ppm) against 3rd and 4th instar larvae collected from three different geographical areas of Punjab (Pakistan). A difference in larval mortality, pupation, adult emergence and egg ecluson was observed. The higher but sub-lethal dose rate of NPV with Spinosad exhibited synergistic interaction, while the rest of the combinations were found additive in all t...
Irfan Shahzad Sheikh, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa, Nadeem Rashid, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa, Mohammad Masood Tariq*, Majed Rafeeq, Abdul Samad, Tauseef M Asmat and Asad Ullah
...gainst Newcastle disease virus and infectious bursal disease. Relative lymphoid organ weights were recorded on day 42. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay was performed against Newcastle disease virus on a weekly basis, whilst a hemagglutination (HA) assay was performed to determine immunity against total sheep red blood cell (SRBC) , mercaptoethanol-2 resistant (IgG) and mercaptoethanol-2 sensitive (IgM) antibodies on we...
Fatima Hashim Abbas1,2* and Alaa Tareq Shakir Al-Hassnawi1
...ed women with Cytomegalo virus compared to negative and positive control groups. All aborted women had significantly higher levels of TAC levels (p≤0.05) compared to the control groups. However, catalase activity and ROS levels in all the aborted women did not differ statistically from that of control. Our data indicated that the aborted women had increased the level of serum oxidative stress (MDA) and this elevation may be driving the detrimental effects i...

Shilong Chen1,2, Shifeng Xiao1,2, Shao Wang1,2, Fengqiang Lin1,2, Xiaoxia Cheng1,2, Xiaoli Zhu1,2, Dandan Jiang1,2, Shaoying Chen1,2* and Fusong Yu3* 

...ak and dwarfism syndrome virus (SBDSV) is an emerging distinct duck-origin goose parvovirus causing outbreaks of short beak and dwarfism syndrome duckling in Chinese duck flocks. The aim of this review is to describe the current knowledge on SBDSV with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnosis, genomic organization and pathogenesis. However, the pathogenesis mechanisms of cross-species transmission...
Gong Ga1,2 and SuoLang Sizhu2,*
...ize: small;">Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major potential public health problem in the world. HEV is also highly endemic in China. However, information is lacking on the prevalence of HEV infection in swine in Tibet of China, where raw pork and mixed farming of different species of domestic animals are consumed traditionally. In this study, 173 serum samples of Tibetan swine were tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies by the ELISA....

Adewumi Olubusuyi Moses1,2*, Faleye Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas,1,3, Ope-Ewe Oludayo Oluwaseyi1, Ibitoye Ibipeju Henrietta1, Arowosaye Abiola Opeyemi1, Adelowo Oluwatosin Deji1 and Adeniji Johnson Adekunle1,2,4 

...mined how coupling Enterovirus (EV) isolation in RD and MCF-7 cell culture with direct detection from clinical sample might impact our ability to detect non-polio EV Species C (NPESC) members in stool samples. In all, 20% (8/40) of all the samples screened had NPESCs and 50% (8/16) of the EVs detected were NPESCs. However, the RD cell line missed all NPESCs. Hence, RD cell line alone should not be used for EV isolation if the desire is to also isolate NPESC. &...
Daniel Kerr Baines
...e CoVID-19 caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has claimed over 100,000 lives and affected essentially every country on the globe with over 1.6 million cases (John Hopkins, 2020). CoVID-19 has overwhelmed the medical capacity of countries like Italy and Spain, to a point not seen since the Spanish flu epidemic. Ports and countries are closed, people are on lock down, people are dying due to a lack of medical supplies and the world seems on the verge of colla...
Samia Afzal*,Sadia Zahid, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Idrees
...ize: small;">Chikungunya virus is Aedes mosquitoe transmitted virus that has typical signs and symptoms of high fever, headache, hemorrhage and body rashes. Although in the past decade millions of people in several continents like Asia, Africa and some islands of Indian Ocean have faced the major outbreaks of Chikungunya virus because of its travel associated febrile nature. An inex...
Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Asim Aslam1*, Muhammad Yasin2, Tahir Yaqoob2 and Beenish Zahid3
...le vaccines against each virus alone as well as co-infections with NDV and IBV in commercial poultry. For assessment of vaccine efficacy, commercial chickens were vaccinated with La Sota (against NDV) and Massachusetts (against IBV) vaccine preparations. After screening the protective titers in birds at 19 days post inoculation three week-old broilers were challenged with 10-5.76 and 10-6.03 EID50 dose of NDV and IBV, respectiv...
Majeeda Rasheed1*, Tanveer Akhtar1, Nadia Mukhtar2, Muhammad Furqan Shahid2, Muhammad Imran3, Saima Yaqub2
...ants (PPR) caused by PPR virus (PPRV), is a contagious disease of domestic and wild small ruminants. The disease is endemic in developing countries of African and Asian worlds including Pakistan, where several clinical cases in small ruminants (sheep and goat) have been frequently reported. Despite PPRV is endemic in Pakistan, information on disease serosurveillance of prevailing strains in Gilgit-Balitistan (GB) territory is scarce. Therefore, the curren...

Hasaan Aziz*, Fariha Altaaf, Attia Bashir, Abdul Basit, Syed Anam Masood Gardazi and Farah Haider 

...used by canine distemper virus (CDV), is highly contagious disease of carnivores and is quite prevalent in Pakistan. The CDV is known to exist as 11 distinct clades around the globe; however, as to what prevail in Pakistan to devise appropriate diagnostics and control strategies is yet to be known. Despite the use of modified live vaccine to dogs, occurrence of disease is not uncommon. Here, we sequenced and phylogenetically analysed the complete hemagglutinin...

Hassan Boulahyaoui1,2*, Sanaa Alaoui Amine1,3, Marouane Melloul4, Farida Hilali5, Elmostafa El-Fahime1,3, Saad Mrani1,2 and Nadia Touil1,5* 

...sis of unusual human rotavirus VP4 genotype detected in Moroccan children fully vaccinated with Rotarix™. After RNA virus extraction, the rotavirus VP7 and VP4 genes were amplified. The DNA was purified, sequenced and genotypes were determined using the RotaC online classification tool. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood method applying the Tamura 3-para...

Olotu Titilayo Mabel*, Adeosun Idowu Jesulayomi, Kaka Mary Oluwatosin and Oladipo Elijah Kolawole 

...f human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been shown to be relevant to HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease. HIV-1 genome has nine genes; gag, pol, and env genes are common in all replication-competent retroviruses, and the pol gene is very unique encoding the enzymes for replication. Our objective is to describe the relatedness of these HIV-1 pol genes with each other and its antiviral drug susceptibility which will provi...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1 and Onyemocho Audu2 

...fy;">Chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can be considered as a silent and neglected killer, fueled by many years of inertia from government and stakeholders. Treatment of chronic HCV infection has the potential to influence the 2030 elimination target due to the increasing availability of effective pangenotypic antiviral DAAs. Understanding the extent of HCV genetic diversity is important for treatment and development of vaccine. Among the routes of HCV...

Yasir Iftikhar1, Mustansar Mubeen1,2*, Waqas Raza1, Qaiser Shakeel3, Waseem Abbas1, Shehzad Iqbal1 and Ashara Sajid

...y;">The Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), aphid population, and environmental factors are normally used to monitor the disease severity as these factors are interconnected. In the present study, ten potato varieties viz., FSD white, FD 8-1, FD 71-1, Tota 704, Kuruda, FD 74-41, FD 76-24, SH 216-A, N 96-25 and FD 74-50 were evaluated against PLRV. The range of disease incidence was from 15.93% to 64.58%. Moreover, susceptible reaction was observed in five varieties...

Hafiz Muhammad Imran Javed* and Mushtaq Ahmed 

...">Small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV) is the most contagious viral disease of sheep and goats. The present study compared the select genetic markers of the vaccine and field strains originating from the field outbreaks for phylogenetic analysis, nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analyses, and a comparison of three-dimensional protein structures. The N gene ORF was 1578 nucleotide long with a single open reading frame encoding 526 amino acids. Similarl...

M. Hammouchi1*, G. Sebbar1, N. Touil2, C. Loutfi1, Y.S. Malik3, M. El-Harrak1 and O. Fassi-Fehri4 

...ste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) has caused a serious outbreak of disease in small ruminants recently in 2008 in Morocco. The field data obtained during the outbreak indicated that there were marked differences in breed susceptibilities to PPRV infection. In the field exotic breeds of Alpine goats were observed to be highly susceptible to the disease, with mortality rates approaching 100%, contrary to local breeds which were less susceptible to the diseas...

 Muhammad Shahzad1, Arif Iqbal Umar1, Syed Hamad Shirazi1, Muhammad Tariq Pervez2*, Zakir Khan1, Waqas Yousaf1

HCDP: HEPATITIS C DATA BANK OF PAKISTAN
...tify;"> Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood born, positive, single stranded RNA strand and circular in shape. The hepatitis C virus is substantial threat to the public health and its frequency is increasing rapidly all over the world. Approximately 5 online databases are available related to Hepatitis C virus. All these databases mainly concerned their national level/specific...

Parakriti Gupta1, Kapil Goyal2 and Mini Pritam Singh3*

Hepatitis E Virus and Zoonosis
...n: justify;">Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health problem both in developing and developed nations. HEV is a single stranded RNA non-enveloped virus belonging to the family Hepeviridae. Globally, HEV is known to cause approximately 20 million infections per annum with a mortality of 44,000. The virus is endemic in developing nations and the outbreaks occur mainly in the po...

Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta1,2*, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar3*, Muhammad Shoaib4, Wangyuan Yao3, Muhammad Asif5, Shah Nawaz6, Moazam Ali7 and Ayesha Kanwal8

Exploratory Study on the Psychological Impact of COVD-19 on Students
...ke of severe novel coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) on domestic students who were at high risk of exposure. A cross sectional study was conducted through a semi structured questionnaire. Recruitment of participants was done from different universities of Pakistan. The results showed that the students are more concerned about their family members (p=0.00). Under this influence they have increased the frequency of handwashing and use masks when they have to go ou...

Mohammad Enamul Hoque Kayesh1,2*, Mohammad Tufazzal Hussan3, Md. Abul Hashem2,4, Mohammad Eliyas5 and A.K.M. Mostafa Anower1

Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Infection: An Emerging Threat to Cattle Health in Bangladesh
... of cattle caused by LSD virus (LSDV). LSD is characterized by fever and the appearance of nodular lesions in the skin covering all parts of the body. LSD is currently endemic in many African countries and causing significant economic losses. LSD has recently spread out of Africa into the Middle East region, and still continuing to spread other territories of the world. In September 15, 2019 the first occurrence of LSD outbreak in Bangladesh has been reported ...
Dibyendu Biswas1*, Shib Shankar Saha2, Shankar Biswas3 and Md. Abu Sayeed4
Outbreak of Lumpy Skin Disease of Cattle in South-West Part of Bangladesh and its Clinical Management
...of cattle, caused by LSD virus (LSDV) under the family Poxviridae and transmitted by direct contact or through biological vectors such as mosquitoes, flies and ticks. Sporadic cases of LSD have been observed in cattle elsewhere. The aim of the present study was undertaken to evaluate the present scenario of LSD and its clinical management at different house-holds at south-west region of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was developed and data were collect...
Muhammad Rizwan1*, Bilal Atta1, Ana Maria Marino de Remes Lenicov2, Roxana Mariani2, Arshed Makhdoom Sabir1, Muhammad Tahir3, Misbah Rizwan4, Muhammad Sabar1, Ch. Muhammad Rafique1, Muhammad Afzal5
... primarily vector of the viruses, whereas Cixiids are vectors of phytoplasmas, mycoplasmas and prokaryotes-like associated to the class Mollicutes. Specimens of planthoppers were collected from the rice fields and surrounding weeds. A list of Fulgoromorpha is provided, with distributional and biological records as well. Records are extracted primarily from field data and specialized reference sources. Seven species from two different families of Fulgoromorpha ...

Arifa Khan1*, Danish Anwar2, Shazia Erum3, Naveeda Riaz1, Shahid Riaz4, Tariq Rafique3 and Zafer Iqbal2

Screening of Exotic Potato Germplasm against Potato Virus PVX, PVY and PLRV through Biological and Serological Test (ELISA)
...-align: justify;">Potato viruses like PVX (Potex virus X), PVY (Poty virus Y) and PLRV (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) cause significant yield loss of potato crop in the world including Pakistan. In this regard, 30 exotic potato genotypes were screened against the PVX, PVY and PLRV in field conditions during two seasons 2015-2016. Results showed...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Obinna Oragwa Arthur2, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1, Sarah Joseph1, Geoffrey Chibueze1, Joshua Adetunji1, Joseph Ameh Okwori3, David Ochola Amanyi4, Otobo I. Ujah5 and Onyemocho Audu6

Seroprevalence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection among Slaughtered Ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria
...sed to Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) because of frequent contact with infected vectors, animal body fluids and other tissues. We aimed to determine the prevalence of antibodies against RVFV in slaughtered ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 100 livestock (cattle and goats) at selected slaughter locations in Jos Metropolis. Questionnaires were administered to obtain information on animal species, sex, and localities of o...

Md. Sahidur Rahman

Origin and Spillover of Coronaviruses: Prospects of One Health Action
...t-align: justify;">Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses causing diseases in mammals, including humans and birds. Bat and rodents act as a reservoir of alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus whereas, gamacoronavirus and deltacoronavirus originate in avian species. Domestic animals...

Christian Marco Hadi Nugroho1 and Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan2,3,4*

Production of Antibody for Direct Fluorescence Antibody Assay against Avian Influenza H9N2
...y;">The H9N2 influenza A viruses are endemic in some countries for many years and had caused economic losses in poultry industries. Infection with this virus decreases egg production and increases chicken mortality. In human health, cases of this zoonotic agent are being reported and some cases showed fatal infection. The H9N2 is highly contagious, and transmission can occur from chicken to chicken, chicken to humans through...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Dorcas Yilger Gotom1, Noble Allison Chiehiura1, Julius Ocheme Okojokwu1, David Ochola Amanyi2, John Otumala Egbere1, Joshua Adetunji1, Otobo Innocent Ujah3 and Onyemocho Audu4

The Seroprevalence of Zika Virus Infection among HIV Positive and HIV Negative Pregnant Women in Jos, Nigeria
...xt-align: justify;">Zika virus infection (ZIKVI) have been known for years in Africa but data on sero-epidemiology among vulnerable pregnant women is lacking. We aimed to describe the seroprevalence of ZIKVI and associated factors in Jos, North Central Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was performed at Plateau State Specialist Hospital in Jos, North Central Nigeria from August to December 2020. We enrolled a total of 90 (45 HIV positive and 45 HIV negative) pre...
Faryal Saad1,3, Zia Ur Rahman2, Aamir Khan3, Rabia Noushin4, Irfan Ullah5, Farman Ullah Dawar3,Shahid Naiz Khan3, Rafiqe Hussain6, Kenza Javed2Abid ur Rehman7, Amna Fayaz3, Zohra Saifullah3 and Kalim Ullah3*
...ign: justify;">Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common cause of both congenital and intrauterine infection in developing fetus and pregnant women respectively. Proper in-time diagnosis of CMV is the most effective way to control this disease. Lack of health care facilities and proper screening of pregnant women for various congenital infections in the Sothern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, making the situation more worst. Therefore, this prelimina...

Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed Youssef* and Suzan Abd-Elazeim Hassabo

The Role of Genetic Engineering in Management of Plant Parasitic Nematodes with Emphasis on Root-Knot Nematodes: A Review
...tside the cells into any virus, bacteria, plasmid or other vector system in which they are capable of continued propagation. Azotobacter spp. with nematicidal activity could control root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. The development of such strains by genetic manipulation by transferring gene (s) required for saponins production is effective in increasing crop yield together with fixing nitrogen. Escherchia coli is still used as a host for the recombin...
Ye Ge1,2,3, Qiucheng Yao1, Hongliang Chai3, Yuping Hua3* and Guohua Deng2*
... birds, as reservoirs of viruses, play active roles in influenza virus transmission and reassortment. To further evaluate the potential infection risk of H6 AIVs from wild birds, we inoculated these viruses into A549 cells, which showed that these wild bird H6 AIVs have acquired the ability to cross interspecific barriers and have the potential to infect mammals. We analysed the level of c...
Jin-Juan Wan, Mei-Fang Shen*, Hui Xue, Hong-Yan Liu, Mei-Qin Zhang, Xi-He Zhu and Chong-Hua Wang

 

...with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and cumulative mortality was recorded for the next 4 days. The results showed that the weight gain rate (WGR) of crayfish tended to increase initially and then decrease as feeding frequency increased. The WGR in F3 were significantly higher than those fed 1, 4 and 5 times/day (P<0.05). The highest serum lysozyme (LZM), lowest catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed in crayfish fed 3 times/day. Howe...
Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1,2, Zaheer Ahmed Nizamani1, Asghar Ali Kamboh3, Mansoor Ayoob4, Waseem Ali Vistro3 and Abdul Sattar Baloch3*
...tered with 0.3ml of VVND virus (1.8×109 EID 50)via intramuscular and oral routes, respectively, whereas, birds of group Q3 and M3were kept in contact exposure with VVND virus infected chickens. Clinical signs were observed in Japanese quails and mynas on 4th day post-inoculation. The major clinical signs were green yellowish diarrhea, ruffled feathers, anorexia and torticollis in all gr...
Saima Yaqub1, Tahir Yaqub1*, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir2, Asif Nadeem3Aziz-Ul-Rahman1, Muhammad Furqan Shahid1, Zarfishan Tahir4 and Nadia Mukhtar4
...">Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is common among injecting drug users (IDUs), and HIV-1 positive IDUs may have potential of HIV transmission among general population through different ways. Therefore, an understanding towards current status of HIV prevalence and genomic characteristics of circulating strains is crucial to devise and implement necessary interventions to control disease in developing countries like Pakistan. A total of 201 plasma samples...

Muhammad Tariq Mahmood1*, Muhammad Akhtar2, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Saleem2, Ali Aziz2, Irfan Rasool2, Zeshan Ali3 and Muhammad Amin2

An Update on Biology, Extent of Damage and Effective Management Strategies of Chickpea Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera)
... (use of plant extracts, virus/bacteria based insecticides). In case of pod borer outbreaks, chemical insecticides remain as last option for farmers. However, management of chickpea pod borer through use of resistant cultivars, adopting recommended cultural practices and biological control measures have been found more effective, economical, sustainable and eco-friendly.

...
Ayesha Alam1,* and Labeeb Ali2
... small;">The presence of viruses in treated and untreated sewage water is a serious issue in the agricultural sector as it is highly dependent on recycled water for irrigation purposes due to the shortage of fresh water resources. In this study viruses in untreated and treatedwastewater has been reviewed to evaluate the health threats to the people. It has been cited that viruses such as R...
Rabia Riaz1, Khushi Muhammad1*, Masood Rabbani1, Muhammad Amjad Iqbal2, Aamir Riaz Khan2, Sadia Sarfaraz1, Mudassar Naseer3 and Khalid Majeed1

Muhammad Shahid1*, Unsar Naeem-Ullah1, Waheed S. Khan2, Shafqat Saeed1 and Kashif Razzaq3

Application of Nanotechnology for Insect Pests Management: A Review
... i.e. polymer, bacteria, viruses, plant extracts, fungi, and protein. This review article climaxes the latest mileposts accomplished for the production and imminent perspective of nanoparticles for the controlling of insect pests. 

...
Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khalid Munir1, Ghulam Abbas1’*, Isra Munir1Mumtaz Ahmad Khan1, Asif Iqbal1, Munsoor ud Din Ahmad1, Muhammad Arshad Javid2, Zareen Fatima1 and Maria Arshad1
...RespiratorySyndromecoronavirus(MERS-CoV)emerged as very importantissuesduringlastthree decadesas these infectionscaused quitelargenumberofhumandeathsworldwide.Coronavirusesaresingle-strandedpositive sense RNA viruses which mainly in past were considered responsible for high percentage of (around 30%) of common cold/flu cases. Viruses causing SARS, MERS a...
Rao Muhammad Ramiz1, Arfan Ahmad2*, Aamir Ghafoor2, Muhammad Avais3, Qurat-ul-Ain1 and Muhammad Zahid Iqbal3
... small;">Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the cause of enzootic bovine leukosis and has worldwide distribution. This is study reports presence and genetic diversity of BLV in cattle of two districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Blood samples (n=400) taken from local (n=200) and exotic (n=200) breeds of cattle were processed for complete blood count. Based on lymphocyte counts, samples were divided into two groups (A, lymphocytosis, B, normal lymphocytes) and tested thro...
Nosheen Basharat1, Usman Waheed2,3*, Muhammad Arshad1, Noor e Saba4, Iram Masood1, Akhlaaq Wazeer1, Ahmad Farooq1, Sadaf Moneeba1Abdul Rauf5 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer2,3

 

...ing centres. Torque teno virus (TTV) is highly prevalent among the general population throughout the world. TTV was discovered in 1997 in the serum of a Japanese patient. TTV is a non-enveloped small virus of 3.8 kb containing a circular single-stranded negative-sense DNA genome. TTV represents the first circovirus-like virus found in humans. The study w...
Roland Eric Yessinou1*, Alain Richi Kamga Waladjo2, Nestor Noudeke1, Ignace Dramou3, Justin Adinsi1, Victorien Tamègnon Dougnon4, Elsie Yélognisê Sangnidjo5, Razack Osse5, Alfred Dansou6 and Souaïbou Farougou1
...e-height: normal;">Lassa virus (LASV) is a highly prevalent arenavirus that affects two to three million people in West Africa. A retrospective was conducted review through literatures search using the AGORA, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Researchgate and Google Scholar Databases on Lassa fever (LF) from West Africa. A total of 34 articles were studied from 11 countries. Studies were categorized by host and country, and an...
Saad A. Moussa1, Mohammed Ahmed Mahmoud Abdullah2*, Mahmoud Saied1, Mustafa Saleh1, Mohamed A. Soliman2 and Ali Mahmoud Zanaty2
...ins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. Phylogenetic analysis of recent Egyptian isolates in Menofia governorate, Egypt was constructed, and showed to be of genotype VII. Eight NDV viruses were isolated from vaccinated commercial broiler flocks showing respiratory manifestation in Menofia governorate, Egypt during 2019. Those
Ryan Septa Kurnia1* and Radiana Dhewayani Antarianto2
 

...ure engineering with the virus-relevant complexity of in vivo models. Mechanism of infection disease have shown that the normal microbiota in host health has remarkably improved our understanding of the interactions between microbiota and invading pathogens. Commensal bacteria as microbiome can potentially influence mechanism of disease either hindering or promoting the viral infection and sometimes aggravate the disease. In this review, we discuss the ...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Jennifer Ifeoma Okpara1, James Mogoret Dabol1, Joshua Adetunji1, David Adeniyi2, David O. Amanyi3, Otobo I. Ujah4, Veronica David1, Patience Omaiye5 and Onyemocho Audu6

...0 million of hepatitis D virus (HDV) are coinfected with Hepatitis B virus, which has an estimate of 350 million infected individuals. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of HDV infection in HBV/HIV and HBV-mono infected patients in Jos, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted on ninety (45 HBV/HBV and 45 HBV-mono) infected patients with chronic hepatitis B attending the hepatitis clinics of the two tertiar...

Saad A. Moussa1, Ahmed F. Afify1*, Suzan Salah2 and Ayman Hamed3

...cterization of betacoronavirus 1 (bovine coronavirus) BCoV in newborn gastroenteritis calves in the Delta Region, Menofia Province, Egypt, also for isolation and identification of the local circulating BCoV strain for further diagnosis or vaccination. In cattle, Betacoronavirus 1 bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is primarily involved in enteric infections which...
Muhammad Farhan Qadir1, Xin-Yu Han1, Meng-li Qiao1, Ying Wang1, Ding Zhang1, Yu-hai Bi1,2, Ali Raza Jahejo1,Qian-qian Cheng1 and Wen-xia Tian1,*
Arsalan Rasheed1, Tahir Usman2,*, Sadaf Niaz1, Irfan Khattak2, Saira Gul2, Nawab Ali1,Naimat Ullah Khan2, Hazrat Ali2, and Mian Saeed Sarwar2
...t-align: justify;">Coronavirus has attracted a lot of attention due to its ability to cause fatal zoonotic infections. These are the zoonotic viruses of both medical and veterinary importance. The virus spread through respiratory droplets and causes diseases, ranging from colds to more serious illnesses: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Severe Respiratory Syndrome, and Severe Respiratory ...
Saba Afzal1, Sohail Raza1,*, Masood Rabbani1, Sehrish Firyal2, Imran Altaf1 and Zahra Naeem1
...b>/0.1 mL as compared to virus control 105.5 TCID50/0.1 mL. Moreover, the ivermectin exposure after the viral attachment and entry steps able to reduce virus titre more as compare to viral attachment and entry steps that predicts the possible mechanism of the drug. Therefore, our study first time demonstrated the antiviral potential of ivermectin against PPRV in vitro and its future potential for...

Muhamamd Rizwan1*, Muhammad Arshad2, Muhammad Kashif3, Aneela Zameer Durrani4, Asghar Abbas5, Tanveer Ahmad6, Muhammad Nadeem7 , Kinza Khan8

...n viral genome that help viruses to escape from bacterial CRISPR Cas based immune system. CRISPR Cas system is a molecular mechanism of prokaryotic microorganism. It acts as bacterial natural adaptive immune system against phages, plasmids and foreign genomic elements. Mostly prokaryotes uses their CRIPR Cas system to enhance the integrity of their cell membrane that inhibit the permeability of antimicrobials from host body into the bacterial cells. CRISPR Cas...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Muhammad Mahmood Iqbal1*, Saghir Ahmad1, Athar Mahmood2, Muhammad Akram1, Hammad Husnain1, Muhammad Shahid1, Saeed Ahmad1, Ali Raza1, Ansar Hussain3, Allah Ditta Abid4, Qaisar Abbas5, Mussarrat Hussain5, Muhammad Akram6 and Muhammad Umair Hassan2

...ed with cotton leaf curl virus when planted on 1st March during first year (25.0%) and 16th march sowing during second year (3.0%). In conclusion, cotton cultivar MNH-1020 can sown from 1st March to 16th April in order to get better cotton yield and quality.

...
Amreen Zahra1, Mushtaq A. Saleem1*, Hasnain Javed2, Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan3, Muhammad Naveed1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori4
...">Human immunodeficiency virus the retrovirus causes AIDS. HIV mainly targets the body’s immune system, including the CD4 cells, which help the immune system fight off infections. Gag-Pol are the principal viral elements in HIV-1, which cause disease initiation and progression. Here we present a comprehensive study, where both the in vitro and in-silico analyses were performed on HIV-1 from iso...

Md. Mukthar Mia1 and Mahamudul Hasan2

...n: justify;">Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis is a highly contagious, virulent, acute, and fatal gastrointestinal viral disease that fundamentally transforms the pups and collapses the body’s posthaste branching organs, such as bone marrow, lymph node, and the flimsy cell of the intestine, causing bloody diarrhea amidst a high mortality and morbidity rate. CPV is distributed in the family Parvoviridae beneath the subfamily Parvovirinae that pertains to ...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Irfan Shahzad Sheikh1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Khalid Mehmood1, Rana Muhammad Bilal2 and Tauseef Asmat1
...gainst Newcastle disease virus and sheep RBC showed no significant difference among treatment groups (P>0.05). Supplementation of herbal extracts as feed additives at 200 mg/Kg produced better growth performance of broiler chickens with no adverse effects.
...

Ahmed A. Kheder

...awberry latent ring spot virus (SLRSV) is an important virus which is responsible for considerable losses in horticulture and vegetable crops production including strawberry plants. SLRSV was detected and characterized using serological (DAS-ELISA), biological and molecular diagnostic techniques. Virus incidence was performed in different locations in five governorates during 2018-2020. Fo...

 Ramadan, F. Abbas1;H.M.Salem1; M.H. Belal2, and A. M. M. Abd-Alla3*

...is study to isolate this virus from house fly
population in Egypt. Screening house fly population using a new method
based on homogenizing large number of house fly adults collected from
field, clarify and concentrate the filtrate by centrifugation with 1400 g
and 28000 g respectively, resuspend the pellet in Tris buffer, sterile by
0.45-μm syringe filter and inject to ...

Ahmed F. Afify1, Mohamed A. Shalaby2, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2 and Amal S. Gaber1

...ence of equine arteritis virus in Egypt is still unknown and need
more investigations.This initiated the present study to design a protocol for isolation
trials and characterization of equine arteritis virus from field specimens. A total of
548 samples were collected from governmental and private studs of Arabian horses
and also foreign horse breeds, including 540 serum samples...

NawalM. Abdulla1, M. Haroun1*,Mohamed A. Shalaby2and Ahmed A. Elsanousi2

...ion of Newcastle disease virus
(NDV) field strains was reported in two captivated falcons(Falcoperegrinusperegrinus)
in Qatar.Virus cultivation in specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonating chicken eggs
(ECE),haemagglutination (HA), haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and mean death time
(MDT)used in the investigation to reveal virus identity an...

El-Habbaa, A.S.

...> (CPDV) of genus parapoxvirus, subfamily
Chordopoxvirinae, familyPoxviridae, causesContagiousPustular Dermatitis in sheep and
goats worldwide and in Egypt. Forty samples of skin lesions from suspected 30 sheep
and 10 goats from different areas of Qaliubeya governorate were subjected
tovirusisolation on embryonated chicken eggs (ECE), antigen detection using agar gel

Walaa ,S. Shabanaa;Bakr, A. Abdallaa; Eman, M. ELShalamia; I.M. Redab; M. A. Shalabyb

...ction. Rift valley fever virus causes serious and fatal disease in animals and man. It
produces high abortion rate among pregnant ewes and cows, causes heavy mortalities in young
lambs and calves. In the present study the Montanide ISA 50 oil adjuvanted combined FMD/RVF
vaccine was tested in sheep and compares it with single vaccines either FMD or RFV alone.The
mean of antibody titers continued with the protectiv...
Ala’audin Hakami,1AusamaA Yousif,2* Mohamed Zaki,3 Mahmoud Ismail,4,5 Ahmed Al-Ali,5 Abdu-Rahman Al-Ankari5 
...beak and feather disease virus
(PBFDV) in Saudi Arabia are increasingly reported without laboratory
diagnostic evidence of virus circulation. The objectives of this study were
to investigate the presence of PBFDV in the Arabian Peninsula, and to
identify its possible molecular origins. Total DNA was extracted from
feather and blood samples from randomly selected 19 ...
Asmaa A.M. Abd El-Ghani *; Ahmed B.M.; Abdel-Raouf A. ; Nagwa S. Ata* and H.A. Hussein
...dium (MEM) were used for virus propagation and titration. The
effects of two concentrations of Salvadora persica on viral growth in MDBK cells as
well as cytolytic activity of BHV-1 were evaluated at different times pretreatment
,simultaneouslly and after adsorption. The results demonstrated that the safest
concentration (non-cytotoxic) of the plant extract under study on MDBK cells was 0.1
mg/ml.The ...
El-Dougdoug K.A.1, Sofy A.R.2, Rehab A. Dawoud3 and Korkar H.M.4
.../div>...
Mandour, A. M. 1, Abdel Maksoud, H. M. 2, Amal, A. Khalil 3 and Mohga, A. El-Tahlawey 4
...
infection with many viruses. A survey on viruses affecting maize was
conducted in El-Monfia, Kafr-El-Sheikh, Al Ismailia, and El-Menia
Governorates in 2010 and 2011 seasons. In addetion, weeds existed in maize
field were also rested. Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) is the most
economically significant virus
Mansour, L. L.*; Othman, B. A. **; Abd-EL Ghaffar, M. H. **; Eman, M. Marai** and Sahar, A. Youssef* 
...v>...
Sallam A.A.A.1, Hoda M.A.Waziri2,E. K .F. Elbeshehy1, SamiaI.Massoud,1 and Abeer M. Abo El-Wafa2.
...iv>Broad bean mottleBromovirus (BBMV) was obtained from naturally infected faba
bean plants exhibiting blotchy mottle,vein-clearing and deformation. BBMV was able
to infect limited host range ten out of thirty three tested plant species, and
cultivarsbelonging to six different families. It was transmitted mechanically and not
transmitted by seeds or aphids. The isolated virus w...
Abeer A. Feisall; B.A. Othman2; Kh.A. El-Dougdoug2 and H.S. Shalaby1
...v>
20 ºC. The virus lost its ability to lyse salmonella cells at pH 4, 5, 6, 10, 11 and 12
while it was infectious only at pH 7, 8 and 9.The virus lost its infectivity after
exposure to UV for 50 min. at distance of 53 and 70 cm from the UV source. The
bacteriophage (St-1) was inactivated in presence of NaCl at concentration higher
than 15%; sodium benzoate at concen...

D. N. Abd-elshafy1, 2 and M. M. Bahgat2, 3

...s is a picornavirus that can be detected in environmental or clinical samples. Its replication in cell culture is slow and so cytopathic effect might take up to two weeks to appear making it not easy to detect presence of virus. the present work aimed to study effect of inhibiting HepG2 cellular proteases on replication rate of the virus. Plaque infectivity count assay was carri...

Maha I. El Zaafarany1, WafaaM. Badawy2, Eman M. El Salakh3

...e role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in breast cancer.Fifty four fresh frozen breast cancers samples were analyzed. Samples were tested for HPV by PCR, and products were sequenced. Findings were correlated with clinical and pathological characteristics.The HPV DNA prevalence in the breast cancer samples was 28 % (15/54). Sequence analysis in a subgroup of cases indicates the prev...

Enas K. Abo-Elmagd,Kouka S. Abd El-Wahab,Azza H. El- Salakawy

...e like RT-PCR.

...
Nader M. Sobhy,1 Sunil K. Mor,2 Mohammed E.M. Mohammed,1
Iman M. Bastawecy,3 Hiam M. Fakhry,4 and Sagar M. Goyal2
...p>Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a long known virus but still a current threat in Egypt with devastating consequences as shown in 2012 in Egypt. One of the most important FMD features is high potential for genetic and antigenic variation. Therefore molecular study of FMDV is pre-requisite for amplification of FMDV specific genomic fragment and also copying specific serotypes O, A and SAT2 nucleotide sequence. In this...

Hiam M. Fakhry and Assem A.A.

...t foot and mouth disease virus, to induce protection against foot and mouth disease. This study was conducted in three sheep groups ; the first group was vaccinated intramuscularly (I/M) with trivalent foot and mouth disease zeolite (1 μg/dose) vaccine, The second group was vaccinated with foot and mouth disease oil vaccine and Third group was vaccinated with foot and mouth disease ( oil + zeolite ) vaccine. The cellular immune responses were monitored in d...
RehamM. El-Bakrey1, Shimaa M.G. Mansour2, Mohammed A. El Sisi1 AndAmal A.M. Eid1
...an influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virusesare now endemic in Egypt inducing economic losses in poultry industry and subsequent risk of human infection. Vaccination is an effective method for controlling avian influenza virus infections.This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the commercially applied AI vaccine regimens against challenge with three H5N1 HPAI viruses isolated from chicken...

Yasser F. Elnaker 1, Mohamed El-Tholoth 2, Sahar Saber 3, Amira A- Elsaid4, Mohamed A. Saad 3, Emad E. Younis 5

...arturition with sheep poxvirus vaccine (Kenyan strain). The diseased calves showed localized or generalized skin nodules with or without fever. Skin lesions were collected from clinically diseased calves for virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs for three passages followed by ten successive passages in Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) and identification of isolated virus was done by ...

Ebtisam, A. Abouel yazeed1; Yanni, M.I.1 and Hanan A. Fahmy2

...o investigate bovine rotavirus antigen in fecal samples of forty diarrheic new borne calves of cattle (32) and buffaloes (8) below three months in some farms in Egypt. The detection was done by ELISA and indirect fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) as well as molecular method as real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) from samples collected during neonatal diarrhea. Six out of forty tested samples were found positive for rota

Hanaa A. Ahmed1 and Eman M. AboHatab2

...sed for Isolation of LSD virus from the nodular samples by inoculation on chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) SPF at 9-11 day and Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell culture. Identification of virus by indirect immuno fluorescent antibody technique (IFA) which was considered a rapid and accurate method for LSD antigen detection. nodules were subjected directly to PCR and Real time PCR for rapid...

Afaf. A. Khedr*, Ekram Salama*, A. A. Samy**, Abdella, Y.A.*** and Suzan. K. Tolba***

...or infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV). The immune response for the antigenic component of both vaccines show high titre of antibodies, but Montanide ISA-70 adjuvanted vaccine was superior as shown in mean antibody titers against Avibacterium paragallinarum serovar A, B and C and infectious bronchitis. In addition, Montanide ISA-70 is lesser in viscosity that makes it easily injected, so, it is better to use for control of infectious coryza and infectious bronch...

Fawzy Rania1, AboElkhair M.1, Bazid A.M.1, Sultan H.2, Hussien A.H.3

...of Infectious bronchitis virus cause a major problem in the Egyptian poultry industry. A mixture of genetic mutations and or recombination events has been occurred during replication of coronaviruses including IBV which called quasispecies. Serotypic and or genotypic classification of IBV is mainly based on the S1 subunit of Spike (S) gene. In the present study, thirty tracheal samples of broiler flocks suspected to be infec...

Hala K. Abdelmegeed 1, Eman M. Abohatab 1, Khattab,O. M. 1 , Salem, S.A.H. 1 , Arafa, A. 2, Nashwa M. Helmy 3

Nashwa M. Helmy1 and Ahmed S. A.2

...e seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV), namely O, A, C, SAT 1, SAT
2, SAT 3 and Asia 1. Tests for antibodies of FMDV nonstructural proteins (NSPs) are
useful in providing evidence of previous or current viral replication in the host,
irrespective of vaccination status. NSPs, unlike structural proteins are highly conserved
and therefore are not serotype specific and as a consequence, the detection of these
<...

El-Bagoury, G.F., El-Nahas, E.M., El-Habbaa, A.S.

...f bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) field strains from clinically infected cattle and buffaloes. Twenty Buffy coat samples were collected from each clinically infected cattle and buffaloes in Qaluobia province during the year 2014. The virus was isolated on BHK-21 cell line. Infected cells with BEFV showed 80% cytopathic effect (CPE) after 48 h by the 3rd virus passage. The isolates were...

Serag eldeen Sultana, M.W Abdel azeemb, Nahla Mohamed Eldamranyc

...sence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies. The migratory birds were classified into (8) orders, (16) families and (23) species. The serum samples were examined using IDEXX MultiS-screen AI Antibody ELISA kit coated with AIV nucleoprotein and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test against H5 and H9 antigens. The overall results using both ELISA and HI tests revealed that the prevalence of AIV antibodies was 12.6% (18/143). The seropositive samples represen...

Aya El-Turkey1, A. K. El-Attar1, A. E. Aboulata1, B. Othman2 and K. A. El-dougdoug2

...SV-2.

...
Amro A. Farrag1; Ahmed K. El-Attar1; Om-Hashem M. El-Banna2; Ibrahim A. I.2; H.
M. Mazyad1
...v>complete genome of the virus was as follow, DNA-A (2667 bp) and DNA-B (2621 bp).
The obtained sequences were submitted into the GenBank with accession numbers
KJ624994 and KJ579954.The full nucleotide sequence of DNA-A, DNA-B and all open
reading frames (ORF) of the SLCV-bean was aligned and compared with eleven different
isolates of the SLCV available in the GenBank. The phylogenetic analysis of the complete

Allam A. Megahed1; Hoda M.A. Waziri2; Khaled A. El-Dougdoug3; Badawi A. Othman3; Sirag M. Lashin1; Mohamed D. Hassanin1 and Mahmoud A. Ibrahim4

... of purified Beet mosaic virus (BtMV) particles obtained by density gradient centrifugation revealed that, the concentration of virus preparation estimated using spectrophotometric measurements at 260 nm was 3.004 mg/ml. The min, max nm, Amax./Amin., A260/A280 and A280/A260 ratios were 244, 260, 1.276, 1.512 and 0.662, respectively for BtMV. The corresponding figures of the purified virus ...

Samah A. Mokbel1, Ashraf A. Abd El-Mohsen2

...p>Recently production of virus-free potato minitubers is critical. For this purpose, infected tubers with potato leafroll virus (PLRV) or potato virus x (PVX) from two cultivars Spunta or Lady Rosette as demonstrated by serological detection were used as a source for virus-free minitubers production. This achived by subjecting tubers directly to thermoth...

Hanaa H. A. Gomaa1; Entsar A. A. Nassar2; K. A. El-Dougdoug3

...inst HAV, HSV1 and COXB4 viruses. The cytotoxicity of different milk thistle methanolic extracts in Vero cells did not show any morphological difference compared with control. Antiviral affects of milk the most potent methanolic solutions of milk thistle that have antiviral activity with different degrees, line 32 with (HAV), line 9 with (COXB4) and, line 28 with (HSV1).

...

Ahmed K. El-Attar; Samah A. Mokbel; Ali H. Hamed

...ed by Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV). In this research we aimed to
identify and molecularly characterize the isolate of the OYDV infecting onion plants in
Egypt and to obtain OYDV-free plants from infected onions through tissue culture
techniques. To achieve our aim, the virus has been isolated from naturally infected onion
plants grown in five Egyptian Governorates, Gharbia, ...

K.A. El-Dougdoug1, A.R. Sofy2, A.A. Mousa2 and E.E. Refaey2

...e severity infection and virus concentration. Expressed protein
was differed in leaves of potato cultivars. Since PVY infection unexpectedly increased in
(Anabel, Sisi, Lady Balfor, Nicola and Execusa) or decrease of total protein in (Hermes and
Spunta). The potato cultivars (healthy and infected) varied in number and density of protein
bands. As well as specific bands with 72% polymorphism, commonly bands were p...

Om-Hashem M. El-Banna1, Maisa A.E. Awad2, M.S. Abbas3, Hoda M. A. Waziri2 and Huda S. A. Darwish2

...div>...
Amro A. Farrag1; Ahmed K. El-Attar1; Om-Hashem M. El-Banna2; Ibrahim A. I.2; H. M. Mazyad 1 
...iv>...
M. A. S. El-kady1; A. B. Badr2; Ahmed K. El-Attar1, Hoda M. A. Waziri1 and Kh. E. A. Saker1
Aly M. Abdel-Salam1, Rehab A. Dawoud2, Amira M.E.Aly2, and Salama M. El-Saghir2
...anana
streak virus (BSV) using immunocapture-polymerase chain reaction (IC-PCR) and a
specific antiserum for BSV. IC-PCR indicated the episomal presence of BSV in
Williams and Pradica banana varieties. In addition, IC-PCR analysis on vitroplants
collected from tissue cultures (TC) showed the significant role of TC in spreading out
of BSV. PCR amplicons for the reverse transcriptase and RNaseH motifs o...

Mohamed I. Azzam1, Safaa M. Ezzat1, K. A. El-Dougdoug2, Badawi A. Othman2

...rface water with enteric viruses is a major public health concern that
warrants the need to develop reliable indicators for enteric viruses contamination. This
work assesses the bio-diversity of coliphages to use as bio-indicators for viral water
pollution. The study elucidates the occurrence of enteric viruses at various locations in
Rosetta...

Rehab A. Dawood1; Entsar A. Nassar2; and K.A. El-Dougdoug 3

... a new method for Potato virus Y (PVY) elimination using tissue culture technique. Osmotherapy refers to culture meristem – tip and stem nodes at MS medium saturated with sucrose. Stem nodes of potato were successfully stored for up to 12 month at osmo-preservation medium supplemented with sucrose 50, 60 and 70 gl -1 at 210C. The survival percentage was recorded 85.1, 81.2 and 50.8 for 50, 60 and70 gl -1 respectively for 12 months at 210C. All survival p...

Eman A. H. Kattab1,3, A. H. Ebrahem2 , Om-Hashem M. El-Banna2 and Hanan F. EL-Kammar³

...ves. The identity of the virus was confirmed biologically, serologically and by light and electron microscopy. It was found that BBMV reacted systemically with 12 species belonging to Fabaceae and locally with 2 species belonging to Chenopodiace. It was transmitted mechanically and by Sitona lineate. It was detected serologically by indirect ELISA using BBMV specific antiserum. Light microscopy of epidermal strips of faba bean infected-leaves revealed amorphou...

Amel, S.M. Abo-Senna1; M.A. Nasr-Eldin2; B.A. Othman3 and A.A. Megahed4

...p>Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) was isolated from Cucurbita pepo cv. Eskandarani cultivated in the open field showing severe systemic symptoms. The isolated virus has wide host range belonging to 4 families resulting systemic and local symptoms. Stability of the isolated virus in vitro was found as 55 oC for TIP, 10-4 for DEP and LIV 4 days. The characteristic spectrophotometric data...

Aly M. Abdel-Salam

...iv>Sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV), Badnavirus, Caulimoviridae was
detected in the noble sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) plants in Giza and Assiut
governorates showing leaf symptoms of pronounced flecks or freckles and vein
banding which turn later to chlorotic and necrotic strips. Polymerase chain reaction
(PCR) utilizing degenerate primers for badna...

Amira A. Mazyad1; A. A. Kheder1; Ahmed K. El-Attar1; W. Amer.2; Mahasen, H. Ismail.2; Amal, A.F.1

...rawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRSV) was isolated from symptomless strawberry plants and identified with a specific antiserum (Loewe Biochemica GmbH) using Double Antibody Sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA). Virus survey was carried out during 2013 - 2014 in different locations on commercial strawberry fields. The percentages of infection were 3.7, 4.5, 15.7 and 20% in El-Behera, El-Kalubeia, El-Ismalia and El-Menofia respectively...

Elharony, S.B.1,3, SaharA.Youssef2 and Richard F. Lee3

...
DNA and RNA viruses and viroid provides a new approach to virus
and virus like detection and identification. The method provides a
pure preparation of un-degraded RNA and DNA in high yield and
can be completed within 2 h. It is particularly useful for processing
large number of samples and for isolation of RNA and DNA from
...

Samah A. Mokbel, Soad H. Taha, Mahmoud M. Abd-El Hamid, Ali H. Hamed

...ctoferrin against Potato virus x (PVX) in vitro and in vivo have been evaluated. Four concentrations of lactoferrin 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L were examined either in vitro culture medium or in vivo (greenhouse). The presence of the virus was evaluated by ELISA technique. Results demonstrated that application of 1000 mg/L lactoferrin by spraying or combined with tissue culture proved to be an effective method for PVX-inhibi...

AdlyAbd-Alla1,2, MahaNada3, Francois Cousserans1, and Max Bergoin1

...resence of paraspherical virus like-particles with diameter
of 25 nm. Virus purification on cesium chloride gradient showed one band at a buoyant
density of 1.362. Extraction of nucleic acid from purified virus particles revealed a ~9 kb
ssRNA linear genome and analysis of capsids showed two major proteins of 31 and 32 kDa
and a minor 78 kDa ...

Aly M. Abdel-Salam1 and Samah A. Mokbel2

...ate of Necrotic ringspot virus (NRSV) was isolated from apple orchards
in the vicinity of Nubaria city, Beheira governorate, Egypt. Infected-apple trees
showed chlorotic, necrotic ringspots, and shoot holes on leaves. Severely infectedtrees
withered, became useless, and were removed causing severe economic losses.
Reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RT-PCR, using
degenerate pri...
M. A. Kararah1, Om-Hashem M. El-Banna1, Salwa N. Zein2 and Abd-Elrehiem, A.F.3 
...range of the
virus was expanded to seven different plant families. The virus was
mechanically transmitted, and the percentage of seed transmission was 6%.
PMV was partially purified for its antiserum production. The absorption
spectrum of the purified virus had a min at 245 nm and a max at 260 nm. The
ratios of A260/280, A280/260 ...

Sherif .M. Ibrahim*, Abd El-Razek. B. Abd El-Razek*. Hanan. M. El-Zahed Amal. A. Fatouh* and Ayatollah. I. Ibrahim*

...ated strains of Fowl pox virus (FPV) and Pigeon pox virus (PPV) based on biological and molecular basis. Vaccinal and isolated strains were propagated on the chorioallentioc membrane of specific pathogen free (SPF) embroynated chicken egg (ECE) showing the characteristic pock lesions for each strain with titers reached 4.5 and 3.5 log10 EID50/ml at 5th passage for FPV and PPV isolates, respectively. The isolated strains were...

Sahar Abd El Rahman1; Mohamed Eladl2 and Mohamed M. El-Diasty3

...e bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) was noticed in Dakahlyia governorates during the summer season of 2015. Twelve samples of buffy coats were collected from dairy farms suspected from clinical investigations to be infected by bovine ephemeral fever virus. The virus was isolated intracerebrally in suckling mice then successfully identified by indirect immunofluorescence technique in the ...

Safaa M. Mohammed*, Shahira A. Abdelwahab**,Fetaih,H⃰ ⃰ ,Neveen,R⃰ ,Abdel satar ,A⃰ and Mohamed S. Elshahidy**

...n this study, turkey pox virus (TKPV) was recorded in 6 commercial turkey flocks aged 48-65days old. The disease was examined clinically ,histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Turkey pox virus was isolated on CAM of embryonated chicken eggs and identified by agar gel precipitation test and polymerase chain reaction .Two main types of TKPV infection were observed in examined flocks ,cutaneous and diphtheritic forms. ...
Abd El-Hamid, M.I1, Seham, A.El-Zeedy1, El-Sanousi, A.A2, Reda, I.M2, Nehal, S. Saleh1, Abbas, A.M1
...to its essential role in virus infectivity and its function in entry of virus into cells and is considered as one of the most potent inducers of virus-neutralizing antibody among the spectrum of EHV-1 proteins .A wave of Abortions has been recorded in El Zahraa stud for Arabian Horses ,collected samples were either aborted fetal tissues either Lung and livers as well as Aborted placenta an...

Abd El-Hamid, M.I1; Seham, A. ElZeedy1; El-Sanousi A.A2, Reda, I.M2, Nehal, S. Saleh1., Abbas, A.M1

.../p>...

Amir M. Walaa1 ; Ausama Yousif1; Walid H. Kilany2; Magdy El-Sayed1; Ahmed A. El-Sanousi1

...enge with wild ND and IB viruses. Two hundred and eighty commercial one-day-old broiler saso chicks were divided into 8 groups (35 birds each). Groups 2, 3, 4&5 were vaccinated at one-day-old with live hitchner + IB Primer. Then all groups at 7 days old were boosted with inactivated combined NDV+IBV vaccines with different adjuvants except for group 1 & 2. Group 1 was kept as unvaccinated control. At 28 days all groups were challenged with a dose of 10...

Megahed, A.A.1; Kh. A.El-Dougdoug2 and B.A. Othman2

...of Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV), Beet mosaic potyvirus (BtMV), Beet necrotic yellow vein benyvirus (BNYVV), Beet curly top geminivirus (BCTV) and Beet yellows closterovirus (BYV) symptomatology and serologically by double antibody sandwaich Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). The survey of sugar beet

A. A. Rezk1,3, K. A. Alhudaib2 and A. M. Soliman2,3

...yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) was isolated from cucurbit plants growing in Eastern Province area in Saudi Arabia and characterized using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The nucleotide sequence for the coat protein (CP) gene was carried out and submitted in GenBank under accession number JN083790. The phylogenetic tree showed that there are two big clusters and the identity between them 90%. The isolated CYSDV in this study is...

Sahar A. Youssef1; Manal A. El-Shazly1,2; Azza G.Farag1,3; Eman A. Khattab1,2

...Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) was obtained from naturally infected rose plants collected from different rose farms in Taif, KSA exhibiting a wide range of foliar disease symptoms including necrotic spots, wavy lines, oak leaf pattern, leaf deformation, reduction in number and diameter of flowers , color breaking and necrotic spots on flower petals .The virus was biologically purified from single local lesion formed ...

Badr, A. B. 1, Abou-zeid, A. A2. and Al-Naggar, A. M1.

...ers infected with Potato virus Y. Anatomical features of terminal leaflets i.e. mean of thickness both, midrib zone, leaflet blade, upper epidermal layer, palisade and spongy tissues, length and width of protoxylem and metaxylem vessels were reduced. However, lower epidermal layer was increased. Stomatal characters i.e. number of stomata and length of stoma pore were increased, while, width of stoma pore, length and width of guard cells were reduced. Anatomica...

Hanan M. El-Zahed, Hanaa A. Mostafa, Nermeen M. El Sayed and Lamiaa M. Omar

...ttenuated Chicken anemia virus (CAV) vaccines. One was vaccinated with 26 P4 strain vaccine subcutaneously and the other was vaccinated with Cux strain vaccine through drinking water (DW). Then the inactivated avian influenza (AI) H5N1 vaccine was inoculated intra-muscularly either at the 1st, 2nd or 3rd WPV with CAV vaccine forming three subgroups per each group. It is clearly observed that a relatively high levels of CAV ELISA antibody titers in all the vacc...

Manar F. Seioudy1, Magda M. Sayed1, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2 and M. A. Shalaby2

...of bovine viral diarrhea virus as possible extraneous virus contaminant using RT-PCR and detection of mycoplasma as possible bacterial contaminant using PCR technique. All of the four batches were positive when tested using specific primers and they were free from BVDV or mycoplasma contamination. Results in this study showed that molecular techniques could be used for rapid evaluation of PPR vaccine including RT-PCR for ide...

Amany Adel1, Abdelsatar Arafa1, Hussein A. Hussein2 and Ahmed El-Sanousi 2

...e present study, 24 H5N1 viruses were selected on the basis of the phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene sequences to study the genetic evolution of the NS1 gene of such viruses. The viruses were isolated from chickens and ducks in both live bird markets and backyard populations. NS1 gene was amplified, sequenced and the phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences revealed deletion of 5...

Serageldeen Sultan1, Nabila Osman2

...nce of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) among chicken flocks in Egypt. A total of 510 serum samples were collected from broiler breeder (n=191), layer breeder (n=235) and commercial broiler chickens (n=84) from different farm flocks (24 flocks) in Egypt. These samples were examined for the presence of avian HEV antibody using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). The results revealed that the occurrence of avian HEV was 15.7% (80/510) and 66.7% (16/24...

Radwa M. Shafie 1 and Soha S. M. Mostafa2

...ainst Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) infection on Vicia faba L. Giza 716 and Chenopodium amaranticolor Cost and Reyn. The non-inoculated algal synthetic media were used as control. Findings revealed that the mixture of the three algal filtrates gave the highest percentages of inhibition. Lower inhibition effect was produced by culture filtrate of N. muscorum and S. platensis, respectively in particular in plants treated with algal filtrates by mixed with

Nashwa M. Helmy1, Ahmed S. Ahmed2, and Zeinab3 Y. Mohamed

...cal attenuated sheep pox virus vaccine located in Sharkia and Fayoum governorates. Methods: Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) was isolated from skin biopsies collected from clinically infected cattle. The virus was isolated on MDBK cell line and identified by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) using specific hyper immune serum against LSDV. ...

Lamya A. F. Ateya1, Said A. Ahmed 2, Mansour H. Ayman3, Khamees K. Ashraf 4, Heba A. Abdel-Hady 5

...ound: Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is an infectious viral disease which is an important serious skin disease of cattle. LSDV was isolated from skin biopsies collected from cattle which are clinically infected at Kaluobia governorate. Objectives: This study was designed for isolation and identification of LSD virus on CAM and MDBK cell culture and identification of isolated virus by FAT ...

Lamya A. F. Ateya1 , Said. A .Ahmed2, Khamees K.S. Ashraf3, Heba A. Abdel-Hady4

...).

...

Ola Youssef 1; EL-Deeb A.H.2 Nassif S.A.1 and Ahmed A. El-Sanousi 2.

... was evaluated using HVT virus titration, reduction of viral shedding during challenge test.
Results: Five vaccine batches were selected randomly and coded as A, B, C, D and E; these were
examined and proved to be identical by quantitative real- time PCR in which the H5 gene titer was
7.364, 7.499, 7.767, 8.049, 8.000 logs 10 copies / ml respectively. The result of in- house ELISA was
not significant for H5 gene ...

Aly M. Abdel-Salam

...tly whitefly-transmitted viruses (WTV) have emerged as a major economic threat to the cucurbit industry in the Middle East and countries in the Mediterranean basin. Whitefly-transmitted viruses to cucurbits include viruses in the Begomovirus, Crinivirus, and Ipomovirus genera. Induce...

Ehab M. El-Nahas1, Hemat S. El-Sayed2, Sawsan S. El-Basuni3, Gabr F. El-Bagoury1

...an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Egypt/Qal/014p was isolated from 14-day-old broiler chickens with proventriculitis in Qaluobia province of Egypt in 2014. Objective: The isolate was identified by a real time RT-PCR targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene with further genetic and antigenic characterization. Methods: Beside a real time RT-PCR; sequence analysis of partial S1 gene, cross-neutralization and the challenge experiment for H120 vaccinated broiler chi...

Salama M. El-Saghir1, 2

...ily by a wide variety of viruses, viz. PVY, PLRV,
and PVX. Potato virus S (PVS), family Betaflexiviridae; genus Carlavirus) is one of the most common
potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) viruses found infecting potato worldwide. PVS was detected only
once in Egypt in 1988. However no further studies have been made on it in Eg...

Salama M. El-Saghir1, 2

...Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), family Bromoviridae, genus Ilarvirus is known
to infect stone fruit trees and causes extensive economic losses in Egypt. Distinctive symptoms with
PNRSV are necrotic ring spots on leaves, bud failure and poor quantity and quality of fruits. Upon
continuous observation of peach trees previously known to be infected with PNRSV, additional
s...

Ayman S. El-Habbaa 1, Gabr F. El-Bagoury1, Samar F. El-Adaway2, and Susan S. El-Mahdy2

...gypt. Methods: Suspected virus isolates on embryonated chicken eggs was detected by Hemagglutination (HA) test and identified using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. F protein encoding gene of NDV was amplified using Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) then subjected for nucleotide and amino acid sequence detection. Results: NDV Giza 2014 isolate and NDV Qualubiya 2014 were characterized as velogenic and lentogenic strains, respective...

Manar F. Seioudy1, Magda M. Sayed1, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2 and Mohammed A. Shalaby2

...ste des petits ruminants virus in
PPR vaccines. In the meanwhile, the conventional RT-PCR using primer set that targets N gene is
more sensitive in identification of PPRV than RT-PCR using primer set that targets F gene which
could give false negative results.
...
Muhammad G. Khodary1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Mohamed M. Emara2, Othman E. Othman1, Hussein A. Hussein2
...s clustered the detected viruses with O topotype East Africa-3 (EA-3) viruses.
Conclusion: The newly identified 2016 viruses clustered in distinct clade in the phylogenetic tree
other than the serotype O viruses isolated in previous outbreaks in Egypt, indicating the likelihood of
new incursions into Egypt. These strai...

Naglaa F.S. Awad1, Gamelat K.F. Kotb2

...bbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in 1991,
Egyptian authorities started a national vaccination program against the disease. However, RHDV
clinical cases are still being reported.
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate genetic characterization of recent RHDV isolates from
naturally-infected rabbits in Sharkia governorate, Egypt in 2015/2016.
Methods: A total of 24 clinical samples were investi...

Lamiaa M. Omar, Mohamed A. Abdrabo, Dali M. Omar, Nermeen A. Marden

...kground: Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, an important but difficult pathogen to control in
poultry. Vaccination might reduce the risk of bird infection virus transmission by reducing virus
shedding. Challenge of vaccinated birds with AI vaccines under strictly controlled condition with
virulent HPAI virus may al...

Ahmed A. Azab, Wesam H. Mady, Ali Zanaty, Mahmoud Samir

...d: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an acute contagious disease cause severe economic
losses in poultry production worldwide. Virus isolation is the golden standard for IBV diagnosis so the
aim of this study was comparing the different biological systems for isolation of infectious bronchitis
virus.
Methods: The Egyptian variant 2 IBV str...
Ashraf S. Khameis, lamya F. Atteya, Ayman H. Mansour, Heba A. Abdelhady, Ashraf A.
Saad
...iv>Background: Sheep pox virus is a member of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family,
which affect sheep and causes significant economic losses in El Menofiya Governorate.
Objectives: The present study was applied for isolation and molecular identification of Sheep pox
virus from clinically affected sheep in El Menofiya governorate, Egypt durin...

Dina N. Abd-Elshafy

...>Background: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) causes tens of millions of human infection annually
worldwide. It usually spreads by the fecal-oral route and is transmitted from person-to-person
through contaminated food or water. A number of travelers arriving from Egypt were found
infected with HAV upon return to their home countries, for this Egypt Travel made warned
tourists traveling to Egypt to avoid eating under cook...

Maha A. El-Abhar1, Moustafa A. Elkady1, Khaled M. Ghanem2, Hussieny A. Bosila3

...ckground: Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is only virus in the genus Alfamovirus and has very wide host
range among weed and crop plants which produces a variety of symptoms. It can cause problems in potato
in some regions where vectors easily move into potato fields from reservoir host, particularly if a tuber
necrosis-causing strain is involved.

Dina A. Abdulrahman1, Ayman H. EL-Deeb2, Momtaz A. Shaheen1 & Hussein A. Hussein2

...: Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of multiple outbreaks and
severe economic losses in the cattle population since its introduction in Egypt. Although vaccination is
practiced to control the disease, it is still endemic. Moreover, emergence of new strains is possible
through the international borders of the endemic countries. Consequently, there is a dire need for
routine molecular chara...

Abdou Nagy1, Fatma Abdallah1, Kareem Sweed2, Ahmed Salama3, Mohamed Omar4

...kground: Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is one of common respiratory pathogens affects
poultry and can cause economic losses, particularly when accompanied with secondary pathogens.
Aim: This study aimed to perform seroprevalence of aMPV for non-vaccinated chicken and duck
flocks from six provinces of Egypt (Ash Sharqiyah, Ismailia, Qalyubia, Menufia, Sohaq and North-
Sinai) and determine its economic effect.
...
Maha M. Khedr1, Reem A. Suliman1, Marwa F. Mohamed1, Mounir D. El Safty1, Hussein A.
Hussein2
...iv>Background: Influenza virus is an Orthomyxovirus that known as one of the causes of significant
numbers of natural infections and disease, mainly infecting the upper respiratory tract, in humans,
domestic pigs, horses, and numerous bird species. Maternal derived antibodies could interfere with the
efficacy of vaccination against avian influenza in early age in chicks.
Method...

Shimaa M. Mansour, Reham M. ElBakrey, Ahmed Orabi, Haytham Ali, Amal A. Eid

...div>Background: Avian Reovirus (ARV) is involved in many pathologic syndromes of chicken including
the both major syndromes, Viral Arthritis (VA) and Runting Stunting Syndrome (RSS), which have
great negative impacts on the poultry industry. Although ARV was reported in Egypt since 1984 but
only few studies figured out the implication of ARV only in the uneven growth of some Egyptian
chicken flocks.
A...
Hussein A. Hussein, Maha Khedr, Reem A. Suliman, Marwa F. Mohamed, Mounir D. El
Safty
...ntent of avian influenza virus
vaccines is urgent to reach protective antibody titers and reduce virus shedding.
Methods: Groups of one-day old commercial broiler chicks were divided in to 8 groups 1, 2 and 3 were
vaccinated with a prepared vaccine contain 500HAU of H5N1 reassortant antigen; while group 4, 5 and 6
were vaccinated with an imported reassortant vaccine with 500HAU...
Dalia M. Omar1, Nermeen A. Marden1, Lamiaa M. Gaafar1, Elham A. El-ebiary1, Khalid El-Dougdoug2, Badawi Othman2, Abd Elsattar Arafa3, Hussein A. Hussein4
...kground: Avian influenza viruses (AIV) circulating in Egypt since 2006 causing serious economic
losses in poultry sector and human hazard although vaccination programs applied and other control
measures.
Objectives: The present study was designed for detection, isolation, identification and characterization
of Avian influenza viruses (AIV) circulating among poultry in 2016 to d...

Nermeen A. Marden1, Lamiaa M. Gaafar1, Hussein A. Hussein2

...assical and variant HPAI viruses.
While, the invitro method was done by the direct detection of the viral content and viral identity using
the rRT-PCR technique from final product of these inactivated vaccines.
Results: The data of this study showed that sufficient HA antigen content and similar HA sequences
with the field HPAI challenge viruses are needed to produce a consiste...
Sahar Mubashar*, Tariq Mukhtar and Nasir Ahmad Khan
... small;">The novel coronavirus took the whole world by storm and in no time spread across the globe and claimed many lives. The most affected countries of the world are USA, Brazil, India, Italy, Iran, Spain, Russia, South Africa, United Kingdom and Peru. In Pakistan, the pilgrims from Iran became the major source of spread of the virus in the country, as the Government did not impose quarantine measures to restrict their mo...
Roheela Yasmeen1*, Nida Mobeen1 and Samia Chaudhry2
... myocardial injury. This virus can persuade cardiac damage, arrhythmias, severe coronary syndrome and venous thromboembolic complications. Patients of COVID-19 having already cardiovascular problems showed severe symptoms of this disease and have greater chance of death. This review article especially pays attention on cardiovascular symptoms of COVID-19 and its enhanced effect on patients with already existing cardiovascular diseases.
...
Syed Maaz Nadeem1,*, Muti ur Rehman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh2, Arfan Ahmad2, Syed Nadeem Mansoor3 and Muhammad Anees4
...hicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) infected bone marrow in broiler chicken. Bone marrow samples were collected from proximal tibiotarsus and femur of each of the five healthy and CAV-infected flocks under natural condition. The bone marrow smears were fixed, stained with Romanowsky Giemsa Stain (RGS) and examined under microscope. Results showed a significant difference between the cellularity of normal and CAV-infected birds. While comparing healthy and in...

Akram I. Aboelkhair1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Momtaz A. Shahin1 and Hussein A. Hussein2

...ed by Lumpy skin disease virus
(LSDV) affecting cattle causing skin lesions. It`s a member of Poxviridea family, genus Capri-pox,
and closely related to sheep and goat pox. In Egypt, the protection from lumpy skin disease (LSD)
among cattle population was carried out using sheep poxvirus vaccine. Last year (2016-2017) revealed
many cases of LSD in sheep pox vaccinated cattle in...
Nagwa K. Meselhy1, Mohamed A. Abo El-khair1, Basem M. Ahmed2, Sherif A. El-Soally3,
Abdelhamid M. Fares1, Mohamed A. Nayel1 and Hussein A. Hussein2
...ackground: Equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) has a significant economic impact on equine industry. It
is a highly contagious pathogen, mainly transmitted by inhalation of aerosols of virus laden respiratory
secretions especially with high population during equestrian events. Reactivation of virus in nonsymptomatic,
latently (silently) infected horses is the ...

Hanaa A. Elsamadony1, Laila A. Tantawy1, Sabry E. Omar2 and Heba A. Abd Alah1

...pt to improve methods of virus control and to usually determine the relationship of circulating
CAV with vaccine strains and other CAV strains. The most obvious thing in this study, that’s we need
to make our vaccine from our strain which circulating in the field with periodic updating.
...
Othman N. O. Mansour 1, Naglaa Hagag 2, Momtaz A. Shahein 1, Sayed S. Hassan 1 Ahmed
A. EL-Sanousi 3 and Mohamed A. Shalaby3
...enetic analysis of coronavirus ORF1a partial sequences in some positive
nasal swab samples of imported breeds (with accession number on gen bank; MH184776, MH184776
and MH184777) confirmed presence of different branch of MERS-CoV from which isolated in Middle
East.
Conclusion: MERS-CoV is amphixnoses in which both human and camels are source of infection and
cause mild to severe respiratory disease in...

Rana A. Rabiea1, Mohamed Fawzy2, Mohamed H. Khodeir3 and MokhtarM. EL-Tarabili2

... are susceptible to many virus diseases such as turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) and
avian influenza (AI) that affect their populations in a dramatic form. Successful control of these viral
diseases depends on the implementation of well-designed vaccination programs using highly potent
and safe vaccines.
Aim: The present study investigated the effect of simultaneous administration of inactivated AI
vaccin...

Ayman S. El-Habbaa1 and Mervat E. Radwan2

... genetic analysis of BEF virus among suspected cattle in
August 2017, Qualyubia, Egypt.
Methods: Partial sequence was generated after detection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain
reaction (RT-PCR) and subsequent gel purification of the amplified products of G gene of BEF virus.
Results: BEF virus was circulating in this region. Sequenc...

Mohsen M. Elsharkawy1, Salem H. Homayed1, Mohamed M. Elsawy2 and Amr A. Khedr1

...aused by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a serious threat to crop
production all over the world.
Objective: The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the potential of fan-forced wind and
the growth promoting fungus, Fusarium equiseti GF 19-1, as novel and safe management strategies
against the invasion of CMV in cucumber plants.
Methods: The fan was operated two times per day (8:00 am and 18...
Allam A. Megahed, Badawi A. Othman, Samar S. El Masry, Abeer A. Faiesal and Mohamed A. Nasr Eldin
...>...
Samira M. Bolis1, Magda Mahmoud2, Salah E. Gumma3, Naser E. Bilal1 and
Isam ElKhidir4
...ture for Human papilloma viruses (HPVs).
Objective: Detection of HPV genotypes assocciated with FEH in childern aged three to fourteen years
old.
Methods: Fourty seven biopsies and oral smears were collected from Children (3 -14) years old, who
attended the pediatric dental clinics of Faculty of Dentistry, University of Khartoum and Khartoum
Dental Teaching Hospital, clinically diagnosed by the dental...

Ahmed K. El-Attar1, Samah A. Mokbel1 and Om-Hashem M. EL-Banna2

...imed to characterize the virus at the molecular level and
described the ultrastructural changes or other histopathological alterations in basil cells
following infection by AMV.
Methods: Studies were conducted to elucidate the etiology of the disease. The diagnostic tools
used were the transmission electron microscope for rapid diagnosis, host reactions, serological
double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELIS...
Riham H. Bassam, Hussein A. Hussein, Mohamed M. Amer, Basem M. Ahmed and Ahmed A. El-Sanousi
...s against IB
virus. Out of 60 flocks tested; 12 were positive to the presence of IBV by rt-RT-PCR despite the fact
that the detected flocks had a history of previous IBV vaccination except for backyard chickens and
ducks. Sequence analysis for three IBV detected viruses had shown 99% similarity with VAR2
serotype present in Egypt.
Conclusion: VAR2-IBV is circulating...

Riham H. Bassam, Hussein A. Hussein, Mohamed M. Amer and Ahmed A. El-Sanousi

...influence of the AI H9N2 virus.
Objective: this study reports the circulation of H9N2 associated with mortalities in broiler sector and
decrease egg production in layer hens and breeders in Lebanon.
Methods: A total of 22 poultry flocks have been tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase
chain reaction (rt-RT-PCR) for the presence of H9N2 in different types of chickens including broilers,
b...

Aml S. El-Saadany1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2 and Hussien A. Hussien2

...nfectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) remerged frequently in Egypt, causing serious
economic losses. In Egypt very virulent (vv) IBDV strains are annually reported since its first
introduction in 1989. Variant IBDV strains were also reported in few studies. To date, IBDV
associated with breaks has been characterized in flocks which were vaccinated with classical IBDV
vaccines and demonstrated IBD characteristic l...

Mohamed F. ElKersh1, Fatma M. Abdalla2, Gamilat K. Farg2, Soad A. Nasef3, Ahmed A. Ali2

... that is highly mutating virus. AIV was founded in Egypt since 2006. Control and prevention of AIV done via good managemental procedures, as well as strict quarantine measures and enhanced bio-security. Regular diagnosis and viral screening will be helpful in the eradication of the new strains to predict the newly coming waves of infection and to be able to develop the recommended vaccines. Objective: Our study aimed for Molecular Diagnosis of Avian influenza ...
Hanan Sayed1, Mohamed S. Madkour1, Hussein A. Hussein2, Mounir Mohamed Elsaft 3,
Marwa F. El saied3, Ahmed A El-Sanousi2
...for both H9N2 and LaSota viruses weekly for one and a half month after the booster
vaccination, then monthly until the end of duration. Challenge trials were carried out after a month
from the first vaccination, and after two and six months from the booster vaccination.
Results: Usage of formalin inactivated combined H9N2, LaSota and IB (M41 and Var 2) vaccine with
montanide 71 adjuvant decreases the shedding pat...

Hanan Sayed 1, Mohamed S. Madkour 1, Hussein A. Hussein 2, Ahmed A El-Sanousi 2

... with IB (Var 2 and M41) viruses.
Conclusion: Usage of formalin inactivated combined H9N2, LaSota and IB (M41 and Var 2) vaccine
with montanide 71 adjuvant can protect chicken until six months from the booster vaccination and
decrease shedding of IBV.
...

Ahmed M. Soliman

...kground: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the widest spread viruses in the world and has the largest host range of plants.
Aim: The present study was conducted to identify four Saudi CMV isolates (cucumber, tomato, pepper and watermelon) using biological, serological and molecular assays.
Methods: Survey of some vegetable crops exhibiting mosaic, yellowing, blisters, shoestring leaf, mottling and...

Mohsen M. Elsharkawy1, Sara E. Hanbal2, Samir A. Sidaros1, Mohamed M. Elsawy2, Ali H. Hamed2

...ound: Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) is recognized as one of the most wide distributed virus disease affecting faba bean in Egypt.
Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the efficiency of the plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) of Penicillium simplicissmum GP17-2, Fusarium equiseti GF19-1 and Trichoderma asperellum SKT1 as a sustainable method to control the invasion of BYMV in faba bean plants.
<...

Shimaa A. Khalaf1 , Mohsen M. Elsharkawy2, Samir A. Sidaros2, Shawky A. El Kewey2, Ayman F. Omar2, Ali Hamed1

...ground: Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV) is a major threat to the production of cucurbits all over the world. The sterile fungus GU23-3 is a rhizosphere fungus conferring positive effects on plant growth and health..
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of GU23-3 on cucumber growth and resistance against PRSV..
Methods: Disease severity and virus titer were evaluated in cucumber pl...

Youssef A. Elgharbawy1, Mervat M. Ali1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Mohamed A. Shalaby2

...hat attenuated sheep pox virus (SPV) used for vaccination cattle flocks against LSD due to immunological relationship between LSD and SPV. There have been numerous attempts to produce live attenuated LSD vaccine but it has stopped due to the seriousness of the disease's return to its virulence and the post vaccinal reaction of the vaccine so we prepare inactivated LSD virus(LSDV) vaccine to immunize the cattle with safe vacc...
Huda S. Darwish 1, Om-hashem M. El-Banna2, Mohamed S. Abbas3, Hoda M. Waziri 1, Maisa A. Awad1
...uantity. Tomato ringspot virus
(ToRSV) is considered one of the most devastating members of the genus Nepovirus and distributed in
most parts of the world and can infect herbaceous, ornamental and woody species including tomato,
tobacco, grape, apple, peach, cherry, apricot and raspberry. Both of sodium azide (NaN3) and ethyl
methanesulfonate (EMS) are known as chemical mutagen...

Tahsin S. Shoala1, Ahmed K. El-Attar2, Ahmed I. Abd El Maksoud3

...o
pathogenic virus worldwide. PLRV belongs to genus Potyvirus, transmitted by aphids and
widespread in most potato growing areas globally, that causes huge losses in potato crop
production. PLRV management became a challenge due to the economic importance of potato
(Solanum tuberosum L.), the fourth largest staple crop in the world. Our research was aiming
to manage...
Hadeer M. Mossa, Ausama A. Yousif, Emad A. Aboelsoud, Mahmoud El Gamal, Ahmed El-
Sanousi
... primers
for virus identification and confirmation. The size of the produced amplicons was 192 pb for the
universal primer and 502pb, 1452pb for the specific primers respectively. Metagenomics is done to
evaluate a virus harvest for standardization by applying a suite of genomic technologies and
bioinformatics tools to directly represent the genetic content of entire communitie...
Ahmed A. ElWakil1, Ausama A. Yousif2 , Adel A. Fayed3, Ibrahim M. elsabagh2, Mahmoud
El Gamal2, Omnia H. Refaei3
...sses. Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) belongs to the genus capripoxvirus of
Poxviridae. Blood-feeding arthropods like mosquitoes, flies and, African tick species play a role in
LSDV maintenance and transmission. Mechanical transmission of LSDV is well documented;
however, evidence of transovarian and transstadial transmission is a tick warrants an investigation into
the replica...

Mohamed M. Mashaly1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Momtaz A. Shahein1, Hussein A. Hussein2

...cines against CaPVs. The virus isolation,
identification, and vaccine or other diagnostic preparations mainly depend on the proper culture used.
Objective: Our aim was to study the growth kinetic of recent LSDV isolate to determine the culture
properties of recent LSDV isolated from skin nodule that could be useful in the attempts to develop
more effective LSDV vaccine and diagnostic purposes.
Methods...
Soad, E. Elsayed 1, Mohammed A. Shalaby2, Ausama A. Yousef2, Abu bakr A. Agor1,
Sherouk E. Aly1
Shourok E. Aly 1, Karim Zaki1, Soad E. Elsayed2, M. Elgamal2, Ausama A. Yousef1, Mohamed A. Shalaby1
...Valley
fever virus (RVFV) vaccine.
Objective: Herein, we aimed to enhance the immunogenicity of the conventional vaccine by
developing a smaller particle size vaccine formulation through ultrasonic dispersion of aluminum
hydroxide adjuvant.
Methods: This was achieved by ultrasonication of aluminum hydroxide gel in the presence of
trehalose as dispersant and measuring different physical cha...
Karim M. Selim1, Abdullah A. Selim1, abdelsattar Arafa1, Hussein A. Hussein2, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2
... genotypes of Avian avulavirus 1, also known as Newcastle disease
virus (NDV) and formerly known as Avian paramyxovirus 1(APMV-1), are circulating in
many parts of the world. Currently, the used vaccine strains (mainly genotypes I and II) are
three to seven decades old and are genetically distant from the currently circulating virulent
Newcas...

Samah A. Mokbel, Eman A. Ahmed, Hanan F. El-Kammar, Ahmed A. Kheder

...kground: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is known to occur in sugar beet plants in Egypt and may
produce severe damage to infected plants. However, studies on the effect of the CMV on the cellular
and internal structures of sugar beet leaves were rare.
Methods: The CMV was isolated from sugar beet samples collected during November 2018 from the
Fayoum governorate, exhibited symptoms of mosaic and leaf malformation. D...

Muhammad Nasir1, Muhammad Usman Asif2*, Abdul Hayee Abid1, Qurat ul Ain Haneef1 and Muhammad Awais2

... of cotton and leaf curl virus (CLCuV) in relation to weather parameters was conducted in four tehsils viz. Alipur, Jatoi, Kot Addu and Muzaffargarh of district Muzaffargarh (Punjab, Pakistan). In each tehsil pest scouting was conducted in 40-50 spots (five acres each) per week selected randomly starting from 1st June to 30th October each year. Hot spots (pest incidence at and above Economic Threshold level, ETL) for each tehsil were determined weekly, and the...

Mian Ibad Ali Shah*, Yasir Saleem Afridi and Laiq Hasan

...derstand the novel coronavirus using a global call. In response to but not limited to the call and extending the work to similar global pandemics, this work has been conducted on a dataset acquired from Pakistan’s COVID data. Analysis of the statistics and trends has been carried out and recommendations regarding the precautionary measures and implementation of controlling techniques for new cases using controllable factors have been provided. The result...
Guan-bao Ning1, Sheng Niu1, Yue-jian Li1,2, Xiao-xiao Lu1,3, Shi-xiong Yang1,  Ali-Raza Jahejo1, Ding Zhang1, Wei-fang Hao4, Wen-wei Gao1, Yu-jun Zhao1, Jian-hui Li1, Fang Yan1, Rong-kun Gao1, Yu-hai Bi1,5, Wen-xia Tian1* and Ling-xia Han6*
...;">Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a highly cell-associated, oncogenic alpha herpesvirus that causes Marek’s disease (MD) in chickens. Chicken erythrocytes are nucleated cells of myeloid origin which contribute to gases exchange, transportation and immunity. The objective of this study was to reveal the immune responses of MDV-infected erythrocytes of chicken by transcriptome analysis. Twenty specific pathogen-fre...
Song Jiang1,2,3, Ming-ge Zhuang1,2,3, Fa-lin Zhou1,2, Qi-bin Yang1, Jian-hua Huang1, Li-shi Yang1 and Shi-gui Jiang1*
...ts, being susceptible to virus attacks or carrying the virus to parent shrimps, bring a huge bio-security risk to shrimp breeding. This study was carried out to determine the feasibility of Pheretima tschiliensis as a replacement of traditional bait to accelerate the maturity of parent shrimps of Penaeus monodon, which was verified by the dynamics of vitellogenin gene expression in hepatopancreas and ovary of <...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 53, Iss. 5, Pages 1603-2000

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