Sandeep Satapathy and Rupam Ghosh

...g several intracellular processes that come into action to bring out the viral clearance. The shuttling of HDAC6 takes place from nucleus to cytoplasm and vice versa controlling the overexpression of IFN-beta and ISGs which subsequently triggers virus specific immune response.

...

Aradhana Chopra1, Ravi Shukla2 and Tarun Kumar Sharma2,3*

...h an in vitro evolution process called SELEX. These single stranded nucleic acid aptamers can acquire various secondary and tertiary structures to bind their cognate targets with high affinity and specificity. The ease in synthesis and modification makes them an attractive candidate for a variety of applications. Since the last decade, aptamers have been regarded as an emerging player in biology. They have found applications not only in biosensors, but also in...

Maureen McKeague1, Maria C. DeRosa2*

...h an in vitro evolution process called SELEX. The selection of aptamers with optimal specificity and high affinity remains a challenge, leading to the recent emergence of elegant new approaches and tools for SELEX. In this commentary, we discuss recent advancements in the selection of aptamers.

...

Stephen Suleyman Schwartz

...mmentary on the French atrocities by rejecting the claim that extremism and terror are not aspects of Islamic history. To declare, as even French president Francois Hollande did, “these terrorists and fanatics... have nothing to do with the Muslim religion” is inaccurate.

...

Michael Shermer

...>
A. “Moses rocks!”
B. “Jesus saves!”
C. “Vishnu lives!”
D. “Buddha avenged!” E. “Atheists rule!”
F. “Allahu Akbar!”

...

Nayle Maria Oliveira da Silva1*, Ricardo do Carmo Zanella2

 

...parenchyma inflammatory process that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Viral clearance occurs in a minority of patients with viral hepatitis C, whereas chronic infection is established in 60 to 80% of all cases, 20 to 40% of which may evolve to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Genetic differences among infected hosts can determine the progression and outcome of the virus infection, causing different individuals to respond in different ways to the vi...

Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho1*, Isreal Ogunlade1, Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde2

...entele in the extension process. 

...

Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi

...unnatural psychological processes, and the resulting concepts are beyond the reach of most. It is not surprising that religion has been around for possibly more than 100,000 years, while academic research is a recent historical development. Over the past century, individuals who make academic research their life’s work have been themselves the subject of academic studies which looked at their social origins, conscious ideals, beliefs, and psychological t...

Marcus Mann

... implications to a word processor. What started as an itch evolved into his first book, The End of Faith: a scathing indictment of religion, which in his opinion, was an impetus just as effective and real as the jet engines that propelled the terrorists’ weapons of choice to their targets. The End of Faith was the first of four polemics that have come to symbolize what is now known as “The New Atheism,” a term meant to encapsulate a 21st cent...

Ali Muhammad*, Muhammad Ayub

...ively. During treatment process the bitter glucoside level such as oleourepean leached out from the fruits to the solvents by osmosis process which alters the composition of olive fruit. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins which are the major components of olive fruits degrades significantly during four weeks of treatment process. Results showed that during brine...

Gultaj Hussain1, Abdur Rahman1*, Tariq Hussain2, Siraj Uddin1, Tariq Ali3

E-mail | abdur_rahman@aup.edu.pk

... Pakistan. Samples were processed and analyzed for TVC of E. coli and S. typhymurium at 0, 48, 144 and 288hrs during 12 days of meat samples refrig- eration storage at 4±1 °C. The pH of meat samples were checked and recorded on similar intervals. During 12 days storage, significant reductions (i.e. P <0.05) were found in both E. coli O157: H7 and S. typhymurium growth when exposed to these treatments. Results revealed that levels of citric and la...

Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

...ng epidemiological processes through the reconstruction of evolutionary history and spatial dissemination of pathogens. Infection of a single host can be viewed similarly as an epidemic spread on a microscale, creating a unique opportunity for the application of phylogeography at the intra-host level, which has until recently been limited by dataset quality and the lack of a rigorous statistical framework. As recently described in stud...

Rick Repetti

...uddhism sees the entire process that begins with beliefs and desires and culminates in actions as an ultimately impersonal, agentless process, Buddhism is nonetheless capable of formulating the diametrical opposite of Strawson’s impossibilism and Pereboom’s hard incompatibilism, what I call possibilism or soft compatibilism, the view that free choices and actions can emerge from conditioned or...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

... 2009 to March 2010 in Morocco. In order to assess the implementation of integrated control measures and disease risk analysis, this entomological survey was performed on the risk of transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and identification of the main breeding sites of Culicoides. From April 2009 to March 2010, the study was carried out at 14 sites distributed across the country. Results indicated that the two most abundant Culicoides spec...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

 Shubhada K Chothe, Bhushan M Jayarao and Suresh V Kuchipudi

...ogical and pathological processes. There is a strong evidence to suggest the association of differential regulation of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) to a number of disease processes including viral infections. Cellular and virus encoded lncRNAs are emerging as novel regulatory factors which can escape the anti-protein environment in the virus infected cells and are likely to be conserved across the species. Here, we summarize our...

Mushtaq Ahmad1*, Habib Akbar1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan Khattak2 and Abdul Bari3

...wed highest germination process and gave better yield production. Mean maximum leaf area plant-1 (170.49 cm2), leaf area index (6.77), root length (35.50 cm) and root weight plant-1 (0.98 kg-1) were recorded in sugar beet planted at 2 cm depth. Nitrogen band placement method significantly affected growth and yield related attributes of sugar beet. Mean maximum leaf area plant-1 (173.32 cm2), leaf area index (6.68), root length (36.50 cm), root weight plant-1 (...

Corey McCal

... of secularization as a process distinct from religious belief and religious institutions, Erdozain argues that the basis for secularization can be found in the religious ferment of modernity itself, beginning with the Protestant Reformation and extending through the first half of the nineteenth century. The book begins with Martin Luther and his critics, proceeds through discussions of Spinoza and the English Dissenters, Vo...

Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

...on in machinery booking process, costly rental prices, out-dated machinery, preference of progressive farmers, no timely availability of Inputs, unviability of crop specific machinery. It was recommended that MFSC may take initiative to compel private companies to sponsor schemes for low cost inputs. MFSC may take initiative for funds on account of pragmatic trainings arrangement, subsidized inputs and crop specific machinery.

...

Nadeem Khan1*, Arshad Ali Khan1, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Nouman2 and Badshah Islam1

...he results showed that Tarocco attained maximum height (156.13 cm), followed by Mexican Lemon (146.80 cm). Similarly, maximum plant spread and leaf area were recorded in Mexican Lemon 124.07 cm and 11.35 cm2, respectively. However, Hamlin showed the highest stem girth (9.90 cm) and number of branches (66.53). The internode length was the greatest in Kinnow cultivar (2.66 cm). In case of disease incidence maximum lesion on leaves were found in Kinnow...

Neil Levy

...s, and AIs that rely on processing power alone, without the scaffolding of culture, are unlikely to outcompete us intellectually. There is, however, nothing to prevent AIs from having, and taking advantage of, a capacity for culture. AIs with such a capacity may have intellectual powers greater than ours currently are, but the collective deliberation that underlies the power of cumulative culture is more powerful when there is sufficient diversity among the de...

Neil Levy

...s, and AIs that rely on processing power alone, without the scaffolding of culture, are unlikely to outcompete us intellectually. There is, however, nothing to prevent AIs from having, and taking advantage of, a capacity for culture. AIs with such a capacity may have intellectual powers greater than ours currently are, but the collective deliberation that underlies the power of cumulative culture is more powerful when there is sufficient diversity among the de...

 Ishfaq Ahmed, Ihsan Mabood Qazi and Suraiya Jamal

...e value added products; processed by the addition of them.

...

 Muhammad Ishaq and Raziuddin

 
...g ability) and RCA (reciprocal combining ability) effects for the studied traits. Based on GCA, best general combiners were AUP-7 for earlier flowering and maturity, AUP-2 for plant height, AUP-14 for primary branches plant-1 and AUP-9 for main raceme length. Based on SCA effects, best F1 hybrids were AUP-7 × AUP-14 (days to flowering), AUP-8 × AUP-9 (days to maturity), AUP-17 × AUP-18 (plant height), AUP-14 × AUP-20 (primary branches p...

 Zahir Shah, Shakoor Ahamd, Mian Saeed Sarwar, Murad Ali Khan and Javid Ali

...sthesia. After surgical procedure site was closed by applying mattress sutures. Adjunct therapy of broad-spectrum antibiotic was administered intramuscularly for five days as a post-operative measure. Catamnesis revealed that the healing was complete in 14 days with no recurrence and untoward consequences.

...

Neha Singh and Anjana Pandey

...s an in vitro selection procedure to evolve single-stranded nucleic acids known as aptamers. Aptamers are known for their high selectivity and specificity and their ability to form 3D conformations. CELL SELEX is a modification of SELEX where instead of using purified ligand molecules, whole live cells are used as targets, so the aptamers being generated could bind target molecules on live cells in their native conformation and it is possible to know the molec...

Koksal Karadas1, Muhammad Tariq2, Mohammad Masood Tariq3* and Ecevit Eyduran4

.... For the determination process, the statistical predictive accuracy of GLM (General Linear Model), CART (Classification and Regression Tree), CHAID (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector), Exhaustive CHAID, and a ANN type MLP (Multilayer Perceptron) in the prediction of lactation milk yield in sheep was measured comparatively by model assessment criteria, such as R2, R2ADJUSTED, SDRATIO, CV(%), RMSE, RAE, MAPE, ...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

...m temperature. The same procedure was performed for commercial dyes. The dye was removed due to the interaction with the polysaccharide starch and flocculation phenomenon. Chitosan starch based polymer composites can be used as an efficient and cost effective method to treat waste water polluted with carcinogenic dyes by coagulation-flocculation. Moreover this method is beneficial over other methods that employ toxic polymers or mineral coagulants.

...

Mian Shamas Murtaza1, Aysha Sameen1, Nuzhat Huma1 and Fatma Hussain2

... assess the impact of hydrocolloid gums on functional, textural and sensory attributes of low fat Cheddar cheese. Buffalo milk was standardized at 2% and 4% fat levels to manufacture Cheddar cheese. Cheese samples were manufactured by adding xanthan gum and guar gums individually @ 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% in low fat cheese (2% fat) besides the negative (2% fat) and positive (4% fat) control samples. The cheese samples were ripened at 6-8oC for 30 days and analyzed f...

Sayeda Sarah and Muhammad Ibrar

...%, 25%, 50% and 100%) of rock phosphate (RP) fertilizer on spores density and percent root colonization of selected sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in P-deficient soil. It was observed that spore density and AMF root colonization was higher in the soil of control (RP0) plants, which decreases progressively with increasing fertility level. Less number of spores and percent root colonization was found at high RP level (RP100) in all hybrids. Higher P do...

 Shaoling Lin and Jiamiao Hu

... serve as a link in the processes of HCMV capsidation and tegumentation. This study provides further evidences in the functions of tegument proteins in the assembly of HCMV virons.

...

Halide Nihal Açikgöz1*, Serdal Kenan Köse2 and Ali Açikgöz3

 

 

...s [EH], and Simpson Resiprocal Indices). Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Lucilia richardsi (Collin) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were identified. C. vicina was found in whole year in 2012 and 2015. All of the fly species identified have forensic importance. The highest taxa richness was observed in 2012, in May (307; 73.80%), while the lowest was in March (23; 5.53%). The highest taxa richness w...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...y an in-vitro selection process known as “Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX)” technique. Among the receptors available for biosensing, aptamer exhibit the advantages of high specificity, selectivity, stability, facile labelling and modification, which makes them ideal candidates for development of new biosensing applications for detection of specific target molecules. In the present review, we concentrate on the recen...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...of sugar beet, cabbage, broccoli and radish, among other crops. It is a cyst-forming nematode that affects plant growth and yield. We report on studies aimed to evaluate the effects of five nematophagous fungi on the population dynamics of this pest in sugar beets in laboratory and greenhouse trials. The fungi chosen were Arthrobotrys oligospora, Dactylella oviparasitica, Clonostachys rosea, Stropharia rugosoannulata, and Lecanicillium muscarium. In the labora...

Afzaal Ahmad Naseem1*, Maleeha Akram1, Sarwat Jahan2, Kiran Afshan2, Zubaria Iqbal1, Faheem Tahir3, Mazhar Qayyum1 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1

...as been ascribed to reciprocated physiological influences of both somatotropic and gonadal axes, manifested as higher secretion of growth hormone (GH) and testosterone (T). GH and T affect linear growth velocity (LGV) directly through stimulation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Furthermore, T promotes LGV through augmentation of GH secretion. Nevertheless, age and developmental stage dependent changes in GH and T and LGV an...

Shakeel Ahmed* and Sarwat Jahan

...s in various biological processes. Now their involvement in the regulation of hypothalamus pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis has also been established. In the present study, we investigated the role of peripheral administration of neuromedin S (NMS) on adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin) secretion in 48-h fasting and normal fed adult male Rhesus monkeys. After NMS administration plasma adipokines levels were determined in fed and fasting monkeys. Four int...

Giselle R.R. Ayres* and Brandão P.E

...n a complex replication process, made possible by the special characteristics of AvCoV genome. This manuscript aims to present an overview of the main aspects of the current knowledge on the main AvCoV replicase genes.

...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

...his study, 18 fish meal processing units were surveyed in Sindh and Balochistan to investigate production status, chemical composition, and fish species being used for producing fish meal. The overall production of single processing unit ranged from 40 to 500 metric tonns per month. Kampa Industry (Unit 1) was found to be the first largest contributor producing 100 metric tons in 24 h. The second largest producers of fish me...

Hira Akhter1, Bilal Aslam2*, Naveed Shahzad3, Tanzeela Farooq4, Muhammad Umer5 and Muhammad Hidayat Rasool2

...ine tissue samples were processed for RNA isolation and subjected to molecular detection of H9 gene of H9N2 subtypes using one step Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Out of 24 samples taken from each organ, 22, 21, and 18 samples from trachea, lungs, and intestine showed viral RNA, respectively. Taken together, results showed that the H9N2 is endemic and widely distributed in asymptotic layers. Furthermore results indicated that H9N2 su...

Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed

...xt-align: justify;">Bacterocera zonata (Saunder) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major pest of fruits causing severe losses to the fruit production and quality in Pakistan. Its management has largely relied upon the indiscriminate and injudicious use of conventional insecticides resulting in problem of insecticide resistance, environmental pollution, fruit contamination and health hazards. The major goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a ...

Muhammad Shafiq and Tahir Maqsood

...ing 2013-14. Adsorption procedure was done by harmonizing 2.5g soil in 0.01M CaCl2 solution having diverse B doses (0, 0.01, 0.03 , 0.05 , 0.07, 0.09, 0.11, 0.13,0.15 and 0.17 mg B L-1). Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were applied to the data to check the sorption of B on sandy clay loam soil. Freundlich model depicted superior fitness of the sorption (r2=0.99) statistics than Langmuir model (r2=0.75). Ten B treatments (0, 0.47, 0.81, 1.42, 1.57, 1....

Jixue Hou1,2, Xueling Chen3, Jing Wang4, Hongwei Zhang2, Yu Xi2, Jie Xia2, Xinyu Peng2,* and Xiangwei Wu2,5*

... study pathophysiologic process of cardiovascular disease, but for a long time it is just limited to large animals, like pigs, rabbits, and big rats. The mice with reproduction fast cycle, lower costing, and close to human genes, can be showed about some phenomenon quickly, also more easy to form model of atherosclerosis. Thus, a mouse model of vascular injury is vitally important for researching the pathophysiological mechanisms to restenosis after percutaneo...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

...text-align: justify;">Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), perform many important neurobiological functions. Although a large number of transgenic mouse models carrying astrocyte-specific transgene expression of transgene have made significant contributions to understanding astrocytic structure and function in vitro and in vivo, evidence su...

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

...Staphylococci and one Micrococcus, isolated from five raw milk samples. Their morphological, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that two strains were S. aureus, while all others were different coagulase negative Staphylococci. Their sensitivity against three phages indicated broad host range of phages SANF and SA2, and relatively narrow host range of phage SA. Phage SNAF showed an effective growth reduction of S. aureus RP isolate, ...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...a computer-based set of procedures used to store and analyze geographically-referenced data. Primary data about crop yield and per acre production, new seed and crop varieties etc. was collected with the help of a questionnaire survey. A total of 50 household were surveyed which make 45 percent of the total (114 households). The analysis of acquired data reveals that in 2008-09 tube well irrigated land account for 81.67 acre which decreased to 37.46 acre in 20...

Naushad Khan1*, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Munir Khan1, Shaista Naz2, Javeria Tanveer1 and Muhammad Kaleem3

...credit were complicated procedure of pass book preparation, amount less than requirement, unavailability of timely credit and non-availability of collateral. The study recommends amount of loan according to the farmers’ requirements, bank staff cooperation and one window operation to address the problems of farmers while obtaining loan/credit from ZTBL. Such type of credit program ensuring proper utilization of credit should also be replicated to other d...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...lected from two poultry processing plants represented broiler carcasses swabs and worker (hand swabs and nail scrapings). Phenotype-based methods for identifying yeast especially Candida species are often difficult, time-consuming and not enough to identify most yeast species. . Molecular biological techniques provide a useful alternative approach. Concerning with genotypic identification, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR...
Muhammad Mohsin Javed*, Muhammad Azhar Nisar, Bushra Muneer and Muhammad Usman Ahmad
...ed on the second day of process with minimum internal resistance comparatively i.e. 123.23Ω. The higher power density shows efficiency of this U-shaped design compare to other dual chamber MFCs.
...
Hafiz Aftab Ahmed1, Asif Ali2, Akbar Ali2, Salman Ahmed Abid3 and Sajid Umar4*
...eved by 2% lignocaine hydrochloride. The skin was apposed with simple interrupted sutures using silk. Post-operative care was continued for five days. Clinical signs abated in all operated animals, proving that the technique employed was effective and of simple execution for the treatment of dorsal patellar fixation in bovine.
...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...ne, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, vancomycin, cefixinme, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime. In contrast to this sulphaphenazole, gentamicin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin were highly sensitive. Piperacillin, Tazabactam and cinxacin were moderately effective against Staph. aureus. The concluded remarks of research staged Staph. aureus to the most obvious pathogen and widely resistant to antimicrobials camel mastitogen. The risk factors were found soul determ...
Nagwan F. Zahran, Ali F. Hamza and Rehab M. Sayed* 
... guava fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata were irradiated with sterilizing and substerilizing doses of gamma radiation. The effect of gamma rays on the DNA patterns of adult males showed alterations from the control. Exposure to radiation caused very frequently the appearance of some extra bands and the deficiency of others in the RAPD-PCR amplification patterns of the irradiated insects. 
...
Andrea Rezic1, Ivica Boskovic2, Piera Lubinu3, Marina Piria1, Tihomir Florijancic2, Massimo Scandura3 and Nikica Sprem1*
... permutation tests with procrustes distance yielded with significant results for both skull and mandible shape. Further studies are required with increased sample size and number of landmarks so as to obtain a more accurate expression of form and better differentiation between the sexes.
...
Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed
...ing to the genus, Bactrocera are among the major pests of fruits worldwide. Among the many species of fruit flies, Bacterocera zonata is a serious pest of fruits causing severe losses to the fruit production and quality, in Pakistan. In the present experiment the population of B. zonata was monitored using methyl eugenol traps during the year, 2015. Occurrence and population dynamics of the fruit fly wer...
...’s re-structuring process to expand the avenue from regional to global audiences. With heavy contributions from authors around the world, we aim to publish quality publications, both critical reviewers and cutting-edge research, in coming issues of the Hosts and Viruses.
...

Zahir Shah, Ahmed Nawaz Tunio, Shakoor Ahmad, Ijaz Ahmad, Javid Ali, Sher Bhader Khan

...ed for aseptic surgical procedure. A vertical incision was given in middle of the left flank region. Twin fetuses (one male and female) were surgically removed with care to avoid proliferation of uterine contents into the peritoneal cavity. Penicillin powder was dusted into the surroundings area of the uterus. The cow was treated with antibiotics, analgesics and liver tonics during the first week post-surgery. Local antiseptic dressing was performed using povi...

 Abdul Wajid Khalil and Zafar Iqbal

...stify;"> Boerhavia procumbens is a Pakistani medicinal herb, used in the treatment of various ailments, including asthma, cough and jaundice. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the proximate, mineral, amino acid compositions of the aerial parts and roots of B. procumbens. The result of carbohydrate (75.56±0.046%) of aerial parts was found higher as compared to the roots (31.22±0.05%) while p...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...lign: justify;">Poultry processing activities require large amount of high quality water for processing, cleaning and cooling. Contamination of water at any point in the processing stage is likely to affect meat hygiene. Waste water generated during these activities typically has high presence of organic material such as blood, fat, flesh and excreta. In developing countries like Nigeria w...
Mirza Imran Shahzad1,*, Anna Iqbal2, Farrah Ali1, Nuzhat Sial3, Muhammad Ashfaq4, Abul Hasanat5 and Azra Khanum6
...obacillus bulgaricus, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureius were used against each other to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. All of bacteria were cultured in LB media and further the culture of each bacterium was divided into three parts, the first part was centrifuged in order to collect supernatant. While the second and third parts were also centrifuged but however supernatants were discarded to get their pellets, which were dissol...
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...orks involving cellular processes. Between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups, there were 13 and 17 up- and down-regulated DEGs (2-fold; FDR < 0.05; P < 0.001), respectively, in PBMC of PEDV. Most of significant DEGs were involved in multiple cellular processes of cell growth and immune system. Thus, results from our current study indicate that DEG analysis of RNA-seq data help us better understand the precise m...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
...extent corroborates the proclaimed eradication by Guinea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP) from Dera Ismail Khan District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province.
...

John G. Bruno

...ure in humans who have seroconverted. Such anti-idiotypic aptamer antigens might also serve as rickettsial vaccines, if fully developed. The top five highest affinity R. rickettsii and top five R. typhi anti-Fab aptamers as assessed by enzyme-linked aptamer sorbent assay (ELASA) screening were shown to specifically bind their cognate antibodies when captured by their Fc tails on the surface of Protein A-conjugated magnetic beads. While no clear similarities in...
Maoying Zhu, Yuntao Ji, Xiaoyu Wang, Junying Pu and Changqing Qu*
...the effect of fasudil hydrochloride and H2 on the post-thaw viability of cryopreserved porcine adipose-derived stem cells. Four different combinations of cryoprotectants with and without hydrogen gas (H) (purified H2 was dissolved into normal cryopreservation solution for 2 hrs under 0.6 MPa were tested including the following groups: control (CK), 100µm GSH, 10µm fasudil hydrochloride (FH) ...

Sanaullah Jalil*, Asim Hayat, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas, Muhammad Noman, Muhammad Imran Kasana and Muhammad Mazhar Hussain

...ts (T0 = control without rock phosphate & farmyard manure, T1= rock phosphate @150 kg P2O5 per hectare, T2 = FYM @5 tons per hectare, T3 = RP @100 kg P2O5 per hectare+ FYM @5 tons per hectare, E0 = without effective microbes and E1= EM-Biozote @ 50 l ha-1) on yield parametrs of wheat crop planted after the harvest of rice. All yield parameters significantly increased by the treatments consisting of RP (100 kg) with FYM (...

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...tand crops encroachment process and its implications for pastoral resources. Land use-classes such as forest, agriculture, pastures and snow cover were recorded by means of Global Positioning System (GPS) and further processed to develop maps by using Geographic Information System (GIS). The impacts of agriculture encrachment were determined by means of group discussions, household’s interviews and personel observation...

Zain-ul-Aabdin Abro1*, Naheed Baloch1, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2, Waseem Akbar Qazi2, Noor Abid Saeed3

... the Melon Fruit Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.) was undertaken during 2015 on cucurbit crops in district Hyderabad. The studies were carried out at two discrete localities, Jeay Shah and Dehli Farm, in three different crops i.e., bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula) using cue-lure baited traps. The male lure baited traps were arrayed at three meter height and replenished on fortnightly basi...

Sitansu Pan, Surojit Khalko and Amrita Das

Effect of some fungicides on seed mycoflora, germination, viability and their persistence in treated seeds
... L.). Propineb 70WP and prochloraz 45EC considerably reduced the appearance of A. alternata and flusilazole 40EC reduced Fusarium sp.in mungbean seed than untreated control.Amarked reduction in population of A. brassicae by difenoconazole 25EC and flusilazole 40EC was observed in mustard seeds. Inhibitory effect of fungicides on seed germination of all tested seeds was observed with prochloraz 45EC and flusilazole 40EC. Ther...

Palash Mondal1 , Amitava Konar2 and N. Johnson Singh3

Evaluation of insecticidal schedules for the management of insect pests of potato
...adicloprid and cartap hydrochloride, respectively at 40, 55 and 70 DAP than other treatments. Maximum yield of healty potato tuber was recorded in the plot treated with chlorpyriphos before planting and foliar spray of acephate, imadichloprid and chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin at 40, 55 and 70 DAP(T ).Yield of damaged tuber caused by soil pests was found maximum in control plot and it was recorded lowest in T treatment which received soil application of phorate ...

S. K. Mukhopadhyay and M. V. Santha Kumar

Studies on the biosafety of botanical insecticides to native natural enemies of mulberry ecosystem
...ntrol agents (Micraspis crocea, Micraspis discolor, Brumus suturalis and Scymnus bourdilloni ). All botanicals tested showed least mortality and was on par with unsprayed control. Dimethoate (0.1%) was highly toxic causing 100% mortality. Whereas, dichlorvos (0.1%) was least toxic in comparison to dimethoate. Botanical insecticides tested in different conc./combinations are compatible with natural enemies and may be incorporated in IPM in mulberry ecosystem.

M.K. Pandit,P. K. Pal and B. K. Das

Effect of date of sowing on flowering and incidence and damage of melon fruit fly in snap melon Cucumis melo var.momordica genotypes
... of melon fruit-fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett),Diptera: Tephritidae] infected fruits were recorded.Snap melon being a monoecious and warmth loving crop, tends to bear increasing number of female flowers with time; days to first female flower gradually lessened from the first to the third sowing, which signify longer fruiting period from the first to the third sowing. The infestation level of fruit fly has been found to be higher in March sowing than t...

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
... betelvine blackfly, Aleurocanthus rugosa Singh (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) is a major pest causing severe damage to the foliage in the conservatories (borojas) of West Bengal. The seasonal incidence of A. rugosa in boroja was recorded during 2003-2004. A. rugosa adults were active in the boroja throughout the year with two peaks, one in pre-monsoon and another in post-monsoon i.e., period prior initiation of winter season. During the faunastic survey in betelvin...

P. Barma and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal activity of fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq.) on pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) and weather relations
...
Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.) is considered as a serious pest of pointed gourd. Peak incidence of it was obtained in third week of May to first week of June during all the three years of study (i.e. 2007-08, 2008-09, 2009-10). Studies on biology showed that the incubation, larval, pupal and adult longevity periods were 2 to 5 days, 5 to 7 days, 6 to 9 days, 37 to 41 days in June-July and 4 to 6 days, 16 to 19 days, 17 to 21 days, 23 to 32 d...

D. C. Khatua, B. Mondal and G. Saha

Bioassay of some agricultural chemicals, human drugs and disinfectants on Phytophthora melonis Katsura causing fruit and vine rot of pointed gourd
...hate, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, ofloxacin and norfloxacin at 100 ppm. The insecticide, Profenophos prevented sporangia formation and consequently its germination. Copper sulphate (CuSO4, 5H2O) had adverse effect on mycelial growth and sporangia formation. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4), Savlon, Dettol and tinidazole were not good inhibitor for P. melonis. Sporangia did not form in water containing 0.0125g/L chloroquin phosphate - an antiprotozoal drug.&nb...

Rashid Pervez, Santhosh J. Eapen, S. Devasahayam and M. Dinsha

Characterization of entomopathogenic nematode, Stein-ernema carpocapsae from ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizosphere in India
...), hairy caterpillar (Euproctis sp.) and greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) was found under in vitro condition. Further this isolate displayed high virulence on above insect species. This study reported occurrence of a isolate of S. carpocapsae from ginger rhizosphere from India. This indigenous isolate could be investigated further for managing insect pests of ginger.

...

Amitava Konar and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of aphids on various potato germplasms in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal
...Jawhar along with three processing varieties like Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chipsona-2 and Atlantic were screened against aphids. Potato seed tuber was planted by end of November following all standard agronomic practices except insecticide application. The aphid species viz. Myzus persicae (Sulzur) and Aphis gossypi Glover were recorded first during third week of December and crossed the threshold limit (20 aphids/100 compound leaves) during first to second wee...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...duction, protection and processing, and other essential information provided through a decision support system (DSS), in an agriinformatics networking such that is not ordinarily available to Indian farmers in general. Due to Precision Farming (PF), production increased by 40 to 60 percent farmers’ margins of the produce and reduction of the commission charged by the middlemen to 7-10 percent. Further, bargaining power, capacity building, optimal crop pr...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
... four weeks and applied procedure to detect minor changes in paw swelling, ANA autoantibodies, CCL11, C3c, glucose level and renal damage. We detected increased symptoms of arthritis and gastrointestinal tract involvement in gluten containing diet group compared with standard diet disease control group. ANA autoantibodies, C3c and renal damage between gluten and standard diet group was non-significant. The remission of SLE manifestations was observed in predni...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi2
...ant in patches along the rocky coasts between the average low tide and a maximum depth of 5 m. In the current study, it was monitored monthly 217 individuals from Bandar Lengeh (26˚32ʹ28̋ N, 54˚52ʹ28̋ E; water depth: 0.5 to 1 m) during March to September, 2014. Their genders were obtained by dissection. The aim of this study was to determine the sexual ratio in their population and to see if they effect the operational sex ratio (...
Mohammed M. Ibrahim1,2*, Y.S. Chandel1 and Anil3
...ing width and length of trochanter and tibia. Overall, the mean of populations for head height × width, proboscis length, thorax length, abdomen length, fore wing length × width, cubital index, hind wing length × width, number of hamuli, coxa length, trochanter length, femur length, tibia length and metatarsus length × width were found to be 3.19±0.10 × 3.68±0.09 mm, 6.29±0....
Wenqiao Hui1, Jishun Tang1, Dejian Zhu1, Qian Ban2* and Sheng Chen1*
...ustify;">Puberty is the process of physical maturation of an animal with the capability of sexual reproduction. In domestic animals, age at attainment of puberty is an event that contributes significantly to lifetime reproductive efficiency. Anhui white goat is a native Chinese breed, with the characters of early time puberty onset and high fecundity. However, the molecular mechanism of puberty onset has not been well understood. It has been demonstrated lepti...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure. Out of 600 examined locations twenty two (22) H9N2 subtypes isolates were recorded. The total prevalence recorded was 3.66%and out of 498 broiler operations yielded 17 (3.4%) positive isolates and 44 golden type native chicken farms yielded 05 (11.36%) isolates of AIV H9N2 and 58 captive pheasant’s samples were negative. It was observed that frequency of H9N2
Yun Wang1,*, Lei Guan1, Jiding Chen1, Yaping Kong1, Lang Si2 and Asif Shah3
...g expressway. Using the procedures of field investigation along QTH during months of May, August and December in 2014 and 2015, we recorded the occurrence frequency, number of ungulates, and the perpendicular distance between QTH and QTR. To improve the protection mechanism for the four large ungulates viz., Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsonii, Tibetan gazelle Procapra picticaudata, Kiang Equus kian...
Ayesha Ilyas1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,* and Abdul Qadir1,*
... peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), at 2% concentration in a free choice bioassays. Acetone, chloroform, petroleum ether and ethanol were used for extraction from leaves. Amongst the various treatments applied, the acetone extract of D. alba showed the highest repellency of 84.14%, whereas, the lowest repellency of 10.73% was observed by the chloroform extract of T. peruviana. Significant ovipositional deterrent effects of the ...
Sogolo L. Lebelo1,* and Gerhard van der Horst2
...he vervet monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops, using both light and electron microscopic techniques and to elucidate the association of these cells with other testicular cells. The Leydig cells occur as a group of polymorphic cells in the intertubular region, and are usually associated with large and small blood vessels and abundant loose connective tissue. Leydig cells have large spherical or slightly elongated nuclei, which possess prominent nuclei and frequ...
Rahat Naseer1*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Zulfiqar-ul-Hassan2, H. Rehman1, Saima Naveed1, F. Masood1 and M. Tayyab1
...husk as a substrate for processing with the objective to produce a nutritionally enriched bulk feed ingredient and to explore its potential as wheat bran replacer in total mixed rations for the ruminants. For this purpose rice husk was subjected to different processing techniques using acid, alkali, water treatment and fermentation to prepare processed moiety on pilot scale. All these p

Raza Ullah1*, Qaisar Shah Safi2, Ghaffar Ali3 and Irfan Ullah

... packaging, storage and processing. There are various middlemen (market intermediaries) involved at different stages in the marketing of citrus. This study is an attempt to examine the marketing margins of the intermediaries involve in the value chain of sweet oranges of citrus group. Three villages in Bunir district are randomly selected and a total of 120 sampled respondents are selected using proportional allocation method. The findings revealed that majori...
Kadir Karakuş1, Bahat Comba2, Abuzer Taş3, Tunahan Sancak3, Arzu Comba2, Devrim Saripinar Aksu4, Hasan Koyun5 and Mohammad Masood Tariq6,*
..., the evaluation of the process in castrated six-month-old sheep revealed an increase in the body weight which was similar to that in the control group.
...
Tanveer Ahmad1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Azeem Khan2 and Shahid Zia3
...hed after decortication process for getting good quality fibre to make domestic products. This technology has a great potential and needs to be commercialised in sisal growing areas of the country.
...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*, Shah Saud Ahmad and Asif Nawaz 

...26% participated in the process of election. Maximum respondents were provided farm machinery by FSC i.e. cultivator (51%), rotavator (56%), mold bold plough (56%), disk plough (48%), single furrow (47%), drill (61%) and ridge maker (53%). Market was the source of seed for majority of the respondents regarding cauliflower (43%), bitter gourd (32%), bottle gourd (13%), potato (34%) and squash (29%). Similarly, majority of the respondents obtained urea (73%), SS...
Mohammad Umar Farooq1*, Sarfaraz Ahmad2, Ghulam Nabi1, Ijaz Ali1 and Imtiaz Ahmad1
...ring the photosynthesis process via plant biomass is the extent of this atmospheric gas. An experiment the data for above and below phytomass for grazed and un- grazed range land was collected and carbon pool was estimated by Wet Combustion and Dry Combustion method.Four transect lines were drawn in each experimental plot. Twenty four samples of each experimental plot were collected with the help of ADC one m 2 quadrate methods, weighed and then ove...
Ambreen Butt1, Uzma Malik2, Khadija Waheed3, Amna Khanum3, Samar Firdous4, Sara Ejaz5 and Fawad Randhawa2, Tania Shakoori6*
Rana Muhammad Aadil1,2*, Xin-An Zeng1, Saqib Jabbar3, Akmal Nazir2, Abid Aslam Mann2, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan2, Abdullah2, Amna Ramzan2
...ermal and high pressure processing (HPP) techniques on some quality parameters of grapefruit juice were investigated based on pH, acidity, ºBrix, viscosity, cloud value, hunter color values, bioactive compounds, microorganisms and enzyme analysis. The grapefruit juice was treated with processing variables of HPP treatment (0, 150, 200 and 250 MPa), temperature (40, 50 and 60 oC), for p
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...on of this species, the process of pairing, nest site selection, egg laying, incubation and brooding of the crested ibis in the wild was studied in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Luoshan County, Henan Province, China. From October 2013 to May 2015, a total of 78 captive-bred individuals have been released into the reserve and monitored through radio transmitters or satellite transmitters. Twelve nests of 10 pairs were recorded over three breeding seasons. S...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...by initiating different processes that are involved in the mechanism of stress tolerance. SA is part of an extremely complex signal transduction network’s part and it works differently in different systems. Drought stress is a major restraint for crop production in arid and semi arid states such as Pakistan. In this study experiments were conducted against the responses of strawberry plant to both pre-harvest application of salicylic acid and drought tre...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Wasiullah1 and Wiqar Ahmad

...MF-4 (Gloeocapsa) and Microcoleus-MMF-5 (Cryophilus) were applied randomly to flooded rice in pots. Rice seedlings were transplanted to each pot on July 18, 2016. The data were recorded on agronomic parameters of rice crop, plant tissue and post-harvest soil analysis. But in this paper, data on availability of major plant nutrients, soil organic matter and plant dry weight are presented. The data revealed that cyanobacteria strains had significantly (p < 0....

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali* 

...de circumvented tedious procedures of raising the immature embryos as a starting material for genetic transformation. Unlike immature embryos, the development of coleoptilar node is seasonal free and green house independent which would accelerate the work relevant to genetic transformation of maize. MS medium fortified with 3 mgL-1 BAP and 5 mgL-1 picloram produced maize seedlings with expanded coleoptilar nodes. Longitudinal cut sections of expanded coleoptil...

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...cated in the angiogenic processes is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and its family of ligands and receptors (VEGFRs). Survival, proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells which give rise to the vascular network, is mediated through VEGF/VEGFR activation of the signal transduction pathways. Thus blocking VEGF is an efficient strategy for blocking tumor angiogenesis. Several anti-VEGF drugs have been developed over the last two...
Shengyan Su, Zaijie Dong*, Wenbin Zhu, Lanmei Wang and Jianjun Fu 
...ompensatory like growth process. This study shows that compensatory like growth of body weight during the cross-breeding can be detected and quantified.
...
Jiandong Wu, Miao Ye and Zaigui Wang*
...p>-1, pH was 3.7, processing volume was 4 BV; flow rate was 2 BV·h-1; temperature was 25°C. For desorption, elution solvent ethanol-water (95%, v/v) solution was 4.5 BV; flow rate was 2.0 BV·h-1. Flavonoids with content of 68.3% were obtained with a flavonoid recovery of 93.7%. The results showed that AB-8 resin revealed a good ability to purify total flavonoids. Lastly, feeding experiments results indicated that f...
Xue-yang Wang1, Shang-zhi Zhang1, Ming-hui Liu2, Dong Yu1, Yan Ma1, Dong-qiong Fei1, Hai-zhong Yu1 and Jia-ping Xu1,*
...lved in many biological processes, including cell–cell adhesion and the Wnt signaling pathway. However, the function of ARM-repeat protein in Bombyx mori has not been completely clarified. In this study, a gene encoding ARM-repeat protein was identified, which has an open reading fragment of 1923 bp, encoding a predicted 641 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of approximately 71.2 kDa. BmARM-like mRNA showed highest expressi...

Inayatullah Jan*, Sajid Khan, Noor Paio Khan and Muhammad Ashfaq 

...lders or tenants. After procuring and properly utilizing credit, the yield of the major crops such as wheat, maize, and sugarcane and the resultant income of the respondents exhibited significant increase, as confirmed by higher t-values. The study concludes that the socio-economic conditions of the farmers can be improved if credit programme is extended which could benefit all farmers in the area. 

...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Madeeha Khalid1, Rehman Shehzad1, Sana Mughal1 and A.R. Shakoori2 
...acenta was obtained and processed for extraction of extracellular proteins at pH 9.5 using Tris-Glycine buffer. Placental lactogen was purified by gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex-G100 and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE- Sepharose, employing a linear salt gradient. SDS-PAGE was used to monitor the purification steps, and protein band was located by immunoblotting technique. Bubaline placental lactogen was purified to homogeneity and showed a m...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...on of this species, the process of pairing, nest site selection, egg laying, incubation and brooding of the crested ibis in the wild was studied in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Luoshan County, Henan Province, China. From October 2013 to May 2015, a total of 78 captive-bred individuals have been released into the reserve and monitored through radio transmitters or satellite transmitters. Twelve nests of 10 pairs were recorded over three breeding seasons. S...
Shumaila Ashfaq1, Liaqat Ali2*, Muhammad Ashraf Zia2, Rizwan Ahmad Khan2 and Mehtash Butt3
... evaluated effects of hydrocortisone on the treatment of PDPH in obstetrical patient.To compare mean decrease in Visual Analogue Scalepain score in patients who developed PDPH after elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia who were given conventional treatment versus conventional treatment plus hydrocortisone.Double blind randomized control trial. Study conducted in department of anaesthesia and obstetrics of Alla...

H.I. Hosein1, Sherin Reda Rouby1*, Ahmed Menshawy1 and Ahmed E. AbdAl-Ghany2 

...city of some diagnostic procedures used for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis on serological, bacteriological and molecular basis. A total of 141 cows from brucella infected farms under quarantine of the veterinary authorities were employed. Serological examination using BPAT, RBT and CFT in 141 cows revealed 109 (77. 3), 105 (74.47) and 104 (73.76) seropositive respectively. Relative sensitivity, relative specificity, positive predictive value and negative pred...
Ümit Kumbıçak, Zübeyde Kumbıçak* and Gülnare Huseynli
...d sex chromosomes were acrocentric. The lengths of the chromosomes indicated no significant difference between autosomal pairs, however, X3 was the smallest chromosome but X1 and X2 were intermediate in the karyotype.
...
Jarosław Pytlewski1, Ireneusz Antkowiak1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*
...AS v.9.3. The following procedures were used: MEANS and GLM. In black and white Holstein-Fresian cattle there is genetic variety in analysed locus c.1178G>A gene PIT-1. Frequency of genotypes and alleles was respectively: AA=0.0469, AG=0.3154, GG=0.6377, A = 0.2046 and G = 0.7954. AA homozygotes had the highest age at first insemination and the lowest insemination index. Cows with this genotype after calving and calves (both gender) fro...
Lihong Qin1, Guoliang Zhang1, Chaojie Zhu1, Jian Wu1, Zhihui Zhao2,* and Yumin Zhao1,*
...e testicular maturation process, however, PDK4, DUSP4 and FKBP1B expression levels were decreased (p<0.01). Furthermore, the luciferase in miR-122/449a co-transfected with pmiR-RB-REPORT-DUSP4-WT or pmiR-RB-REPORT-PDK4/FKBP1B-WT group was significantly lower than pmiR-RB-REPORT-DUSP4-mut or PDK4/FKBP1B-mut and negative control groups. Meanwhile, PDK4, DUSP4 and FKBP1B expression levels we...
Tariq Mahmood*1, Syed Wasif Ahmed Shah1, Muhammad Rais1, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...ck drongo Dicrurus macrocerus preferred Kikar Acacia nilotica and Eucalyptus camaldulensis for nesting purpose while black kite Milvus migrans utilized semal tree Bombax ceiba. The weaver bird Ploceus philippinus also utilized only Acacia nilotica for nesting. The common crow, common myna, black kite, black drongo, red turtle dove Streptopelia tranquebarica and Indian robin Saxicoloides fulicatus s...
Faiza Ambreen*1 and Muhammad Javed2
...in peripheral blood erythrocytes of freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus by using Comet assay. The 96-h LC50 value of pesticide mixture was estimated for 180-old fingerlings of O. niloticusin a static system and then four sub-lethal concentrations viz. 1/3rd of LC50, 1/4th of LC50, 1/5th of LC50 and 1/6th of LC50 were calculated and fish we...

Gamalat Osman1, Mansour Galal1, Abbas Abul-Ezz2, Ahmad Mohammed1, Mohammed Abul-Ela3 and Asmaa Mostafa Hegazy2

...6 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the flesh demonstrated that PAHs accumulation in the treated snails was fluctuated with time. The accumulation is due to their biotransformation process during metabolism. The histopathological observations of the gills and mantle of L. carinatus showed pronounced alterations at 24 hours and proliferated at the day 15 but showed a further decline at the day 30 of exposure. These f...

Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1, Khanum Zahra2, Arooj Zaheer2, Khizar Samiullah3

...oducing gland, spinning process, chemistry of spider silk fiber, mechanical properties and applications of silk in health, military industry and many other fields is discussed. Its antifungal and antimicrobial potentials are also explored. Researchers are trying to introduce advanced methods to manufacture spider silk artificially to enhance silk production. Silk fiber can be designed after determining type and sequence of constituent amino acid or by insertin...

Sajid Muhammad* and Fida Mohammad 

...alized after fulfilling procedural requirements. 

...

 Addishiwot Fekdu, Afework Bekele and Demeke Datiko*

...ndromus lovati (1), and Crocidura fumosa (4). Tachyoryctes macrocephalus was recorded as frequently observed species. Four endemic species of rodents were identified in the area (Lophuromys melanonyx, Arvicanthis blicki, Dendromus lovati and Tachyoryctes macrocephalus). The distribution and abundance of species varied between exclosure and control sites, and between seasons. Livestock graz...
Ozgur Altan*
...ts (FBP) emerging after processing the trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), sea bream (Sparus aurata) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) produced by aquaculture into a raw material that can be used in fish feed ingredient by means of a system called flash dryer has been researched. Before being subjected to drying and grinding in the flash dryer system, the FBP have been passed through the press and decanter, and it has been endeavored t...
Francisco J. Ayala
...ecting the evolutionary process toward the production of specified kinds of organisms. Even if a scientific account of natural history is open to the God question, it will take a theologian to propose an answer. 
...

Ayesha Bibi*, Musharaf Ahmad and Shaukat Hussain 

...est Pakistan. Based on agroclimate, KP was divided into five zones as Northern KP, Southern KP, Eastern KP, Western KP and Central KP. A total of 100 collected weed samples were analyzed in laboratory for the presence of bacteria. The samples were crushed homogenized in 0.85% TBE buffer and platted on YDC (Yeast extract-Dextrose-CaCO3) for bacterial growth. For identification of the characteristic bacterial colonies Cmm-specific primers CMM-5 and CMM-6 were us...

Afsheen Masood1*, Rubab Musarrat2, Shama Mazahir3 and Adeela Ashraf4  

...lity purposive sampling procedure. Both cohorts were matched on the basis of the age and income level of the parents. Quality of Life Scale WHOQOLS and Marital Satisfaction Scale were used to collect the data from Anmol and Sundus Foundation and Fatmeed Foundation, Lahore. The results from independent sample t- test revealed that the quality of life and marital satisfaction of parents of children with leukemia was significantly lower than the parents of normal...

Attia Anwar1, Sajida Malik2*, Zobia Usman1 and Sadia Chiragh3 

...upplemented berberine hydrochloride with dose of 75 mg/kg body weight/day. 24 weeks post-treatment, blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture from both groups and tested for Hb (%), WBC, RBC and platelet counts, SGPT, alkaline phosphatse, serum uric acid, blood urea and serum creatinine. All the numerical data were expressed as mean± SD. The values in two groups were analyzed with help of unpaired t-test. A p-value ˂ 0.05 was considered sign...
Sumaira Zareen1, Syeda Sadaf Zahra2, Ayeza Mehmood3, Muhammad Asadullah4* and Aish Muhammad5

 

...icinal plant Neurada procumbens L. from Cholistan desert in Pakistan. Nodal segments from healthy grown plants were used as explants and cultured on standard Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of benzyl amino purine (BAP) or kinetin for shoot induction and Indole acetic acid (IAA) for primary shoot and Indole Butyric acid (IBA) for root proliferation. Best shoot proliferation (4.48 per explant) wa...
Yanjie Guo1, Weini Wu1, Hongmei Wang2, Xiao Guo2 and Yongping Xu2,*
...mmunity is the critical process by which organisms recognize and eliminate foreign antigens, and the process of local immunity in the female reproductive system is regulated by the coordinated integration of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. The nerves that branch from the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) are a major source of sympathetic nerves, which dominate the immune response of the female reproductive system...

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid 

...CV, MCH and MCHC, and Microcytic Hypochromic cells in Peripheral Smear. Megaloblastic anemia was labeled when Macrocytic Hypochromic cells seen. Obstetric outcome in terms of Preterm delivery defined as delivery at <37 weeks of gestation (36 +6 weeks) and birth weight <2500g mand a need for operative delivery. Patients fulfilling the selection criteria as per operational definition were included in the study after taki...

Saeeda Raza, Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Amer Mumtaz, Nouman Siddiqui, Khalid Nasim and Muhammad Amjad*

...ts and seeds. Different processing methods cleaning, washing, germination of pulses, peeling, cutting and blanching of vegetables, drying, roasting, grinding and mixing of ingredients were used. Recipe “A” containing rice, mung, potato and poppy seed was organoleptically preferred. No significant change in moisture content, peroxide value and free fatty acid were observed during three months storage in double polyethylene bags at ambient temperatur...

Aslam Memon, A. M. Khushk* and Umer Farooq**

... the varietal diffusion process among sugarcane growers all over the country was taking place on informal grounds and was extremely slow. Therefore, strong institutional efforts from agricultural extension department as well as sugar mills are needed to rapidly diffuse the more recently released varieties among the farmers. The sugarcane growers in KP are suggested to increase varietal diversity on their farms to avoid any risk of complete crop failure due to ...

 S. Shahid Shaukat*, Mian Sayed**, Aly Khan, M. Azhar Khan* and Babar Qazi***

...hree treatments, Tridax procumbens emerged as an effective phytonematicide. Helicotylenchus indicus, Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita had similar population density levels and were more or less equally suppressed by all the treatments in the order: Carbofuran > Tridax procumbens > Fertinemakil Plus > Withania somnifera. The yield of guar was only slightly increased but not significantly.

...

 Sarfraz Ahmad, Shaista Koukab, Nayyar Razzaq, Muhammad Islam, Aneel Rose*, and Muhammad Aslam**

...alochistan chamomile (Microcephala lamellate (Bunge) Syn. Matricaria lasiocarpa ) is found naturally in many protected rangelands areas. However, its population is declining due to over-exploitation and un-controlled grazing. Traditionally these species are used for the treatment of fever and pain. Annual or German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), and perennial chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) are the most important species all over the world due to multipurp...

 Farhan Ahmed, Hassnain Shah, Irum Raza* and Abdul Saboor**

...r of the autoregressive process; ‘d’ is the order of the homegeneity and ‘q’ the order of the moving average process. Presence of trend in data was checked through time series plots and stationarity through auto correlation and partial auto correlation functions. Using the ARIMA (p, d, q) forecasts from 2010 up to 2015 were made and production of milk in 2015 was estimated at 47492 t.

...
Muhammad Kashif Maan1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Muhammad Ijaz2, Hamid Akbar1, Sajid Umar 3 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*
...during lengthy surgical procedures like ovariohysterectomy.
...

 Javid Iqbal, Asghar Ali Mian, Tanveer Ahmad*, Shamsul Hassan** and Sohail Hassan Khan* 

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT ECONOMIC TRAITS OF FOUR IMPORTED BROILER STRAINS UNDER LOCAL CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
... from each strain) were procured from the local hatcheries and designated as four treatments i.e., A (Hubbard), B (Arbor Acres), C (Ross 308) and D (Hybro PN). The chicks were raised under recommended rearing requirements for 7 weeks and the economic traits measured were body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, antibody titres, dressing percentage and economic evaluation as cost of broiler per kilogram live weight produced. The average...

 Shahida N.Khokhar*

CROP INOCULANTS- AN UNDEREXPLORED POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURE
...n paradigm from use of agrochemicals to green way of life. Bioinoculants are in perfect harmony with the concept of Evergreen Revolution. They have the potential to improve value cost ratio (VCR) of agricultural production. Pakistan faces increase in degraded lands, water shortage, energy crisis, all contributing to poverty. During last two decades, many efforts were made to address the issue through developing and applying the inoculants. Several research ins...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai, Saeeda Raza* and Shahzad Arshad Saleem**

MICROBIAL COUNT AND SHELF LIFE OF STRAWBERRY JUICE
...gical and physiological processes. At day 0; pH 3.2, color bright 2 -1 red, excellent flavor, TPC 2.7 x 10 cfu g were recorded, while no yeast or mould were found. After one week, the pH 3.6, dull red color, TPC 2 -1 3 -1 5 -1 2.25x10 cfug , yeast 1.7x10 cfu g and mould 1.6x10 cfu g were observed. 2 While after two weeks (day 14) color was brown while pH 4.0, TPC 1.9x10 -1 6 -1 5 -1 cfu g , yeast 2.47x10 cfu g and mould 1.6x10 cfu g were noticed. Yeast, mould ...

 A.A. Mengal* , M. U. Mallah, Z. A. Mirani* and B. N. Siddiqui**

AN ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
...h a systematic sampling procedure. The response rate was 82.67%. A detailed and comprehensive questionnaire was used for measuring the effectiveness of extension activities performed by public and private sector extension field staff. The results revealed that a number of farmers received visits from private extension field staff on a fortnightly, monthly and quarterly basis, but not from public extension staff during these periods. When public field staff did...

 Adnan Umair*, Safdar Ali**, Muhammad Sarwar***, Kashif Bashir**, Muhammad Javed Tareen**** and Muhammad Asghar Malik*****

ASSESSMENT OF SOME PRIMING TECHNIQUES IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA) : A GREEN HOUSE STUDY
...point where germination process begin but radical emergence does not occur. A pot experiment was conducted in a green house. The seeds were invigorated by traditional soaking (hydropriming), osmo-conditioning using phosphorous (KH PO ; 2 4 -1 200 mM and 400 mM), mannitol (20 and 40 gl ), polyethylene glycol (50 and -1 -1 100 gl ), sodium molybdate dihydrate (0.2 and 0.4 gl ) and hormonal priming by salicylic acid (10 and 20 ppm). Untreated dry seeds were used ...

Tanzila Kazmi*, Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry*, Aftab Ahmed** and Shaheer Ellahi Khan**

FARMERS BELIEFS ABOUT INDIGENOUS FARMING PRACTICES AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
...nowledge is a long term process and demands a complete approach to achieve destined goals. On the other hand it was also found that the lack of knowledge is a hindrance to achieve required outcome(s) from modern techniques. Thus, the public institutes need to be strengthened so that the transitional lag may be bridged and farmers may also get required production.

...

 Frasat Saeed*, Jehanzeb Farooq*, Abid Mahmood**, Tassawar Hussain***, Muhammad Riaz* and Saghir Ahmad****

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN UPLAND COTTON FOR COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE, EARLINESS AND FIBER QUALITY
.... Different statistical procedures like cluster, principle components (PC) and correlation analysis were employed to identify the suitable genotypes that can be further exploited in breeding programme. Significant associations were found between yield contributing trait, boll weight and fiber related trait, staple length. Earliness related traits, like st st days taken to 1 square and days taken to 1 flower had positive correlation with each other and both the...

 Munir Ahmad*, Asif Ali Mirani**, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood**, Tanveer Ahmad** and Muhammad Azhar Saeed**

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CROSS-FLOW RICE DRYERS
... postharvest drying and processing technologies. About 70% of the rice produced in the country is dried through sun heat. which is one of the major causes of reducing head rice recovery during the milling operation. Recently, cross-flow rice dryers have been adopted in the rice milling industry of the country. The heat source of these cross-flow dryers can be a gas or rice husk. This study focussed on the performance evaluation of cross-flow rice dryers with b...

 Nusrat Habib*, Saima Rani*, Sabeen Siddiqui*, Shah Zaman** and Muhammad Zubair Anwar*

IMPACT OF MAJOR FARM INPUTS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGARCANE: A CASE STUDY IN TEHSIL KOT ADDU, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ors which affect on the proceeds of sugarcane growers. The results revealed that costs of land preparation, DAP and urea were highly significant at 1% level with positive coefficients 0.94, 0.23 and 0.76, respectively. The cost of FYM was significant at 1% level with negative impact on sugarcane productivity (-0.07). The coefficient 2 of multiple determinations R was 0.72, which designated that 72% deviation in the productivity of sugarcane was elucidated by a...

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi* and Abdul Jabbar**

SEAFOOD EXPORTS: CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD
...enhancement of the fish processing for export, provision of adequate facilities at fish markets and formulation of sustainable fishing policies are ways forward for the sustainable development of seafood resources development in the country.

...

 Muhammad Shahzad*, Ayesha Tahir**, Naveed Jehan*** and Muhammad Luqman*

IMPACT OF DIFFERENT PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES ON POSTHARVEST LOSSES OF STONE FRUITS IN SWAT PAKISTAN
...tionate random sampling procedure. Quantitative losses were estimated through percentage method while partial losses were estimated at the wholesale and retail level by price differential method. Multiple regression analysis was employed to find relation between post-harvest losses and different factors at three different stages. Findings of the study revealed the channel of cardboard box technology accounted for post-harvest losses of 10.49% while at farm lev...

 Mazher Abbas*, Irfan Mehmood*, Arshed Bashir*, Muhammad Ather Mehmood* and Sonila Hassan* 

WOMEN COTTON PICKERS PERCEPTIONS ABOUT HEALTH HAZARDS DUE TO PESTICIDE USE IN IRRIGATED PUNJAB
...king regarding food and groceries while 30.6% women involved in decision about education of children. It is suggested that the female cotton pickers should be educated about the importance (in terms of disease treatment and long-run health costs) of using safety measures during and after cotton picking.

...

 Riaz Hussain*, Muhammad Riaz** and Mushtaq A. Saleem***

TOXICITIES OF AZADIRACHTIN AND POLYCHLORINATED PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON AGAINST RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE STRAINS OF TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) ADULTS
...chlorinated petroleum hydrocarbon (Tenekil 100 EC). The LC values of these insecticides were worked out as 12830 and 50 9331 ppm for azadirachtin and 5148 and 4047 ppm for Tenekil 100 EC against PAK and FSS-II strains, respectively. The results revealed that polychlorinated petroleum hydrocarbon was more toxic than the azadirachtin. Furthermore, both the insecticides were equally toxic to the adult beetles of T. castaneum as...

 Syed Asif Imran Shah*, Shah Jehan Khan**, Abdul Aziz Baloch*** ,
Obaid Ullah Sayal**, Kalim Ullah* andShujaat Ali**

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS IN VARIOUS INBRED LINES OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
...ility of direct and reciprocal effects were observed for all attributes. Azam -1 proved good combiner for days to 50% silking and kernel rows ear while -1 Islamabad Gold for kernels ear and grain yield. Islamabad White × Sadaf was the best combiner for grain yield. For reciprocal effects, BS-I × Sahiwal -1 -1 2002 proved good combiner for kernels row and kernels ear while BS-I × Islamabad White for grain yi...

 Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Tariq Hassan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saleem Abid*, Irum Raza* and Saqib Shakeel Abbasi*

ASSESSMENT OF THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING COURSE UNDER WATERSHED PROJECT AT FATEHJANG FIELD STATION, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...hnologies to foster the process of adoption. For this purpose Climate and Alternate Energy Water Resources Institute, NARC, organized a professional training on “Water Rehabilitation and Irrigation Technology Improvements” in April, 2014 in collaboration with ICARDA and USDA. Twenty seven professionals from different organizations and departments namely; AlMustafa Development Network (ADN), Taleem Foundation, Islamic International University (IIUI)...

 Doulat Baig*, Fida Mohammad Abbasi*, Habib Ahmed*, Maqsood Qamar** and Muhammad Ayub Khan**

RESPONSE OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL TRAITS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
...rement of the metabolic processes for the vegetative, reproductive growth and yield of the crop. The protein is wholly dependent upon the amount of nitrogen fertilization available in soil for the plant use. A two year study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. The experiment was aimed to –1 –1 evaluate the effect of different nitrogen (N) levels (N = 0 kgha , N = 60 kgha , N = 0 1 2 &...

 Muhammad Mudasar Aslam ⃰, Muhammad Jamil**, Ijaz Malook**, Amana Khatoon*, Ali Rehman*, Abdur Rahim***, Pirzada Khan*, Shakir Ullah Khan Shakir*, Shahid Irfan*, Faizan Ullah****, Khair Ul Bashar**, Mahideen Afridi** and Shafiq Ur Rehman*

PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA, TAMARIX APHYLLA AND PEGANUM HARMALA ON PLANT GROWTH OF WHEAT AND MUSTARD
...c effects of Calotropis procera, Tamarix aphylla and Peganum harmala on seed germination and seedling length of wheat and mustard. Results showed that seed germination of wheat was significantly decreased by 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% while mustard seeds were resistant and were affected by higher dilutions (15%, 20% and 25%) of all plant extracts. Roots of both wheat and mustard were highly affected by plant aqueous extracts at all concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%,...

  Mohammad Umar Farooq* , Sarfraz Ahmad ** , Mohammad Islam and Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar ***

ASSESSING THE STATUS OF CARBON POOL IN TWO RANGELAND GRASSES ( ) IN POTHWAR, REGION, PAKISTAN
...ring the photosynthesis process via plant biomass is the extent of this atmospheric gas. Data for above and below phytomass for two rangeland grasses was collected and carbon pool was estimated by Wet Combustion and Dry Combustion method. Four transect lines were drawn in each experimental plot. Twenty four samples of each experimental plot were collected with the help of ADC one m quadrat method, weighed and then oven dried at 60 C to find out the dry weight ...

 Arshia Naeem*, Maria Anjum*, Mariam Rehman*, Zahid Mahmood** and Muhammad Asif Kamran**

AN INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM TO FACILITATE FARMERS IN WHEAT, SUGARCANE AND OTHER CROP DISEASES IDENTIFICATION
...rom web application and processes them to identify crop disease. The proposed platform was evaluated in collaboration with researchers from Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad by employing walkthrough and survey with farmers and agriculturists. The study is first attempt in terms of practical usage of ICT tools to bridge research and extension gap and can be used by agricultural policy makers to support agricultural services for farming com...

Khalid Khan*1, Muhammad Abdul Kamal2, Saubia Ramazan3, Gulawar Khan4, Gulzar Ali5 and Sheharyar Ahmed

... and devise easy credit procedures for the small farmers, will ultimately result in alleviating the problem of poverty and unemployment in the region.  

...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2 and Zafarullah Baloch3 

... farmers for producing, processing and marketing of dates in Panjgur-Balochistan, Pakistan. Snowball sampling technique was used to select 90 respondents. The data revealed that average age of the farmers was 53.9 years with education from secondary to graduate level. The results of the study showed that many of the farmers on average have 10 acres of land under date palm cultivation with more than 57 date palm trees per acre on average. It is also observed th...
Asmatullah1, Chaman Ara1,*, Shagufta Andleeb2, Maha Tahir1, Beenish Zahid1 and Madeeha Arshad1
...developed cerebellum, microcardia, necrosis in atrium, underdeveloped ventricles, hydropericardium and necrosis of the liver. Skeleton analysis of cadmium treated groups showed mostly un-ossified skeletons. The control mice showed normal ossification as compared to experimental groups. Morphological, histological and skeletal studies of fetuses treated cadmium chloride along with guava fruit extract revealed ameliorative effects on various kinds of birth defec...
Abdul Nabi Jatt1,*, Sarfraz Ali Tunio1, Shaista Bano Memon1, Abdul Sattar Qureshi2 and Muhammad Aqeel Bhutto
...gical and physiological processes, particularly involved in the hydrolysis of complex organic materials. Several pathogenic microbial species utilize enzymes as virulence factors to cause diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate enzymatic activities of the bacterial strain Shigella dysenteriae IM using API-ZYM test system. Out of nineteen different enzymes, S. dysenteriae IM strain was capable to poroduce nine enzymes, i.e., ...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
...e collected by standard procedures within the study duration. Meteorological data on relative humidity and temperature was obtained from Centre for Basic Space Science, Nsukka, Enugu State. Overall recorded malaria prevalence at the hospitals from January to July was 72.8%. Malaria prevalence was highest in the month of July (90.3%) and least in February (55.4%). Majority of these infections were mild. Overall, more females compared to males were infected in t...
Grace Chinenye Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie, Joseph O. Okoro, Christopher Didigwu Nwani*, Ngozi Ezenwaji, Ndubisi Stanley Oluah and Fabian C. Okafor
...eing very abundant (Reciprocal Simpson index = 2.80). A thorough understanding of the snails helminthes parasite life cycles, associated host morbidity, and direct and indirect cost of such parasitism to human is important, first for human health and welfare, secondly for sustainable snail farming, and finally for maintenance of snail biodiversity.
...
Lili Zhang, Yuanxiao Wang, Yili Kong, Hussain Ahmad, Rui Yan, Li Dong, Jingfei Zhang and Tian Wang*
... 0.03 kg) at birth were procured. Blood samples were collected at 28, 66, and 160 days of age from both groups. Longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected from four selected pigs at 160 days of age. Body weight, ADG and ADFI were decreased significantly by IUGR from birth to 160 days of age (P<0.05). At 28 and 160 days of age, the serum urea nitrogen levels of the IUGR pigs were significantly higher than the NBW pigs (P<0.05). The serum insul...
María Magdalena Crosby-Galván1, Bernardino Espinoza-Velasco1 and Mónica Ramirez-Mella2,*
...with different forms of processed residue of chihua pumpkin.
...
Syeda Madiha, Zehra Batool, Saiqa Tabassum, Laraib Liaquat, Sadia Sadir, Tahira Perveen and Saida Haider*

 

...cits, biochemical and neurochemical alterations. Rotenone was injected subcutaneously at the dose of 1.5 mg/kg for 8 days. Supplementation of curcumin (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was started before 15 days of rotenone injection. The effects of curcumin pre-treatment were evaluated by different motor behavioral parameters (pole test, Kondziela’s inverted screen test, inclined plane test, open field test, beam walking test and footprint test). Biochemical and ne...
Shagufta Andleeb*1, Fariha Zahid1, Noor-ul-Ain1, Yousra Nisar1, Chaman Ara2
...isrupted embryos with microcephly, hydrocephaly, short neck, micromelia, amelia, micrognathia, agnathia, cataract, ectopiacordis, omphalocoel, axis distortion, anencephaly, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, phocomelia with reduced body weight and crown- rump length in all dose groups were obtained. Adverse histological changes appeared in the form of disrupted and malformed visceral organs, vertebral bone and spina bifida as com...
Muhammad Umar1, Mubashar Hussain1,*, Ghulam Murtaza1, Farid Asif Shaheen2 , Fatima Zafar1
...nd Dalmatian pelican), Agrochemical Contamination (Black-tailed godwit and Fish bird) Heavy Metal Pollution Contamination (Cattle egrets), Unsustainable Fisheries Practices (Ducks), invasive species (Little egret and Night herone) and illegal hunting (Geese, Ducks, Siberian cranes and Bustards) have resulted in the decline of species abundance.. Regular conduct of surveys for important migratory birds to assess the population trend, abundance and patterns of t...
Noor Fatima1, Muhammad Irfan2,*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
...8h). After pretreatment process, cellulase production was achieved by solid substrate which was conducted in 250mL capacity Erlenmeyer flask in which incubation of Bacillus subtilis was carried out for 24 h of fermentation period at temperature of 50oC. Results showed that cellulase production was greatly affected by the thermochemical pretreatment as compared to the chemical pretreatment. At the pretreatment condition of 1% H2SO
Huma Ayub1,Iftikhar Ahmad2, Syed Lal Shah3,*, Muhammad Zafarullah Bhatti4, Nuzhat Shafi5 and Mazhar Qayyum1
...97, Simpson’s Reciprocal Index 12.25 to 37.69 and Pielou’s Evenness Index 0.94 to 1.0. The zooplankton community was found abundant in summer as compared to winter. The copepods were found dominant followed by rotifers and cladocerans for entire study period. The spatial distribution of zooplankton was not found prominent as compared to their seasonal distribution. However, rotifers showed spatial difference among sampling stations (ANOVA, p...
Leila A. Kaimbayeva1,*, Elena S. Malysheva2, Rashit Kazikhanov3 and Saule R. Kazikhanova4
...e red deer, immediately processed for isolation of muscular fibers and were evaluated for the pH, water-binding power, activities of tissue enzymes and microstructure changes. The results of chemical analysis revealed the nature of protein substances, altered рН value of the meat and the intensity of glycolysis. All these parameters were indicative of autolysis process in the meat. The levels of water-binding cap...
Amna Kausar1,2, Sana Anwar1, Naila Siddique2, Safia Ahmed1 and Javid Iqbal Dasti1,*
...me samples were further processed for the isolation of virus by embryonated egg inoculation technique. Moreover, out of 507 samples, 479 serum samples were scrutinized by enzyme linked immunosorbent essay (ELISA). Sero-prevalence of AIV among different species of wild birds was as follows; peacock (n=35; 14%), duck (n=5; 2%), migratory water fowl (n=3; 1%), pheasant (n=2; 0.8%), grey leg goose (n=1; 0.4%), turkey (n=1; 0.4%), eagle (n=1; 0.4%) and crane (n=1; ...
Shuai Shang1,2, Honghai Zhang2,*, Xiaoyang Wu2, Qinguo Wei2, Jun Chen1, Huanxin Zhang1, Huaming Zhong2 and Xuexi Tang1,*
...oon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) was still unknown. As a true omnivorous mammal, the Tas2r genes may play a critical role in food selection of raccoon dogs. Thus, we explored the evolution of Tas2r genes in raccoon dogs. In this study, Tas2r genes including eleven intact genes and four pseudogenes from raccoon dogs were identified for the first time. We also obtained Tas2r genes from fourteen additional species based on the...
Jiji Li*, Tianyang Zu, Xiangli Dong, Xiao Yang, Wei Liu and Changwen Wu
...roaker (Larimichthys crocea). The results revealed that the immunological effect of CCLs in the croaker is weaker than that of other fish, and revealed the infectivity of the large yellow croaker. Thus, these findings could help to develop methods of disease resistance in the aquaculture industry.
...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Zahir Shah1 and Farmanullah Khan1 

...MF-4 (Gloeocapsa) and Microcoleus-MMF-5 (Cryophilus) were applied randomly to flooded rice in pots. Five seedlings of rice (Kianat cv.) were transplanted to each pot on 18th of July 2016. The growth of rice crop was maintained for about 3 months and 12 days and shoots harvested on October 30, 2016. The data were recorded on agronomic parameters and rice shoots and roots tissue analysis for various nutrients uptake/concentration. The data revealed that all stra...
Ghulam Muhae-ud-Din1,4, Anam Moosa1, Umer Farooq Ghummen1, Muhammad Jabran1, Amjad Abbas1, Muhammad Naveed2, Abdul Jabbar1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1,3,*
...us and Carrisa macrocarpa were moderately susceptible, Murraya paniculata and Ficus benjamina were susceptible, F. elastica, Artemissia stelleriana and Duranta repens were highly susceptible to M. incognita infection according to a well established 0-4 galling scale.  The highest galling index and reproductivity of nematodes, i.e., total number of egg masses, juveniles and females, were observed ...

Baharullah Khattak1*, Saifullah2, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharraf Ahmad2, Asad Ali2, Mohammad Junaid2, Ijaz Ahmad Khan3, Taj Ali Khan1 and Mubbashir Hussain1 

...plified polymorphic DNA procedure. A selected set of three random primers was used for this purpose, which resulted in 113 bands on gel for the 15 isolates of T. harzianum. The analysis of the bi-variate data, using Unweighted Paired Groups Method Averages, divided the indigenous isolates of Trichoderma, into four well-defined clusters. These results clearly revealed that there were considerable genetic differences among the Trichoderma isolates. While, there ...

Safdar Ali1*, Obaidullah Shafique1, Tariq Mahmood2, Muhammad Amir Hanif1, Ijaz Ahmed3 and Bashir Ahmad Khan

...acturing of innovative agrochemicals and novel delivery mechanisms to enhance crop production and decrease in pesticide use. Nanotechnology also contributes in increasing the crop yield in agriculture. One of the major contribution of nanotechnology in the field of agriculture is the formulation of nano based pesticides and fertilizers for increased crop production. Precise farming techniques can promote crop production without damaging soil and water, reducin...
Arshad Mahmood Malik1, Khalid Mahmood Mughal2, Sarfraz Ahmed Mian2 and Atta Ullah Khan2
... involved in production process and revenue earned from selling of the produce in both local and in export market. Yield of hydroponic tomatoes was measured in hectares. Benefit cost ratio was studied and other measures of performance like export intensity, local penetration ratio etc. were also analyzed. Average yield of hydroponic tomatoes was found to be 161.8±6.6 ton per hectare as against 10.07±0.4 in open field. The BCR was found positive a...
Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam1, Iram Gull1, Zaigham Abbas2,* and Muhammad Amin Athar1
...o make its purification process more convenient.
...
Hongqun Li1, Xiaoli Liu2,*, Zhenmin Lian3,RenheWang4, Yongbin Wang4, Yongyao Fu1 andDingyi Wang5
...ts have a preference for rock-cavities. Therefore, based on nest-site selection of this eared pheasant, we strongly suggest that moderate logging activity and prohibition of local peoples’ firewood collection in the core areas may provide some optimal nest habitat for the brown-eared pheasant.
...
Niamatullah Kakar, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad Shafee and Tauseef Asmat*
...ail inmates. Sputum was processed for smear microscopy and culture inoculation for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Moreover, the suspected samples were further investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three samples were found positive by PCR test while other detection methods were not that sensitive to detect the tuberculosis at that stage. Two patients were reported with history of tuberculosis but were effectively...
Muhammad Mohsin Ahsan1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2,*, Khizar Samiullah3
...eport the scorpion Androctonus finitimus (Pocock, 1897) from several areas of Punjab, Pakistan. This scorpion species has not been previously documented from this part of the country, highlighting the wide distribution of this specie across the country. We identified that A. finitimus prefers dry sandy habitat with lower vegetation. This information furthers our scientific understanding on the existing record of this scorpion species in Pa...

Ashraf Sayed Awaad1 and Mohamed Zaki Fathy2*  

...ace between the spinous processes in this area was 1.58 ±0.089 cm and easily to be detected. The needle was inserted properly and more easily in the epidural space of the selected new site by using US. In conclusion, The L5-L6 space was considered as a new selected site for epidural analgesia in goats because it was easier and safer to perform without causing either discomfort to the animals or injury to the spinal cord. 

...
Thomas W. Clark
...ization of human nature proceeds apace, driven by science, in particular neuroscience as it maps the brain processes that mediate choice and behavior. Where the soul once presided, there are, it turns out, only neurons in fantastically complex structures which somehow maintain the coherent psychological and behavioral pattern – character, beliefs, desires – that constitutes each of us as a person. The feeling of ...
Tengfei Lu1, Wenhua Pei1, Shuang Zhang2, Yangnan Wu1, Fenghao Chen2, Xiao Han2 and Weijun Guan1,*
...tocyte-like cells after procedure induction. The results showed that the AMSCs obtained from sheep demonstrated the features of multipotent stem cells. Therefore, AMSCs could be a good option for transplantation for treatment and regenerative medical projects.
...
Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq1, Amer Jamal Hashmat1, Ejazul Islam1, Muhammad Afzal1, Abid Mahmood2, Muhammad Ibrahim2,*, Muhammad Nawaz3,*, Shahid Nadeem4 and Qaiser Mahmood Khan1
...tile effluent using electrochemical techniques on pilot scale (70 L). One of the major problems encountered in the textile industry is the production of large volumes of highly colored wastewater. The scope of this new electrochemical treatment is a significant advance to the existing technologies. There were four different treatments employed as; T1: wastewater, T2: wastewater with 0.1% electrolyte, T3: diluted wastewater (...
Musrrat Fatima, Muhammad Saad Khan, Hamid Rashid, Asim Mehmood, Sumaira Kanwal, Muhammad Asif Rasheed and Farrukh Jamil*
...ts role in developing microcephaly and GBS Syndrome. There is a need to develop drugs against ZIKV. Here we uses pharmacoinformatics techniques to identify potential inhibitors against ZIKV protease NS2B-NS3, which has a well-known role in the viral replication. By using three dimensional structure of the NS2B-NS3, an allosteric site has been identified in the protein. Moreover, the identified site is used for structure-based virtual screening. After screening...
Zhuanxia Chen1, Ningping Tao1,*, Xiao Qin1 and Dayong Liu2
...h different preparatory procedures which were used in traditional. The taste of Takifugu obscurus under different conditions were analyzed by sensory evaluation and electronic tongue technique. The characteristic of the taste substances were tested, such as free amino acids, nucleotides, trimethylamine oxide and betaine. Results showed that umami was the most prominent flavor. Compared with liver, IMP is the main flavor nucleotide in meat. However, the ...
Bin Wang1, 2, Qianji Ning1,*, Qian Wang2, Wei Peng2, Tong Hao2,*and Jinsheng Sun2,*
...ionship between molting process and the changes of membrane. The results of this work provide a theoretical basis of the further elucidation of the molting mechanism for E. sinensis.
...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
...fringens type D was procured from Veterinary Research Institute Peshawar. The immunogenicity of toxoid vaccines and bacterin toxoid vaccine were studied and compared initially in rabbits and then in goats and sheep. Experimental trials were conducted on 54 healthy animals of each species and were divided into three equal groups (n=18). The antibody titers were evaluated with indirect haemagglutination test. The results indicated significantly higher (P<...
Muhammad Shahid Saeed1, Adeela Shahid2, Samia Jawed3, Muhammad Akram4, Irshad Hussain Qureshi5 
...and intravenous (I/V) Hydrocortisone. The study group was given 2gm of MgS04 intravenously in 20 minutes in a burette and Placebo group was given placebo (0.9% normal saline). Salbutamol inhalation was given at regular intervals and Spirometry was performed to determine lung functions.
Results: The two groups (study group and placebo-treated group) were compared for FEV1, FEV1% predicted, PEFR and PEFR % pred...
Riffat Mehboob1*, Shahida Perveen2, Naseer Ahmed3
...roadenoma (FA), 81 of fibrocystic disease (FCD), 64 of breast abscess (BA), 12 of granulomatous mastitis (GM), 7 of lipoma, 5 of phylloides tumor (PL), 4 of fibrosis (F), 2 of intraductal papilloma (IDP) and 3 of accessory breast with Fibrocystic (FC) changes. The relation between the ages and frequency of the different types of lesions was also analyzed to understand the association between predisposing factors and the natu...

Abdul Basit1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,4*, Sohail Ahmed2, Gohar Ali2 and Muhammad Javaid

...ld. Melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is the key pest of M. charantia and other cucurbitaceous vegetables incurring 30 to 100% crop loss. This study evaluated the use of refractive color sheets on fruit fly incidence and infestation on bitter gourd plants and compared it with reduced-risk insecticide formulations of spinosad. Refractive sheets of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, black and white were installed in M. charantia beds at three di...

Saeed Ullah1, Amanullah Jan1, Murad Ali2*, Wiqar Ahmad3, Hafeez Ur Rehman2, Muhammad Ishaq2 and Bilal Ahmad2  

...d complete block design procedure replicated four times. Pods number plant-1 (PN), grain yield (GY) biological yield (BY), and harvest index (HI) were significantly increased by 9, 4, 23 and 8%, respectively over the control with fertilizer banding compared with broadcast. Plots receiving 10 kg Zn ha-1 registered a significant increase of 8, 9, 4, 27 and 9%, in plant height (PH), PN, GY, BY and HI, respectively over the control, and recorded the lowest number ...
Muhammad Kashif Munir1*, Sana Rehman1, Rizwan Iqbal1, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Muhammad Aasim1
...hod. All specimens were processed for culture and drug sensitivity by drug proportion method using Lowenstein Jensen medium as well as GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay.
Results: A total of 125 subjects were registered in present study including 64 (51.2%) males and 61 (48.8%) females of age 15 years and above with mean age of 36.9±14.99. Sensitivity and specificity of the assay was observed as 92.1% and 93.5%, respectively. Association of rifa...
Sahar Naz1, Farhan Rasheed2, Muhammad Saeed3*, Shagufta Iram4 and Ambereen Anwar Imran5
...ahore. Every sample was processed for bacterial culture. Bacterial identification was performed according to standard guidelines. Every gram-negative isolate was further processed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by modified Kirby Baur disc diffusion method. Zone sizes were interpreted according to CLSI 2016 guidelines. Next day every carbapenem-resistant isolate were further proce...
Munir Ahmad1, Aisha Hameed2*, Saba Khaliq3, Hamid Saeed Malik4 and Shahida Mohsin5
...as performed and RT-PCR procedure was conducted to detect TEL-AML1 fusion oncogene.
Results: Out of 66 samples, frequency of TEL-AML1 fusion oncogene was detected in 5 subjects (7.6%). Almost all TEL-AML1 positive patients carried FAB ALL-L1, B-Lineage immunophenotype, mean hemoglobin level of 6g/dl and age from 3 to 5 years. All these features are related to good prognosis.
Conclusion: To conclude, we reported 7.6% freque...
Shumaila Irum1, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal*2 and Fatima Naumeri3
...acilitates the learning processing. The most commonly used tool, to measure it, is Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM).
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the perceptions of medical students in pre-clinical years about educational environment in a public sector medical college of Pakistan and to compare the DREEM scores with previous published scores.
Material and Methods: The DREEM questionnai...
Ayesha Noreen1, Dilara A. Bukhari2 and Abdul Rehman1,*
...solvents and ozone. The processes running in the cell membranes, peroxisomes, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum also generate ROS. ROS can be activated by numerous external factors, and play an important role in cancer growth and metastasis. ROS and tumor cell interaction could activate the signalling pathways, promoting cell proliferation, invasion, inducing angiogenesis, inflammation and cellular transformation in cancer. A better understanding into the...
S. Jalbani1, N. T. Narejo2,*, P. Khan2 and Y.M. Jalbani3
...ences between total erythrocytes count, hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate of the two sexes. Male fish had total erythrocytes 5.05 ± 0.5 × 106 and hemoglobin content 11.5 ± 1.5 g/in ml compared to 4.04 ± 0.5 × 106 and 7.3 ± 1.3 g/in ml in the female. The female fish had significantly higher values of ESR...
Ansar Ahmed Abbasi1,*, Kathrin Blasius2-4, Imtiaz Ahmed6, Hao Hu7, Sylvie Picker-Minh2-4,8, Muhammad Nasim Khan5, Khalid Hameed1, Aneela Gulnaz1, Zahid Latif5, Abdul Rauf5 and Angela M. Kaindl2-4,8
...mal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe reduction in the brain volume that affects especially the neocortex, and intellectual disability. To date 17 genes have been linked with this disease. Biallelic mutations in the abnormal spindle-like, microcephaly associated gene ASPM causes MCPH type 5, the most common MCPH subtype. In the current study we recruite...

Kashif Akbar* and Muhammad Ayub 

...s recorded in F2 (7.32) proceeded by F0 (6.99) whereas minimum mean score was recorded in F6 (6.37) proceeded by F5 (6.47). 

...
Jingen Xu1, Yang Liu2, Erhui Jin1, Youfang Gu1, Qin Zhang3 and Shenghe Li1,*
... involved in biological processes, including the G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway, intrinsic to membrane, cell junction and ion transport. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction was significantly enriched. The results offer a foundation for exploration of immune functions and genetic control of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets. Also, several differentially expressed immune-related genes may be can...

Dilshad Ahmad1*, Muhammad Irfan Chani1 and Muhammad Afzal2 

.... Lengthy formal credit procedure, political and bureaucratic influence and misallocation of credit utilization are major constraints in lowering overall agriculture output. Adequate farmer’s friendly policies and proper legislative measures are necessary for the smooth flow of increasing agriculture output and overcoming financial constraints. 

...
Hafiz Manzoor Ahmad1,*, Hamad Bin Rashid1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Asim Khalid Mahmood1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Muhammad Rafi Ullah2 and Usman Ghani1
...p were given ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg) and xylazine (5 mg/kg), while K+X+D group were given ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg), xylazine (2.5 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5mg/kg) cocktail, respectively. The birds were monitored for 130 min post administration for various physiological parameters like; body temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate with normal averages 105.02±0.12ºF, 103.75±3.18 beats/m...
Binbin Shan, Yan Liu, Changping Yang, Shengnan Liu and Dianrong Sun*
... ontologies: biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. Moreover, 18,621 unigenes were mapped 25 different clusters of eukaryotic proteins. In addition, a total of 17,671 unigenes were classified into 311 KEGG pathways. Finally, we predicted the coding sequences of 13,072 unigenes and obtained 9,222 SSRs in the present study. The whole transcriptome is an important foundation for future genomic research on the P. penicillatus...
Adem Aksoy1, Yakup Erdal Ertürk2, Ecevit Eyduran3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4,*
.... Before the definition process, the data on socio-economic (age, province, educational level, experience, social security, lands and the reason at ranching of the animal breeders) and biological factors (sex, first live weight before fattening and fattening period of the beef cattle) were recorded from the related beef cattle enterprises. For the statistical evaluation of MARS algorithm, the package “earth” of the R software was employed based on ...

Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali, Liaquat Ali Jamali, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro*, Shakeel Hussain Chattha, Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto, Naseer Ahmed Abbasi and Noor Mehdi Qumi  

...s during sugar recovery process are of severe problems which are caused by delayed transportation with unfavorable storage conditions. Keeping the fact in view a study observing post-harvest losses of sugarcane was carried out at the Department of Farm Structures, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam. Freshly harvested SPF-234 sugarcane variety was collected and stored for 10 days under two different methods i.e. one kept open and other covered with sugarcan...
Rahim Dad Brohi1,*, Amir Bukhsh Kalhoro1, Allah Bux Kachiwal1, Illahi Bux Kalhoro1, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro1, Sarfaraz Ahmed2, Farhan Anwar Khan3, Hira Sajjad Talpur1, Zia-ur-Rehman1 and Dinesh Bhattaria4
...ication with xylazine hydrochloride (0.02 mg/kg) has been studied on six healthy female sheep using a crossover design. During xylazine therapy the pulse rate was significantly (P<0.01) decreased, but respiratory rate remained unchanged. The administration of anesthesia on the other hand caused a significant (P<0.01) increase in the pulse rate and a significant (P<0.01) decrease in the respiratory rate. The body temperature decreased (P<0.01) with ...

Safina Naz1, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi2*, Bushra Siddique3 and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar4

...the standard analytical procedures during 2014. The highest values for ash contents were detected in Abelmoschus esculentus (1.34 g/100g), moisture contents in Lycopericon esculentum (93.7%), protein in Spinacia oleracea (2.23g/100g), fats and fiber in Abelmoschus esculentus (0.44g/100g and 3.27g/100g, respectively), ascorbic acid in Spinacia oleracea (84.5mg/100g) and carbohydrate and energy values in Daucus carota (11.25g/100g and 55.80 cal, respectively). W...
Şehriban Çek Yalnız 1,* and Erdal Yilmaz2
...ed and disappeared. Erythrocytes and leukocytes were also detected at the advance stage of atresia. Apoptosis in the granulosa cells were clearly detected. The chromatin condensation against the nuclear envelope, cell shrinkage, surface blebbing and generation of apoptotic bodies by cell fragmentation were evidence of apoptosis. In pre and postovulatory follicles, karyorhexis and the budding phenomena were clearly detected. Karyorhexis and budding phenomena we...
Saima Shahzad Mirza1,*, Hafiz Muhammad Qamer2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3,*, Rana Shoaib Akram4
... correlation of weaning process in infants above 6 months of age with their mothers’ literacy level, employment, physical and financial health. This study was conducted at Kishwar Fazal Teaching Hospital Lahore in an OPD pediatrics. For this purpose, cross sectional survey data of 34 conservative mothers was analyzed, obtained by means of questionnaire. Initiation of weaning process at proper time is found to be somewh...
Ammara Afzal1, Tazmeen Fatima1, Maham Tabassum1, Muhammad Nadeem2*, Muhammad Irfan3, Quratulain Syed2
... and fermentation (SSF) process. Fungal strains of Saccharomyces cervisae, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma koninji and Trichoderma harzianum was used for subsequent process using saw dust as substrate. Three major processes convert lignocelluloses to bioethanol i.e. pretreatment of biomass, enzymatic hydrolysis of raw material and fermentation. The sawdust was pretreat...
Moorthy S. Muthuswamy
... divides radicalization processes into primary and secondary ones; the former are identified with the onset of radicalization in a community, and the latter develop in communities with longstanding exposure to the phenomenon. A new analysis of a 2013 Pew Research Center report suggests that sharia’s popularity in a community can make religious leaders and their radical ideas highly influential, while in communities where sharia has little influence, reli...

Muhammad Israr1*, Saeed Ullah1, Shakeel Ahmad2, Asif Yaseen3, Urooba Pervaiz4 and Nafees Ahmad5 

...ulture land degradation process in northern irrigated plains of Pakistan by studying the perceptions of the farmers about the different dimensions of agriculture LD with the construction of LD index. For achieving this primary data was collected by proportionate random sampling techniques form 90 sampled farmers through face to face interview survey method by filling a questionnaire. Farmer’s perceptions on agriculture LD were measured through the extent...

Inzimamul Haq1*, Shahid Sattar1, Bashir Ahmed1, Qamar Zeb2 and Amjad Usman

...ng 2016. Treatments viz Proclaim (Emamectin benzoate® 1.9 EC) + T. chilonis, Confidor® (Imidacloprid 200 SL) + T. chilonis, Chlorpyrifos® 40 EC + T. chilonis, Neem seed extract + T. chilonis and release of T. chilonis alone were applied to the Jalal variety. For C. partellus infestation, the data was recorded on the basis of leaf injury scale from 1 to 5 and percent dead hearts. Results showed that Imidacloprid + T. chilonis resulted in significant...

Aneel Salman1, Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Muhammad Ashfaq2, Mudassar Rashid1 and Usman Shakoor1 

...es, and decision-making process is important for farmers’ successful adaptation strategies. Using data of 205 conventional farmers from three district of Punjab province, this study provides insights into farmers’ perceptions about climate change, on-going adaptation practices, and constraints to various adaption strategies. We found that majority of the farmers do not consider climate change as a potential threat to agriculture; therefore, they do...
Muhammad Zahid1, Aneela ZameerDurrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1, KhushiMuhammad1,Muhammad Usman1,*, Muhammad Husnain1 and Nadeem Kamal2

 

...ted. Blood samples were processed through complement fixation test and RT-PCR, while mosquito samples were processed through RT-PCR. Overall prevalence of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) in indigenous breeds of bovine was 63.33%, lower, than exotic breeds 64.66% which were found to be more prone to disease. In the case of buffalo breeds, prevalence was more in Nili Ravi buffalo, i.e. 36.6% than Kundi breed, i.e. 3...
Mouslim Bara1,2,* and Luciano N. Segura3
...ginous Duck (Aythya nyroca) and endangered White-headed Duck(Oxyura leucocephala). Our results highlight the importance of preserving the Garaet Hadj Tahar as a water bird refuge. 
...
Ashraf M. Mounir, A.N. El shahat* and A.M. Abdul Azeem
...ction of isoprenaline hydrochloride (100 mg/ kg B.Wt./day) to rats resulted in cardiac oxidative stress, inflammation, hyper-lipidemia and increase cardiac marker enzymes. Treatment of rats with GFAE (45 mg/kg/day) prior to injection of ISO provide significant cardio-protective effects evidenced by an obvious reduction in the level of cardiac marker enzymes, inflammatory factors and lipid contents with marked improvement in the cardiac antioxidant statu...
Sajid Ali Khan1, Mazhar Hussain Ranjha1, Azhar Abbas Khan2,*, Muhammad Sagheer1, Amjad Abbas1 and Zeshan Hassan2
...a and Calotropis procera) against two different strains of T. granarium. Plant extracts were obtained by Rotary Shaker apparatus by using acetone as solvent. Four different concentrations 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared by diluting in acetone. The data regarding mortality, growth regulation and repellency of T. granarium was observed. Repellency of plant extracts was tested using area preference method while for the growth regulator...
Zafar Iqbal*, Farah Ansar, Zil-e-Huma
...onas, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Moraxella, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus,. Carnobacterium. There has not been a single case of topically acquired infection among students, laboratory staff and the author throughout the whole period due to contact with these fish. One reason for this is the use of safety measures and precautions by the concerned; such as use of disposable gloves, thorough hand washing, using sterilized equipment,...
Amjad Islam Aqib1,*, Shagufta Nighat2, Rais Ahmed3, Saba Sana3, Muhammad Ameen Jamal4, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar2 , Naimat Ullah Khan5, Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Muhammad Asif Hussain5, Asadullah5, Attaur Rahman5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman5,*
...reus using standard procedures. Coagulase gene was PCR amplified from the clinical isolates to categorize them into Coagulase positive Staphylococci (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). A questionnaire was used to record risk factors associated with occurrence of SCM and results were analyzed using non-probability statistical analysis. Results indicated that an overall 63.28% (243/384) of goats were found positive for SCM, of whi...

*Nageen Fatima1, Sadia Murawwat1 and Syeda Ameena Rizvi1

EVALUATION OF IMAGE COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES: AN IMPLEMENTATION OF TRUE COMPRESSION ON 2-D IMAGE
...ion and facilitates the process of an efficient compression.

...

 *Irum Javed1, Muhammad Asgher2, Sadia Noreen1, Humara Naz Majeed1 and Tanzila Sahar1

SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING AGRICULTURE RESIDUE AS SUBSTRATE
...idirectional beneficial process for cost effective manufacturing of citric acid and management of agro-industrial waste products. This project was carried out in order to evaluate the enhanced production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger using agro-industrial wastes. In the first step of study the liquid state fermentation (LSF) and solid state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus niger was compared using molasses based medium and the different carrier substrat...

Nadia Sharif1, *Neelma Munir1 and Shagufta Naz1

MICROBIAL PRODUCTION OF ALGINATE
...t in nature; they are hydrocolloids, water soluble biopolymers. Alginate is a natural polysaccride that occur as 30 to 60% structural component of brown algae. Alginate favorable properties like ease of gelation and biocompatibility promote its applications in engineering and bio medical science.

...

Hareem Mohsin, Azka Asif*, Warda Fatima, Sarooj Nadeem, Anjum Nasim Sabri

Assessment of biocalcification by the water absorption test using microorganism from oil contaminated site
...an environment friendly process that includes the precipitation of protective layer of calcium carbonate on the cement based structures or buildings. In the present study, the biocalcification capacity of Bacillus pasteurii was studied on the cement samples. The cement samples were treated with urea and calcium salt (calcium carbonate) that act as a source of calcium along with the microorganism under optimum culture conditions. Alkaline conditions produced by...

 Hafiz Muhmmad Tahir1*, Rabia Yaqoob2

Comparing the efficiency of Taq DNA polymerase and PuRe Taq Ready-To-Go PCR beads in amplifying 12S and 16S ribosomal genes
... the efficiency of both procedures was not statistically significant for the 16S rDNA gene. Furthermore, Taq DNA polymerase was found only efficient for fresh samples while PuRe Taq Ready-To-Go PCR beads were equally efficient for both old and new tissue samples.

...

Muhammad Babar Khawar, Nadeem Sheikh*

Effect of paper industry leachate on various serological indices and serum proteins of wistar rats
...e) resulting from paper processing has become a serious issue now a day. So, current research was aimed to assess various toxic aspects of pulp and paper industry waste water. Study design involved the division of Wistar ratsof about 245±5g in three groups (n=5) viz, Control group (4ml/ kg normal saline), Group 1 (4ml/ kg leachate) and Group 2 (4ml/ kg 1:10 diluted leachate). All the animals received the treatment through intraperitoneal injection. Afte...

 Mian Azhar Ahmad1†*, Nawab Mohammad Khan2, Asmatullah3

Anatomical variations of hepatobiliary triangle in patients operated laparoscopically for gallbladder diseases from Lahore and Sahiwal
... for 1–3days. The procedure was performed successfully in 91% of the cases. In 09% cases, a conversion to standard open cholecystectomy was necessary; the most common cause was unclear anatomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy pivots around hepatobiliary triangle. Current study was aimed to assess anatomy of hepatobiliary triangle and its variations in the patients using a laparoscope. It was a descriptive prospective cross-sectional study. Random sampling t...

 Muhammad Mohsin Ahsan1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2*, Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar1, Arshad Ali3, Zafar Iqbal Kahan4, Kafeel Ahmed4

Intra- and inter-specific foraging in three scorpion species
...s (Pocock, 1897), and Androctonus finitimus (Pocock, 1897) inhabiting Punjab, Pakistan, was studied under laboratory and field conditions. Results of the study revealed that all three scorpion species were cannibalistic. Mesobuthus tumulus attacked and fed more upon juvenile and sub- adults (medium- sized), scorpions. They also consumed dead scorpions of their own species. Odontobuthus odonturus preferred to attack and consume healthy adults and did not feed o...

 Muhammad Mohsin Ahsan1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar1

Effect of lunar cycle on active population density of scorpions, their potential prey and predators
...buthus odonturus, and Androctonus finitimus, and their potential prey and predators were observed in the
field. The result showed that H. tamulus and A. finitimus were more active during dark nights compared to moonlight
nights; however, there was no obvious effect of the lunar cycle on the activity of O. odonturus. Young (Immature)
individuals of all scorpion species were always high in numbers at night, even under moonlight conditions. T...

 Muhammad Moosa Abro1, Ali Murtaza Dharejo2, Muhammad Munif Khan2, Nadir Ali Birmani2, Saima Naz2*

Description of first record of Petasiger exaeretus Dietz, 1909 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in avian host from Pakistan.
... Little Cormorant, Phalacrocorax niger of District Sanghar, Sindh, Pakistan. Petasiger exaeretus (Dietz,
1909) were identified from the intestine of Little Cormorant, Phalacrocorax niger on the basis of morphological
features including pear shaped body, maximum width at testicular level, 27 head collar spines, long fore-body, well
developed pharynx, pre-acetabular cirrus sac, tandem and contiguous testes...

Muddasir Hassan Abbasi1, 2, Noor Fatima1, Syed Shahid Imran Bukhari1, Asma Rashid khan3, Nadeem Sheikh2*

Variations in proteins and transaminases following experimental induction of Bisphenol A in mice
...=3). Serum samples were processed
for the estimation of total protein and albumin and aminotransaminases activity. The sodium dodecyl sulphate
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was also run to analyze protein bands. Statistically significant
increase in total protein contents, albumin and aminotransaminases were noted in sample in comparison with control.
Comparative analysis between experimental and control samples reve...

 Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi1, 2, Sana Fatima3, Khawaja Abdul Mujeeb2, Nadeem Sheikh1

Alterations in proteins and transaminases activity induced by thioacetamide in albino rats
...livers were excised and processed for protein profile and transaminases activity
analysis. TAA injection resulted in significant alterations in serum proteins and transaminases levels. Significant
hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia were observed in sera as well as liver tissue of both experimental groups
compared to control. Furthermore, transaminases activity was significantly increased for both; AST (P=0.0045) and
ALT (P=0.0015) ...

Madeeha Arshad, Asmatullah, Chaman Ara

Embryotoxic effects of sodium arsenate in Mus musculus
...ces) against control. Microcephaly, hygroma, skin hemorrhages,
scoliosis and appendage deformities among arsenic treated groups were observed.
Histological studies revealed abnormalities like spina bifida, cardiac malformations,
miss-happened cochlea and oropharynx. It is concluded that sodium arsenate
causes teratogenicity in developing mice.

...

 Raazia Kiran1, Alya Riaz1, Muhammad Irfan1*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir2

An overview of pre-treatment methods used for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomasses into valuable products
...e of different physical processes i.e., size
reduction, steaming or boiling, ultrasonication, and bursting, chemical methods i.e.,
solvents, acids, salts, bases, the physicochemical processes include liquid hot
water and AFEX (ammonium fibre explosion), biological methods involving whiterot/
brown-rot fungi and bacteria, and quite a few combinations thereof to
breakdown the lignocellulose i...
Hina Abrar1,2, S.N.H. Naqvi1,*, Muhammad Rashid Ahmed3, Asma Basharat Ali3 and Hina Yasin1,2
...osing by using standard procedures. Serum level of ALT, ALP, γGT and bilirubin was significantly (p<0.05) increased in CBZ treated group as compared to control, whereas the hepatic parameters were significantly reduced in CBZ plus propranolol group. The histopathological examination reveals various features of hepatic architecture damage in CBZ treated group but the hepatic damage induced by CBZ was successfully ameliorated by propranolol. To conclude...

Faheem Ali1*, Muhammad Naeem Arbab1, Abdul Basit2, Muhammad Kashif Khan1, Gulzar Ahmad1 and Muhammad Amir

...ing machinery and other processing units are generally inductive in nature. The power required by agricultural industry is broadly categorized into shaft power and process heat power, and could be used for planting, cultivating, pumping, harvesting, drying, cooking, baking, woodworking, forging and smelting etc. This results in lagging Volt-Ampere-Reactive (VARs), which must be balanced by the same number of leading VARs in ...
Shagufta Nighat1, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem1,*, Syed Israr Shah1, Amber Khalid1, Tariq Mahmood2, Ayesha Aihetasham3 and Muhammad Asif4
...ke, combustion of fuel, processing of metals, coal mining, automobile, lead-acid batteries, and building material.Toxic metals are bio-accumulated by insectivorous bats due to their foraging habits and high trophic level. There is a growing interest on the conservation of bats throughout the world as they play an important role in controlling insect population. We measured cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in bat tissues through ...
Ajmal Khan* and Rehan Ullah
...s descriptive study was processed and analyzed to investigate the prevalence of malaria and its specific aetiologic agents in suspected patients reported to various laboratories of Agency Head Quarter Hospital Khar, Bajaur Agency. In this study, a total number of 9720 suspected individuals were examined; among which 1273 (13.1%) were found to be positive for malaria infection with different Plasmodium species in their blood smears. Male population accou...
Xiao-Ying Ren1, Di Zhang2 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
... alveolus, and coronoid process, angular process ascending ramus and condylar process on the mandible. The genus Eothenomys could be classified into two subgenera. Moreover, it was inferred that the varieties of skulls characteristics in E. miletus, E. eleusis, E. cachinus and E. melanogaster were main influenced by temperature and humidity; E. olitor<...
Gangchun Xu1,2, Fukuan Du2, Yuyu Wang2, Yan Li2, Zhijuan Nie2 and Pao Xu1,2,*
...2b. In the spawning process, the expression of PTGES2a did not significantly change, remaining at a low level. In contrast, PTGES2b expression significantly increased during spawning. These results provide basic knowledge of the new PTGES2s of C. nasus.
...
A.H. Shahzad1, A. Sattar1,*, A. Husnain1, I. Ahmad2, N. Ahmad1, D. Nak3 and Y. Nak3
...were analyzed using GLM procedures (P˂0.05). The PR on d30 in control (43%) and resynch (48%) groups was non-significant. On d60 and d90 overall PR was 44 and 73% (P=0.002) and 43 and 72% (P=0.002) while overall pregnancy loss was 11 and 4% in control and resynch groups, respectively. In experiment II, PR on d30, d60 and d90 was 44 versus 54% (P=0.28), 53 versus 72% (P=0.03) and 50 versus 70% (P=0.025) in control and ...
Muhammad Furqan1, Usman Ali1,*, Anjum Ara1, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad2, Muhammad Siddique Awan3, Riaz Aziz Minhas3, Khawaja Basharat Ahmad3, Qamar Zaman Qamar4 and Naeem Iftikhar Dar5
...= 94.19), Calotropis procera (IV= 145.46), Dodonaea viscosa (IV=120.17), Cynodon dactylon (IV= 174.94), Chrysopogon serrulatus (IV=152.96) and Artemisia scoparia (IV= 105.69), Parthenium hysterophorus (IV= 113.82), Saccharum spontaneum (IV= 199.88) Ziziphus mauritiana (IV= 51.35), Lantana indica (IV= 78.39) and Morus alba (IV= 31.38).
...

Zakiullah1, Muhammad Farid Khan1*, Muhammad Mohibullah3, Muhammad Iqbal2, Irfanullah3, Faheemullah3, Madiha Urooj1 and Uzma Arif1 

...lity for direct and reciprocal crosses shows highly significant differences for all the studied parameters. PSEV-3 proved best combiner for days to germination and grains moisture % at harvest while Azam for grain yield and biological yield. Sarhad White was the best combiner for grain yield. Reciprocal effects of Jalal x Iqbal exhibited best combination for leaf area and number of grains ear-1 while Pahari × Sarhad Wh...
Syeda Beenish Bukhari1, Sidra Khalid1*, Shahid Bashir1, Riffat Mehboob2, Humaira Waseem2
...f safety of vaccination procedure/ dirty needles. Analysis revealed a significant association between maternal education and barriers to complete vaccination course.
...

Liaqat Ali Shahid1*, Nadeem Amjad2 and Muhammad Abdul Hanan Siddhu3 

...era Ghazi Khan Area for processing of Eucalyptus tree top-trimmed mixed waste material with leaves. The average machine throughput capacity was found to be 503 kg.h-1 with an average machine efficiency of 89 percent. Total average fuel consumption and labour requirement (un-skilled + skilled) were found to be 3.5 litres and 3.53 man-hour, respectively. The machine was also tested with clean Eucalyptus stems without leaves and small branches. The average throug...
Tamoor Azeem1,*, M. Yasin Tipu1, Asim Aslam1, Sajjad Ahmed2, Salman Ahmed Abid1, Abdullah Iqbal3, Naeem Akhtar4, Muhammad Saleem4, Aamerzish Mushtaq4 and Sajid Umar4
...ct Attock. Samples were processed for haematobiochemical analysis and thin smear stained with Field stain according to standard procedure. Out of 200 camels 46% of them have blood parasites. Trypanosoma was the most prevalent (32.5%) followed by diptelonemiasis (8%). Babesia and Anaplasma was seen in 3% camels. Prevalence of diptelonemiasis was significantly higher in young than older camels. Blood analy...

Muhammad Amin1, Aftab Ahmad Khan2, Abida Perveen1, Zareen Rauf1, Sher Shah Hassan2*, Muhammad Arif Goheer2 and Muhammad Ijaz2 

... is a plodding physical process and its effects spatially varies. Misperception on drought and its features is common in defining policies and caused delays in its prevention (Gore, 2002). Pakistan is one the counties which is affected badly by drought. In near Past, Pakistan faced one of the worst drought span drought in 50 years from 1998 to 2003 which harshly affected socially and economically. The present study was conducted on dry land areas of Punjab-Pak...
Peng Song1,2, Wei Feng2, Haiying Shi2,Jinsheng Zhao3, Renmin Liu3 and Wei Xu2,*
...the capability of Enterococcus avium to decolorize both water and oil-soluble azo dyes were investigated. The bacteria was incubated under static conditions in the presence of 50mg/L Amaranth or 5 mg/L Sudan I in LB media at 37°C for 10 h, and reduction of the dyes was monitored. The preferable pH for the decolorization of Amaranth by ts17 strain was between pH 6.0-9.0, and with the optimum pH at 7.0. The promotion effect of NaCl on the decoloration...

Farhan, Shahid Ali* and Syed Attaullah Shah 

...t and declare increased procurement price of wheat prior to sowing season. This in response will lead to more supply, employment and profit. Wheat growers need to be facilitated with subsidized prices of fertilizer to encourage its application that will raise output and profit of wheat growers. Trainings of wheat growers for optimal application of inputs for wheat crop be arranged at regular intervals by concerned departments for efficient utilization of resou...
Dur-E-Shahwar1,2, Riaz Ahmad Sheikh1, Nazia Jamil2*
...m subsurface in which hydrocarbons are found as a main environmental pollutant. Present study is focused on production of biosurfactants from indigenous bacteria, isolated from produced water and produced water contaminated soil samples collected from three selected sites of Eastern Potwar, Punjab, Pakistan. Forty seven bacteria were isolated out of which five (F1, F3, F20, F23 and C16) were selected on the basis of high optical densities of 0.7, 70% oil and g...
Imran Bodlah1, Ammara Gull-E-Fareen1, Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1, Muhammad Amin2, Ayesha Aihetasham3
...ues, 1940 (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupidae) is recorded for the first time as larval parasitoid of Coccinella septempunctata (Linnaeus, 1758) and Menochilus sex maculata (Fabricius, 1781) from various areas of Pothwar. Main identification characters of N. mirabilis supported with measurements and illustrations are provided here with notes on distributional range.
...

Naseer Ahmed Abbasi1, Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali1*, Bilawal Abbasi2, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro1, Najeeb Ahmed Khan Nangraj1, Jam Ghulam Mustafa Sahto1 and Sajjad Ahmed Morio1 

...uzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the potential time and cost saving methods can assess the suitability of land. Finding shows that the fuzzy set method is different from parametric method. The influence of explicit weight on land characteristics is combined with the evaluation of land characteristics. The correlation coefficient is high for both indices, but results obtained with fuzzy set method (r=0.97) showed a higher accuracy with yields than thos...

Rafiullah1*, Abdur Rahman2, Khalid Khan1, Anwar Ali1, Arifullah Khan2, Abdul Sajid3 and Naimatullah Khan3 

...r. All the samples were processed through different diagnostic techniques, including Microscopy, ELISA and Real-time PCR for diagnosis of Theileria parva at Veterinary Research Institute Peshawar. The overall prevalence for Theileriosis was 27.75% through Real-time PCR, followed by Indirect ELISA (24.62%) and Microscopy (11.37%). Transect wise high prevalence for Theileria parva was observed in Lakki Marwat with 33.5% for Real-time PCR, significantly different...
Muhammad Usman Ahmadand Ikram-ul-Haq*
...irmed by 16S ribotyping procedure. Oxyrase was used for improved cultivation of anaerobic bacteria by employing Hungate Technique where its antioxidant potential was compared with common reducing agent Cysteine-HCl (Cys-HCl). Four anaerobic bacterial strains (Anaerobaculum hydrogeniformans OS1, Akkermansia muciniphila, Bilophila wadsworthia, and Roseburia intestinalis) were selected as experimental models for this purpose. Significa...
Muhammad Hidayat Rasool1,*, Muhammad Zaheer1, Muhammad Farooque Hassan2, Muhammad Shafique1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar1
...2 clinical samples were processed according to standard microbiological methods. Isolated GNRs were subjected to susceptibility testing against various antibiotics as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Carbapenem-resistant isolates were subjected to detection of Metallo-beta-lactamase production by Double Disc Diffusion test (DDDT) and Modified Hodge’s test. In 152 specimens, different species identified in order of their ...
Shahid Yousaf1*, Salman Khurshid1, Saqib Arif1, Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Qurrat ul Ain Akbar1, Najmus Sahar1 and Ghulam Rasul2
...cs play a vital role in processing and trade. Many techniques have been introduced to evaluate wheat quality. Near Infrared (NIR) is one of the suitable techniques that have an advantage of rapid response over other techniques. But investigations are needed to check its reliability on determining important quality parameters. The study therefore has been designed to evaluate the efficiency of NIR in comparison with standard techniques. Thirty samples of wheat ...
Sakhra Mahmood1, M. Younus1, A. Aslam1, A.A. Anjum2, S. Umar3, Aamerzish Mushtaq3 and M.L. Sohail4,*
...lobin, haematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and total leukocyte count) and immune response were recorded and analyzed by duncan test for 6 weeks. Results showed significant reduction in the deleterious effects of AFB1 in each of the tested parameters during the course of the study. During 5th week, all the tested parameters had non-significant differences with the control group and were brought back to normal due to detoxification action of ...
Catherine J. Allen
...nity), ayni (reciprocity), uyway (nurturance), hucha (sin) and animu (individuating energy), with particular emphasis on values and ontological orientations that are generally consistent across the Andean ethnographic and ethnohistorical record. Underlying this vocabulary is a mindset that prioritizes relationships over individual agency; this entails connections among a multitude of human as well as other-than-human persons and nec...
James Maffie
...pt of a nepantla process, a paradigmatic example of which was the artisanal process of weaving. Humans accordingly attained balance: first, by weaving together individual behavioral extremes (such as fasting and feasting) into a well-middled, individual life fabric; and second, by weaving themselves together with other human and nonhuman agents into a single, well-middled, community life fabric by means of initiating ...
Brian Yazzie Burkhart
... in the land and in reciprocal kinship relationship with it. This essay examines Diné, Lakota, and Jalagi stories and language concepts for their rootedness in land in more than a material sense in order to provide a framework for a theory of well-being that sees land and human being as intertwining with the being of land as the generative kinship complex by which life is both generated and health and life are sustained.
...

John Ogunsola1*, Richard E. Antia2, Benjamin O. Emikpe2 and Olajumoke A. Morenikeji

...0% in Green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus; n=2) and Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas; n=3), and crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus; n=32). Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata), black cobra (Naja nigricollis) and lions (Panthera leo) had survival rates of their hatchlings/neonates to be 83%, 95% and, 67% respectively. The challenges include absence of a pseudo-...

 Ellen Y. Zhang

...low, from an experience-process perspective, resembles a certain aspect of the flow defined by Csíkszentmihályi’s motivational psychology, but it is more complicated and more difficult to be conceptualized due to the employment of negative expressions in his philosophy. Zhuangzi’s claim that “The perfect happiness is derived from the absence of happiness” designates two key arguments: (1) Happiness cannot be designed and m...

 Syed Turab Raza1,*, Zhu Bo1,*, Zulfiqar Ali2 and Tang Jia Liang3

...C: N ratios during this process shows conversion of harmful wastes into useful fertilizer.

...

 Abdul Khaliq1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Akhlaq Ahmad2 and Yasir Iftikhar3

... (L.) and Calotropis procera (Aiton) oil both at 15% were most lethal to LGB, weevil and red flour beetle after 72hours following by effect of Datura stramonium (L.) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Dehnh) with respect to control. Similar response was noted at 10% concentrations of all plants but E. Camaldulensis (5%) was least effective against all insects after control. Resurgence response in F1 generation in each experime...

 Shaher Bano1, Nadia Naseem2 and Sarah Ghafoor1,*

...of both the groups were processed for comparison of immunohistochemistry for TGF-α expression at week five and week nine. Expression of TGF-α was noted inthe ductal epithelial cells of SLG that was found to be comparatively increased at the age of five weeks and reduced at age of nine weeks. The expression of TGF-α between both glands at age of nine weeks showed a decreased expression in SLG as comparedto that of SMG.A decrease in the express...
Saleha Gul1,2, Muhammad Khisroon2, Ajmal Khan2, Attaullah1, Saira Gul3 and Gul Nabi Khan1,4,*
...e polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrosamines cause the production of DNA adducts and leading to lung cancer. However, the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on other tissues are largely unknown. We explored the genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke on peripheral lymphocytes of active and passive smokers. Blood samples were isolated from 100 males’ including 25 active-, 25 passive- and 50 non-smokers. Alkaline comet assay was done and classes were def...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1, Batim Turdam1, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Waziri Ibrahim Anjili2 and Mayowa Olabode2 

...g a standard laboratory procedure. Coprological examination conducted using flotation and sedimentation techniques showed that 276 (92.0%) were positive for gastrointestinal nematodes. A greater proportion (70.7%) of the nematodes were Strongyles followed by mixed infection of Strongyles and Parasacaris equorum (15.2%) and Strongyloides westeri (14 1%). Chi-square test and odds ratio were used to analyzed data obtained. The prevalence of the gastrointestinal n...
Guo-hai Wang1, Zai-xi Yang1, Pan Chen1, Wei-ning Tan2 and Chang-hu Lu1,*
...scarlet minivet (Pericrocotus flammeus) were the main seed dispersers. The average seed dispersal distance was 10.69±4.97 m and 82% of the first post-foraging perching sites were located around 15 m from the mother trees. Our results suggest that the endangered tree species K. septentrionalis attracts native birds to forage and disperse its seeds in karst habitats, and that a high level of seed predation by ground-dwelling animals and micr...
Bibi Nazia Murtaza1,2, Azhar Qayum3, Shamaila Inayat Nadeem1, Naif Awdh Al-Maliki4, Abdulaziz Alamri4 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,5,*
...witches. This transient process of GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis becomes altered when the Kras gene is mutated. The most common Kras mutations are found in codon 12 and 13 and 61. Some other noncanonical mutations have been reported in codon 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 27, 30, 31, 117, 146 and 154. We aimed to demonstrate the conformational changes induced in two novel K RAS variants, p.E31K and p.G138V, identified in two CRC patients, which may account for ...

 Ping Zhang1,2, Yabin Pu1, Yu Zhang2, Jia Chen2, Kunfu Wang3, Qian Li3, Yujiao Sun3, Yuehui Ma1, Shuqing Jiao2,* and Weijun Guan1,*

...cytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes and neuron-like cells by the optimized inducing medium. After the two-step digestion and differential attachment technique, high purity MDSCs were successfully cultured. MDSCs were identified by round or short spindle cell, and gathered into clusters; The average doubling time and clone efficiency of the cells were 35.5h and 47.2%, respectively. The MDSCs makers, such as Sca-1, CD34, CD144 and Desmin, were positive expressed by...
Fakhra Soomro1,*, Riffat Sultana2 and Muhammad Saeed Wagan2
...idly in open grounds and rocky areas. Immature stages were found exclusively geophiles in nature and usually giving two generation in a year but occasionally third generation of diapauses eggs of S. savignyi hatched in winter. A comparative key for immature stages of both species was constructed. Almost all immature stages occupied similar habitats as that of adults and their appropriate stages were differentiated through combination of characters i....

Muhammad Adnan Islam1,2*, Muhammad Iqbal2, Zia-ul-Haq2,3, Muhammad Mohsin Ali1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1, Shabbir Ahmed Kalwar1, Liaqat Ali Shahid1, Badar Munir Khan Niazi1 and Muzammil Husain1 

...and January due to long process of field preparation by conventional method. Zone disc tiller machine developed in the department of Farm Machinery and Power, was employed for sowing wheat instead of conventional tillage in cotton stubble to avoid further late sowing of wheat. Zone disc tiller drill sows crop in strips. Strip tillage of soil reduced labour, fuel, irrigation and machinery costs. Zone disk tiller was tested for its field performance with three d...

Javed Asghar Tariq1*, Bashir Ahmed2, Manzoor Ali Abro2, Muhammad Ismail1, Muhammad Usman Asif1 and Raza Muhammad1 

...tomyces, Bacillus and Micrococus. These bacteria were checked for their antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. alium cepa. They all were found to inhibit fungus showing inhibition zone 4.09 -74.97%. Hence, on the basis of these studies, it can be concluded that these bacteria can be used as a biocontrol agent to manage other fungal diseases of agricultural crops also. 

...
Zahra Nazir1, Saba Ijaz1, Roquyya Gul2 and Mahjabeen Saleem1,*
...cal properties of juice processing industry, degumming of fibre plants and maximum oil recovery. These enzymes break down complex polysaccharide polymers of plant tissues into simpler monomer like D-galacturonic acids. In this study, polygalacturonase from grape skin was purified by salting out with ammonium sulfate, gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 column and ion exchange on Q-Sepharose column chromatography. Polygalacturonase was recognised as a protein with ...

Arshad Farooq* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan 

... is a complex process dependent upon application and arrangement of various factors such as land, labor, finance and management practices etc. This article assessed the knowledge gap of improved cane management practices in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Sugarcane growers were selected randomly and Data were collected through interview schedule from 285 respondents in D.I. Khan and Mardan districts during sugarcane cropping season, ...
...ploited the peer-review process in the Journal of Zoology by generating fake reviewers email addresses. This led to an in-depth investigation by the Editorial Team and Executive Council of Zoological Society of Pakistan. The editorial team had written confidentially to all the reviewers at their official addresses, the list of which was provided by the corresponding author at the time of online submission of the manuscript. The editorial team was flabbergasted...

Muhammad Nasrullah1*, Liu Chang1, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai2, Asaad Osman Khalid1, Rachel Bayisenge1 and Gulnaz Hameed3 

... cost was 61,476.68 and processing cost was 95,535 rupees per hectare. The highest cost incurred was 61,750 rupees for land followed by Fuel wood which was 39,957 rupees per hectare. Total product of tobacco was calculated as 44 mounds per hectare. The total revenue was Rs. 405,636 per hectare while total cost incurred was 242,889.68 having a profit of Rs. 162,746.32 per hectare. The data were checked through VIF found free of multicollenearity problem. The an...
Sheng Niu1, Ali-Raza Jahejo1, Fa-jie Jia1, Xin Li1, Guan-bao Ning1, Ding Zhang1, Hai-li Ma1, Wei-fang Hao2, Wen-wei Gao1, Yu-jun Zhao1, Shi-min Gao1, Jian-hui Li1, Gui-lan Li1, Fang Yan1, Rong-kun Gao1, Huan-chun Chen1,3 and Wen-xia Tian1,*
....
...

Asim Khan1, Shahid Ali1*, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Aftab Khan1 and Raza Ullah2 

...ion. The major findings proclaim that maximum temperature has negative impact on the yield of maize. Impact of precipitation show a positive and significant contribution to maize yield. High temperature has deleterious impact on maize productivity. Therefore, policy exertions needs to be concentrated toward impact of climate change on maize productivity. Development of temperature resistant maize verities for Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is also a good option. Moreover,...

Zahin Anjum1*, Farhat Shehzad1, Amina Rahat1, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Saleem Khan3 

...f polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in different types of marinated meat, such as beef, chicken, mutton and fish, and different grilling techniques were applied to see their effectiveness in lowering the levels of these toxicants. Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons and heavy metals refer to a large group of chemicals that may be present in the environment as pollutants and can enter the food chain and might be ...
Abid Hussain Shahzad1, Abdul Sattar1,*, Nasim Ahmad1, Ijaz Ahmad2, Deniz Nak3 and Yavuz Nak3
... analyzed by Chi-square procedure while ovulatory follicle diameter and Progesterone profile by one way ANOVA (α=0.05). Ovulatory follicle diameter (Mean±SEM) was 15.19±0.17 (OVP0), 15.30±0.21 (OVP5) and 15.24±0.19 (OVP7), respectively. The P4 concentration has significant (P<0.05) difference among OVP0 (6.52±0.32), OVP5 (7.75±0.38) and OVP7 (7.58±0.26) on d30 post AI. This difference was non-sig...
Abdur Rauf Nizami*
...rmation belongs to the Baroch Group and is mainly comprised of limestones, which were thought to be a prospective fossils archive. The Samana Suk Formation with a primary thickness of 43.27m is exposed at the Chichali Gorge Section. A total of 108 limestone rock samples were collected from 51 beds. The formation was investigated by a detailed petrographic analysis to ascertain its faunal assemblages in the Chichali Gorge Sec...
Pin Lyu1, Xiangxian Chen2* andQinlong Liu3*
...ld reflect the recovery process after skeletal muscles injury with high sensitivity in groups with the four different rehabilitation methods. 
...

Waqar Akhtar1*, Munir Ahmad2, Nadeem Akmal1, Hassnain Shah1 and Asif Ali Mirani2 

... 16 percent produce was processed as fresh dates remaining 84 percent produce was converted into dried dates. This finding implicates that the overall dates production system secure low domestic resource use efficiency in the production of dates in the study area. Lack of modern processing and value addition technologies there is overwhelming dependence on traditional sun drying methods for proc
Hashim Ullah1, Abdur Rahman1, Rifat Ullah Khan2, Shakoor Ahmad2 and Ambrina Tariq3, Shabana Naz4,*
...Mazai were selected and processed for dressing percentage and meat quality through proximate analysis. Wazirisheephad lower cholesterol as compared to Mazai. With the increasing BCS, the cholesterol content was significantly increased in both the breeds. The dressing percentage and crude protein were higher in Waziribut the fat content was found greater in Mazai. Similarly, females have higher average fat content as compared to males. In conclusion, from the h...

Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Sami Ullah1*, Muhammad Mohsin Raza2, Mohsin Raza1, Muhammad Abbas3, Ijaz Ahmad4, Malik Muhammad Yousaf2, Muhammad Zeshan5, Adeel Abbas1, Mehmood Ali Noor1 and Mohsin Nawaz1 

...nt by influencing vital processes like cell division, cell wall formation, water relations, meristematic tissue growth, carbohydrate metabolism, and pollen tube growth which suggests plausible effects on all these activities due to its deficiency. Therefore, a field trial was set up to assess the efficacy of different levels (control, 0.01 M and 0.05 M) of foliar applied B at booting, anthesis, and grain filling growth stages of wheat crop respectively. Result...

Mehran Ahmad, Syed Attaullah Shah and Shahid Ali* 

...tistage random sampling procedure. Data was collected through a well-designed interview schedule during January-July, 2018. Cobb-Douglas type production function was used to estimate effect of important determinants on tomato yield. Results showed that the estimated coefficient of net farming (dummy) is 0.25; implies that tomato yield with net farming is 25 percent more than traditional production technology. DAP, Nitrate and Urea, labor and FYM had positive s...
Junli Sun1,2,3, Lin Bai1 2, Xiaogan Yang1,2, Yangqing Lu1,2, Shengsheng Lu1,2,* and Kehuan Lu1,2,*
...he microinjector in the process of microoperatin. To study the effects of mechanical damage from microopetations on embryo development, we analyzed 60 the spent culture media of porcine parthenogenetic embryos experienced different types of microopetation using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that Group II with the puncture of egg zona and plasma membrane had the highest cleavage rate and blastocyst rate of porcine parthenogenetic embryos, which was sig...
Syeda Shazia Bokhari*, Ghashia Qayyum, Uzma Rafi and Aisha Waheed Qurashi
...earth worms mediate the process for improving soil fertility. The present study was undertaken for the improvement of soil fertility using microbes isolated from internal and external parts of Lumbricus terrestris Isolates were identified through different biochemical tests and morphological characterization. Bacterial strains were screened and those showing positive results for their adherence ability, autoaggregation and coaggregation response were us...
Zhimin Yuan1, Yan Yu2, Yanmei Wang1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...7% in intestine). Enterococcus and Bacillus were the two dominant bacterial genera in the stomach, accounting for 46.1% and 7.4% of total bacteria, respectively. Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium were the two dominant genera in the intestine, accounting for 10.5% and 7.3% of total bacteria, respectively. Furthermore, the results revealed that H. alaschanicus carried a large number of human pathogens and thus should be the subjec...

Kamran Aziz1*, Aamir Saleem1 and Arshad Mahmood Malik2 

...omposition is a natural process of nutrient cycling in which the different elements play their role to decompose the plants parts such as roots, shoots, leaves and other parts. The present study was conducted to estimate the decomposition rate, litter fall production and elemental composition of Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the study area Dungagali, Taohidabad, Kuzagali and Khanspur situated around the Ayubia National Park. The research was carried ...

Shumaila Sadiq1,2*, Abdul Saboor2, Fouzia Jamshaid3, Abdul Qayyum Mohsin2 and Azeem Khalid

...tion and implementation processes to develop zone specific sustainable adaptation strategies particularly to improve farmers’ food security, economic situation and education in Pakistan. 

...

THIRTY SIXTH PAKISTAN CONGRESS OF ZOOLOGY

Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology
...>All the papers in this Proceedings were refereed
by experts in respective disciplines

THIRTY SIXTH PAKISTAN CONGRESS OF ZOOLOGY

held under auspices of

THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF PAKISTAN

at

DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF SINDH, JAMSHORO, PAKISTAN

FEBRUARY 16 – 18, 2016

...
Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology
...>All the papers in this Proceedings were refereed by experts in respective disciplines

THIRTY FIFTH PAKISTAN CONGRESS OF ZOOLOGY

held under auspices of

THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF PAKISTAN

at

CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE IN MARINE BIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, KARACHI, MARCH 1 – 4, 2015

...
Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology
Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology
Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology
Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology
Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology
Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology
Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology
Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology
Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology
Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology
Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology

Usman Zubair1*, Anjum Shehzad2, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi3 and Khalid Mahmood1 

... these nine species, Bactrocera scutellaris, B. tau, B. nigrofemoralis, B. correcta, Dacus sphaerodalis are reported first time from Azad Jammu and Kashmir while D. longicornis is a new record from Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir. 

...
Tian-Yi Zhao1, Zi-Qing Liu2, Bo Yang1, Qiao Gao1, Hong-Yu Zhang1, Pei-Yu He1, Ming-Hua Duan1* and Yu-Li Yan1*
...se in the number of erythrocytes and a significant increase in hemoglobin content (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, 5-Fu group showed a significant decreased in the number of CD71/Ter119-labeled erythrocytes (P < 0.001) and CD4/CD8-labeled T cells (P < 0.001) in peripheral blood and the spleen of mice, which was restored significantly in the number of CD71/Ter119-labeled eryth
Wen-Feng Li1, Rong-Yue Zhang1, Chun-Hua Pu2, Jiong Yin1, Zhi-Ming Luo1, Xiao-Yan Wang1, Xiao-Yan Cang1, Hong-Li Shan1 and Ying-Kun Huang1,*
...erratus Kobusand Trochorhopalus humeralis Chevrolat. Protecting these natural enemies will encourage natural control of pest species while protecting the environment and maintaining ecological balance. Moreover, through enhanced comprehensive pest control, sustainable development of the sugar industry will be promoted.

 

...
Naheed Ikram and Nafisa Shoaib*
... Lutjanus johnii procuredfrom Kemari fish harbor (Pakistan). Our study shows that fresh fishes were not contaminated by incidence of fungi. Aspergillus flavus was the most dominant fungus as compared to other species of fungi but it represents the common mycoflora of this region. 
...
Zil-e-Huma1, 2, Abdul Malik Tareen3, Kaleem Ullah3, Tauseef M Asmat4,Abdul Samad4Asim Iqbal2, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa3*,Irshad Ahmad5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman6
...ing standard biological procedures and confirmed by colonial characteristics, biochemical profile and specie specific PCR. Multiplex PCR was applied to differentiate among the five main diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Results show that the virulent EAE...
Salahud Din1,*, Saima Masood1, Hafsa Zaneb1, Habib Ur Rehman2, Saima Ashraf1, Imad Khan3, Muqader Shah4 and Syed Abdul Hadi1
...of the tarsus and bears trochlea at either end. The central and the fourth tarsals are joined to form a large bone which is extended across the entire width of the tarsus and articulates with all bones of the tarsus. The first tarsal is a rectangular piece of bone sited on the posteromedial surface of the hock. The second and third fused tarsal bone resembles the central but is smaller and wedge-shaped. It is situated between the central tarsal bone proximally...
Khalid P. Loneand Irfana Liaqat*
...n buffered formalin and processed for routine histology and light microscopy. The annual maturity stages can easily be divided into five gross stages namely, immature and developing, maturing and developed, ripe and running, post spawning and spent-regressed. The testis in Labeo rohita were unrestricted and lobular. The maximum GSI (2.89±0.25) was seen in June when the photoperiod and temperatures were highest, while the lowest GSI was seen in Oc...
Unal Kilic1*, Abdiwali Mohamoud Abdi1 and Deniz Ekinci2
...for 24-hours incubation process (P<0.001). Treatments did not cause any effects on 24-hours gas production for straws without enzyme addition (P>0.05). LiP enzyme was found to increase in vitro gas production and methane production for all straws and treatments (P<0.001). As a result, sorghum straws were proven to offer a higher feed value and additional in vivo and in vitro studies are required with the aim of determining the pos...
Ghaleb Adwan*, Sami Bdir and Kamel Adwan
...aria belonging to the microcotylae sub-group and as a microcercous cercaria, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the ITS2 region of the nuclear rDNA revealed that C. melanopsi palestinia I belongs to the family Lecithodendriidae Luhe, 1901, and it could be placed in the genus, or closely related to known Lecithodendrium. Analysis of ITS1 rDNA indicates that Cercaria melanopsi palestinia...
Constance Obiageli Ejilibe1, Helen O. Nwamba2, Ifeanyi Chinedu Atama3,*, Chiamaka Lynda Ani2, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie3, Josephine C. Madu3 and Christopher Didigwu Nwani3
... determined by standard procedures. ALT, AST and ALP increased significantly in response to concentrations of Butaforce® (7.00, 9.00 and 11.00 µgL-1) and Termex® (15.00, 20.00 and 25.00 µgL-1) used. The TP decreased in response to the same concentrations of pesticides. The response of these biochemical parameters were dependent on concentration of the pesticides; it increased as concentration of p...
Zakirullah1, Hamayun Khan1, Ali Gohar2, Haq Amanullah1,*, Muhammad Younas1, Muhammad Tarique Tunio3, Muhammad Saleem Khan4, Ibrar Muhammad Khan1 and Noushad Khan5 
...iv>Freezing and thawing processes have the potential to adversely affect post-thaw quality of semen. In the current study, we endeavored to ascertain the most favorable application of L-cysteine for cryopreservation of Achai and Holstein Friesian bull semen under the subtropical conditions of Peshawar region of Pakistan. Semen of six adult bulls, three Achai (the indigenous breed) and three Holstein Friesian (exotic breed) amount to the experimental material a...
De-Yong Zhang1, Xiao-Lu Xu1,*, Qin Ruan2, Xiu-Ying Shen3 and Yin Lu1
...re with spermatogenesis process and affect sperm quality in mammals.
...
Qiuxia Lei1, 2, Haixia Han1, 2, Jinbo Gao1, 2, Yan Zhou1, 2, Wei Liu1, 2, Chunlei Wang3, Jie Liu1, 2, Dingguo Cao1, 2, Huimin Li1 , Baohua Huang1,* and Fuwei Li1, 2, *  
...m(K)in the fermentation process. Poultry litter, sawdust and rice husk were mixed in equal quantities by volume. One was treated with a single strain of Bacillus; another was treated with a consortium of bacteria comprising several species; and the third kept as the control without adding any bacteria. The results showed that decomposition started earlier in the treated batches than in the control group. During the fermentation period, there was no infl...

Chukwuemeka Calistus Okolo1*, Ikenna Onyema Ezeh2, Chinelo Nnenna Uju3 and Nwakaego Ernestina Nweze1 

...cantly higher total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin concentration compared to groups A--C, and E, no significant variation was seen in the total and differential leucocyte counts across all infected groups. By day 23 PS, groups A and B had similar serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels as group D. The serum malondialdehyde and catalase levels were similar in groups A--D. Therefore, treatment with the p...

Muhammad Amin1,2*, Khalid Mahmood2 and Imran Bodlah3 

...la (Monell, 1879) and Pterocomma beulahense (Cockerell, 1904) are new records for Pakistan. Astegopteryx bambusae (Buckton, 1893) is also represented as new record for the country. Data also have 3 second-finding, 6 third-finding, 11 new host plants and 71 new locality records in Pakistan. Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora were found infesting 8 tree species in 8 genera and 6 in 6 genera respectively. Rosaceae with 5 species in 4 genera carrying 9 aphid spe...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1*, Taiba Sharif3, Samina J.N. Ahmad2, Sumaira Maqsood4 and Fariha Zafar3 
...ra: Tephritidae), Bactrocera zonata, Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae was done in Punjab, Pakistan through PCR analysis using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene based primers. Phylogenetic analysis was also complemented to differentiate fruit flies identified from other countries of the world. The sequencing results and phylogenetic analysis of collect...

Rizwan Ahmad and Muhammad Zulfiqar* 

...through random sampling process were interviewed. The secondary data, spread over 30 years from 1984 to 2013 pertaining to temperature, precipitation, area under cultivation and yield of crops was collected. Analytical models used are Logit Model and ARDL Model. Regarding farmers perceptions, results show that age of farmers, farming experience and education level of the farmers are positively and significantly, except education, associated with perception reg...

Syed Muhammad Hassan Raza1*, Syed Amer Mahmood1, Syeeda Areeba Gillani1, Syed Shehzad Hassan1, Muneeb Aamir1, Muhammad Saifullah1, Mubashar Basheer1, Atif Ahmad1, Saif-ul-Rehman2 and Tariq Ali1 

...osphere reflectance and processed the bands in infrared and red wavelengths to generate Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets. The annual NDVI and RVI based rice yields were compared with CRS based yield records by applying linear regression and generated yield equations. Rice area was estimated using satellite datasets of 11-years by applying supervised classification to 15 bands composite. The satellite extra...

Sajjad Ali1, Atta-ur-Rahman1 and Sher Ali2* 

... area per year. If this process of land utilization for infrastructure instead of farming remains at the same speed till 2055, there will be no agricultural land in the tehsil for farming. Population increase is the main cause of such firm land loss. Statistical technique like central tendencies, dispersion and co-efficient of correlation were applied on population, area under built-up environment, cultivated area and crop production in the study area. During ...

Muhammad Ilyas* and Fida Mohammad 

...n complicates selection process of desirable genotypes. Therefore, newly developed germplasm or genotypes needs to be evaluated in multi-environment trials (METs) to know yield potential and adaptability. This experiment was designed to interpret GE interaction using 55 F5:8 bread wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILs) with five checks. Experimental material was planted using alpha lattice design in two replicates at Peshawar (E1and E5), Kohat (E2 and E6), Sara...

Mustasim Famous*, Obaidul Islam, Shameema Khatun, Mohammed Mustafizur Rahman and Tania Ferdoushi 

...about turkey management procedure. There is no specific feeding standard for turkey. Farmers used to feed their turkey according to broiler and layer feeding manual. So, research needed to improve the status of turkey. 

...

Matiullah Khan*, Shameemul Sibtain Shah, Atiqullah Khan, Muhammad Sarwar and Shoaib Ahmed 

... particle size of Hazara rock phosphate (HRP) by manual preparation of Single Super Phosphate (SSP) through the procedure already established by the author and testing its efficacy in comparison to DAP on rainfed wheat. Almost 50 bags of SSP were prepared using formula “100 kg of indigenous HRP with total P2O5 content of X and mesh size 160 when treated with 60 liters (50% diluted) H2SO4 (volume/volume), followed by pr...
S. Jalbani1, N.T. Narejo2,* and P. Khan2 
 

 

....40 ± 1.6 g were procure from local fishing community of River Indus near Jamshoro. Feed regime like live small fish (tilapia), tubifex larvae, chopped chicken viscera and dead small fish (tilapia) were used as live and prepared feed with control. It was observed that the experimental fish fed with chopped chicken viscera exhibited significantly better growth (129.10 ± 2.90 g weight gain) followed by chopped small fish (103.90 ± 1.10g) as ...
Jinfeng Liu1,2, Yanhong Cao3, Tong Feng1, Laiba Shafique1, Chan Luo1, Peng Zhu1,4,* and Qingyou Liu1,*
... expressed in the whole process of embryogenesis and folliculogenesis, early high level and then down regulated. It was significantly expressed higher level in COCs of middle diameter sized follicles than that of small and large sized follicles. BMP15 gene expression enhanced until morula stage but it fell sharply at blastula stage. Immunohistochemistry exhibited BMP15 protein was located in germ cells of testis, in primordial granulosa cells, pr...
Mohammed Al Bratty1,*, Hassan A. Alhazmi1,2, Desam Nagarjuna Reddy3, Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab3, Sadique A. Javed1 and Zia ur Rehman1,4
... esters and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Methyl-(7Z)-7-hexadecenoate, methyl-(9E)-octadecenoate and methyl tetracosanoate were found to be the principal fatty acid esters, while E-pentatriacont-17-ene and 2,4-dimethylpentane were identified as predominant aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds. The propolis extract has exhibited remarkable antimicrobial activity against certain strains of bacteria and yeasts. In general, significant ant...
Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Asma Ashraf 2*, Iram Liaqat2, Bushra Mazhar2, Shaukat Ali2 and Saiqa Andleeb3
...uded different staining procedures includng Gram’s staining and Endospore staining. Identification  of pathogenic bacterial isolates was confirmed by growing on selective medium. Antibacterial activity of different compounds was observed against the pathogenic bacterial isolates. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) test of different kinds of honey was performed against the isolated bacterial pathogens. The antibacterial activity of leaf extract o...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Khalid Usman2*, Shahid Hameed Khan Khalil3, Abdul Mateen Khattak4, Muhammad Ehsan Elahi1, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik2 and Amir Hamza2
...re used for postharvest processing of dates but, the desired quality of fruit could not be achieved due to adverse effects of dust storms and rain spells at ripening and curing stage of fruits. Covering fruit bunches with bags were also not productive and profitable; therefore, the growers switched to solar tunnel drying but couldn’t get the required results. The protocols of using solar tunnels needed fine-tuning of temperature and relative air humidity...

Shaikh Abdul Lateef, Zhou Lin, Wu Jian, Junjie Qian and Zheng Shusen* 

...ould come from surgical procedures or through unhygienic conditions. In this case report, we demonstrate the management, care and complication of liver transplantation in patients with pre-established hepatitis B infections. Information gained through this study would be helpful to have better management and life style in these deadly infections. 

...
Abdul Majeed1*, Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq2, Abid Niaz3, Abid Mahmood4, Naeem Ahmad1 and Hafiz Muhammad Walyat Ali Khan1

Muhammad Khuram Razzaq1,2*, Saeed Rauf1, Mohsin Khurshid3, Shahid Iqbal1,4, Javaid Akhter Bhat2, Ayaz Farzand5, Adeel Riaz1,6, Guangnan Xing2 and Junyi Gai

 

... the trait and breeding procedures to be adapted for the improvement of trait per se. Genetic studies results under heat stress in sunflower showed additive to partial dominance towards higher pollen viability in the inheritance showing that trait can be improved through selection in segregating generations. In this review, we have mainly considered the effect of abiotic stresses on pollen viability, selection and methods for the improved pollen viability and ...

Matiullah Khan1*, Motsim Billah2, Shoaib Ahmad1, Raza Ullah Khan1 and Muhammad Sarwar1 

...poultry litter (PL) with rock phosphate (RP) and inoculating with effective microorganisms (EM) on the wheat during 2010-11. Both experiments were conducted consecutively, in the same lay out of randomized complete block design with three repeats. Various doses of PEC (6, 4, 2 Mg ha-1) were compared with simple poultry-litter compost (PLC) as 8 Mg ha-1, single super phosphate (SSP) fertilizer as 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 and control. The results showed that PEC at 6 Mg...
Sajida Sabahat1, Asif Nadeem1,*, Maryam Javed1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor1, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ghulam Yasein2 and Ghulam Abbas1 
...ariety of physiological processes such as somatic growth, metabolism, tissue repair, lactation and reproduction. It controls differentiation and maintenance of different function in various and specific tissues. The liver is the primary source of IGF-1 and considered as candidate genes for growth because they play a significant role in development and growth regulation. IGF-1 control protein metabolism and is extremely conserved region amongst species. IGF-1 h...

Muhammad Abdul Rahman1*, Abdul Saboor1, Gulnaz Hameed1, Ghulam Bilal2 and Farooq Tanwir3 

...d lack of innovation in processing of milk and milk products are other major threats to production from farm animals. The findings of this study can serve as basis of providing key elements for policy devising in order to have research based policy making and implementation with separate set of policy actions for small, medium and large farmers. Input price mechanism, regularization of dairy sector, separate policy measures for meat and dairy animals and prese...

Olufisayo Bamidele* and Safiriyu Idowu Ola 

...he General Linear Model procedure and t-test where appropriate. The plasma LH for the AI groups peaked at 60mins while it peaked at 120mins for the control. Kindling rates were 10%, 10%, 60% and 50% respectively for the groups. There was no significant difference (p>0.05, t-test) between the litter size and total live kits obtained for 10µg and 15µg groups. Kit weight at birth showed no statistical difference (p>0.05, ANOVA) among all the gro...

Khaled Kaboudi* 

...Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia. Human infection was reported in Egypt and serosurveys programs showed high positivity, particularly in poultry workers. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the most of H9N2 viruses circulating in North Africa were among the G1-lineage group. The presence of mammalian and human genetic markers were reported in several H9N2 strains, indicating possible risk for public health. Control of LPAI H9N2 subtype infectio...
Hafiz Muhammad Arsalan1, Maria Altaf1, Zeemal Seemab Amin1, Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan2, Anum Shahzadi1, Hina Mudasser1, Iqra Maqsood1, Nazia Gulshan1, Saira Naseem3
...ough spectrophotometric procedure. Serum MDA level jump high in patients (14.19) as compared to normal subjects (3.26). Serum Glutathione declined in disease persons (0.56) from healthy subjects (6.39). Serum Micronutrients level was also declined in RA patients as compared to healthy persons and substantial statistically (P=0.000). Serum Nitric Oxide jump high in patients (32.11) than normal persons (15.2). Abnormal concentration of reactive oxygen species ca...
Naila Riaz1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar1, Ali Hassan2, Shaukat Ali2, Shafaat Yar Khan1
...bricius, 1798) and Androctonus finitimus (Pocock, 1897) by HPLC. The toxicity and acetylcholinesterase activity of selected venom fractions were determined using of Musca domestica adults. Only one fraction (out of 7) from H. tamulus venom and one fraction (out of 5) of A. finitimus venom were selected on the basis of their maximum yield. The approximate molecular weights of these selected venom fractions were determined by SDS Gel ...
Muhammad Shoaib1,3*, Arif Ismiyev2,Khudaverdi Ganbarov3, Aygun Israyilova3 and Sajid Umar4
...ituted monocyclic and spirocyclic cyclohexane derivatives involving ethyl-3 (allylamino)-9,9-dimethyl- 7,11-dioxo-1,5-diphenylspiro[5.5]undec-2-en-2-carboxylate (I), ethyl-4,6-diphenyl-2- dicyanomethylene cyclohex-3-ene 1-carboxylate (II) and ethyl-4-phenyl-6-(4-chlorophenyl)-2- dicyanomethylenecyclohex-3-ene 1-carboxylate (III).Initially, these compounds were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bac...
Barkat Ali1,2, Wasim Sajjad1,2,3, Imran Khan1, Muhammad Rafiq1, Sahib Zada1, Aamer Ali Shah1 and Fariha Hasan1,*
...he surface and inside of rocks are a repository of certain metabolites that might be able to solve the problem of increasing resistance against antibiotics. The present study was designed to isolate endolithic and epilithic bacterial strains from the rapidly weathering rocks collected from Nathiagali, Pakistan to characterize and screen them for antimicrobial activity. The isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA sequence ...
Fariha Latif1*, Muhammad Javed2, Hammad Ahmad Khan2 and Khalil-Ur-Rehman3
...l in various industrial processes and is very persistent in the aquatic environment. The main objective of this study was to assess the time and dose dependent effects of Pb on bioaccumulation and oxidative stress in the liver, kidney, gills, muscles and brain of Cirrhina mrigala. The 120-days old fish were exposed to 1/4th (11.81mgL-1) and 2/3rd (31.49mgL-1) of 96-h LC50 of water-borne Pb for three...
Huanxin Zhang1,2, Hongshuo Tang3, Jun Chen1, Yu Zang1,2, Xuexi Tang1,2,* and Ying Wang1,2,*
...ing of the host defense processes against infection. Researches have been performed on the evolution in many species, but the evolutionary characteristics of African hunting dog TLR genes are scared. The available genome sequence of African hunting dog offers us the way to examine the innate immunity of this endangered carnivore. 10 TLR genes (TLR1-10) were initially identified from the African hunting dog and lesser panda. The results showed that most of the ...

Jawad Ali*, Ibad Ullah Jan and Hidayat Ullah 

...ed weight. Se regulated processes, improved the vegetative and yield attributes of okra under water deficit conditions as well in control. The current investigation proved beneficial in improving the growth performance of okra, suggesting that foliar supplementation of Se may result in the development of drought mitigation in okra. 

...
Sajida Rasool1, Saba Irshad1*, Neelam Saba1, Mehak Fiaz1Muhammad Sajid Hussain2, MuhammadWajid Hussain3 and Peter Nürnberg2

 

...d lower limbs, severe microcephaly, dysphagia, no speech, hearing loss and seizures. Genome wide linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing revealed a novel homozygous nonsense mutation (c.204T>G) in BICD2 gene which was predicted to yield a truncated protein product (p. Glu68*). This is first nonsense mutation being reported causing HSP with complex clinical features and early onset. Further, functional exploration will be required for genotype phe...

Anand Kushwaha, Amit Kumar, Aparna Madhavan, Durga Goswami, Golmei Poulinlu and Gnanavel Venkatesan* 

...tic tools will ease the process and can select the suitable protein(s) to use in the development of specific and sensitive diagnostic assays and also effective vaccine candidates which are vital elements in control and eradication of any infectious disease from an endemic country. In this review, we describe different structures of mature pox virion with reference to vaccinia virus (VACV), list of immunogenic candidate genes presents in CaPV genome and their p...

Saleem Ashraf1, Raheel Saqib2*, Zakaria Yousuf Hassan3, Muhammad Luqman4 and Abdur Rehman5  

...in the citrus marketing process. Total 120 randomly selected citrus growers were interviewed face to face and collected data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings affirmed that middleman, processing factories and friends/relatives were the foremost intermediaries in citrus marketing. Majority of growers (94.16%) preferred selling their pre-harvest fruit to proc<...
Saara Ahmad1,*, Iftikhar Ahmed2, Saida Haider3, Zehra Batool4, Laraib Liaquat3, Fatima Ahmed5, Asra Khan1, Tahira Perveen3, Mirza Jawad ul Hasnain6, Saima Khaliq7 and Saad Bilal Ahmed8
...ver cells during such a process. As we have already studied the components of chicken feed previously, the purpose of this study was to observe the effects of chicken meat consumption on liver cells of rats. One hundred and twenty female Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and separately for standard chow rat, commercial chicken feed, commercial chicken meat and organic chicken meat over a six-week period. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis ...
Nafeesa Batool1*, Javed Iqbal Qazi1, Nida Aziz1, Ali Hussain2 and Syed Zawwar Hussain Shah3
...re also carried out for process monitoring. The highest cumulative biogas yield of 459.4 mL /g VS was observed in the co-digestion of DM + FW with 58.63 and 41.36 % CH4 and CO2 contents. BMP of the microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), FW and DM were observed as 401.2, 389.61 and 358.7 mL /g VS with CH4 and CO2 contents of 54.1 and 35.9, 51.13 and 42.2, 56.66 and 40 %, respectively. Th...
Nadeem Munawar1,2*, Tariq Mahmood2, Paula Rivadeneira1, Ali Akhter2 and Saqib Mehmood2
...pera, Calotropis procera, Sorghum halepense and Capparis deciduas. This vegetation supported the year-round population of rodents in the Pothwar agro-ecosystem by providing shelter, cover, and food. The data suggest that further research is needed to test various ecologically-based rodent management strategies e.g. management of non-crop habitats, cleaning of crop cache in post harvested fields, management of wild natural vegetation pr...
Hong-mei Gao, Wen-long Su, Gui-bin Tao, Han-yang Li, Wen-zheng Cao and Zhi-dong Qiu*
...ion of genistein on erythrocyte production is not clear. This study suggests that Geniposide promotes red blood cell production. We demonstrated that genistein did not affect the erythrocyte differentiation of mouse CD34+ cells. Then, we tested the geniposide indirectly affecting BM accessory cells. We conclude that geniposide maybe will control the erythropoiesis in vivo and reverse the BM microenvironment...
Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Arshad1, Sajjad Ali2, Asad Abdullah1, Samina Khalid3, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif4, Syed Muhammad Ali Zahid1, Muhammad Afzal1 and Jaima Molina-Ochoa5
... for the photosynthesis process. Thus, quantification of foliar area needed for the photosynthetic process is impartment. The recent methods used to quantify the foliar damage are relatively expensive and are mainly dependent on complex and state of art devices and instruments. Instead, smartphone application may be a good source to measure the foliar damage. In this study, foliar damage of Spodoptera litura Fab. (Lepidopter...
Abdurakhim Kuchboev1, Mehmonjon Egamberdiev2, Rokhatoy Karimova1, Oybek Amirov1 and Mitsuhiko Asakawa3,*
...currence of larval Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Brachylaima sp. is described with molecular evidences in gastropod intermediate hosts from Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan. Larvae of D. dendriticum were detected in 28 (10.7%) out of 262 Xceropicta candacharica, and 8 (9.7%) of 82 Angiomphalia gereliana. Brachylaima sp. larvae were found in 3 (1.6%) of 95 Pseudonapaeus sogdiana. The total number of larvae per snail var...
Muhammad Younis Laghari1,2, Zixia Zhao1, Yiwen Gong3, Punhal Lashari1,2, Shangqi Li1, Jian Xu1 , Ateeque Rahman Khooharo4, Jiongtang Li1,* and Yan Zhang1*
...population. To simplify procedure and improve effectiveness of identifying the Hainan population, one specific PCR-based marker acted as INDEL marker was developed and then 120 samples were used as templates for PCR validation. The specific marker will facilitate the assessment of genetic diversity and selective breeding programs for Hainan common carp.
...
Tasbihullah1, Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*, Tariq Ali3 , Umer Saddique1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Shafiq4, Sultan Ayaz2, Hamayun Khan1, Ijaz Ahmad1 Asadullah2, Raheela Taj5, Hafiz Nidaullah6 and Alamgir Khan7
...ing to improve hygienic process for end consumer during- egg production.
...

Reda Mohamed1, 2 

...urgeons during surgical procedures in the abdominal region in ruminants. 

...

Asmaa A. Darwish 

...nificant (P< 0.05) microcytic hypochromic anemia was observed in the PG and AG while, EG suffered from a macrocytic hyperchromic anemia. On contrast, a neutrophilic leukocytosis and lymphocytopenia was described in the three diseased groups. Biochemically, a significant (P< 0.05) increase in total protein, globulin, liver enzymatic activities, kidney function tests, total lipids, triglycerides, MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentr...

Kenneth Nnamdi Anueyiagu*, James Jingmang Kopmut, Chrysantus Achi Lagi and Kelly Nkem Okoh 

...fter standard bacterial procedure continued. A total of 83 (51.9%) S aureus isolates were identified, 54 (33.8%) MRSA, and 15 (9.4%) Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). The study showed a statistical association between the prevalence of MRSA in livestock and students. This could lead to cross infection of MRSA from livestock to man and vice versa, hence of public health significance. 

...

Amit Sharma1* and Pankaj Sood2 

...eservation is a complex process that which involves balancing many factors in order to obtain satisfactory results. It causes ultrastructural, biochemical and functional damage to the spermatozoa leading to reduced motility, viability, impaired transport and fertility. Caprine sperms are extremely sensitive to cryopreservation compared to other species which is mainly attributed to the compositional variation of the sperm plasma membrane. Different factors af...

Muhammad Asif Farooq1*, Muhammad Jalal Arif1, Muhammad Dildar Gogi1, Bilal Atta2 and Ahmad Nawaz

...ulation reduction of Bactrocera spp., Drosicha mangiferae and Idioscopus clypealis. Although, pesticide contamination was higher in PRMM-1, however PRMM-2 was found best module when compared in terms of pest population reduction (90.79%), average yield and cost-benefit ratio (1:63.28). Conclusively, the pesticide residues can be minimized by applying different control measures with proper integration. 

...
Bo Gao1,2, Fengmei Yang3, Wei Chen2, Xiaojia Song4, Xiaobo Liu5 and Dongmin Li1*
Savas Atasever*, Ali Vaiz Garipoglu and Huseyin Erdem
...e, it is suggested that procedures including proper feeding implementations should exactly be managed on the herds.
...
Larysa Kladnytska1, Anatoliy Mazurkevych1, Natalia Bezdieniezhnykh2Oleg Melnyc1, Sergiy Velychko3, Mykola Malyuk1, Vasyl Danilov1Yuriy Kharkevych1 and Magdalena Gryzinska4*
...> incubator by standard procedure. Expression of cytoplasmic and membrane proteins on dog stem cells from fat tissue at the IVth and Xth passages was examined by immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibodies. Determination the index of proliferationdogs adipose-derived stem cells (DADSCs) on IVth and Xth passages. Established that DADSCs contains multipotent stem cells, that are characterized by an almost ho...

Amjad Usman1*, Arshad Khan1, Ruidar Ali Shah2 and Toheed Iqbal3 

...ulation declined in the proceeding weeks, no S. dorsalis were recorded after June 22nd. In general, Roma supported lowest no. (4.16±0.23) of S. dorsalis plant-1 and Riogrande supported the highest (4.89±0.25) S. dorsalis plant -1 and were found comparatively resistant and susceptible respectively. There were more glandular trichomes than non-glandular trichomes on leaves. Among the glandular trichomes, Type IV was the most abundant followed by Ty...

Bahadar Sher Khattak1, Muhammad Kaleem1, Waqas2*, Humaira Naz1 and Muhammad Yasir

...ore starting the actual process of data collection. The total sample size of the study area was 150, randomly selected for interviews. After the data analysis, it was found that the majority of the respondents (83.3%) who were small farmers acquired and utilized micro-credit in establishing income generating entrepreneurs, purchased quality seeds, fertilizers and small scale modern technology. These innovations brought substantial enhancement in their farm pro...
Waqas Ahmad Shams1*, Gauhar Rehman1, Khurshaid Khan1, Ibrar Ahmad1, Saima Bibi1, Saif Ul Islam2, Dawood Safi1, Saba Gul Ayaz1
...re is a narrow marginal process with an almost straight distal end and a sharp tip lateral part with an apex. Periodic and corporal aspects inclined the abundance of Allacanthos. The dominant species was Allacanthos yawi (62.9%). The abundance was variable according to habitat type. Allacanthos yawi had abundance in Pir Baba and Budal localities. The season was also a factor for variation in their diversity. They were mostly found the June, July month. There i...
Sikander Ali* and S. Wajiha Khalid
...bes the optimization of process parameters for the enhanced production of a novel fungal exo-inulinase under liquid culture. Different fungal cultures were isolated and collected from various localities of Lahore and Murree (Punjab, Pakistan). Screening of these cultures was carried out in chemically defined medium i.e., 0.5 g/l (NH4)2SO4, 3 g/l KH2PO4, 1.5 g/l NaNO3, 0.01 g/l MgSO4.7...
Asim Faraz1*, Abdul Waheed1, Muhammad Mudasser Nazir2, Aneela Hameed3, Nasir Ali Tauqir4, Riaz Hussain Mirza1, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Rana Muhammad Bilal5
...ary glands. The milking process is allowed to be managed by an exogenous OT by its vital role in neuro hormonal milk-ejection process. OT increases milk yield by gland output, which is not due to residual milk removal. OT also improves the persisten...

Muhammad Shakeel1,2*, Salik Nawaz2, Yasar Saleem3, Shazia Shafique2, Ateeq Tahir2 and Muhammad Riaz2

...="text-align: justify;">Broccoli production for more than just food has created needs to expend its cultivation spectrum in Pakistan. Present studies conducted during 2016-17 and were designed to understand socio-economic and agronomic constraints associated with adoption of broccoli in Pakistan. Growers and other stakeholders were contacted by personal visits, telephone calls and distribution of the structured questionnaire...
Bin Huo1 and Xiaoyun Shen1,2,3*
...l;">Tibetan Gazelle (Procapra picticaudata) are native wildlife to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. During the past five years, Tibetan Gazelle have been affected by rickets and osteomalacia, characterized by emaciation, growth retardation, lameness,enlargement of the costochondral junctions and abnormal curvature in long bones. The aim of the study was to determine possible relationships between the illness and mineral deficiency. The present result s...

Fazal Haq*, Asia Parveen, Safdar Hussain and Arshad Hussain 

...led through interviewed process from the random selected farmers were used as a tool for collecting primary data. The raw data is tabulated and analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The analyzed data is used to develop the mathematical model. Simplex method is applied to find the optimal solution of the model, which showed 10.18% increase in the net revenue per year.  

...
Sana Khan1, Raheela Taj1, Noor Rehman2, Asad Ullah3, Imad Khan3 and Sadeeq ur Rahman3,*
...al (KTH), Peshawar, and processed by for isolation of C. freundii followed by phenotypic detection of β-lactamases and antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Our results indicated that a total of 130(4.40%;130/2950) samples were positive for C. freundii comprised of urine 58.46%, pus 33.85% and wounds 7.69%, respectively. More samples from females (n=70) than males (n=60) with majority (43.08%) from age group 21-40 years were fo...

H. Liu1, X.P. Tang1, R.J. Fang1,*, F.Yi2, C. Zhang2, R.Q. Yang1, F. Sun1 and S.Y. Zhou1 

...at 23-day-old piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) with an average body weight of (8.79±1.15) kg were randomly divided into 6 groups with 8 replicates in each group, and 6 piglets (3 castrated males and 3 females) per replicate. Control group was fed a basal diet, experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with copper amino acids addition level was 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg Cu or 150 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4 of the control group...
Shaheen Rahman1, Kafeel Ahmad1*, Niaz Ali2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Waqar Ali4
...stan. Soil samples were processed for the isolation of A. tumefaciens. Various biochemical and morphological tests were conducted to confirm the identity of A. tumefaciens. The pathogenicity of the isolates was confirmed by in vitro carrot and potato discs inoculation assays. A total of seven strains of A. tumefaciens were isolated on yeast extract mannitol agar (YEMA) medium. The isolated strains were confirmed as A. tumefaciens on...

Muhammad Ali1*, Norsida Man2, Farrah Melissa Muharam2 and Siti Zobidah Omar

...istered for statistical procedure. The findings confirmed that the theory (TPB) was statistically feasible to predict behavioral intention of farmers to use ICTs for agricultural risk management. The results further reveal that attitude was one of the most influenced of intention, which was followed by perceived behavioral control and lastly the subjective norms. Thus, using TPB in this context would be helpful for other researchers and academia to understand ...
Fehmina Ashraf1*, Muhammad Irfan2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Shaukat Ali3, Muhammad Khan1
... been used in different process like delignification of pulp. Laccases from bacterial species are used in dye decolouration and biobleaching processes. This review article describes the whole overview of laccases.

Korkmaz Bellitürk1, Zubair Aslam2, Ali Ahmad2* and Sami ur Rehman2

... the aerobic composting process is vermicompost which is prepared by the use of earthworms. Vermicompost contains sophisticated and more soluble major and minor nutrients. The objective of this experiment was the chemical and physical analysis of raw material of goat manure, cow dung, sheep manure and their vermicompost products. The earthworms for vermicomposting, Eisenia fetida (an epigeic species), were used as the test species. The samples were collected f...

Journal of Innovative Sciences

December

Vol. 5, Iss. 2, Pages 53-120

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