Francisco J. Ayala and John C. Avise (eds.)
Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 547 pp., $47.64 (hbk),
ISBN 1421413051.

Reviewed by David Pindel

 

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...ll of key figures in the development of this field.

 

...

Timothy Helton

In a Mirror Dimly: Anthropology and Restoring a Sense of Presence to an Empty World
...hnography before tracing developments in anthropological method in the last decades that have greatly improved the lens used for the anthropological gaze. Finally, I conclude by suggesting the collaboration between anthropology and theology in the restoration of a world capable of supporting life in more than a mere physical sense.

...

Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology
...re important for vaccine development or judging the efficacy of existing RVA vaccines, they do not always provide conclusive information on the overall and complex genetic makeup of RVAs, as the remaining 9 RVA gene segments are also susceptible to the forces governing RVA genetic diversity. Whole genomic analysis of RVAs has revolutionized the study of RVA genomics, providing a plethora of conclusive and vital data on the overall genetic diversity, true origi...

Ye Liu2, Yulong Cong2, Yiming Shao1*

...Herein, we review recent developments of HIV Tat as immunoregulator using for optimizing the efficacy of vaccines. By highlighting preclinical/clinical applications of Tat and its working mechanisms, this review exhibits the superior potential of Tat as immunoregulator on optimizing immune responses mediated by vaccines. These examples of selected studies will provide researchers some implications and inspirations for using HIV Tat to optimize immune responses...

Muhammad Irshad1, Abdur Rab1, Javed Rahman2, Muhammad Sajid1, Ilyas Khan2, Sajad Ali1, Muhammad Razaq1, Sallahuddin1

...1) for better growth and development under the agro climatic condition of Swat.

...

Mohammad Fayaz, Abbas Ullah Jan, Dawood Jan

...sing food policy for the development of food markets in terms of market segmentation and quality improvements in Pakistan.

...

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2

 

...g whole plant growth and development period. The results showed that water stress significantly reduced plant height, number of total tillers per plant, number of fertile tillers per plant, number of nodes per plant, spikelet per spike, number of grains per spike, 100-grain weight and dry matter per plant as compared with control. Wheat genotype Faisal-2008 exhibited comparatively more drought tolerance with less decrease in growth rate (18.70%); total dry mat...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...pathogenesis and for the development of novel protective vaccines. In this review, we discuss the innate immune responses against HP-PRRSV infection and suggest new areas of investigation into this important interface between pathogen and host.

...

Josef D. Jarhult1, 2

...edness plans. Resistance development is a potential problem both in treated humans and in the environment. The use of oseltamivir for treatment of uncomplicated influenza in otherwise healthy patients should be questioned.

...

Hayat Badshah1*, Farman Ullah1, Abid Farid2, Ahmad-U-Rahman Saljoqi1, Sajjad Ahmad3

...is necessary to know the development capacity of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae), on different host plants. Such studies would identify the best host plant for its efficient rearing. The present study investigated some basic life table parameters i.e. female life span, adult female weight, longevity and reproductive potential of P. solenopsis on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.), brinjal (Solanum melongena...

David Kyle Johnson

...argument that motive the development of a new (correct) criterion regarding when belief in the miraculous is justified; I will then show why it is impossible to fulfill this criterion. I will conclude by considering objections.

...

Ryan T. Cragun1*, Joseph H. Hammer2, Michael Nielsen3

...oblems, and presents the development and initial validation of a 17-item Nonreligious-Nonspiritual Scale (NRNSS) across three studies. The NRNSS exhibited high internal consistency (α > .94) and high test-retest reliability (r = .92). Two exploratory and one confirmatory factor analysis of the NRNSS supported the hypothesized two-factor solution: (a) institutional religiousness and (b) individualistic spirituality. The NRNSS also demonstrated converge...

Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi

...h is a recent historical development. Over the past century, individuals who make academic research their life’s work have been themselves the subject of academic studies which looked at their social origins, conscious ideals, beliefs, and psychological traits. The findings regarding religiosity have been striking. Academics, especially eminent ones, turn out to be quite irreligious. This is especially striking for academics in the United States, where a...

Tomas Jinnerot1*, Karin Malm1, Erik Eriksson1 and Jonas Johansson Wensman2

E-mail | Tomas.Jinnerot@sva.se

Tauseef Taj Kiani1*, Mozammil Hussain1 and Hidayat ur Rahman2

 

...quisites to start hybrid development program. In this context, we explored heterosis and inbreeding depression in indigenous maize germplasm comprising inbred lines NCMLQ1, NCMLQ2, NCMLD1, NCMLD2, NCMLD3, and NCMLD4. ese genotypes were crossed to get ten F1 hybrid combinations, which were used to develop three generations F2, BC1 and BC2. Heterosis (i...

Kang-Seuk Choi

...ng approaches to vaccine development and are an alternative to inactivated IBD vaccines. In addition, VLP technology has many applications. This paper reviews the potential of VLPs as an alternative to IBD vaccines, along with their specific applications in the field.

...

Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

...us in cell cultures. The development of reporter CSFV has provided an excellent option to directly detect viral replication without the use of secondary labeling. This mini-review discusses the applications of reporter CSFV in the study of CSFV biology, including efficiently screening the antivirals against CSFV and viral receptors, conveniently tracking the viral proteins in live cells as well as improving diagnostic methods and vaccines for classical swine f...

John G. Bruno1*, Chien-Chung Chao2,3, Zhiwen Zhang3, Wei-Mei Ching2,3, Taylor Phillips1, Allison Edge1, Jeffery C. Sivils1

John G. Bruno

...ed for automated robotic development of aptamers or aptamer conjugates with associated mass production to provide rapid passive immunity for large human populations in the event of a major pandemic or infectious disease doomsday scenario. 

...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

... major constraint in the development of the small ruminant’s production within an infected area. The virus is endemic across much of the developing world and has spread into the developed European borders. The small ruminants industry within an infected state or region is often disproportionately affected with its attending impact on poverty in what are already the poorest areas of the globe. PPR is considered to be a transboundary disease of great signi...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...of research gaps for the development of vaccines and diagnostics for differentiating infected and vaccinated animals. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, recombinant protein based vaccines and/or diagnostics are being tested in various heterologous systems across the globe for development of vaccines and/or diagnostic antigens. The recombinant viral proteins, virus like particle based vaccines, bivalent/multivalen...

Muhammad Jurial Baloch1*, Ghulam Murtaza Channa2, Wajid Ali Jatoi2, Abdul Wahid Baloch1, Imdad Hussain Rind1, Muhammad Ahmed Arain1 and Ayaz Ali Keerio1

...material for hybrid crop development to improve the yield traits.  

...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

... production required the development of cottonseed that will be suitable for environmental conditions of Pakistan.

...

Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

...and assist them in rural development. Based on study findings certain policy options has also been suggested to extend the farmer cooperative activities over different aspects of agriculture sector.

...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

... is also associated with development of diabetes, high blood pressure and kidney failure. Hypercholesterolemia is mainly caused by high fat diet, obesity and diabetes.Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect of water based infusion of Withania somnifera was investigated in broiler chicks. One hundred and twenty (120) day-old broiler’s chicks were alienated into four treatment groups namely WST-0, WST-I, WST-II and WST-III with three replication. Group WST-0...

Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Himayatullah Khan

...eed for initiating skill development programs.

...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...hem ideal candidates for development of new biosensing applications for detection of specific target molecules. In the present review, we concentrate on the recent advances in the development of aptasensors for antibiotics residue analysis based on electrochemical signal generation. Aptamers possesses the strong potential as receptors for the development of biosensors for antibiotics detec...

Muhammad Imran*, Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Farooq Nasir, Imran Bodlah, Muhammad Nasir and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh

...onate materials on three developmental stages i.e., colony initiation, development and maturation stages under controlled laboratory conditions. Queen oviposition rate was 1.4-fold higher in polycarbonate box compared to wooden and cardboard materials. Early start of egg-laying (first oviposition period) and earlier emergence of first worker were found in polycarbonate box as compared to others. Similarly, colony foundation ...

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

...as observed during seeds development and its maximum population (126 individuals / head) was recorded during 4-week of April 2009. Spodoptera spp, Thysanoplusia orichalcea and Heliothus were also found but in small numbers. Among natural enemies, ladybeetles and spiders were found to be the putative predators with maximum population of 3.9 and 3.5 individuals/plant, respectively. Further, correlation study indicated that syrphids and chrysoperla had a sig...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

...bsent or impaired sexual development at puberty. Amongst others, mutations in GPR54 and GnRH receptor (GNRHR) are possible causes of HH. This study aimed at identification of mutations in GPR54 and GNRHR genes and their correlation with HH in Pakistani boys. Thirty one boys with delayed puberty and thirty one normal age matched controls were examined. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR using specific primers for GPR54 and GNRHR splice site exons. M...

Afzaal Ahmad Naseem1*, Maleeha Akram1, Sarwat Jahan2, Kiran Afshan2, Zubaria Iqbal1, Faheem Tahir3, Mazhar Qayyum1 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1

...n. Nevertheless, age and developmental stage dependent changes in GH and T and LGV and their associations require further investigation. This study examined relationships between GH and LGV, T and LGV and GH and T in 540 normal healthy boys of 1 to 20 years (n=27 boys/age group). The concentrations of GH and T were measured using specific ELISA systems and LGV was calculated for each age/stage group. Pearson correlation r and ANOVA were employed. GH and LGV ex...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...hniques in Pakistan, the development and application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) depend on the use of host insects for in vivo production. As there is little information regarding relationship between nematode dosage and production of infective juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema feltiae and ability to locate hosts, therefore, in the present studies investigations were done on these aspects. A significantly greater emergence of IJ of S. feltiae from Galleria...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

...ly which effects growth, development and metabolism. In this study, full-length of one type of SS cDNA from C. nasus was synthesized, cloned and sequenced. This SS cDNA encodes a protein with 114 amino acids that contains the SS14 sequence at its C-terminus. This putative peptide is identical to that generated by the SS1 gene in other vertebrates. Tissue distribution of C. nasus SS1 mRNA was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which demonstr...

Wenmin Cheng1,2*, Weirong Pan1,2, Yubo Qing1, Yingchao Liu1, Xingqin Zha1,2, Yan Huang2, Jige Xin1,2, Hongjiang Wei1 and Yangzhi Zeng2

...ed the difference on the developmental effects between exogenous Npm and its structural analog, polyglutamic acid (PGA). We chose the pMD18-T vector for Npm expression and transformed E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells to construct a prokaryotic expression system. The results showed that the recombinant Npm protein of 32 kDa could be obtained. Recombinant Npm or PGA was injected into porcine oocytes at different concentrations. The results showed that the blastocyst rat...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

... in Africa and Asia, the development of more effective, targeted and successful treatments for the disease are necessary. Like other Morbilliviruses, PPRV induces a suppression of the immune system during the acute disease, which favours the establishment and exacerbates the progression of secondary infections. This review gives an overview of the known immunosuppressive strategies of PPRV, among the Paramyxoviruses, as well as the strategies developed by this...

Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1, Farzana Abbas1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Naeem Tariq Narejo2, Khalid Javed Iqbal3, Ghulam Abbas4* and Syedah Andleeb5

...tein required for proper development of the ovary. These studies revealed that 40% protein diet not only improved fish growth and health but also enhanced egg fecundity, gonadal development and spawning.

...

Dallin D. Oaks and Cynthia L. Hallen

...in important ways in its development and use of these metaphors. In this paper we discuss the journey, battle, and container metaphors in relation to LDS doctrine and scripture and some crucial implications that grow from these metaphors. The discussion considers the relationship of these metaphors to such matters as an open canon of scripture, the relationship of grace and works, the doctrine of the eternal progression of human beings, and the vital nature of...

Marryam Bakhtawar1, Qamar Saeed1* and Naeem Iqbal2

... of four diets in larval development of lady bird beetle, Coccinella undecimpunctata, under laboratory conditions was done. These include mustard aphids (Lipaphis erysimi) cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis), grain moth eggs (Sitotroga cerealella) and honey. Results revealed complete development of all larval stages on all diets with maximum survival of lady bird beetle larvae on mustard aphid (76.6%) followed by on gra...

Abdul Mannan Babar1* and Abdul Hannan Nagi2

Fukuan Du1,2, Yan Li2, Zhixin Wen1, Ruguo Chen1 and Pao Xu2*

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

Shazia Irfan1*, Asima Rani1, Muhammad Arshad2 and Razia Bashir1

...ng influence towards the development of RA in the presence of this polymorphism.

...

Mariano Gastón Asla

...l movement, but also the development of a practical dimension, i.e. the active pursuit of life and signs of intelligence in the outer space. My goal in this article is twofold. First, in a practical level, I will explore some arguments in favor of the scientific interest regarding the search of extraterrestrial life. Second, from a theoretical perspective, I will present some examples that show the philosophical value of the extraterrestrial intelligence ficti...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...seful lead structure for development of novel antibiotics to combat resistant pathogens.

...
Naime Zülâl Elekcioğlu*
...constant temperatures on developmental time and parasitization rate of Citrostichus phyllocnistoides was evaluated on Phyllocnistis citrella at nine constant temperatures ranging from 15ºC±1 to 35ºC±1 in 2.5ºC increments in the laboratory. Developmental periods of immature stages ranged from 34.98 days at 15ºC to 9.15 days at 35ºC. The lower develo...

Pam D Luka, Frank N Mwiine, Bitrus Yakubu, Joseph Erume, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez, Hermann Unger and David Shamaki

...gs) able to maintain the developmental cycle of these ticks. This provides some evidence of interaction between the host and the vector within the Nigeria’s ecosystem. This finding provides a guide for further studies to establish their role in the epidemiology of ASF and additional effort towards understanding the ecology of Ornithodoros ticks in Nigeria.

...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...ble role of esterases in development of tolerance/resistance in phosphine-tolerant populations. The level of total esterases, carboxyl esterases, choline esterases, acetylcholine esterases and aryl esterases were determined in 4th & 6th instar larvae and adult beetles of phosphine-tolerant populations (previously exposed to phosphine for 15 years) of wheat grain pest, Trogoderma granarium collected from various storage faciliti...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
...in) against invasion and development of Meloidogyne incognita was tested in eggplant roots in greenhouse pot trials. Neemex (5 g, 10 g and 15 g) and G. mosseae (100 g, 150 g and 200 g) were applied as protective treatment. The roots of eggplant were inoculated with 1000 second stage juveniles of M. incognita. Eggplants inoculated with nematodes only served as control. Each treatment was replicated tenfold. Data were recorded after one week...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Ehsan Kamrani1, Narges Amrollahi Biuki1 and Hossein Zamani2
...ign: justify;">The gonad developments of 217 sea urchins (Echinometra mathaei) were monitored monthly from March to September 2014 in the intertidal zones of Bandar Lengeh in the Persian Gulf. The numbers of males, females, unsexual samples were counted for 71, 126 and 20, respectively. Females were totally 1.77 times heavier than males. Wet weights of gonads were nearly 8.25% of the mean total wet body weights. Only females were observed by gonad wet w...
K.N. ArulJothi1, M. Abinaya1, B. Suruthi Abirami1, Melvin George2, S. Elangovan3 and A. Devi1*
...nces on lipid levels and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in different populations. In this study, we investigated the association of rs5888 polymorphism with serum lipid levels and CVD risk in an Indian population. A total of 412 samples which included 148 myocardial infarction survivors, 162 Normolipidemic healthy controls and 102 patients with hypercholesterolemia in a   Indian Tamilian population were included in the study. Genotyping of
Sehrish Rasool1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2, Sumra Ashraf1, Maryam Anwer1, Atif Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir1 and Hoor Shaina1
...ompetition, survival and development of a gregarious ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor (Say.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The number of adults, sex ratio and size of emerging adults were recorded. Smaller and larger host species were used to determine the survival potential of the wasp. It was observed that maximum number of adult wasps emerged from the hosts G. mellonlla (95 ±2.30 (se) and S. litura (81 ±1.15 (se)) by placing the...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...iological uniqueness and development of sawyer beetles (Monochamus alternates) are also discussed.
...

M. Abdus Salam1, M. Moynul Haque2, Md. Obaidul Islam3, M. Nasir Uddin4 and Md. Nazmul Haque3*

...nd establishment, branch development, phenology, yield components, yield and fiber quality attributes of cotton. Yield and quality of cotton were significantly higher when crop was grown from seeds stored in polythene bag as compared to cloth bag. Interaction of genotypes and seed sources indicated that highest sympodial branches plant-1 (19.11), days to 50% flowering and boll splitting (72.00 and 156.33, respectively), number of bolls plant-1 (20.33), boll we...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...of a hub in agricultural development and covers all the areas of Agriculture. The present study was carried out in all the 24 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to investigate the agricultural mechanization competencies of AEOs. Sum total of 111 AEOs were contacted for data collection. Primary data were collected from the selected sample of AEOs by mailing the questionnaires. The results showed that overwhelming majority of the respondents i.e., 88% were M.Sc deg...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

... health risk. Therefore, development of new potent and cost-effective influenza vaccines is urgently needed to safeguard poultry and to contain zoonosis. The primary goal of this study was to develop H9 plasmid-based DNA vaccine against the currently circulating AIV subtype H9N2 targeting HA gene of the virus A/Turkey/Egypt/1341V/2013(H9N2). The full length sequence of HA gene was codon optimized to the chicken biased codons and subcloned into the pCAGGS plasm...
Xiang Nong1,2,3,*, Yao-jun Yang1,2, Guang-you Yang3, Feng-zheng Chen2, Mei Tang1,2 and Gang Wang2
... lays foundation for the development of stigmasterol from the Eupatorium adenophorum Sprengas nontoxic and pollution-free pesticides that can be released to the environment. The toxicity test of stigmasterol against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro showed that stigmasterol was toxic under 0.5% concentration. Treatment under this condition also showed mite mortality of 16.67% within 12 h and 23.33% within 24 h. The insecticidal act...

1Parvin Noor and 2Md. Nashir Uddin

Morphological changes of different castes of the subterranean termites (Odontotermes proformosanus) in fungus combs of termitophiles
...erygote post-metamorphic development. During the period of study, eggs and nymphs were collected in different seasons from the fungus combs of termite mounds. Eggs of O. proformosanus were found profusely in fungus comb in the months of March, May, September and October of 2006 to 2008 Average lengths and standard deviation (mean±SD) of the eggs were (0.66 ± 0.09), width (0.04 ± 0.07) mm and egg shape ratio is 0.53. Eggs were mostly of bro...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...pport further growth and development of A. pedunculata up to flowering.

...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...relative humidity on the development of diseases like canker (Pestalotia psidii), anthracnose and die back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), stem canker and dry fruit rot (Botryodiplodia theobromae) and Phytophtora fruit rot (Phytophthora nicotianae var parasitica) of guava were analysed for predictive purpose from regression equations. The simple correlation coefficient matrix showed significantly positive correlation of canker severity with maximum relative ...

P. Barma and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal activity of fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq.) on pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) and weather relations
...ffects on the population development
 

 

...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...sequence there arose the development of resistance to pesticides, pest resurgence and undesirable pesticide residue in the made tea as the major problems. Current trends in eco-friendly insect pest management practices emphasize the host plant resistance, preparation and application methods of new botanicals and microbial pesticide formulations, evaluation of field bio-efficacy and conservation of biological agents, cultural control measures, genetic technique...

SK Fashi Alam, Atanu Seni and Ajoy K Sahoo

Biology of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) on sprouted potato and brinjal plant
...nd male nymphs completed development in 14.45± 0.96 days and 19.53±1 days, respectively on brinjal plant at 20-36.2° C temperature and 15.1±1 days and 18±0.82 days respectively on sprouted potato. The ratio of the male: female were 1:1.75 and 1:1.87. The duration from nymphs to adult female was 28 days on brinjal plant and 25 days on sprouted potato tubers. The pre-¬oviposition period was 6.37 ± 1.29 days and 6.89&plu...

Anjan Bhattacharyya, Suhrid Ranjan Barik & Pritam Ganguly

New pesticide molecules, formulation technology and uses: Present status and future challenges
...he prime motto for these developments is to give protection to the crops along with safety to the natural enemies of different pests as a whole safety to environment.
 

 

...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...is trial for methodology development. As a prelude to SSAPA we are comparing nine rice- and vegetable-based cropping sequences between improved and farmers’ practices in terms of five parameters, viz. crop growth and productivity, soil nutrient management, pest management, (BCA) biocontrol agent balance, and energy balance, economics ~ each with several variables. We are also providing ground and prepare to provide PA –specific data to the farmers....
Sadia Munir1a, Asif Nadeem1a*, Maryam Javed1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3 and Sidra Manzoor1 
...is involved in pituitary development and regulating the hormone expression in animals. In current study, Pit1 gene was screened for polymorphic sites in Sahiwal cattle. Samples from Sahiwal cattle breeds were sequenced using six set of primers. A total 15 polymorphisms; 12 in intronic and 3 in exonic region, were identified. The sequences of the amplified Pit1 gene fragments were aligned with the help of BLAST for SNPs identification. This is a f...
Burhan Azam1, Muhammad Naeem Tahir2,*, Faisal Shahzad2, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Abbas4, Madiha Gohar5 and Saima1
...the major hurdles in the development of livestock sector in Pakistan. To improve the poor quality roughages, exogenous fibrolytic enzyme may play important role by enhancing digestibility of fibre. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of varying level of fibrolytic enzyme in concentrate ration on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and composition, and diet digestibility in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Four lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes of 3rd
Muzammil Sattar
...periods and complete all developmental stages in shortest period of time. Insects reared on different concentrations of proteins. Insects rear on different diets compared on the basis of egg to adult survival, female (%) and pupal weight (g) with low and high protein concentrations.
...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2,*, Tanveer Hussain2, Rashid Saif2, Sadaf Rashid3, Hanan Sarfraz4, Abbas Ali Shah3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...ome possible role in OCD development in Punjabi patients.
...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...g agricultural and rural development of Pakistan through supervision and administration of agricultural activities. The current study was carried out to measure the level of competency of AEOs in skills regarding management of supervision and administration that is considered necessary in order to deal with farmers where a wide range of variations exists in their personalities and habits. A significant difference was reported in required and possessed competen...

Muhammad Ibrahim and Ahmad Khan*

... affects crop growth and development. Understanding the role of mulching techniques and nitrogen management in crop stand and phenological occurrence is not well understood. Therefore field studies were conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan to quantify the effects of mulching techniques and nitrogen management on maize (Zea mays L) phenology and crop stand in 2013 and 2014. Treatments included mulching techniques ...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Tasneem Hameed1, Muhammad Afzal2, Arshad Javid3, Nosheen Aslam4, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah6, Majid Hussain5, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1 and Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1
...sed diet can help in the development of sustainable aquaculture by reducing the feed cost and nutrient discharge through feces into the aquatic ecosystem.
...
Usman Waheed1,*, Humayoon Shafique Satti2, Muhammad Arshad3, Ahmed Farooq3, Abdul Rauf4 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer1,5
...th millennium development goal of halting and reversing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Syphilis increases the risk of HIV transmission by two to five times, and this co-infection is common among HRGs. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis among selected HRGs. During a period from September 2015 to February 2016, community-based sampling was done from 134 Hijra sex workers (HSW), 101 female sex workers (FSW), 104 ...

Kamran A. Awan1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal3

...otherwise extended grain development phase of the crop. Among varieties, Ghanemat-2015 showed better grain yield for a relatively longer duration i.e. December 5-15 over the others varieties. Atta-Habib also performed relatively better for sowing made on November 25 and Chakwal-50 on November 15. Overall GY reduced when wheat sowing postpones from December 5 in the season. Grains protein was observed high for sowing made on November 15-25 for wheat varieties ...
Tanveer Ahmad1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Azeem Khan2 and Shahid Zia3
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...possible role in the OCD development in Pakistani patients.
...
Mushtaq Ahmad1,*, Mehboob Ahmed1,2 and Nasim Ahmad1
...tilization and embryonic development. Different techniques have been used to determine the integrity of DNA in which acridine orange (AO) assay is easy and less costly. Though used in many species but the variability exists in technique. Therefore, the present study was aimed to optimize the steps of AO staining protocol for buffalo sperm which has not been explored yet. Semen was collected from two mature buffalo bulls, diluted in tris citrate egg yolk based ...
Umair Talib1*, Ijaz Ashraf1, Khalid Mahmood Chaudhary1, Riaz Ahmad2
...ension organizations and development of a strategy to enhance the effectiveness of extension work. The specific objectives were to ascertain the satisfaction smallholder rice growers regarding the extension work conducted by public and private extension organizations; to analyze the satisfaction of smallholder rice growers with public and private organizations; and to develop a strategy to enhance effectiveness of extension work. Gujranwala, being the lar...
Ambreen Butt1, Uzma Malik2, Khadija Waheed3, Amna Khanum3, Samar Firdous4, Sara Ejaz5 and Fawad Randhawa2, Tania Shakoori6*
...ctor and may predict the development of GDM.
...
Fang Wang, Yong-Fang Jia, Po Wang, Qi-Yan Du and Zhong-Jie Chang*

 

...n female and promote the development of testes in males. For the gonad differentiation related genes, the expression profiles of Cyp19A and Cyp19B show a pattern of increase in short time and low concentration, but decline in long time and high concentration. Arα has a trend of increases, ERα shows downwards trend. Dax and Foxl2 are female-biased genes, their expression profiles show similar trends to Cyp19A in ovary, but downwa...

Muhammad Sohail1, Muhammad Nauman-ul-Islam1, Hayazuddin2*, Imtiaz Ali Shah1, Abdur Raziq1, Subhan Ullah3 and Arsalan Ali Shah1

Aqsa Qayyum1*, Masooma Munir1, Saeeda Raza1, Mussarat Gillani1, Saima Kanwal1, Nouman Rashid1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Zarmina Gillani2
... water absorption, dough development time, dough stability, gluten content and falling no. values differed significantly (p < 0.01) among all the treatments of composite flour. Wet and dry gluten content decreased from 22.16 ± 1.58 % (T0) to 16.43 ± 1.32 % (T3) and 7.46 ± 0.47 % (T0) to 5.03 ± 0.38 % (T3) respectively. With increasing percent of pea flour in biscuits, moisture, carbohyd...
Masooma Munir1,2*, Aqsa Qayyum1, Saeeda Raza1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Sahar Shible1, Sohaib Afzal3, Saiqa Bashir4

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali* 

...ke immature embryos, the development of coleoptilar node is seasonal free and green house independent which would accelerate the work relevant to genetic transformation of maize. MS medium fortified with 3 mgL-1 BAP and 5 mgL-1 picloram produced maize seedlings with expanded coleoptilar nodes. Longitudinal cut sections of expanded coleoptilar nodes produced maximum primary calli on callus induction medium containing both 0.5mgL-1 2, 4-D and 1 mgL-1 picloram. E...

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...nditions including tumor development. The most important factor implicated in the angiogenic processes is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and its family of ligands and receptors (VEGFRs). Survival, proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells which give rise to the vascular network, is mediated through VEGF/VEGFR activation of the signal transduction pathways. Thus blocking VEGF is an efficient strategy for blocking tumor angiog...

Trinh Thi Viet Ha1, Pham Duy Liem2 and Li Shuang1* 

...is a large space for the development of rice trade between the two countries. Through further comparison of the comparative advantages of Chinese and Vietnamese rice products showed that the comparative advantage of China’s rice exports is greater in Vietnamese rice markets. Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index and Relative Trade Advantage Index (RTA) were used to understand the relative competitive advantages of China and Vietnam rice export. The ...
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
Xue-yang Wang1, Shang-zhi Zhang1, Ming-hui Liu2, Dong Yu1, Yan Ma1, Dong-qiong Fei1, Hai-zhong Yu1 and Jia-ping Xu1,*
...s in the early embryonic development, relatively high expression levels in the 1st day and 5th day of the pupa stage, and highest expression levels in the molting stage. What’s more, BmARM-like protein could be detected by immunofluorescence in all analyzed tissues, including head, midgut, hemolymph, fat body, testis and ovary. More importantly, the relatively high expression level of BmARM-like mRNA were observed in BC9 (nea...

Shaista Naz* and Noor Paio Khan 

...he study recommends that development of the livestock industries in Pakistan focus on establishing a viable market for dairy products, expanding the asset base for livestock production, and introducing a number of policy interventions focused on women. 

...

Haidar Ali* and Malik Muhammad Shafi 

...eed for initiating skill development programs. 

...
Qunhua Han1,2, Meiwen Zhang1,*, Cong Guo2, Xunjun Zhou1, Bo Li1 and Yong Wang1
...s to study the postnatal development of Yangtze voleMicrotus fortis calamorum from birth through approximately 3 months of age with respect to growth. Vole pups were randomized into litters of 1-2 (LD, low density), 3-5 (MD, medium density), and 6-9 (HD, high density) individuals, and the body weight, body length, tail length, and hind foot length were measured and curve-fitted by using Von Bertalanffy and Logistic equations. Instantaneous growth...
İbrahim Aytekin1,*, Ecevit Eyduran2, Koksal Karadas3, Rifat Akşahan4 and İsmail Keskin1
... breed standards, in the development of breeding strategies and especially in the detection of ideal fattening period for each breed under the condition.
...
Lihong Qin1, Guoliang Zhang1, Chaojie Zhu1, Jian Wu1, Zhihui Zhao2,* and Yumin Zhao1,*
...osis, and involve in the development of sperm. Meanwhile, DUSP4, PDK4 and FKBP1B were also found to participate in testis development and spermatogenesis. In this study, online software and luciferase reporter gene system were used to predict and verify the target relationship between miR-122 and DUSP4/PDK4, miR-449a and FKBP1B. Thereafter, comparison analysis was done on miR-122, mi...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2,* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...ptible population. Among developmental stages, the 4th instar larvae possessed higher microsomal enzyme activities than 6th instar larvae and adult beetles in all populations. The increased level of microsomal enzymes in phosphine-tolerant populations as compared to susceptible population has pointed some correlation between microsomal enzymes and phosphine tolerance.
...

SHARIF UDDIN, MD. HASIBUL HASAN, MOHAMMED MAHBUB IQBAL, MOHAMMAD AMZAD HOSSAIN

...ealed group asynchronous development. Microscopic observation on matured testes found spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa stages during the month of June and July.
 
...

Safdar Ali1*, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Shahid Mehmood2, Asim Gulzar3 , Ijaz Ahmad4 and Bashir Ahmad Khan5 

...nt was measured at wheat developmental stage relative to other stages (P ≤ 0.05). Soil porosity was significantly higher and bulk density was significantly lower under two statistically similar treatments, i.e. 1 MBP + 8 CS as well as 1 MBP + 4 CS.The wheat production was significantly affected by deep tillage systems having highest and statistically similar yield under the treatments,i.e. 1 MBP + 8 CS as well as 1 MBP + 4 CS. The regression analysis proved...

Warda Fatima1 , Shahida Hasnain1 , Saqib Mahmood2

 

...nt have roles in disease development. In the present study we selected a family withmultiple schizophrenic patients and have identified some reasons for disease development. It is estimated from study that in Pakistan there is gender bias in schizophrenia unlike the worldwide data because more of males are affected in the selected family. For the males the age at onset was higher compared to females and the affected individu...

Sajid Muhammad* and Fida Mohammad 

...n the agenda of cultivar development programs. Testing of genotypes across environments is required to determine yield stability of genotypes. The specific objective of the current study was to analyze genotype by environment interaction (GEI) of grain yield for 50 genotypes using GGE model. Germplasm was field-tested using alpha lattice design in two replications at Peshawar (E-1 and E-3), Hangu (E-2 and E-4) and Kohat (E-5) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakis...
RuiHua Zhang, YongFang Jia, TingTing Liang, QianWen Yang, QiYan Du and ZhongJie Chang*
...pite their importance in development, a relatively low number have been characterized for freshwater fish. In this study, we were able to gain three full-length SoxD sequences from transcriptome sequencing data of carp: CcSox5, CcSox6 and CcSox13 (Cyprinus carpio SoxD).These genes were verified by sequencing, blast and homology alignment. CcSoxD have two to four exons and encode a 780, 784 and 602 amino acid pro...
Abd El-Nasser Ahmed Mohammed*
...partially restored their developmental competence for producing ova. Such result might be helpful in assisted reproductive studies for treatment of infertility and conservation of species.
...
Saara Ahmad1,*, Iftikhar Ahmed2, Saida Haider3, Zehra Batool3, Fatima Ahmed4, Saiqa Tabassum3,6, Syeda Madiha3, Tahira Perveen3 and Saad Bilal Ahmed5
...rmones may result in the development of cysts in the ovaries with resultant difficulties in reproduction. The present study was done on 75 rats divided randomly in 5 equal groups fed with rat chow, caged chicken meat, uncaged chicken meat, raw spinach and soybean for a period of six weeks. The levels of plasma cholesterol, progestril, estradiol, and androgens were estimated at the end of the experiment. The ovaries of the rats were collected, weighed and histo...
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 

Muhammad Ijaz Khan* and Amanullah Jan 

...nment for the growth and development of crops, soil conditioners are used. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of soil conditioning and irrigation regimes on the performance of maize crop during 2011 and 2012. Four irrigation regimes ranging from 3-6 irrigation in relation to the critical stages of maize crop were applied. Irrigation consisted of 93 mm water. Three organic soil conditioners viz., farmyard manure (10000 kg ha-1), wheat straw as cr...

Wang Jian1, Abdur Rehman2*, Noor Khan3, Wang Zhengjia4, Ji Peng-fei5, Xie Cong6, Muhammad Niamatullah Khan Babar7 and Raheel Saqib8 

... can forecast the future development trend of rural households’ consumption structure and income level. By means of the positive analysis, the countermeasures and recommendations have been proposed to develop the rural economy and consumer market in Hebei Province. 

...
Justyna Batkowska1,*, Lukasz Wlazlo2, Kamil Drabik1, Bozena Nowakowicz-Debek2, Karrar I.A. Al-Shammari3 and Magdalena Gryzinska1
...in terms of reducing the development of microflora on the eggshell. Its use did not directly affect the hatching results and chick quality, however, they were similar to control groups, what may confirm possible use of GT juice as an alternative disinfection method.
...

Rahila Nizami1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Intzar Hussain3 and Khalid Rashid

... the need for leadership development in health professionals. This present a great challenge for health professionals to understand how their leadership behaviors affect the performance. Further research is required to provide more comparable evaluations in health sector leadership in diverse cohorts and the presented study provides the baseline to improve this feature in healthcare professionals. 

...

Ata-ul-Mohsin*, Ehsan-ul-Haq** and Muhammad Naeemullah*

...phorus on the growth and development of rose grain aphid, Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) and its parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Steph.). High calcium and high phosphorus concentrations applied to a partially resistant wheat cultivar “Rapier” did not have a significant effect on the growth and development of the aphid or its parasitoid. However, the mean fecundity of the parasitoid was higher on plants with...

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

...y;">This article reviews development, adoption and performance of Bt cotton against the background of monopoly pricing of its seed in Pakistan. The area under illegal Bt cotton is 80 % with nearly 36 unapproved varieties. Most of these varieties are Cotton leaf curl virus susceptible, poor in fiber quality and high input demanding unapproved varieties. Almost all these varieties employed Monsanto Cry1Acgene (MON 531) as it was not patented in Pakistan. A posit...

Zaheer Ahmad, M. Yaqub Mujahid, M. Anwar Khan, Shaheena Yasmin, M. Asif and Maqsood Qamar*

...bad have resulted in the development of a wheat variety suited for rainfed areas of Pakistan. NR-268 was selected from an exotic germplasm nursery (INQYT 2003-04) received from CIMMYT, Mexico. It was evaluated for five years in different trials. It was first tested in advance yield trial conducted at NARC, then in Micro Yield Trials conducted at nine locations by BARI, Chakwal and finally it was evaluated in National Uniform Yield Trials conducted in rainfed e...

 Muhammad Asim, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Munir* and Muhammad Aslam**

...as observed at different developmental phases of root nodules. Leaves of NODI-3 retained more radioactivity as compared to Williams-82 in inoculated as well as uninoculated plants. The stem and roots of Williams-82 plants had a percent distribution of ABA that was higher than NODI-3. The phloem sap of Williams-82 had higher accumulation of 3H-ABA at all stages after treatment. The basal levels of ABA in phloem sap were lower in NODI- 3 than in Williams-82. Ino...

Hassnain Shah, Hina Riaz, Nadeem Akmal , Muhammad Sharif* and Abdul Majid**

Liaqat Ali Shahid, M. Azhar Saeed and Nadeem Amjad*

... at federal level on the development and promotion of oilseed crops. More precisely, Oilseeds Programme is working on the development of new varieties and their promotion. ABEI in addition to other mandatory assignments is looking after the new production technologies for oilseed crops. PODB is responsible for the promotional field activities related to oilseeds such as introduction of new varieties and production technologi...

 Ghulam Shabbir*, Muhammad Aftab, Abid Mahmood** Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah* and Nasir Mahmood Cheema***

...ders has resulted in the development of a high yielding and drought tolerant elite line SPS-5, selected from the segregating progenies of a cross between Ganyou-4 x Westar. Breeding was carried out by the pedigree method and the elite line was evaluated for its yield potential in various yield trials conducted at BARI, Chakwal from 1994 to 1998. Based on the desirable phenotypic traits and superior seed yield, SPS-5 was approved as a rapeseed variety “Ch...

 Zaheeruddin Mirani*and Aslam Memon**

...ts rather farmers’ development. Agricultural suppliers/ dealers of the pesticide/fertilizer product sales were the most influential persons of the area as indicated by the farmers. Agricultural supplier/dealer makes all the decisions of the farmers regarding the use of pesticide/fertilize and/or seeds and other related inputs/products available in the market. Farm visits and result and method demonstration methods of technology transfer were perceived as...

Muhammad Athar Khan1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Syed Amir Gilani3 and Ifrah Bukhari4 

...tion of the risk for the development of disease among the exposed than the non exposed subjects. Leptospirosis is a public health zoonotic disease which is widely present in tropical and sub tropical areas. This study concludes that there is a strong association of rice cultivation with Leptospirosis. It is recommended that rice cultivators should protect their body parts with gloves or boots as prevention is the most appropriate way to control any disease.&nb...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1*, Rehmat Ullah1, Asif Nawaz1 and Ejaz Ashraf2 

... towards the sustainable development. Five districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa such as Mansehra, Dir Lower, Swat, Dera Ismail Khan and Swabi were the sampled districts and 80 farmers registered with Farm Services were randomly selected from each district. Thus, sample size was making a total of 400 respondents. Primary data were collected with the help of pre-tested interview schedule through personal interview method. The results of this research study revealed t...

Akhlaq Ahmad, M. Anwar Arain*, Rahila Nazli**, Syed Anser Rizvi***,
Mubarik Ahmed* and Farzana Ibrahim****

Corresponding author: dr.akhlaqahmad@yahoo.com

COST EFFECTIVENESS OF UNDER-SHEET AND WHOLE GODOWN FUMIGATION OF BAGGED WHEAT

Arshed Bashir *, Shamsheer-Ul-Haq**, Mazher Abbas*, M. Aamir Munir** and Aneela Afzal***

Corresponding author:ssrifaisalabad@gmail.com

IMPACT OF SUGARCANE MILLS DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES ON CANE PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB
... the sugar mills started development activities in their surrounding areas for promoting cultivation of high yielding and more sugar recovery varieties to overcome this problem. Present study was planned to estimate the profitability of sugarcane crop among both beneficiary and non-beneficiary farms of these development activities. Detailed data were collected from 100 randomly selected growers (50 beneficiaries and 50 non-b...

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah and Shahid Masood**

Corresponding author: shazia_rm@yahoo.com

PHENOTYPIC VARIATION AMONG MENTHA SPP.
...ful for exploitation and development of natural agricultural resources on scientific grounds.

...

 Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Umar Farooq, Nadeem Akmal*, Shahid Munir and Bashir Hussain**

POTENTIAL FOR INVESTMENT IN INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGIES: A CASE OF LOW COST SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION STRUCTURES IN RAINFED POTHWAR, PAKISTAN
...ral and natural resource development. To develop appropriate technologies for increasing land productivity through soil and water conservation, applied research has been carried out during 2001-07 in the rainfed Pothwar area. Low cost soil and water conservation structures were developed and demonstrated in the area. The investment appraisal based on the cost incurred and benefits realized by the farmers recorded through assessment survey revealed that the tec...

 Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Mike Copland**

INFLUENCE OF THREE CONSTANT AND TWO RHYTHMICALLY FLUCTUATING TEMPERATURE REGIMES ON THE LIFE-TABLE PARAMETERS OF BROWN LACEWING SYMPHEROBIUS FALLAX
...high fecundity, and fast development rates are important predators in many agricultural systems. Life tables of S. fallax were constructed at 20°C, 24°C, 28°C and rhythmically fluctuating temperature regimes from 16°C to 24°C and 24°C to 32°C. Studies were carried out describing survival, reproduction and development of S fallax. Survival was positively temperature dependent. Sex ratio was not aff...

 Javed Khan, Ehsan-ul-Haq, Naheed Akhtar, Waseem Ahmad Gillani*, Naila Assad**, M.Asif Masood and Irum Raza*

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF IMMATURE STAGES OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON RICE MEAL MOTH, CORCYRA CEPHALONICA EGGS
...respectively. The larval developmental duration were 11.9±0.13, 9.7±0.31, 8.2±0.14 and pupal duration were 9.2±0.10, 8.3±0.10 and 6.8±0.07 days at three temperatures respectively. Biological cycle of immature stages were 26.0±0.13, 21.8 ±0.08 and 18.0±0.56 days, respectively with total survival rate from egg to adult emergence of 82%, 68% and 42% at the respective temperature. The results indicate ...

 Muhammad Yaqoob*, Rukhsana Anjum, Mumtaz Hussain and Muhammad Jahangir Shah**

GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS AND CHARACTER ASSOCIATION IN SOME CHINESE HYBRID RICE UNDER DRY CONDITIONS
...ossibly overcome through development of high yielding drought tolerant varieties. A field study was therefore, conducted to evaluate the performance of 10 hybrid rice along with two high yielding varieties under drought conditions at Arid Zone Research Institute (AZRI), Bahawalpur. The experiment was designed in RCBD with three replications. The crop was maintained under moisture stress conditions. The data on various plant traits including, days to panicle in...

 Asrar Ali*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Abdul Rehman***, Javed Khan, Waseem Ahmad Gillani** and Maria Rauf*

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF MENOCHILUS SEXMACULATUS FAB. (COLEOPTERA:COCCINELLIDAE) AT VARYING TEMPERATURE ON RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI L.
...mperature regimes on the development and predatory potential of M. sexmaculatus reared on Rhopalosiphum padi. The egg incubation period of predator beetle was 4.16, 3.66 and 2.24 days at 22±1°C, 28 1°C and 34 1°C, respectively. Mean fecundity was 430.53, 548.67 and 432.43 eggs, respectively. Percentage egg hatchability of the predator was significantly higher at 28±1°C. The total larval duration of predator was 9.47, 7.70 and 5.49...

 Rizwana Sultan*, Javed Khan, Ehsan ul Haq, Tariq Mehmood**, Roshan Zada Khattak***, and Naheed Akhtar**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF TRICHOGRAMMA CHILONIS ISHII (TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) FEEDING ON SITOTROGA CEREALELLA EGGS AT THREE CONSTANT TEMPERATURES
...mn;1 °C. The maximum developmental duration (9.6 ± 0.32 days) and adult longevity (4.3 ± 0.38 days) was at 24 ±1 °C while minimum was 7.4 ±0.36 and 2.0 ±0.56 days at 32 ± 1 °C. The results indicate that temperature has a significant effect on the biological parameters of Trichogramma and with increasing temperature developmental duration decreased. Similarly effect of hos...

 Maria Rauf*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Javed Khan**, Abdul Rehman***, Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Asrar Ali**

BIOLOGY AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTATA LINN. ON SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM APHID UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS
... increasing temperature, developmental duration decreases significantly. The pupal developmental duration was 14.0, 9.2 and 5.2 days, respectively which are significantly different from each other. The adult male and female longevity were 44.7, 37.7, 30.0 and 60.3, 58.9 and 43.7 days. Fecundity rate of females were 123.5, 251.5 and 293.2 eggs per female, respectively. This indicates that adult male and female

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Sonila Hassan**

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF CAMEL PRODUCTS IN SEMIDESERT AND DESERT AREAS OF PAKISTAN
...camel products' markets, development of proper marketing system and structure for camel products by involving camel farmers and other local stakeholders is recommended to benefit the local communities by ameliorating supply of camel products in local markets.

...

 Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Muhammad Yasin Mirza*, Muhammad Amjad*, Nazakat Nawaz*, Malik Shah Nawaz* and Doulat Baig*

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN GERMPLASM OF LINSEED ( L.)
...g 11 accessions. For the development of high yielding varieties, best performing accessions of Clusters I and II could be used in hybridization programme by crossing with accessions of Clusters VII, VIII, IX and X followed by selection in segregating populations.

...

 Khawer Jawad Ahmad*, Asif Razzaq*, Khalida Hamid Abbasi*, Muhammad Shafiq*, Muhammad Saleem** and Muhammad Arshadullah***

THYMOL AS CONTROL AGENT OF MITES (VARROA DESTRUCTOR) ON HONEYBEES (APIS MELLIFERA)
...may be attributed to the development of resistance against fluvalinate strip.

...

 Javed Khan*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Habib Iqbal Javed*, Tariq Mahmood*,
Awais Rasool*, Naheed Akhtar and Saleem Abid**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON WHEAT APHID SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
... 87.0% hatchability. The developmental duration of first, second and third instar larvae were 3.2 ± 0.13, 4.0±0.21 and 4.8±0.25 days, respectively. The total larval developmental duration was 12.0 ±0.67 days with 85.05% survival rate of larvae. The larval predatory potential was 414.6±0.05 aphid per larvae. The total duration and survival rate from egg to adult emergence was 24.6± 0....

Tanzila Kazmi*, Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry*, Aftab Ahmed** and Shaheer Ellahi Khan**

FARMERS BELIEFS ABOUT INDIGENOUS FARMING PRACTICES AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
...sustainable agricultural development. During the study a mixture of qualitative techniques including interview guide(s), focus group discussions (FGDs) and case study were used. The study revealed that indigenous knowledge is a long term process and demands a complete approach to achieve destined goals. On the other hand it was also found that the lack of knowledge is a hindrance to achieve required outcome(s) from modern techniques. Thus, the public institute...

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi*, Abdul Jabbar** and Sajida Taj*** 

FINANCIAL PROFITABILITY OF WHITE SUGAR PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...s are required to ensure development of improved varieties of sugarcane with higher sucrose recovery. Effective measures are needed for disease control and optimal pesticide use. Adequate supply of water, optimal use of fertilizer and judicious use of pesticides can improve yield and hence higher financial profitability.

...

 Maqsood Qamar*, S. Dilanawaz Ahmad Gardazi**, Riaz-ud-Din*, Muhammad Sohail* and Syed Haider Abbas*

PARTIAL RESISTANCE TO STRIPE RUST AND ITS EFFECT ON SUSTAINABILITY OF WHEAT YIELD
...at showed a slow disease development (low DS and AUDPC), could be considered as -1 partially resistant for stripe rust infection. The yield (2178 kg ha ) of susceptible check cultivar Inqalab-91 during 2007 was reduced to 45% as -1 compared to its yield (3945 kg ha ) in epidemic free year (2008). Thus the use of these partially resistant cultivars/lines in hybridization programme or their cultivation can considerably reduce yield losses incurred by stripe rust...

 Frasat Saeed*, Jehanzeb Farooq*, Abid Mahmood**, Tassawar Hussain***, Muhammad Riaz* and Saghir Ahmad****

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN UPLAND COTTON FOR COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE, EARLINESS AND FIBER QUALITY
...ould be utilized for the development of CLCuD resistant lines with increased seed cotton and lint yields with desirable fiber quality.

...

 Gul Zamin Khan*, Imtiaz Ali Khan**, Inamullah Khan* and Mian Inayatullah**

OUTDOOR BREEDING OF MOSQUITO SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...istan during 2012-13 for development of ultimate control strategies of mosquito breeding in outdoor habitats. Larvae were collected from various mosquito breeding habitats such as irrigation channels, irrigation water leakages, pots, vase, tyres, temporary containers stagnant flood waters, etc. Ovitraps were used as monitoring tools in urban areas of the selected sites. Results showed that mosquitoes are active throughout the year with their most active season...

 Hassnain Shah*, Nadeem Akmal*, Waqas Farooq*, Muhammad Azeem Khan* and Shahid Munir**

SHIFT FROM SITE DEVELOPMENT TO SKILL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF WATER HARVESTING THROUGH MICRO CATCHMENTS
...eed of a shift from site development to skill development. The same was derived as an important recommendation during assessment and evaluation of different demonstration and dissemination activities being conducted under Watershed Project. This shift could catalyze the technology adoption. 

...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai*, Amer Mumtaz*, Nouman Rashid*, Shahzada Arshad Saleem**, Saeeda Raza* and Muhammad Naeem Safdar*

COMPARISON OF INDIGENOUSLY DEVELOPED TANGERINE-ORANGE MARMALADE WITH BRANDED MARMALADES AVAILABLE AT LOCAL MARKETS

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi* and Abdul Jabbar**

SEAFOOD EXPORTS: CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD
...ward for the sustainable development of seafood resources development in the country.

...

 Usman Shakoor*, Abdul Saboor*, Irfan Baig*, Anila Afzal** and Abdul Rahman***

CLIMATE VARIABILITY IMPACTS ON RICE CROP PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN

 Muhammad Aamir Khan*, Abdul Saboor*, Rauf-i-Azam**, Abdul Qayyum Mohsin* and Fayyaz-ul-Hassan***

IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE LIBERALIZATION ON INCOME INEQUALITY IN PAKISTAN
...y element in sustainable development. Liberalized Trade has been adopted by many developing countries to increase economic growth and therefore reducing poverty. In this backdrop, the current study evaluates the impact of Pakistan’s agricultural trade liberalization using a modified Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) framework. The newly developed MyGTAP program was used to modify the Pakistan’s data in the Global GTAP Database and Standard GTAP ...

 Syeda Aimen Hadi*, Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry*, Aftab Ahmed** and Shaheer Ellahi Khan***

PERCEPTION, APPROACHES AND PRACTICES OF LOCAL FARMING AND DEVELOPMENT: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH
...ng and implementation of development projects. These approaches are representative of a particular ecological, social, economical, and political system, shaped by the constraints and opportunities associated to the area. Effective and successful development projects must include the local perceptions, their approaches and practices, as the locals are the ones most representative of their issues and have the most workable sol...

 Ibrar Ali*, Abdul Mateen Khattak*, Muhammad Ali* and Kalim Ullah**

PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT TOMATO CULTIVARS UNDER ORGANIC AND INORGANIC REGIMES

 Saima Kanwal*, Saeeda Raza*, Khalid Naseem*, Muhammad Amjad*, Naseem Bibi* and Musarrat Gillani*

DEVELOPMENT, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BISCUITS SUPPLEMENTED WITH PUMPKIN SEEDS TO COMBAT CHILDHOOD MALNUTRITION IN PAKISTAN

 Anwar Hussain* and Muhammad Rahman**

ROLE OF TRAININGS ON FARMERS' PROFITABILITY OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF DISTRICT SWAT, KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA

 Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Tariq Hassan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saleem Abid*, Irum Raza* and Saqib Shakeel Abbasi*

ASSESSMENT OF THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING COURSE UNDER WATERSHED PROJECT AT FATEHJANG FIELD STATION, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

Sumia Bint Zaman*, Waqas Farooq*, Sidra Majeed*, Hasnain Shah*, and Abdul Majid**

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICE PROVIDERS' TRAINING ON WATER CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES IN POTHWAR REGION
... participatory and skill development oriented and as 96% agreed or strongly agreed that these were helpful in starting the business as assessment of agriculture service providers (ASPs). It can be concluded that the necessary condition has been fulfilled for water conservation. However, for assessing the impact of these skills towards water conservation technologies needs to be investigated in short and long term scenarios. Therefore, for fulfilling the suffic...

 Tasawar Sultana*, Farah Deeba* and S.M. Saqlan Naqvi*

HIGH-THROUGHPUT AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA IN COMPARISON TO TWO EXPRESSION VECTORS
...analysis resulted in the development of efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols. In current study, M. truncatula transformed plants expressing OsRGLP1 were obtained through GATEWAY technology using pGOsRGLP1 (pH7WG2.0::OsRGLP1). The transformation efficiency of this vector was compared with expression vector from pCAMBIA series over-expressing same gene (pCOsRGLP1). A lower number of explants generated hygromycin resistant plantlet for instan...

 Ishaq Ahmad*, Abdul Rehman**, Ehsan –Ul- Haq*** and Arif Mahmood****

RESISTANCE RESPONSE OF RICE ( L.) GERMPLASM AGAINST RICE LEAF FOLDER ( G.) UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITION IN PAKISTAN
...tate the breeders in the development of leaf folder resistant varieties in future.

...

 Ummad-ud-Din Umar*, Muhammad Aslam Khan**, *Ateeq-urRehman*, Abdul Hannan***, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi*, Azhar Ali Khan****, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar****

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF POTATO LEAF ROLL VIRUS DISEASE PREDICTION MODEL BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS FOR FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN
...ctor variables for model development. In stepwise regression analysis minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall emerged as the main contributing environmental variables for disease development. The model performance was evaluated based on coefficient of determination (R ) and the comparison of observed and predicted disease incidence. Model so developed explained 70% of the variability in disease

 Arshia Naeem*, Maria Anjum*, Mariam Rehman*, Zahid Mahmood** and Muhammad Asif Kamran**

AN INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM TO FACILITATE FARMERS IN WHEAT, SUGARCANE AND OTHER CROP DISEASES IDENTIFICATION
...es agriculture and rural development with information communication technology (ICT). In developing countries such as Pakistan, economy largely depends on agriculture. Therefore, the need to move from conventional ways of farming to easy, effective and efficient smart solutions are required to minimize yield losses in crop plants. An integrated application to facilitate farmers to communicate their crop related issues directly to agriculture scientists is prop...

 Asif ullah Khan*, Faizan Ullah*, Sultan Mehmood*, Muhammad Irshad* and Farhat Ullah Khan**

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF L. PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS
...germination and seedling development of L. Extracts were applied at 25%, 20%, 15%, 10% and 5% as seed soaking for 8 hours prior to sowing. Phenolics compounds were found in aqueous extracts and were higher in 25% extract (52.72 mg gallic acid eq. / gm of extract). Higher concentration of the extract (25%) significantly decreased seed germination (%), seed germination index, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, ...
Dachuan Cheng1,2, Md Mahbubul Hassan3, Zhenhua Ma1, 2, 3,*, Qibin Yang1 and Jian G. Qin3
...DPH). The axial skeleton development started with the formation of neural arches at 3.64 ± 0.07 mm (10 DPH) and ossification of axial skeleton completed at 11.01 ± 0.88 mm (24 DPH). The fins developed sequentially and the ossification of fins completed at 30.57 ± 2.44 mm (36 DPH). A total of 39.5% fish exhibited anomalies in the present study and the anomalies were: lordosis, vertebral fusion, neural spines bifurcation, connection of adjac...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Arshad1, Rashid Mahmood2,* and Ziyad Abdul Qadir2
...i>that badly affects the development and performance of bees. Main objective of our study was to assess the effectiveness of five synthetic acaricides (Bayvarol®, Apivar®, Apistan® Apitol® and Perizin®) against V. destructor in infested colonies of A. mellifera in Langstroth standard hives. Four hives were selected for each acaricide and one group of four hives was left un...
Aitezaz Ahsan1*, Muhammad Usman1, Ihsan Ullah2, Aamer Bin Zahur3 and Adnan Rasheed Malik4
...w article focuses on the development of different molecular diagnostic assays from conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcriptase loop mediated isothermal amplification over the last decade. These diagnostic assays vary in their sensitivity, specificity, reliability and reproducibility. Although these assays are detecting PPRV with precision but there is need t...
Asmatullah1, Chaman Ara1,*, Shagufta Andleeb2, Maha Tahir1, Beenish Zahid1 and Madeeha Arshad1
... a therapeutic effect on developmental anomalies induced by cadmium exposure in prenatal mice.

 

...
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Ali Murad Jakhar3, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo3
...ot yet available and the development and use of EPN mainly depends on the use of host insects such as greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) for in vivo production. Since G. mellonella may not always be available, therefore, yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) could be an alternative host. Therefore, in the present studies recovery of two EPN (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) from T. molitor...
Wei Dang1, Ning Xu1, Wen Zhang1, Jing Gao2, Handong Fan1 and Hongliang Lu 1,*
...ctor associated with the development and survival of ectotherms. To minimize the effect of temperature variation, ectotherms have developed specific physiological and biochemical adaptations. Heat shock proteins and other molecular chaperones play specific physiological roles in such thermal adaptation. Here, we analyzed heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression in six lizard species to investigate the variation in Hsp70 response contributing to thermal adaptat...

Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Abdul Malik2*, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak2, Naveedullah1, Naeem Ijaz3 and Ishaq Ahmad4 

...nd water aquifer through development of small dams in the catchments plain. 

...
Nazish Imran 
...ctive and able to tackle developmental challenges adequately.(4) On the other hand, poor mental health in young age is associated with school failure, delinquency, social and peer problems, substance misuse alongside adverse outcomes in adulthood. 
...
Shagufta Andleeb*1, Shabana Shaukat1, Chaman Ara2
...y was to analyze various developmental abnormalities by a sub-lethal dose of cadmium chloride and protective role of garlic (Allium sativum), to minimize the intensity of these toxicities. For this purpose, fertilized eggs of Gallus domesticus were randomly divided into four groups of forty eggs each. Control group was intact and untreated. Eggs of one group were injected with a sub-lethal dose of cadmium chloride (1.5 µg/egg) in albumin on...
Song Jiang1,2, Fa-lin Zhou3, Jian-hua Huang1, Qi-bin Yang1, Li-shi Yang1 and Shi-gui Jiang1,*
...lation on feeding, gonad development, and energy conversion of Penaeus monodon broodstock. An experiment of 30 days was carried out on broodstock (average body length 28.4 ± 0.95 cm, average body weight 96.7±6.48 g) with (treatment) or without eyestalk ablation (control), cultivated under a water temperature of 27.0±1.5 °C, salinity of 30–32, pH of 8.0–8.3, and light intensity of 1000 lx. Results showed that food con...

Hamza Khan1, Safdar Ali1, Ijaz Ahmad*2, Ihsanullah Khan3, Shujaat Hussain1, Bashir Ahmad Khan4 and Muhammad Suhaib5  

Muhammad Suhaib1, Ijaz Ahmad2*, Masooma Munir3, Muhammad Bilal Iqbal4 , Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 and Safdar Ali6 

...nterfere the normal crop development. Wheat is an important cereal crop and salinity is also affecting the growth and yield of this crop. While salicylic acid is found to play a helpful role in supporting the plant growth and development under salt stress. Keeping in view these factors a hydroponic experiment was conducted on wheat with two levels of salicylic acid (0.25 mM and 0.50 mM) under two salt levels (75 mM and 150 m...
Mousa O. Germoush1,*, Mohsen G. Al-Mutary2, Ahmad R. Al-himaidi3, Muath G. Al-Ghadi3, Daisaku Iwamoto3,4, Yousef Al-anazi3, Aiman Ammari3, Javed Ahmad3,5, Abdulaziz Al-Khedhairy3,5
...tion and early embryonic development after in vitro fertilization. Sheep follicular fluid (SFF) was collected from different ovaries and supplemented to the in vitro maturation (IVM) media with proportions 0%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Oocyte maturation was assessed in different treatments and then cumulus-oocyte complexes were used for in vitro fertilization. Relative quantitative expression of mRNA transcripts related to apoptosis (Bax and Bcl-2...

Safdar Ali1*, Obaidullah Shafique1, Tariq Mahmood2, Muhammad Amir Hanif1, Ijaz Ahmed3 and Bashir Ahmad Khan

...ulture production is the development of insect-resistant varieties by DNA transfer in the plants or nanoparticle-mediated gene. Biofuel production from biomass is estimated to speed up using nanotechnology. Researchers and manufacturers have to demonstrate that the application of nanotechnologies have no harmful effect on the atmosphere against the anomaly based only on small amounts of toxicological research and concerns about the safety of nanomaterials.

...
Ambrina Hafiz1, Tanzeela Riaz2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1,*

 

...t since 2001). Different developmental stages possessed different levels of esterase activities. Based on the level of activities the adult beetles were more susceptible to deltamethrin than 4th and 6th instar larvae. The increased level of esterases contributes towards resistance against pesticide in stored grain pests.
...

Muhammad Adnan Khan1*, Majid Suhail Hashmi1, Ali Muhammad1, Muhammad Muneeb1, Haris Bilal1 and Gul Wali

Samiullah*, Mohammad Aslam Khan and Atta-ur-Rahman  

...on land consolidation or development control, it is hard to see any expected change in landholding and farm fragmentation and continued invasion of farmland by urban uses. 

...
Muhammad Zameer Kayani1,*and Tariq Mukhtar2
...ps, the reproductive and developmental rates of the nematode must be assessed on these cultivars. As there is meager information on the reproductive potential of Meloidogyne incognita on different cucumber cultivars commonly cultivated in Pakistan, therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the reproductivity of M. incognita on fifteen cucumber cultivars with varying levels of resistance and susceptibility. Significant differen...
Guifen Liu1,2, Xiaomu Liu1,2, Khuram Shahzad3, Wei You1,2, Juan J. Loor3,* and Fachun Wan1,2,4,*
...AR, are important during development of the adipose tissue. These data indicate that future research should emphasize the study of key genes related to synthesis, metabolism, and growth of adipose tissue during development. This will allow to determine the functional relevance of the genes and pathways uncovered.
...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2

Muhammad Rehan Aslam1, Muhammad Maqsood1, Zahoor Ahmad2*, Sajjad Akhtar3, Muhammad Rizwan4 and Muhammad Usama Hameed

...ts to crops at different development stages can enhance their yield and also adjust water stress levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of foliar applied magnesium sulphate and irrigation scheduling on the quality and yield of maize (Zea mays). Maximum cob weight without sheath (253.38 g), number of grains per cob (472.49), 1000-grains weight (265.99 g), biological yield (13.08 t ha-1), grain yield (5.05 t ha-1), harvest i...

Rizwana Qamar1, Maria Ghias1, Fida Hussain1, Sajida Habib1, Muhammad Khuram Razzaq2*, Muhammad Aslam1 and Imran Habib3 

Saeed Ullah1, Amanullah Jan1, Murad Ali2*, Wiqar Ahmad3, Hafeez Ur Rehman2, Muhammad Ishaq2 and Bilal Ahmad2  

Tanzim Ullah Khan1*, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Ahmad Khan1, Gulzar Ahmad2, Muhammad Ishaq2, Khilwat Afridi2, Murad Ali2, Muhammad Adeel Qureshi2, Imtiaz Ahmad3 and Muhammad Saeed2  

Muhammad Anwar Iqbal1, Habib Rehman2, Ali Hussain3,*, Faiza Jabeen4, Ijaz Ahmad2, Kamran Ashraf5, Muhammad Irshad Arshad6 and Omaima Khan7
Ayesha Noreen1, Dilara A. Bukhari2 and Abdul Rehman1,*
... might be useful for the development of biomarkers and therapeutic strategies. The objective of this review was to summarize the roles of ROS in different stages of cancer, cell invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis.
...
Madeeha Arshad1, Asmatullah1, Chaman Ara1, Shagufta Andleeb2 and Naveed Ahmad3,*
...ity of TMP-SMX to induce developmental defects in mice fetuses. Different concentrations of the drug, 0.00, 4.10, 8.33 and 16.66 µg/g B.W. were administered orally to the dams on days 6-12 of gestation, and fetuses were recovered on day 18. Morphological observations of fetuses from 4.10, 8.33 and 16.66 µg/g B.W. dose groups showed abnormalities such as skin hemorrhages, microphthalmia, limb deformities, hygromas, kyphosis, curved and short tail an...
Azmat Hayat Khan Khattak1, Muhammad Nauman ul Islam1, Muhammad Shakir Khan1, Muhammad Iqbal1, Imtiaz Ali Shah1,Sheeraz Ghani1, Amjad Ali2, Zubina Hameed1, Mohammad Farooque Hassan3 and Tariq Ali1,3,*
Ansar Ahmed Abbasi1,*, Kathrin Blasius2-4, Imtiaz Ahmed6, Hao Hu7, Sylvie Picker-Minh2-4,8, Muhammad Nasim Khan5, Khalid Hameed1, Aneela Gulnaz1, Zahid Latif5, Abdul Rauf5 and Angela M. Kaindl2-4,8
...ly (MCPH) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe reduction in the brain volume that affects especially the neocortex, and intellectual disability. To date 17 genes have been linked with this disease. Biallelic mutations in the abnormal spindle-like, microcephaly associated gene ASPM causes MCPH type 5, the most common MCPH subtype. In the current study we recruited two families from Sialkot region of Pakistan which were assessed b...

Fiaz Ahmad1, Mumtaz Hussain2, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

...stify;">Plant growth and development are adversely affected by different abiotic stress especially lead and water stress. Therefore, present study was conducted with the aim to investigate the response of two mungbean varieties to three different Pb2+ concentrations under two water stress conditions. Different morpho-physiological and yield traits were studied. Both varieties showed gradual reduction in morphological traits at increasing concentration of lead ...

Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde, Adeyemi Esther Omoniwa and Miriam Ukemenam 

... Nigerian Government and development institutions over the years to bridge the gender gap in schooling among children and increase enrolment in schools, most children are still found outside the walls of the classroom especially in rural areas. This research assessed how inequality in gender as it regards schooling among children affects the income as an indicator of livelihood of farming households in Kwara state, Nigeria. A sampling technique comprising of t...
Safia Rehman1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1,*, Gerald B. Pier2, Iram Liaqat1 and Bushra Mazhar1
...is study may help in the development of chemotherapeutic methods against multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in chronic and acute lung infections. It provides a practical approach towards the use of nanoparticles to enhance antimicrobial activity against these pathogens.
...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2, Sumaira Maqsood3, Ishita Ahuja4 and Atle M. Bones4

Ali Sher1*, Khalid Naveed1, Gulzar Ahmad2, Ayub Khan1, Muhammad Saeed1 and Shah Masaud1 

...ients for the growth and development of plant. Improving N availability to plants improve biomass production and also increase the shoot Fe content and accumulation of Zn in wheat plants. Experiments were conducted at the Cereal Crop Research Institute (CCRI) Pirsabak, Noweshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 2014-15 and 2015-16 to study the response of wheat to N, Zn and Fe application. Treatments included three levels of N (90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1), th...

Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus1*, Olabode Mayowa Peter2, Muhammad Adamu Abbas3 and Mohammed Dauda Goni

...re resistance genes. The development of resistance in bacteria predates the era of antibiotic use. However, resistance developments in S. aureus have been reported since the early 1940-ties, when penicillin resistant S. aureus was first reported. Ever since, this pathogen has gain global notoriety as the most common cause of nosocomial, community and livestock associated infection. The mechanism of resistance
Shafaq Fatima*, Sumrin Sahar and Khalid Lone
...ferent stages of gonadal development. T and 11-KT played key role in progress of testicular development and final maturation in June however, spawning in captivity was not observed. Role of P and 17α-HP was identified more as substrate of sex steroids. Higher levels of sex steroids suppressed the synthesis of cortisol presumably interfering with pituitary-inter-renal axis.
...

Tariq Aziz1, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil1, Quaid Hussain1,3*, Tariq Shah2,3, Nazir Ahmad1 and Amir Sohail1 

...ced further for possible development of high yielding wheat cultivars. 

...

Muhammad Abu Sufyan Ali, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Ghaffar Ali and Muhammad Fayaz 

...d diversion of funds for development of agricultural infrastructure. Provision of subsidized inputs could help in raising farmer’s return from agriculture and changing their perception in favor of using their lands for crops and livestock production 

...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Bushra Hassan2, Nadeem Anwar2, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel3 and Shafique-ur-Rehman

...current concept of rural development is linked to economic welfare of rural people. It involves uplifting of certain indicators of development and satisfying the needs of fragile groups of rural communities. This study examined socio-economic factors of rural life which contribute in economic prosperity. A list of union councils and villages in tehsil Sargodha was obtained from local district office of the Population Welfare...

Bushra Qadir1, Muhammad Asim2 and Mohammad Akmal1* 

...cted focusing growth and development in early spring for alfalfa. 

...

Shaista Naz1*, Noor Paio Khan1, Naveed Afsar2 and Ashfaq Ahmad Shah3

...agement but also for the development of domesticated livestock enterprise in the study area 

...

Monsif Ur Rehman1*, Hidayat-ur-Rahman1, Muhammad Iqbal2, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil1 and Zahir Shah3 

...a source for inbred line development as well as cost-effective alternatives to single-cross hybrids. This study was aimed at determining combining ability and grain yield performance of S1 lines derived from ten maize populations. These populations were crossed in half diallel design and the resulting 45 cross combinations were further explored for their use as source of elite inbred line development in a line × tester...
Tahira Jamil*1, Mohammad Asghar1, Fatma Husain1, Haq Nawaz Bhatti2
... factors involved in the development of cardio vascular diseases. Lovastatin is formed as secondary metabolic intermediate initiated by anion moiety (acetate) through polyketide chain reactions. The current work was put away to investigate the potency of Pleurotus strains for statin formation by cultivating them on lignocellulosic substrates (wheat straw, rice straw, banana stalk) in SSF for 8 days. Among Pleurotus species (P. nebrodensis,...

Mohsin Iqbal1, Farid Asif Shaheen1*, Farah Naz2, Muhammad Usman Raja2, Muhammad Fiaz3 and Muhammad Nadeem1 

...ant contribution towards development of commercial formulations of bio-pesticides to be used against this grain beetle and other stored product insect pests. 

...

Umair Riaz1*, Muhammad Ali Kharal2, Ghulam Murtaza3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Sana Javaid4, Hina Ahmed Malik3, Humera Aziz3 and Zafar Abbas1 

...y upset plant growth and development via nutrient deficiencies, hormonal imbalances, ion toxicity as well as osmotic and oxidative anxiety. The most effective mechanism is the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites at cellular level which included organic compounds that help plants to cope with stress conditions by reducing the intensity of stress through enhancing antioxidants activities, detoxifying toxic ions, regulating the uptake of nutrients and by mediat...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...ss of oxamyl against all developmental stages including eggs of O. afrasiaticus. Oxamyl was found to be very effective in controlling the adult of O. afrasiaticus with a little effect on its eggs under laboratory conditions. The mortality percentages of O. afrasiaticus were 61.79, 73.58 and 82.90%; 62.87, 73.77 and 83.32%; 71.70, 82.23 and 92.37% after one week of exposure to the quarter recommended dose (QRD), half recommended dose (HRD) ...

Muhammad Kashif Asghar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Shahid Riaz Malik2, Waqas Ahmad3, Sumaira Zareen4, Safdar Ali5 and Abid Ali6 

...red for plant growth and development. So a field study was conducted to explore the potential of boron seed priming on yield and quality of sunflower hybrids at Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The achenes of two different sunflower hybrids i.e. Hysun-33 and FH-331 were subjected to different priming treatments including hydropriming, osmopriming (with 1, 0.1 and 0.01 mM B) using boric acid as a source of B. The experiment was la...
Amjad Islam Aqib1,*, Shagufta Nighat2, Rais Ahmed3, Saba Sana3, Muhammad Ameen Jamal4, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar2 , Naimat Ullah Khan5, Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Muhammad Asif Hussain5, Asadullah5, Attaur Rahman5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman5,*
...coccus aureus in the development of SCM in District Faisalabad of Pakistan. For this purpose, a total of 384 goat milk samples were screened for SCM through surf field mastitis test (SFMT) and mastitis-positives cases were further investigated for isolation of S. aureus using standard procedures. Coagulase gene was PCR amplified from the clinical isolates to categorize them into Coagulase positive Staphylococci (CPS) and coagulase negative

 *Muhammad Waseem1, Dost Mohammad Baloch1, Ghulam Khaliq1,
M. Rashid1, Qurban Ali2 and Mustajab A. Khan3

INTENSIFICATION IN BAMBOO (Bambusa bambos L.) TRAITS IN RESPONSE TO ORGANIC AND CHEMICAL NITROGEN ALONG THE COAST OF ARABIAN SEA
...cts the plant growth and development. To check the influence of nitrogen sources on bamboo traits a field experiment was conducted during 2014-15. Experiment were carried out using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with square system of transplanting which was consist of 3 repetitions contained a net field size of 4.5m to 4.5m. Experimental sites were 20 km away from the Arabian Sea with an altitude of 2m. The bamboo (Bambusa bambos L.) plants were grown...

 Sadia Murawwat1, *Nageen Fatima1, Qandeel Iqbal1, Syeda Ameena Rizvi1 and Mehak Fatima1

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING BEYOND CLASSROOM: CHALLENGES AND ANTICIPATED RESOLUTIONS
...n imperative role in the development of any country via improving the standard of life. This article highlights key issues, challenges and anticipated resolutions of Electrical Engineering Education in Pakistan. Data analysis imitates following problems relating to EE: dearth of professionalism in academia, insufficient educational capitals, not as much of hardware research laboratories at post graduate level, insufficient practical trainings, internships and ...

 Muhammad Akram and Faheem Aftab

THIDIAZURON INDUCES IN VITRO BUD BREAK AND SHOOT DEVELOPMENT FROM NODAL EXPLANTS OF ORTHOTROPIC SHOOTS OF MAIDENHAIR TREE (GINKGO BILOBA L.)
...tive in bud breaking and development of shoots with green and vigorous growth. The frequency of bud break was significantly reduced with the increasing concentrations of TDZ. There were 2 phases of callus formation on the explant, i.e., before bud break and after the break. The frequency of callus induction was highest (100%) at 5uM TDZ before bud break along the nodal region. The rate of callus formation was significantly reduced once bud began to break down ...

 Phong Huy Pham

Nesting biology of a spider wasp Auplopus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) in Vietnam
...duration of egg to adult development ranged from 68 to 75 days.

...

 Tanzeela Riaz*†, Farah Rauf Shakoori, Syed Shahid Ali

Toxicity of phosphine against tolerant and susceptible populations of Trogoderma granarium collected from Punjab, Pakistan
...a, gradation followed by developmental stages is 4th instar ˃ 6th instar ˃ adult.  Adult insects seemed to be more sensitive to phosphine compared to 6th and 4

 Saiqa Andleeb* , Shaukat Ali

RNA interference; A tool for treatment of human diseases
...es the basis for further development of RNAi technology as a drug therapy against various human disorders.

...

 Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi1, 2, Sana Fatima3, Khawaja Abdul Mujeeb2, Nadeem Sheikh1

Alterations in proteins and transaminases activity induced by thioacetamide in albino rats
...n widely utilized in the development of animal models of hepatic damage by a number
of researchers. The current investigation was designed to evaluate changes in tissue and serum total proteins and
albumin along with urea, uric acid and serum transaminases activity after 12 and 24h of TAA administration in albino
rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=3) namely control group, 12h group and 24h group. Each
experimental...

 Anam Javed, Javed Iqbal Qazi*

Skin health implications of Chemical detergents and importance of biodetergents
...cation of biosustainable developments in the field of biotechnology, we would be able to get rid of various long lasting after effects of anthropogenic pollutants and synthetic detergents.

...

 Zafar Iqbal

A review of fisheries education in University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
...ogy
department in development of fisheries sector in the country. Teaching and
research in freshwater fisheries is an old and dominant area of study in the zoology
department. At present the fisheries courses are offered in all degrees programs.
The research on freshwater cultivable and ornamental fishes is carried out in the
department. Recently twelve PhD scholars completed their projects on different
topics in fishe...

 Abdul Majid Khan*

Review report on mammalian dental defect (enamel hypoplasia) in different groups of mammals
...ng its growth and
development. It also points out the health status of a mammal during different
phases of its life span. The article outlines the dental enamel hypoplasia studies in
low and high crowned mammals. It also depicts the diversity in feeding habitat of
mammals having positive results for occurrence of this tooth malady. The present
review correlates the research studies that have been conducted in deciduous as

Masab Umair Khan, Syed Mehar Ali Shah, Hidayat-ur-Rahman, Arshad Iqbal* and Ezaz Aslam 

...sential step towards the development of a crop variety. Crop breeders mostly practice selection for the desired traits to identify superior genotypes. This research was conducted to assess the performance of 20 maize hybrids along with two checks at The University of Agriculture Peshawar during spring 2017 crop growing season. The experimental material was planted in randomized complete block design with three replications. Significant differences among the hy...
Muhammad S. Waqas, Ali A.Z. Shoaib, Xinlai Cheng, Qianqian Zhang, Asem S.S. Elabasy and Zu-hua Shi*
...known, which hinders the development of an effective management program. In this study, the reproductive mode, male’s mating capacity, influence of female’s age and density on male’s mating capacity, as well as the influence of copulation on female’s longevity were investigated under the laboratory condition. Our results demonstrated that P. solenopsis reproduce sexually. Males mated 1-2 times in one day and 3-6 times in their li...

Neelum Andaleeb1*, Munir Khan1, Syed Attaullah Shah1 and Rahmat Ullah2 

...ation, working for rural development, should be involved in provision of credit and livestock training facilities to rural women and encourage them to participate in livestock production and management. Access to credit will empower women in making pertinent livestock management decisions. Success of livestock venture will support rural economy and improve overall well being of everyone involved. 

...
Shaher Bano1, Sarah Ghafoor1,* and Nadia Naseem2
... of salivary glands. The development of salivary glands is under the influence of various hormones including Triiodothyronine hormone (T3). Submandibular gland of rat is an excellent model to study salivary gland organogenesis. The study is designed to understand T3-mediated regulation of TGF-α expression during postnatal salivary gland development as it is currently unknown.Twelve male rats were taken at week three an...

Sahar Shibli1,2*, Farzana Siddique1, Saeeda Raza2, Zaheer Ahsan3 and Irum Raza4 

...uality and peanut butter development. Chemical composition of peanut cultivars indicated 5.53±0.20 to 5.93±0.02 % moisture, 2.00±0.11 to 2.17±0.05% ash, 49.80±3.54 to 50.90±0.93% fats, 23.83±1.71 to 26.43±1.15 % proteins, 13.23±2.20 to 19.42±3.83 % carbohydrates and 4.95±0.06 to 8.53± % fiber. Mineral analysis of peanut cultivars showed 12.60±0.38 to 16.61±1.51 mg...
Muhammad Asad Saleem1,*, Mirza Abdul Qayyum1, Mudssar Ali1, Muhammad Amin2, Muhammad Tayyab1,3 and Sumaira Maqsood4
...to study RPW biology and development under laboratory conditions and survival against sub-lethal doses of B. bassiana and biorational insecticide (Nitenpyram). Sugarcane sets as alternate to date palm stem were successfully used as diet for rearing RPW. Combination of entomopathogenic fungus (Bb) and Nitenpyram (Nit) were found more lethal to survival of RPW. A reduction in pupation and adult emergence was recorded in the combined treatments. Moreover, ...

Khwaja Tariq Ziad1, Umar Hayat1, Muhammad2 and Muhammad Suleman Bacha3* 

...ivestock in the economic development of a country is vital. Pakistan is blessed with abundant natural resources, especially vast agricultural resources on account of its fertile irrigated land, four seasons and glorious history of old traditions of farming. The current study is designed to analyse the response of participants an informal and formal supply chains for small-scale dairy farmers in Pakistan. The study aimed at explaining the costs of the chosen su...

Muhammad Amin1, Aftab Ahmad Khan2, Abida Perveen1, Zareen Rauf1, Sher Shah Hassan2*, Muhammad Arif Goheer2 and Muhammad Ijaz2 

...he study area showed the development of drought conditions and these conditions become more intense in June. From August to October, the drought also advances in towards North side. In months of November and December, the drought conditions disappeared in the selected areas. Similarly, the spatial analysis of VCI showed that there were minor drought circumstances in the center and southern sides for the month of February whereas drought conditions found more i...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Nosheen Fatima1, Raheel Babar3 and Ikramul Haq4  

...its role in agricultural development. By conserving biodiversity, agricultural production can be increased. The results from Exploratory Factor analysis showed that by retaining three factors, the explained variation goes up to 54%. 

...

Naseer Ahmed Abbasi1, Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali1*, Bilawal Abbasi2, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro1, Najeeb Ahmed Khan Nangraj1, Jam Ghulam Mustafa Sahto1 and Sajjad Ahmed Morio1 

...thod are helpful further development and application of the land evaluation field. 

...

Muhammad Aslam Rajput1,3, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan2, Rehana Naz Syed3 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi3* 

...and subsequent whip smut development has also been greatly varied with the inoculation method. Injection method followed by wound+paste method and dipping method produced maximum disease incidence, highest number of whips, more tillering and less germination. While, other inoculation techniques, including soil infestation and spraying method caused least infection that results in a comparatively low level of disease development<...

Ahmed Samy1*, Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba2, Gamelat Kotb Farag3 and Ahmed Abd El Halim1 

...d markets, alongside the development of a vaccine may be required to reduce the risk of PPMV1 outbreaks. 

...
Ayesha Chaudhary1, Fouzia Mumtaz1, Muhammad Yaseen2* and Muhammad Younis Afzal3 
 
...f their size or stage of development. In Asia, particularly, the agricultural production might decrease by an alarming rate up to 5-30% to 2050. The main reason for this is increasing the earth’s temperature. The decrease in crop yield will cause another associated issue of food insecurity in the continent and emerge severe problem for a human to survive. Climatic change is definitely disturbing the farming approaches through an increase in disease ...
Liyan Zhang1,2, Zhidong Zhou1,3, Haiping Li1,2, Yanlong Qiao4, 5 and Yueping Zhang1,3,*
...s to achieve sustainable development.
...
Catherine J. Allen
...a critique of neoliberal development paradigms. Ecuador and Bolivia have enshrined sumak kawsay and suma qamaña in their national constitutions. How does this political discourse correspond to indigenous notions of well-being experienced in the socio-culturally diverse communities of the Andean region? I begin by focusing on inhabitants of Sonqo, a rural Quechua-speaking community in the highlands of southern Peru, where I have c...
Madeeha Khalid and Amtul Jamil Sami*
...gulation causing various developmental defects in humans. In this report, we have analyzed a short sequence of ~200-240 bp spanning the proximal promoter and exon 1 (proximal portion) of the GH-1 gene to analyze the SNPs and allele frequencies of respective SNPs. Genomic DNA from blood was extracted, and the selected region was amplified using PCR. Sequencing of the amplified product was performed using Sanger sequencing, and the resulting sequence was analyze...

Shafique Ahmed Memon1,6, Arif Ali1*, Mehar-un-Nisa Narejo2, Ghulam Khaliq3, Imran Ali Rajput4, Muhammad Adeel1, Khalil Ahmed Memon5, Dzolkhifli Omar6, Muhammad Rashid7 and Abdul Rasool

...cies on the pre-imaginal development of three species of green lacewings. Developmental stages of three different species of green lacewings, Chrysoperla nipponensis, Plesiochrysa ramburi and Apertochrysa sp. were provided with three different prey species, Aphis craccivora, Rhopalosiphum maidis and Corcyra cephalonica under the laboratory conditions (25±2 °C). The results indicated that a significantly increased ...

Salman Anwar1, 2*, Farhan Anwar Khan3 and Atta-ur-Rahman4 

...and use and agricultural development of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Pakistan is gifted with a lot of natural resources in the shape of fertile agricultural lands, water resources and minerals. Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan’s economy. About 70% of its population is directly or indirectly associated with this sector. Gilgit-Baltistan is a vast mountainous and remote area in the extreme north of Pakistan.. The inhabitants of this area are mostly e...

 Abdul Khaliq1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Akhlaq Ahmad2 and Yasir Iftikhar3

...e conditions. Resistance development in insect pests against fumigants is a serious threat to effective commercial use of fumigants in various quarantine treatments. Therefore, resistant strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Rhizopertha dominica (Fabricius) and Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus) were tested against phosphine and bio fumigants to check their fitness and potential following by F1 generation. Phosphine fitness in term...

 Xu Lijie, Obaid Ullah, Liu Haixing, Ihsan Ali, Zhongshu Li* and Nan-Zhu Fang*

...le of PPARγ in the development of early embryos and define the mechanism responsible for the arrest in development during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), we used an embryo model of oxidative damage by H2O2. We found that H2O2 exposure significantly decreased embryo development, increased the intracellular ROS level, and upregulate...

 Shaher Bano1, Nadia Naseem2 and Sarah Ghafoor1,*

...s the pre and post-natal development, structure and function of salivary glands. The localization of TGF-α in post-natal submandibular gland (SMG) of rats and humans is well-studied.However, less is known regarding post-natal sublingual salivary gland (SLG) development and expression of TGF-α. The comparison of TGF-α expression in SLG with that of its expression in SMG during post-natal rat salivary gland <...
Muhammad Zain Saleem1,*, Raheela Akhtar1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Adeel Manzoor1, Bilal Ahmed Shah3, Rais Ahmed4 and Muhammad Yasin5
...tudy can be used for the development of effective eradication and control strategies for brucellosis in small ruminants.
...
Faiz-ul Hassan1,*, Muhammad Sajjad Khan1, Muhammad Saif-ur-Rehman1, Syed Muhammad Raihan Dilshad2 and Muhammad Amjad Ali3
...ted significantly in the development of indigenous horse breeds of Pakistan. One set of primers OPL-7 revealed a polymorphic band at 450 bp which was present in DNA bulk of the indigenous breeds while absent in that of exotic breeds. High similarity coefficients among breeds implied the loss of genetic diversity and emphasized the need for conservation efforts for the Pakistani indigenous horse genetic resources.

...
Ahmed Ali Samejo* and Riffat Sultana*
...ve nymphal stages during development into adult in field as well as in laboratory condition. Comparative morphometry revealed that in relation to previous stages 2nd and 3rd nymphal stages gained much more length and weight as compared to 4th and 5th nymphal stages. Correlations between length and weight of hoppers of each nymphal stage were positive. It could be concluded that 4th and 5thinstar...
Muhammad Nasir1,*, Ata-ul-Mohsan2, Munir Ahmad2, Shafqat Saeed3, Muhammad Asif Aziz2, Muhammad Imran4 and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh4
...od and solitary phase of development. Results showed that survival rate and colony initiation rate of the queen was highest at 28 ºC and 30 ºC. Different parameters in the initial stage of colony growth like pre-oviposition period and emergence timing of the first worker were observed best at 28 and 30 ºC. Number of workers produced in the first brood and in the total lifespan of the colony was also observed higher at 28 ºC. Higher number o...
Fukuan Du1,2, Yongkai Tang1, Juhua Yu1, Shengyan Su1, Fan Yu1, Jianlin Li1, Hongxia Li1, Meiyao Wang1 and Pao Xu1,2,*
Aisha Khalid1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Tahir Yaqub2, Ali Raza Awan1, Muhammad Wasim1, Shagufta Saeed1, Sehrish Firyal1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori3
...udy was designed for the development of an economic and environment friendly mechanism for the production of thermostable cellulase. Production of cellulase was focused due to its diverse range of application in industry. In the present study, conditions were optimized for the maximal production of recombinant thermostable cellulase from Thermotoga naphthophila using BL21-CodonPlus (DE3) cells as expression host and pET28a as expression vector. Effect o...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi* 

...athogen biology, disease development, disease cycle, epidemics and epidemiology, geographical distribution and strategies for the disease management viz., exploitation of host plant resistance, cultural, physical, chemical and biological control. Studies on pathogen variation have revealed that breeding with single major gene for resistance may be unsuccessful due to breakdown in resistance. Up to this extent, multi cropping using resistant varieties appears t...
Shengjie Zhou1,2, Pengfei Wang1,2, Chao Zhao1,2, Mingjun Fu3, Jian G. Qin4, Lihua Qiu1, Zhenhua Ma1, 4,* and Maoshang Lin1
... gene in the ontogenetic development of golden pompano.
...

Bina Khanzada1*, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Tajwar Sultana Syed1 and Nazir Ahmed2 

...wer based diets, coccoon development, exist holes, C. Infuscatellus pupae, C. flavipes larvae, C. Infuscatellus larvae, C. flavipes moths, C. flavipes adults was higher when parasitoid was fed on marigold, Holly hock and sunflower; while in 2014, the coccoon development and exist holes were higher when parasitoid was fed on marigold flower than sunflower and Holly hock; while C. Infuscatellus pupae and moths were higher in s...
Sheng Niu1, Ali-Raza Jahejo1, Fa-jie Jia1, Xin Li1, Guan-bao Ning1, Ding Zhang1, Hai-li Ma1, Wei-fang Hao2, Wen-wei Gao1, Yu-jun Zhao1, Shi-min Gao1, Jian-hui Li1, Gui-lan Li1, Fang Yan1, Rong-kun Gao1, Huan-chun Chen1,3 and Wen-xia Tian1,*
...f these peptides and the development of the TD.
...

Asim Khan1, Shahid Ali1*, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Aftab Khan1 and Raza Ullah2 

Abdur Rehman1*, Iqbal Javed2, Zhang Nannan3, Muhammad Niamatullah1, Raheel Saqib4 and Allah Bakhsh

...formation to explore the development of agricultural modernisation and to provide the theoretical reference for the development of agricultural informatisation in Hebei province China. The relevant literature and the results of the research have been collected to understand the agricultural informatisation in Hebei province and adopted the system analysis method to focus on the existing problems and to put forward the signif...

Muhammad Shahid1*, Mehmood Shah2, Adiqa Kiani3 and Farhat Parveen4 

Mehboob Arslan* and Xin Yang 

...e the diagnosis and drug development of future antiviral therapeutics. In fact, metabolism is considered as a crucial player in the cascade of viral interactions, its modulation is essential to decide the final outcome of viral infection. Here, we concisely present how viruses alter the metabolic pathways for their own survival.  

...
Syeda Ain-ul-Batool1, Sadia1, Kathrin Blasius2,3,4, Angela Kaindl2,3,4 and Ghazanfar Ali1,*
...so include delayed motor development, clumsiness, anosomia, ataxia, hypodontia, hearing impairment, hirschsprung disease, cardiovascular and liver disorders. So far 21 genes are reported that cause BBS (BBS1-BBS21). A consanguineous family having clinical symptoms of BBS9 is described in current study. Mutation was detected in BBS9 on chromosome 7p14.3 using whole exome sequencing (WES). A splice acceptor site mutation (c.1131G>A) in exon 3 was revealed by ...
Muhammad Shoaib Saleem* and Muhammad Faheem Akbar
...otection has also led to development of resistant strains of pests and have adverse effects on non-target organisms including natural enemies and pollinators. Amongst bio-rational insecticides, neonicotinoids and insect growth regulators (IGRs) may be exploited as eco-friendly approach in crop pest management. We therefore, evaluated the effectiveness of nitenpyram, Clothianidin, Momentum (Mixture of Nitenpyram and Chlorfenapyr) and Buprofezin against brinjal ...

Waqar Akhtar1*, Munir Ahmad2, Nadeem Akmal1, Hassnain Shah1 and Asif Ali Mirani2 

...vestment in research and development for processing and value addition technologies. 

...
Asghar Khan1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Arfan Yousaf2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Mamoona Chaudhry1, Mumtaz Ali Khan3, Habibunnabi4 and Amjad Khan5
...leading hindrance in the development of dairy industry in Pakistan. Pakistan is the top listed country with the highest prevalence of Sub-clinical mastitis. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and assess the potential risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis in lactating buffaloes in Pothohar region of Pakistan. A questionnaire based cross-sectional based survey was conducted in 30 commercial and subsistent farms in Pothohar region of R...

Essossinam Ali* 

...nd market access through development of transportation infrastructure in order to reduce farmers’ risk aversion in the study areas. 

...

Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Sami Ullah1*, Muhammad Mohsin Raza2, Mohsin Raza1, Muhammad Abbas3, Ijaz Ahmad4, Malik Muhammad Yousaf2, Muhammad Zeshan5, Adeel Abbas1, Mehmood Ali Noor1 and Mohsin Nawaz1 

...affects plant growth and development by influencing vital processes like cell division, cell wall formation, water relations, meristematic tissue growth, carbohydrate metabolism, and pollen tube growth which suggests plausible effects on all these activities due to its deficiency. Therefore, a field trial was set up to assess the efficacy of different levels (control, 0.01 M and 0.05 M) of foliar applied B at booting, anthesis, and grain filling growth stages ...
Hong Ma*, Bo Fu, Liang Wang, Zhong-qiu Li and Di Liu*

 

...oncogenes.
...
Junli Sun1,2,3, Lin Bai1 2, Xiaogan Yang1,2, Yangqing Lu1,2, Shengsheng Lu1,2,* and Kehuan Lu1,2,*
...icroopetations on embryo development, we analyzed 60 the spent culture media of porcine parthenogenetic embryos experienced different types of microopetation using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that Group II with the puncture of egg zona and plasma membrane had the highest cleavage rate and blastocyst rate of porcine parthenogenetic embryos, which was significantly higher than Group I with intact oocytes (P<0.05) and Group III with the puncture of ...

Arshad Mahmood Malik1*, Khalid Mahmood Mughal2 and Abdul Saboor3 

...the globe. Technological development is changing the shape of production systems all over the world. A Cobb Douglas type hydroponics production system was developed for estimation of production elasticity of hydroponics in Pakistan. Return to scale was calculated by adding all betas, which indicate the stage of production function of hydroponics system. Domestic resource cost indicates relative efficiency of hydroponics products in domestic resource use. Resul...

Sadaf Rahim and Mudassar Iqbal* 

...at could be used for the development of target specific insecticides against Diuraphis noxia and Tribolium castaneum. Further studied towards the isolation and structural elucidation of lead compounds is recommended for the development of local agro-chemical product as environmental friendly biodegradable organic insecticides. 

...

Muhammad Shafique, Nosheen Noor Elahi*, Muhammad Rashid, Amjad Farooq and Kausar Hussain Shah

...imiting plant growth and development. Application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is effective against this stress. Mung bean is an important crop that is used as food. Present experiment was conducted under natural environment to evaluate the effect of PGPR on biomass production, nitrogen and proteins percentage of four mung bean varieties under different NaCI levels in sand culture after 5,7 and 9 weeks of sowing. Both inoculated and uninocula...

Umar Hayat1*, Tariq Shah1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad

Ammara Saeed* and Noor-ul-Amin 

...major role in growth and development of plants. A Randomize Complete Block Design experiment was laid with split plot arrangement at Ornamental Horticulture Nursery, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2014 and 2015. Cut flower rose cultivars were tested with treatments of 3 levels of phosphorus (30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) and potassium (20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1) each as well as combined. Results showed that when plants were supp...
Wen-Feng Li1, Rong-Yue Zhang1, Chun-Hua Pu2, Jiong Yin1, Zhi-Ming Luo1, Xiao-Yan Wang1, Xiao-Yan Cang1, Hong-Li Shan1 and Ying-Kun Huang1,*
...est control, sustainable development of the sugar industry will be promoted.

 

...
Asima Azam1, Asma-Ul-Husna2, Saima Qadeer3, Qaisar Shahzad4, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah5, Tasneem Akhtar4 and Shamim Akhter2,*
...edia, on in vitro development of Nili Ravi buffalo embryos. Oocytes were obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered buffaloes within two hours after slaughter and brought to laboratory. After in vitro maturation (IVM) in Tissue Culture Medium-199 (TCM199) for 24 h and fertilization (IVF) in Tyrode’s Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP) medium for about 20 h, the presumptive zygotes were randomly distributed into 6 culture groups; Group I: Syntheti...
Asad Abdullah, Muhammad Irfan Ullah*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Arshad and Muhammad Afzal
...st plants on the growth, development and fecundity of S. litura. The larvae of S. litura were offered leaves of cabbage, alfalfa, sesbania and, maize in comparison to artificial diet under laboratory conditions (32±05 oC; 65±05 RH). Thelarval suitability was found maximum on cabbage followed by sesbania, alfalfa and minimum on maize. The larval length and weight were found higher on cabbage followed by alfalfa and sesbani...
Hafiz Suboor ul Hassan and Saira Malik*
...o be associated with the development of lactose intolerance in humans. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of LCT-13910C/T and LCT-22018G/A with the development of lactose intolerance in Pakistani population. A total of 160 samples were collected and tetra primer ARMS-PCR was used for genotyping. 79.48% lactose intolerant individuals showed homozygous LCT-13910CC genotype and 16.66% showed heterozygous CT genotype....
Sikander Ali1, Muhammad Kamil Malik1, Muhammad Zubair1*, Muhammad Jawad Saleem2, Kanwal Hanif2 and Saira Azmat3
... the aim of evasion from development of resistance against these insecticides in mustard aphid.
...

Sanaullah and Urooba Pervaiz* 

...ial role in agricultural development of the rural community. The current study was intended to investigate the effect and role of extension trainings in the improvement of main agricultural crops and vegetables in Bajaur Agency of Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) during the year 2016-17. The study was based on primary data collected from 166 sample respondents who got training from Bajaur Area Development Program (...

Muhammad Waqas, Shahid Ali*, Syed Attaullah Shah and Ghaffar Ali 

Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2,*, Hareem Mansoor1, Sana Khan1 and Mushtaq A. Saleem1
...cides and fumigants. The development of resistance can be delayed by using binary combinations of insecticides. Keeping in view the importance of synergism as well as the concerns about environmental hazards and emergence of resistance against these insecticides, the current project was designed to figure out the lethal concentration (LC50) of emamectin, abamectin and spinosad alone and in various conbinations such as abamectin:emamectin (1:1, 2:1, ...
Gul Afshan1,2,*, Soumble Zulfiqar2, Sumaira Mehboob2, Muhammad Tahir Javed Khan1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,*
...er of vaccines are under development against hepatitis C, though an effective hepatitis C vaccine is yet to come. The present study is focused on the development of recombinant vaccine against HCV by utilizing HCV3a envelope glycoprotein E2. HCV3a E2 gene was amplified and cloned first in cloning vector pTG19 and subcloned in expression vector pET21a. E2 protein, expressed in insoluble form, was purified by repeated s...
Huaisheng Zhang1, Pengfei Li2, Huajun Wen2, Guangming Tian1, Hui Chen1, Lu Zhang1 and Jianqiang Zhu1,*
...30 years of breeding and development, the Milu population has formed stable captive or wild populations in Beijing, Dafeng, Shishou and Dongting Lake. It has become a typical example of the successful reintroduction of a species. Because of the precision of the information on the Milu in biology and population history, the research on Milu has developed rapidly in recent years. In this paper, the authors summarize the principal research work of 30 years on the...
Huma Sattar1, Sehrish Firyal1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Habib-Ur -Rehman2, Muhammad Sajid Hasni3 and Amjad Islam Aqib4*
...ignificant technological developments in animal husbandry, udder infection is still widespread; particularly in large herds that causes high production losses to the dairy industry of Pakistan. Identification of molecular marker sequences that are directly related to immunity against mastitis might be helpful for animal selection trait and prevention of this disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of polymorphism in bovine tumor nec...
Jinfeng Liu1,2, Yanhong Cao3, Tong Feng1, Laiba Shafique1, Chan Luo1, Peng Zhu1,4,* and Qingyou Liu1,*
...licles as well as in the development and maintaince of early embryos in buffalo.
...
Sajida Sabahat1, Asif Nadeem1,*, Maryam Javed1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor1, Shahid Nabeel1 and Abu Saeed Hashmi2
...s that play key roles in development and regulating growth. The present study was conducted to characterize genetic variability in the growth hormone (GH) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) of Camelus dromedarius. GH is secreted and synthesized from somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary lobe and plays significant role in growth, development, metabolism, lactation, and reproduction. Growth hormone interact with GH...
Muhammad Nisar* and Muhammad Idress
...on’s negligence in development agendas. Home gardening data provide complete agricultural input in a nation’s domestic treasure. Therefore, the current study was carried out with the objective to assess small farmers’ involvement in home gardening at district Tank, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa- Pakistan. Three hundred and twenty (320) small farmers were selected randomly on the basis of their involvement in home gardening via a pre-tested close ended i...
Rakhshanda Kousar1, Tahira Sadaf1*, Muhammad Sohail Amjad Makhdum2, Muhammad Amjed Iqbal1 and Raza Ullah1

Sohaib Afzaal1,4*, Usman Hameed2, Nasir Ahmad3, Klas Udekwu4, Paulina Pastuszek4 and Muhammad Saleem Haider1 

... factor for food product development. Current study was planned to test the thermodurability of seven strains of Ln. mesenteroides using pasteurization treatments. Both types of pasteurization treatments including High Temperature Short Time (HTST) and Low Temperature Long Time (LTLT) were applied to all of the strains. On applying LTLT treatment, maximum viability was found in the BSM-43 (42.84%) while minimum viability was shown by CYG-362 (26.10%). In case ...
Sajida Sabahat1, Asif Nadeem1,*, Maryam Javed1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor1, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ghulam Yasein2 and Ghulam Abbas1 
...ay a significant role in development and growth regulation. IGF-1 control protein metabolism and is extremely conserved region amongst species. IGF-1 have not been studied before in camel. The DNA samples of Marecha camel were collected from the Camel Breeding and Research Station at Rakhmani Bhakkar, Pakistan. Four polymorphic sites were detected in the IGF-1 gene. A significant finding was the occurrence of a T→C polymorphism in exon 5 that cause...
Memis Ozdemir
...t regulatory role in the development of the mammary glands, the secretion of milk and the expression of milk protein genes. It has been seen many studies about Prl/RsaI polymorphism found in the exon 3 or exon 4 region of bovine prolactin gene in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine whether the DNA sequence of the Prl gene exon 3 or exon 4 in cattle breeds has the RsaI polymorphic digestion site. As a result of the study,...

Umar Hayat1*, Shahid Ali1, Abdul Mateen2 and Hazrat Bilal

...l postulates of economic development in developing and emerging economies is the alleviation of poverty through agricultural led growth. Pakistan being an agrarian in nature is striving its best to fight against poverty, unemployment and unequal income distribution. Although, Agricultural growth is considered an important instrument for alleviation in poverty, but still its proper measurement is scarce in studies. To examine and analyze the nexus between agric...

Betül Ayça Dönmez, Sarbesh Das Dangol and Allah Bakhsh* 

... will further aid in the development of transgenic stable transgenic potatoes, especially in diploid cultivars. 

...
Hafiza Sadaf Zahra1, Asia Iqbal2, Sayyeda Hira Hassan1, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1*, Muhammad Khan1*, Muhammad Irfan3, Chaman Ara1, Shaukat Ali4
... significant for growth, development and progression of BC. DNA hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands inhibits transcriptional activity by methyltransferase enzyme which results in inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSG), while in hypomethylation, demethyltransferase enzyme causes the activation of oncogenes by promoting transcriptional activity. Contrary to DNA methylation, histone acetylation and deacetylation results in chromatin opening and closing...

Sana Munir1, Muhammad Kamran Qureshi1*, Ahmad Naeem Shahzad2, Ismat Nawaz3, Muhammad Shahzad Anjam4, Sumaira Rasul4 and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar5 

...be exploited for variety development with enhanced level of diversity, fiber quality and seed cotton yield. 

...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2*,Mujahid Manzoor1, Zubair Aslamand  Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1, 2
... insecticides resistance development against P450 gene. Insect bioassay indicated highly significant level of LC50 values among laboratory reared and field collected population against Cypermethrin. The laboratory reared resistant population, Sindh and South Punjab collected population showed high LC50 values as compared to susceptible, Baluchistan and KPK population. The expression of P450 gene through PCR showed enhanced level of P450 gene in different Insta...

Sanaullah1, Fazli Rabbi2*, Shahid Ali2, Zeeshan Khan3 and Muhammad Zamin4 

... the past few years, the development of this tourists’ spot has been neglected in the public development budget. Moreover, due to the war against militancy in Swat, the frequency of tourists was declined in the valley. As a consequence, the livelihoods of the local population were adversely affected. As public financial resources for the development of the area have been meagre in th...

Hassnain1, Abdul Basit1*, Mehboob Alam1, Imran Ahmad1, Izhar Ullah1, Noor Alam2, Inayat Ullah3, Muhammad Areeb Khalid1, Muhammad Shair4 and Noor ul Ain1 

...ecrease in plant growth, development and yield. Application of chitosan helps to induce drought resistance and improved water use efficiency. Therefore, a research study was planned to investigate the effect of chitosan on growth and yield of tomato (Cv. Rio Grande) plant under water stress condition at Ornamental Nursery, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan, during 2018, using Completely Randomize Design (CRD) with two...

Shazia Akhtar1, Abdul Samad1*, Afshan Gohar1, Muhammad Munir Shahid2, Muhammad Ishtiaq1, Arslan Sarwer1, Adnan Khan1 and Karam Ahad1 

...rt of a program aimed at development of pesticides residues monitoring system in Pakistan, a semi-structured questionnaire survey consisting of 40 sub questions was evaluated by interviewing the peach growers in Swat, Malakand. The current survey described the knowledge, behavior, agricultural practices and pesticides toxicity symptoms among the field workers. Over all 72 orchards from 26 Union Councils were covered. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 and samp...
Mubasher Ahmad Malik1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad2, Muhammad Jalal Arif1 and Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,*
...> (AZA) on mortality and development of P. xylostella under laboratory conditions. Both AZA and PxGV were applied alone and in integrated manners at LC20 and LC50 dose rates. The combination of 349.3 parts per million of AZA and 4.8×104 occlusion bodies per millimeter of PxGV, resulted in synergistic interaction after 3rd, 5th and 8th days post application while the additive effect ...
Bibi Nazia Murtaza1, Mazhar Saeed Chaudry2, Shamaila Inayat Nadeem1, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem3 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori4,*
...f the factors behind the development of resistance to the current therapy and relapse in NHL. K ras mutant isoforms, being the negative predictors for prognosis, are vital to analyse before the start of adjuvant therapy. Further studies needed to confirm the functional aspects of rs112445441 and other variants involved in NHL pathogenesis. 
...

Jawad Ali*, Ibad Ullah Jan and Hidayat Ullah 

... of Se may result in the development of drought mitigation in okra. 

...

Asim Munawar1,2*, Farooq Ahmad1, Aqsa Arshad1, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi3 and Chengjuan Liang4 

... the issue of resistance development

...

Qaisar Mehmood1*, Maqbool Hussain Sial1, Saira Sharif1, Abid Hussain2, Muhammad Riaz3 and Nargis Shaheen4 

Muhammad Asim1*, Asghari Bano2, Sikander Khan Tanveer3 and Muhammad Umair Aslam

...nd other crop growth and development related parameters. These results highlighted the necessity to have genotypic diversity for best exploitation of the environmental conditions coupled with appropriate crop management strategy. The best match of this genotype × environment × management production paradigm could lead to sustained improvement in wheat grain yield. 

...

Muhammad Israr1*, Helen Ross2, Shakeel Ahmad3, Nafess Ahmad4 and Urooba Pervaiz5

...services and agriculture development are necessary to overcome the situation and improve the likelihood of achieving the targets of the SDGs. 

...

Anand Kushwaha, Amit Kumar, Aparna Madhavan, Durga Goswami, Golmei Poulinlu and Gnanavel Venkatesan* 

...protein(s) to use in the development of specific and sensitive diagnostic assays and also effective vaccine candidates which are vital elements in control and eradication of any infectious disease from an endemic country. In this review, we describe different structures of mature pox virion with reference to vaccinia virus (VACV), list of immunogenic candidate genes presents in CaPV genome and their potential use in diagnostic/vaccine ...

Ajmalud Din1*, Munir Ahmad2, Fahad Masoud Watto2, Sheraz Ahmed1, Imtiaz Ali1 and Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah

...ght stress on growth and development, and to identify drought tolerant wheat genotypes. Thirty wheat genotypes of diverse genetic makeup were assessed in transparent polythene bags (6 × 27 inches), and filled them with sterile, homogenized mixture of loam, sand and compost soil. Two factorial Completely Randomized Design was followed with three replications and two treatments. The experiment was conducted during 2015-16 in the experimental site of the De...

Saleem Ashraf1, Raheel Saqib2*, Zakaria Yousuf Hassan3, Muhammad Luqman4 and Abdur Rehman5  

...ft and national economic development. However, the marketing system is criticised for inconsistent supply chain of citrus in Pakistan. This research aimed to bridge the research gap by soliciting intermediaries’ role in the citrus marketing process. Total 120 randomly selected citrus growers were interviewed face to face and collected data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings affirmed that middleman, processing factories ...
Saara Ahmad1,*, Iftikhar Ahmed2, Saida Haider3, Zehra Batool4, Laraib Liaquat3, Fatima Ahmed5, Asra Khan1, Tahira Perveen3, Mirza Jawad ul Hasnain6, Saima Khaliq7 and Saad Bilal Ahmed8
...eed for six weeks showed development of inflammation, necrosis, apoptosis and cirrhosis on histopathological examination of the liver, and had raised plasma TNF-α and AFP-levels. This study shows that damage to liver cells is caused by consumption of commercial feed for chickens and their meat which is considered safe for human consumption.
...
Gasem Mohammad Abu-Taweel
... with control group. The development, behavioral, biochemical and histological disorders were observed due to exposure to mercury via placenta during pregnancy and / or during lactation through weaning period. Overall, mercury chloride administration had direct influence on the social behavioural and blood parameters in the mice offsprings.
...
Chen Shi, Jianlong Zhang and Guanghui Teng*
...ajor parts of growth and development of pigs during 70 to 110 days old. The growth stages of grower and finisher were divided by three normalized body ratios. The exact agreement with two experienced observers reached 80% and 85% on body ratio between height at hip and hip width, 75% and 80% on body ratio between body length and height at hip, 50% and 45% on body ratio between body length and hip width, respectively. The statistical analysis of the body ratios...
Jun Yan Bai*, Hong Deng Fan, You Bing Yang, Xu Wang, Heng Cao, Xue Yan Fu and Yu Qin Wang
...egulating the growth and development of sheep. The polymorphism of GHSR gene in five sheep populations was analyzed by PCR and sequencing techniques. The results showed that large tailed han sheep, small tailed han sheep, yuxi fatty tailed sheep, dorper sheep, hu sheep all have two mutation sites (C155T and C624T). For locus C155T, allele frequencies of C in large tailed han sheep, small tailed han sheep, yuxi fatty tailed sheep, dorper sheep and hu sheep were...

Amna Qazi1, Ghulam Shah Nizamani2*, Muhammad Tahir Khan2, Shafquat Yasmeen2, Shahla Karim Baloch1, Muharram Ali1, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan2, Sagheer Ahmad3, Muhammad Rashid Nizamani4 and Mohammad Aquil Siddiqui

... of BAP and Kin in shoot development and elongation. On rooting, profuse root formation was observed in MS media supplemented with 3.00 mg l-1 IBA + 4.00 mg l-1 NAA and 30g l-1 sucrose. All of the varieties showed root development under this composition except NIA-1026-P7. The results of this experiment also showed that IBA and NAA are vital towards root formation. Moreover, it was seen to be evident that optimal media conce...
Sumaira Akram1, Sajid Aleem Khan1*, Nazir Javed1 and Saeed Ahmad2
...nd plant extracts on the development of MG was recorded on the basis of number of eggs on the most susceptible wheat variety cv. ‘Aus -7-58-0850’. In protective effect the highest number of eggs were recorded in rugby treatment. Chemicals were found to be more effective than plant extracts and biocontrol agents. Among biocontrol agents TH produced lowest number of eggs. In curative effect of plant extracts the highest number of eggs were observed i...
Anila Naz Soomro1*, Hiroshi Suzuki2, Sadaf Tabassum Qureshi3 and Wazir Ali Baloch1
...er completing the larval development in Urbaru stream were also observed. Presence of C. sakishsimensis at only St. 1 indicates the species is not using the river continuum for migration. Due to cave dwelling habit of C. sakishsimensis and coral origin of Kikai-jima Island it can be concluded that the species might be using the underground river system for migration.
...
Lei Gao1, Gong-xue Jia2, Zheng-yuan Huang1, Ming-xing Yue3, Chao Zhang1, Shi-en Zhu1 and Xiang-wei Fu1,*
...osis progression, embryo developmental competence and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mouse oocytes and resultant early embryos. Germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes were first cultured to monitor the progression of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and polar body extrusion (PBE) during in vitro maturation (IVM), then the harvested metaphase II (MII) oocytes were parthenogenetically activated to evaluate pronuclear (PN) formation of parthenogenetic embryo a...

Bahadar Sher Khattak1, Muhammad Kaleem1, Waqas2*, Humaira Naz1 and Muhammad Yasir

...etween the socioeconomic development of small farmers and micro-credit intervention of CMP. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that micro-credit facilities should be provided to all farmers under any prospective agriculture projects to achieve optimum results in farmers’ farm productivity. 

...

Grigory Antonovich Nozdrin1*, Regina Gabdrahmanovna Utkina2, Anastasia Aleksandrovna Lelyak2 and Yana Viktorovna Novik1 

...weight gain, growth, and development even at the dosage of the preparation of 5,000 µl/kg. During the general autopsy, no pathologic changes of internal organs were observed in the fowl in the experimental groups. At the end of the research, Vetom 20.76 was classified as a substance of Toxic Class 4 according to GOST 12.1.007-76 Occupational safety standards system, 1976. 

...

Peer Sikandar Shah1, Ghulam Nabi1, Maqsood Khan*1,2, Saddam Hussain1 and Jawad Ali Jan1

... in the plant growth and development such as nitrogen support the vegetative parts of the plant and phosphorus have significant role in the development of the root and also producing the energy by forming ATP and potassium encourage carbohydrates metabolism, enzymes establishment and osmotic regulation This experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar during spring season (March-june) 2016. Ra...
Quratulain1, Ata-ul-Mohsin1, Muhammad Naeem1, Ghulam Shabir1, Muhammad Khalid Rafique2 and Rashid Mahmood2*
...n temperature and thrips development. Considering categorization of ten onion accessions against thrips, Red Imposta was found as highly resistrant, early red, Chiltan, Nasar puri as resistant cultivar whereas Swat 1, Virio7 and 8, Phulkara, Saryab red were found susceptible while Hazara grouped in highly susceptible category due to maximum thrips infestation. Visual assessments depicted that all resistant cultivars had yellowish-green leaf color whereas the c...
Asim Faraz1*, Abdul Waheed1, Muhammad Mudasser Nazir2, Aneela Hameed3, Nasir Ali Tauqir4, Riaz Hussain Mirza1, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Rana Muhammad Bilal5
...alies are anestrous, the development of corpus-luteum cysts, follicular ovarian cysts, delayed age at puberty, repeated estrous cycles, dystocia, abortions, dead fetuses and retention of the fetal membranes. OT administered exogenously or secreted endogenously, establishes in minutes the desired effects and metabolized to inactive products rapidly in the body. Irrespective of whether OT is ingested with milk or secreted into the milk, it is degraded readily by...

Mubashir Mehdi1*, Muhammad Bilal Ahsan1, Burhan Ahmad1, Khuram Nawaz Sadozai2, Gulnaaz Hameed3 and Muhammad Asif4 

Aqsa Ahmad1, Iftikhar Ahmad1* and Malik Fiaz Hussain Ferdosi

...) substrate for seedling development and transplanted at the two to four leaf stage into lily crates with the treatment substrates. Plants grown in substrates containing SD + PH + PM (experiment I) indicated that plants grown in these soilless compositions died before flowering, while those grown in silt (control) performed best. While in experiment II, the highest quality plants were grown in 50% CC + 40% RH +10% PM. Quality was defined as plants with shortes...

Gulnaz Hameed1, Abdul Saboor1, Khuram Nawaz Sadozai2*, Ghaffar Ali2, Dawood Jan2 and Mansoor Rasheed

...eries of rural/community development programs have been launched for long times. The research gap needs to be addressed is an empirical analysis of contribution of such initiatives in the welfare of masses through poverty reduction in the area. This research endeavor is designed to figure out the impact of one of such projects named as Azad Jammu and Kashmir Community Development (AJKCDP) through poverty estimation and explo...

Fazal Haq*, Asia Parveen, Safdar Hussain and Arshad Hussain 

...key role in the economic development of any area. The main problem in agriculture is, making decision for optimum selection of activities. Keeping in view such critical issues; this research study is conducted in District Hunza with the aim to explore the most beneficial cropping pattern for the three major crops wheat, potato and alfalfa grown in the study area and to maximize the net profit per year. The research study deals with statistical facts and figure...
Sajjad Ali1,*, M. Irfan Ullah2, Asif Sajjad1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed2, M. Aslam Farooqi1, M. Shahid Rizwan3, Qaiser Shakeel4, Sohail Akhter1,Muhammad Raheel4 and Muhammad Arshad2
...nt facilitating both the development and the survival effectiveness of this pest. Therefore, it is recommended to carefully include gram in a cropping scheme especially where H. armigera is a regular pest whilst future studies should focus on demographic and nutritional parameters of this pest as affected by different host plants.
...
Yuhong Li1, Dongxue Wu1, Xue Wang1, Mi Zhang1, Hanyu Zhu1, Zhe Shi1 and Fumin Feng1,2*
...n NF-κB during the development and progression of liver injury induced by anti-tuberculosis drugs in mice. A total of 168 Kunming mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups and one baseline group. The drug groups were orally administered with isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R), pyrazinamide (Z), and combination of these three drugs (HRZ) at 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15 days, respectively. Liver tissue pathologies and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and as...
Arifa Savanur1,*, Tallat Naz1,2, Tayyaba Hamid1,3, Syed Abid Ali4, Mian Jahangir1,3 and Muhammad Abdul Azeem4
... in the rate of force re-development and change in their length. Thus, the present study provokes the need for quantitative histological and histo-chemical studies on the non-contractile proteins of Uromastix smooth muscle.
...

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Waqas Raza1*, Waqas Wakil2,3, Imtiaz Hussain4 and Misbah Iqbal Qamar

...ucers suppressed disease development by 54.1% and 67.4%, for SA and BABA, respectively, 5 days after pathogen inoculation. Numbers and size of lesions per plant was reduced by application of SA and BABA. Plants treated with BABA exhibited increased resistance against herbivory by aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphidiae), thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) compar...

Ahmad Kiani1*, Shapour Zarifian1, Hosein Kouhestani1 and Hosein Karimzadeh

...ustrialization is one of development strategies to increase rural incomes, create new job opportunities in rural areas etc., and site selection of rural industries has led to the development goals. Agricultural industries are one type of rural industries and it’s so important in Iran because of major potential of agriculture in Iran and also other developing countries. According to the statistics in Tehran province by ...
Shaheen Rahman1, Kafeel Ahmad1*, Niaz Ali2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Waqar Ali4
...ated strains as shown by development of tumours on carrot and potato discs. The pathogenic potential of the isolated strains demand for proper management and control measurements to spread and prevent infections of A. tumefaciens.
...

Filza Fatima Rizvi1, Muhammad Umair1, Muhammad Kahlid Jamil2*, Masooma Hassan2, Komal Qayyum1 and Syed Mohsin Raza Kazmi

...ey indicator of economic development, living standards and generation of wealth of any country. Globally, energy generation scenario is shifting towards renewable sources and its application in different sectors for example Agriculture. Oil, gas and coal. The same is true for Pakistan that has agriculture based economy. The present study was undertaken to review energy consumption in the agriculture sector of Pothohar region of Pakistan. This region has no pro...

Samman Gul Vaseer1, Muhammad Rasheed1*, Muhammad Ansar1, Yamin Bibi2, Saqlain Shah1, Asma Hassan1, Lubna Ayub Durani1, Muhmmad Asif3 and Zuhair Husnain

...to observe the yield and development of the plant. A factorial completely randomized design (CRD) was adopted for this experiment, where Cobalt nitrate (Co (NO3)2) was applied at the rates of 10ppm, 20ppm, and 30ppm in combination of inoculation on mung bean three verities Chkwal-06, NM-16 and NM-11. Analyzed data was recorded related to mungbean growth and development parameters Mungbean have maximum response with inoculate...

Ghani Akbar 

... agriculture and tourism development, while its strategic location indicates a tendency of increasing importance of this region in the near future. Agriculture, one of the main sources of income of 52% of population of Malakand division, is less profitable due to traditional farming methods. Therefore, this paper is aimed to investigate the key agricultural issues and to identify strategies for utilizing the full potential of agriculture for improving liveliho...

Muhammad Rasheed1*, Zafar Ullah1, Muhammad Ansar1, Asma Hassan1, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz2, Muhammad Hussain Shah4 and Muhammad Arshadullah

...tial for the sustainable development of Pothowar region. Field experiment was conducted to evaluate forage growth and yield of oats (Avena sativa) and vetch (Vicia sativa) grown in mixture stands under conservation and conventional tillage systems. The highest number of tillers plant-1 (11) for Oats was recorded in oats-vetch mixture under conventional tillage (CT) while comparing minimum tillage (MT) to zero tillage (ZT) 43 percent higher yield of oats was o...
Neelam Pery*, Nayab Batool Rizvi, Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq
...ort the in-Silico development of novel 1, 7-dihydrodipyrrolo[2,3-b:3’,2’-e]pyridine -3-carboxamide derivatives as JAK3 inhibitors with predicted efficacy more than that of Tofacitinib. Although the dipyrrolopyridine analogues have already been used for developing inhibitors for different biological conditions, the presented arrangement (1, 7-dihydrodipyrrolo[2,3-b:3’,2’-e]pyridine ) has not been explored before. Due to the l...

Anurag Sharma*, Naresh Kumar, Geetanjali Singh and Anika Sharma 

...al lead compound for the development of new nutraceuticals and galactagogue for animal health. 

...

Muhammad Rafiq1, Muhammad Tariq Mahmood2*, Mushtaq Ahmad2, Imtiaz Ali3, Muhammad Saleem1, Irfan Rasool1 and Zeshan Ali

...pea breeding program for development of stress tolerant varieties for drought prone areas of the country. 

...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1 and Onyemocho Audu2 

...ortant for treatment and development of vaccine. Among the routes of HCV transmission; intravenous drug addiction or injection drug use accounts for the majority of many cases apart from hemodialysis patients, unprotected sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and vertical transmission. Therefore, there is a need for government commitment for HCV elimination program through making the DAAs available and its affordability to general population to curb the catast...
Imad Hassan1, Bilal-ur-Rehman2, Muhammad Amir2, Faheem Ali2*, Salman Ilahi2 and Amjad Ali3 
...is research proposes the development of a cost effective, simple and compact ESP, through practical installation and efficiency analysis. Experimental evaluation of the proposed ESP design is carried out for the removal of particulate matter from a biomass combustor. The results shown in this paper are promising and exhibit that a simple solution can achieve above 90% efficiency. The average particulate collection efficiency of our proposed ESP reached its pea...

Abdul Raqeeb1,3, Syed Moazzam Nizami2,4*, Aamir Saleem3, Lubna Ansari3, Saeed Gulzar3, Basit Ali3, Masooma Saleem5
 

...ort the verification and development of greenhouse gas inventories under land use, land use change forestry (LULUCF). In this regard, empirical data of particular species for a specific forest ecosystem is of utmost importance. In the present study volume and biomass allometric of naturally growing Cedrus deodara tree in dry temperate regions of Himalaya has been developed from the empirical data collected from four different locations with three sites each as...

U. A. Al-Karim, A. A. Alshimaysawe, A. E. Mohammed† , W. A. R. Aljaafri and F. A. Al-Fadhal

Evaluation of biological seed treatments for management of Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton
... manage and evaluate the development of Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton. Tests included seeds treated with the Abamectin, ILeVo, and a non-treated control. Results showed that seed treatment with Abamectin and Burkholderia sp., suppressed the numbers of R. reniformis eggs significantly. Seeds treated with Abamectin and bacteria had fewer vermiform adults in the soil in comparison with the non-treated seeds. The bacteria and Burkholderia spp., seeds treatmen...

 M. Ihsan Ul Haq1, Ahmad Hussain2*, Farzana Yasmeen3, Shafiq R. Qureshi4

LIFE CYCLE COSTING AND PAYBACK PERIOD EVALUATION OF A SOLAR THERMAL DESALINATION SYSTEM
...s important for life and development. About 1.8 billion people will be living in absolute water scarcity by
2025.Non availability of safe drinkable water is the major source of diseases in the different regions of the world
especially remote rural and coastal areas. About 97% of water on earth is comprised of seawater. Desalination of
saline water is a prominent approach to handle the problem of water scarcity. Conventional desalination te...

Ebtisam Mirza1, Nadeem Ehsan1 

DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECT EXECUTION COMPLEXITY INDEX
...CI(I) for Infrastructure development
projects and PECI(O) for Other projects. A complexity scale starting from 0 = least complex to 10=highly
complex has also been proposed in order to rank and compare the projects. This ranking will help the decision makers
to decide which projects to include in their portfolio and which projects to give priority while assigning resources
more efficiently. Moreover, project managers will be able to...

Rahim Haider*, Al Mustaan Kakar*, Sikandar Bilal Khattak*, Safi ur Rahman**, Shahid Maqsood*, Misbah Ullah*, Rehman Akhtar*, Aamir Sikandar* 

DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMIZED MAINTENANCE SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE FLEET
...an advance
system development

...

Anwar Ullah*, Sabir Islam*, Sikandar Bilal Khattak*, Safi Ur Rahman**, Shahid Maqsood*, Misbah Ullah*, Rehman Akhtar*, Rashid Nawaz* 

MAINTENANCE SYSTEM FOR HEAVY EARTH MOVING EQUIPMENT
...al for completion of any developmental projects. Dams, schools, bridges
or any mining related initiations are part of these infrastructure development projects. Usually the delays are due to
the inefficient and ineffective maintenance procedures of the heavy earth moving equipment’s. Poor record keeping
and un-systemized maintenance procedures leads to reducing the machine effective life cycle. To ...

Farid Ullah Khan*, Adeel Ahmed*, Uzair Khan Jadoon*, Fahim Haider* 

MODELING, SIMULATION AND FABRICATION OF AN UNDERSHOT FLOATING WATERWHEEL
...ormed for the 1 kW power development, show that a 1 m radius waterwheel with 10 number of blades, each
having a width of 1.75 m and height of 0.55 m, are capable of generating the desired power from stream flow velocity
of 1.5 m/s. Moreover, a prototype of an undershot floating waterwheel is also fabricated from low weight materials,
such as, fiber glass and mild steel square tubes. For electrical power generation a DC generator is coupled...

Waqas Anwar, Iftikhar Hussain 

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT BETWEEN RESTIVE REGIONS OF PAKISTAN AND REMAINING PART OF COUNTRY
...exists in infrastructure development between restive regions of Pakistan like Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Provincially Administrative Tribal Areas (FATA/ PATA) / hinterland of Baluchistan and remaining part of Pakistan. Government realized the importance of this under development in the aftermath of 9/11 and consequent unrest and trouble. Construction projects unleashed efforts to bring restive regions in line with ...

Waqas Anwar, Iftikhar Hussain 

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT BETWEEN RESTIVE REGIONS OF PAKISTAN AND REMAINING PART OF COUNTRY
...exists in infrastructure development between restive regions of Pakistan like Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Provincially Administrative Tribal Areas (FATA/ PATA) / hinterland of Baluchistan and remaining part of Pakistan. Government realized the importance of this under development in the aftermath of 9/11 and consequent unrest and trouble. Construction projects unleashed efforts to bring restive regions in line with ...

 Mahmood Alam Khan, Afzal Munir, Muahmmad Shahzad Khattak, Daulat Khan, Muhammad Ajmal

GROUNDWATER RECHARGE QUANTIFICATION FROM RAINFALL IN PESHAWAR DISTRICT-KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...man welfare, livelihood, development, and for the life itself, in the coming years. The main objective of this study was to quantify the ground water recharge due to rainfall on yearly basis of Peshawar district Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. Groundwater recharge was estimated by subtracting runoff from the rainfall. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method was used to estimate the runoff produced from rainfall events. As per the da...

Numan Habib, Naseer Ahmed, Riaz Muhammad, Himayat Ullah, Muftooh Ur Rehman, Kareem Akhtar 

ANALYSIS OF CHIP PRODUCED IN FREE MACHINING OF TI-6AL-7ZR-3NB-4MO-0.9ND AND TI-5AL-7ZR-7NB-0.7ND ALLOYS
...be discarded. Continuous developments in many industries like aviation and power generation increased its use in many applications, not only because of its chemical properties but also because of its excellent properties including, high strength to density ratio, withstand with high stresses, better fatigue and corrosion properties and ability to resist high temperatures. However, all these properties of this alloy results in poor machinability, hence, make ...

Azra1*, Muhammad Afzal2 and Dilawar Khan1

Factors Influencing Inflation and Economic Growth in Pakistan: An Econometric Analysis
...undering. Human resource development coupled with investment and value-added by both agriculture and industry contributed significantly to economic growth. Should the policy makers attach genuine attention to these factors, it is expected that Pakistan economy will perform reasonably well. Specification and diagnostic tests revealed the appropriateness and soundness of the inflation and economic growth models. Parameters stability was examined for two periods ...

Shaista Naz1*, Noor P. Khan1, Himayatullah Khan1 and Azra2 

Does Women’s Participation in Livestock Management Enhance their Empowerment? An Insight from the Tribal Belt of Pakistan
... household level for the development of Pakistani society.

...

 Farid Ullah Khan*, Atal Khattak*

DEVELOPMENT OF A POWER MANAGEMENT CIRCUIT FOR MICROENERGY HARVESTERS
...This work reports on the development a power management circuit (PMC) for micro energy harvesters. The circuit

is design to regulate the power between three different power sources for the operation of a wireless sensor nodes
(WSNs). The main components of the circuit are resistors (carbon film), capacitors (electrolytic), inductors (ferric
bead, axial leaded), and a DC voltage regulators (TPS62100DRC-BRR). The layout of the c...

Waqas Anwar1*, Iftikhar Hussain1

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT BETWEEN RESTIVE REGIONS OF PAKISTAN AND REMAINING PART OF COUNTRY
...exists in infrastructure development between restive regions of Pakistan like Federally Administered

Tribal Areas, Provincially Administrative Tribal Areas (FATA/ PATA) / hinterland of Baluchistan and remaining part
of Pakistan. Government realized the importance of this under development in the aftermath of 9/11 and consequent
unrest and trouble. Construction projects unleashed efforts to b...

 Mahmood Alam Khan1*, Afzal Munir1, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak1, Daulat Khan1, Muhammad Ajmal1

GROUNDWATER RECHARGE QUANTIFICATION FROM RAINFALL IN PESHAWAR DISTRICT-KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...man welfare, livelihood, development, and for the life itself, in the coming
years. The main objective of this study was to quantify the ground water recharge due to rainfall on yearly basis of
Peshawar district Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. Groundwater recharge was estimated by subtracting
runoff from the rainfall. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method was used to estimate the
run...

 Numan Habib1, Naseer Ahmed1, Riaz Muhammad1*, Himayat Ullah2, Muftooh Ur Rehman1, Kareem Akhtar3

ANALYSIS OF CHIP PRODUCED IN FREE MACHINING OF TI-6AL-7ZR-3NB- 4MO-0.9ND AND TI-5AL-7ZR-7NB-0.7ND ALLOYS
...be discarded. Continuous developments in many

industries like aviation and power generation increased its use in many applications, not only because of its chemical
properties but also because of its excellent properties including, high strength to density ratio, withstand with high
stresses, better fatigue and corrosion properties and ability to resist high temperatures. However, all these properties
of this alloy...

 Syed Asif Ali Shah*, Iftikhar Hussain*

PERFORMANCE OF THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR OF PAKISTAN AND ITS COMPETITIVENESS CAUSE AND REMEDY
...ortance for the economic development of every country. In Pakistan the contribution to GDP of the manufacturing sector over the past three decades has not grown measurably. A vibrant manufacturing sector entails a move from static to high productivity activities, and will contribute towards GDP growth as well as generating employment. This paper reviews the performance of Pakistan’s manufacturing sector and highlights its importance in economic

Shaukat Ali*, Shah Khusro*, Laiq Hasan**, Asif Ali Khan**

A SURVEY OF MOBILE PHONES CONTEXT-AWARENESS USING SENSING COMPUTING RESEARCH
..., paving the way for the development of cutting-edge context-aware applications. Mobile phone sensing is old wine in a new bottle, having its roots extended from context-aware mobile computing. Mobile phones sensing capabilities can be exploited for developing context-aware applications to answer a number of real-world problems belonging to different sectors including automatic road condition detection and traffic monitoring, social network...

Syed Farasat Ali Shah*, Amjad Naseer**, Rashid Rehan**

USE OF RUBBER WASTE IN CONCRETE TO REDUCE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION- AN OVERVIEW
...th on growing industrial development, tonnes of solid waste are generated every year. Managing, disposing and recycling of these waste has turned out to be a great challenge in recent times. Typically, waste generated from industrial and domestic activities is dumped in open spaces. However dumping of solid waste in open spaces is hazardous to environment; therefore researchers have explored new means to effectively manage such waste. Tyre wastes have no excep...

Tahir Usman*, Khan Muhammad*

MODELING OF BLASTING COST AT DEEWAN CEMENT QUARRY, HATTAR USING MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION
... This paper presents the development of a prediction model for blasting cost per ton at Deewan cement quarry operations, located in Hattar, Pakistan. The dataset primarily consisted of a total of 12 parameters which has been analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to account for most significant parameters. These parameters were then subsequently used to formulate a model for the prediction of blasting cost per ton in the cement q...

 Amjad Ali*, Amir Nawaz Khan*, Atta-ur-Rahman*, Muhammad Saeed*

ANALYSIS OF SITE, SITUATION AND THEIR IMPACT ON RESETTLEMENT OF PROPOSED NEW BALAKOT TOWN, PAKISTAN: AN EX POST EVALUATION OF 2005 KASHMIR EARTHQUAKE
...the potential growth and development of the new town which is measured in term of economic base. The potential basic and non-basic activities structure is analysed for the study of economic base of new Balakot town. The basic activities infrastructure is not attractive for the residents of the Balakot town as there are least business and other employment opportunities. It was found that initially the property business and high level of non-...

Asif Nawaz*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Rehmat Ullah, Khalid Nawab and Urooba Pervaiz

Investigation of Professional Competency Level and Training Needs of Field Assistants in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
...ignificant effect on the development of their competency. Therefore, it is suggested to provide in-service training for the Field Assistants in the identified areas for the adequate acquisition of relevant skills and knowledge.

...

Tanveer Sultan1, Anwaar Ahmed1, Aqsa Qayyum2*, Amer Mumtaz2 and Naeem Khalid

...eological studies (dough development time, dough stability, water absorption and mixing tolerance index) were significantly affected (p≤0.05) by the supplementation of buckwheat flour. There was a gradual increase in the ash (0.88±0.02 to 1.72±0.04) and fiber contents (0.01±0.001 to 2.64±0.04) with the increment in buckwheat flour while moisture contents decreased significantly (4.63±0.04 to 3.80±0.04). The protein ...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Saima Sadaf1, Adnan Ahmad1, Usman Rafique1 and Muhammad Arshad Javed1

An Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness Level Regarding Integrated Farming System in District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
... a fact that sustainable development comes only by judicious utilization of the resources and environment protection that help in addressing socio-economic challenges. An integrated farming system (IFS) holds a special position with the central concept that nothing is supposed to be wasted here. It is an integrated approach to farming compared with existing monoculture approach. It passes on to an agricultural system that integrates crop production and livesto...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Saima Sadaf1, Adnan Ahmad1, Usman Rafique1 and Muhammad Arshad Javed1

An Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness Level Regarding Integrated Farming System in District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
... a fact that sustainable development comes only by judicious utilization of the resources and environment protection that help in addressing socio-economic challenges. An integrated farming system (IFS) holds a special position with the central concept that nothing is supposed to be wasted here. It is an integrated approach to farming compared with existing monoculture approach. It passes on to an agricultural system that integrates crop production and livesto...

Mohammad Aslam Khan*, Samiullah* and Zulfiqar Ali*

DYNAMICS OF URBAN SPATIAL GROWTH AND PLANNING: A CASE STUDY OF PESHAWAR
...n sprawl. The pattern of development of urban sprawl in Peshawar is typical of most Pakistani major cities, where ribbon sprawl is common along major roads, while leapfrog sprawl is prevalent in the city’s fringes. The uncontrolled expansion in the built up area is typically consuming rich agricultural land and pose a threat to food security. The study highlighting the causes of urban sprawl, discusses some of the strategic and policy...
Muhammad Shaheen
APPLICATION OF LABELLED K MEANS CLUSTERING FOR GIS CONTRACT AUTOMATION
...ng all its vital phases (development, operation and maintenance). At present, the tracking is done in a non-discrete manner through manual inspection. Manual tracking is inevitable because (1) no indicators have so far been developed for evaluation by an automatic tracking system, (2) No automated system exists to evaluate the performance of GIS service provider and the client on the basis of performance indicators and (3) there is no centralized mechanism for...
Amjad Hussain1, Ata Ur Rehman2, Zia Ur Rehman Tahir3, Aftab Ahmad1, Fahad Noor3, Qasar Wasique Ahmad1
INVESTIGATION OF EMPLOYEES’ PERCEPTION ABOUT LEAN IMPLEMENTATION
...h contribute towards the development of negative perceptions. However, the study is limited to one lean tool (Kaizen) and its implementation in textile sector. The results of the study provide opportunity to understand perceptions about lean implementation and their relationship with job satisfaction and how perceptions can be improved for the purpose of achieving higher performance through rapid lean implementation.
...

 Sikandar Bilal Khattak, Iftikhar Hussain, Rashid Nawaz

EVALUATING THE SOCIAL ASPECT OF SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION FOR PAKISTAN VIA ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS
...tainability, sustainable development, and sustainable construction relies on economy, environment and society. This makes social aspect (society) to be of prime importance. This paper focuses on the social aspects of the sustainable construction. Most of the sustainability studies are carried out through questionnaire or interviews. Similarly, this papers also uses the questionnaire for data collection. The collected data is analyzed with A...

 Muhammad Shahzad1, Arif Iqbal Umar1, Syed Hamad Shirazi1, Muhammad Tariq Pervez2*, Zakir Khan1, Waqas Yousaf1

HCDP: HEPATITIS C DATA BANK OF PAKISTAN
...ug designing and vaccine development.

...

 Asad Naeem Shah1,2, GE Yun-shan1, HE Chao1,3

MACROSCOPIC SPRAY CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL AND BIODIESEL-DIESEL BLEND: AN EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON
...t pressure on spray development, spray tip penetration (L) and cone angle (β) of biodiesel-diesel (20%/80%: v/v) blend (B20) and diesel, and hence compares the quality of the fuels. Both ‘L’ and ‘β’ play a key role in the fuel evaporation and mixing of fuel with air in the combustion chamber. It was found that the injection pressure, spray tip penetration and cone angle of the fuels increased with the incre...

Abdul Shakoor1, R.A. Sayed2, Khizar Azam2

KNOWLEDGE BASE TECHNOLOGIES AS A NEW PARADIGM IN DATA DRIVEN MANUFACTURING SYSTEM
...This paper describes the development of Knowledge Base System (KBS) to select process for making circular shapes and explores the manufacturability of the required designed product. The KBS is an expert system, used to select the suitable process and cutting tools by defining the constraint values into the system. The KBS is designed using E2KS, the state of the art software and knowledge capturing techniques. The machining examples are use...

 Muhammad Shaheen*, Muhammad Shahbaz*, Zahoor ur Rehman* and Sajid Mehmood*

A METHOD OF DATA MINING FOR SUSTAINABLE HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION
...uffered by unsustainable development causing recession crisis, manpower crisis etc. Energy is vital for economy of a country so it has sound impact on sustainable development. In any country energy is explored to meet consumption requirements and it is consumed in accordance with available reserves. In Pakistan, hydrocarbons are considered to be one of the major sources of energy. The contribution of hydr...

Uzma Arif1, Sadar Uddin Siddiqui2, Muhammad Fareed Khan1, Muhammad Arshad3 and Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi

...s well as root and shoot development capacity; while the deleterious effect of higher temperature (45°C) were more pronounced and severely affected the seedling growth and development from start. The information generated on seed behavior under storage conditions in this study; would be helpful to devise better strategy for short- and long-term storage of carrot seeds as well as seed of other crops of similar category.&n...
Ming-Yan Shi2, Xu-Liang Yan1, Ping-Ping Han1, Yu-Jie Tang1 and Hui-Xia Li1*
... differentiation and the development of the immune system in 315 potential target genes, while 39 target genes were associated with adipogenesis and metabolism, immune responses, and stem cell differentiation. Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database showed that these differentially-expressed miRNAs were involved in several pathways and were target genes that could regulate SMSC differentiation into adipocytes. Our study provided ...

Oluwatoyin Olagunju1* and Luqman Abiodun Akinbile2

Farmers Perceptions of the Effect of Rural Transportation Systems on Farming Income in Ondo State, Nigeria
...al to the socio-economic development of the rural population. Nonetheless, in Nigeria, the state of rural roads is pitiable, as the development, enhancement and provision of more rural transport systems could be a panacea for the prolonged deplorable and worsening state of rural roads in the country. This study examined the perceived effects of rural transportation systems on farmers’ income in Ondo State, Nigeria. A s...
Zumama Khalid1, Muhammad Abrar Yousaf2, Abeedha Tu-Allah Khan1Farah Rauf Shakoori2, Muhammad Munir3 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori1*

Muhammad Yaseen1*, Syed Amir Zia Abid1, Muhammad Luqman1, Syed Wasim Hasan2, Muhammad Aqeel Pitafi3, Muhammad Tariq Chaudhry4 and Muhammad Ameen5

Training Needs Assessment of Training Professionals Working in Agricultural Training Institutes in Punjab, Pakistan
...ining needs were; recent development in agriculture, community development and mobilization, ICTs application in agriculture and designing of training with mean values of 2.84, 2.82, 2.74, and 2.72 respectively. The government should provide training opportunities for professionals related to agriculture and training processes at national and international level.

...

Kanwar Muhammad Raheel Mehboob1, Rashid Iqbal2*, Muhammad Israr3,4, Jaweria Shamshad5, Umair Riaz6, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman7,8, Fawad Ali9, Arif Nawaz10, Maliha Sarfraz11, Abdul Waheed12, Muhammad Tahir Khan13 and Muhammad Aslam2

 

Assessment of the Consequences of Heat Changes on Cotton Cultivars Growth, Phenology and Yield at Different Sowing Regimes
...the yield just as entire development of farming crops. All periods of phenology of crops are temperature sensitive. Hence, information on appropriate temperature for best yield is significant so as to get maximum production. In current examination, a field test was directed to evaluate the phenology, relative development, ideal sowing time, comparative growth just as yield execution of three cultivars of Bacillus thuringiens...

Hafsa Naheed* and Hidayat-Ur-Rahman

Genotype by Environment Interactions of Vegetative Growth Traits of Bread Wheat Genotypes
...e genotypes for cultivar development. Keeping in view the significance of genotype and environment, a multi environment study was conducted to evaluate the response of genotypes to different cropping systems and environments. The performance of vegetative growth traits of the 40 exotic bread wheat lines was assessed across seven different environments during 2015-16 and 2016-17 growing seasons. The trials were conducted using RCB design at four locations for t...
Safina Naz1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi2*, Bushra Siddique3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar4 and Abdur Rehman5 
 
Exogenous Application of Selected Antioxidants and Phyto Development Directors Influenced the Development, Output and Biochemical Attributes of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)
...rative efficacy of phyto development director i.e. N.A.A.GA3, 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and antioxidants i.e. Ascorbic acid and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid on development, fruit bearing, output along with biochemical attributes of Lycopersicum esculentum fruits during 2014 and 2015. Foliar spray of GA3(100 ppm) and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (200 parts/million and 100 parts/million) give rise to significantly taller plants and gr...

Attiq ur Rehman1,2*, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil3 and Ihtisham Ali4

Genetic Diversity and Traits Association in Tetraploid and Hexaploid Wheat Genotypes in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan
...ts renders the basis for development of a successful crop improvement program. An experiment containing 16 wheat genotypes (8 durum and 8 spring wheat) was conducted in crop season of year 2015-2016, at The University of Agriculture, Peshawar. The experimental design used was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The parameters under study were days to heading, days to maturity, flag leaf area, plant height, tillers m-2, spikes m-2...

Yasir Arafat1*, Syeda Nabahat2, Hafiz Ullah3, Afaq Ali Muluk4 and Azra5

An Analysis of Energy Supply and Oil Price Shocks on Agricultural Productivity of Pakistan

Qurrat ul Ain Akbar*, Saqib Arif, Shahid Yousaf, Salman Khurshid and Najmus Sahar

Effects of Flour Particle Size on Farinographic Properties of Wheat Dough
...parameters (except dough development time) were influenced by particle size of wheat flour. Water absorption was negatively related with flour particle size. Dough stability was positively related to flour particle size whereas the degree of softening was negatively related with flour particle size. However, there was insignificant and non-consistent effects were found on dough development time. The information generated fro...

Nadeem Abbas Shah1*, Ejaz Ashraf1, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Zaheer ud Din Mirani3, Usman Rafique1 and Raees Abbas Shah4

Assessing Perceptions of the Households-heads Regarding Food Security Status in Drought-hit Areas of District Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan: A Case Study for Agricultural Extension
...mployment opportunities, development of natural resources for producing food secure crops and start awareness movements among the inhabitants of Tharparkar to revitalize the status of food security in the study area.

...

Mushtaq Ahmad Khan*, Abdul Basir and Beena Saeed

Biochar Improves Phenological and Physiological Attributes of Wheat in Soil Amended with Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Sources
...nhanced wheat growth and development.

...
Abida Parveen1, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Nazir Javed1, Anam Moosa1*, Khushboo Javaid1, Hina Safdar1 and Asma Safdar2
...ess the reproduction and development of MI. Highly susceptible variety of tomato cv. ‘Money Maker’ was tested for the invasion and development of MI. Aqueous and ethanolic MO extracts were tested in combination with SK at three different concentrations and time intervals. After 12-h ‘S’ concentration of aqueous MOextract + ethanolic MO extract + SK produced 100% juvenile mortality while the treatment ...

Umar Hayat1*, Ibrar Hussin2, Aftab Alam3 and Khalid Khan4

Time Series Analysis of Child Mortality in Pakistan: An Application of Bootstrap ARDL
...: justify;">Contemporary development theories realize the importance of social indicators such as education and health status of masses along with per capita income. This study aims to empirically test the hypotheses of Modernization Theory (MT) and the Social-Democratic Theory (SDT) related to child mortality in Pakistan. The study adopts the framework of Ferreira and Schady (2009) and Baird et al. (2011) to carry out empirical estimation via ARDL and Bootstr...

Asif Ali Abro1* and Iqbal Ahmed Panhwar2

Impact of Various Factors on Crop Diversification Towards High Value Crops in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis by using THI
...ation. It was found that development of infrastructure received a low priority in rural areas and it is recommended that cold storage in relevant areas, vibrant roads net work and consistency in power supply for cold storage should be developed on priorities basis that will help to minimize the post harvesting losses. The judicious use of fertilizer, efficient utilization of water and support price for fruits, vegetables, pulses and oilseeds are required for t...

Ghulam Akbar1*, Ali Ahmad2, Neha Arooj1, Muhammad Anjum Zia1, Aamna Rafique1, Sania Riasat1, Mohsin Raza1, Mahpara Qamar1, Shahneela Nusrat1 and Shakila Hanif1

Critical Update for the Treatment of Anemia by using Advanced Genome Editing Crispr Cas Technology
...order. However, with the development in generation at genome editing level have made feasible to accurate mutations in human genome. A site oriented specific break in double stranded DNA is induced by CRISPR/Cas9, whereas different oligonucleotides are provided to make accurate DNA template for genome correction. It is of importance to knowledge about types of CRISPR to treat anemia. Cas 9 showed one of best gene editing reactions than others. Recent data give...
MA Liman1, QI Yongxiao1, Wang Wenji2* and Zhong Qianyi3*
...ied to evaluate vascular development defects. G-Rh2 treatment up to 84.85 μM did not induce morphological defects in zebrafish. We observed suppression effect of angiogenesis by G-Rh2 in inhibiting intersegmental vessel formation from 30 to 84.85 μM in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR revealed that G-Rh2 suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) mRNA expression but not mRNA expression of its receptors (fl...

Muhammad Ramzan1, Muneer Abbas1*, Sohail Abbas2, Niaz Hussain1, Muhammad Aslam1, Javed Anwar Shah1, Muhammad Irshad1 and Mudassar Khaliq1

Incidence of Different Aphid Species on Various High Yielding Wheat Varieties
...t farms. Different wheat developmental periods, i.e., seedling (SS), tillering (TS), stem elongation (SES), heading (HS), dough (DS) and ripening (RS) were studied. Through evaluating, seven varieties i.e. Sahar-2006, Faisalabad-2008, Punjab-2011, Galaxi-2013, Gold-2016, Fakhr-e-Bhakkar-2017 and Bhakkar Star-2018 the most susceptible wheat stage against the infestation of aphid was investigated. Exploring most susceptible wheat stage was conducted through most...
Kui Zhang1,2, Ping Geng1, Sher Khan Panhwar3, Khadim Hussain Memon4 and Zuozhi Chen1,2,*

Kecheng Zhu1,2,3, Peiying He1, Baosuo Liu1,2,3, Huayang Guo1,2,3, Nan Zhang1,2,3, Liang Guo1,2,3, Shigui Jiang1,2,3 and Dianchang Zhang1,2,3,* 

...ast fusion during muscle development and growth by modulating Almyomaker expression.
...
Jian Yang1, Guangxiang Tong2, Zhipeng Sun2, Xianhu Zheng2, Weihua Lv2, Dingchen Cao2, Xiaowen Sun2 and Youyi Kuang2*
...iency on adjacent muscle development and growth by examining expression of muscle-specific genes and muscle structure. Five muscle-specific genes including myod, myog, myf5, mef2ca and sox6 were selected to test and verify the expression differences in embryonic development stages (3 hpf, 6 hpf, 12 hpf, 24 hpf, and 72 hpf) and post-embryonic stages (15 dpf, 30 dpf, 45 dpf, 60 dpf and 75 dpf...

Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed Youssef* and Suzan Abd-Elazeim Hassabo

The Role of Genetic Engineering in Management of Plant Parasitic Nematodes with Emphasis on Root-Knot Nematodes: A Review
...loidogyne incognita. The development of such strains by genetic manipulation by transferring gene (s) required for saponins production is effective in increasing crop yield together with fixing nitrogen. Escherchia coli is still used as a host for the recombinant DNA technology – based industrial production of proteins and peptides to manage root-knot nematode. Mi gene resistance in tomato plants has been utilized to manage M. incognita and M. javanica. ...
Arifa Khan1*, Arsalan Bashir1, Shazia Erum2, Jabar Zaman Khan Khatak1 and Aish Muhammad3
Effects of 6-Benzylaminopurine and Indole-3-acetic Acid on Growth and Root Development of Banana Explants in Micropropagation
...s for the shoot and root development and also for the number of shoots and leaves. Wiallium-8818 hybrid gave more shoots (7.33) when the concentration of BAP and IAA was 2.5 and 1 mg L-1, respectively. Alike, Wiallium-8818 hybrid produced the longest shoot (12.20 cm) with more leaves (6.23) at 1 mg L-1 of each BAP and IAA. But Pisang variety produced maximum fresh weight (15.45 g) with a greater number of roots at 5 + 1 mg L-1 of BAP + IAA, respectively.

...

Muhammad Abdullah1, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai1, Jahangir Khan1*, Mohammad Fayaz1, Irfan Ullah1* and Sabeeh Ullah2

Analysis of Agricultural Land Price Determinants and Policy Implications for Controlling Residential and Commercial Encroachments: Facts from District Swabi (Pakistan)
...oachments. Investment in development of agricultural infrastructure and provision of subsidized on important inputs could raise farmers’ returns from agriculture and could change their perception to favor using land for agriculture.

...

Sajid Khan* and Shahnaz Akhtar

Effect of Farm Labor Transformation on Households Income in Central Districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...ce agriculture and rural development.

...
Yonghua Liu*, Xianhua Li, Xiongfei Yan and Gang Li
...> (peach) on the growth, development, survival, reproduction, and life table parameters of A. fimbriana were studied. Different host plants had significant effects on the growth, development, and reproduction of A. fimbriana. The overall developmental duration was the longest on apple (60.71 d) and peach (60.78 d) and shortest on apricot (54.55 ± 3.56 d). The cumulativ...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Atiq Ur Rahman and Anwar Saeed Khan

Assessment of Irrigation Development in the Small Dams Command Area: A Case Study of Palai Dam, District Charsadda
...fall for irrigation. The development and management of water resources are of extreme importance for the sustainable development of agriculture specifically in rain-fed areas. Palai dam is a small irrigation dam, constructed on River Jindi, some 40 km north of Charsadda town. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the impact of the Palai dam on the irrigation system of selected villages of tehsil Tangi. The study is bas...
Abdul Hameed1*, Ihtsham ul Haq Padda2 and Abdul Salam3
Estimating Food Consumption Patterns in Pakistan by Using Ideal Demand System
...tion security and social development. It also proposes that constant price of nutritious food and any rise in prices of these commodities should be supported by price subsidization or safety nets programmes for deprived groups. In addition, the state should concentrate on rural income generation activities such as agriculture, livestock and its related industries.

...

Ghulam Rabbani1, Uzma Javed1*, Javed Iqbal2, Ruqeah Mustafa3, Ghulam Shabbir2 and Fida Hassan Shah4

Barani Mash a Newly Developed Disease Resistant and High Yielding Mash Cultivar for Rainfed Areas of Punjab, Pakistan
... justify;">New cultivars development is a continuous process as older genotypes become increasingly susceptible to biotic and abiotic stresses. The newly developed mash cultivar “Barani Mash” is an elite mash cultivar with yield potential of 1743 kg/ha. This cultivar has resistance against diseases and lodging, the pod size is medium and 100-seed weight is 4.73 g. It has been developed through screening from the local material. It was further evalu...

Amjed Ali1, Rafi Qamar1*, Muhammad Ehsan Safdar1, Salman Saleem2, Sami Ullah3, Muhammad Arshad Javed4 and Syed Wasim Hasan5

Development and Growth: Influence of Sowing Dates on Performance of Cotton Cultivars
...vars and sowing dates on developmental and allometric traits of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under the agro-ecological conditions at Sargodha, Punjab, during Kharif season, 2015. The study consisted of i) three cultivars viz. Bt. FH-142, Bt. MNH-886 and FDH-170 and ii) three sowing dates viz. 21st April, 5th May and 20th May. Cultivars and sowing dates improved developmental and allometric traits of cotton in the study yea...

Muhammad Shaheen

Mining Patterns from Complex Energy Dataset: A Case Study of Pakistan’s Energy Sector
...;">The role of energy in development of a country is vivacious. The sectors which when stand sustainable guarantees long-life prosperity of a nation include energy sector. The role of energy in social, economic and environmental factors defines its prominence in sustainability. To ensure sustainable energy development the consumption and production patterns may comply with each other and may also comply with the conditions o...
Haseeb Nisar1, Usman Pasha1, Kiran Hanif1, Rizwan Abid1Rehan Ahmad Khan Sherwani2, Haja N. Kadarmideen3 and Saima Sadaf1*
...atorial effect on the RA development and/or progression. In conclusion, our study suggests that the analyses of single- and multiple nucleotide polymorphisms in larger cohorts, originating from diverse ethnic groups, are imperative to ascertain the genetic contributors of RA in a specific population.
...

Said Sajjad Ali Shah1*, Muhammad Ilyas Khan1, Aziz Ullah1, Hayat Ullah2 and Faisal Ahmad2

Coprological Examination of Small and Large Ruminants in Central Zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
...it favors the growth and development of gastrointestinal parasites. Similarly, young and male animals were found more susceptible to gastrointestinal parasites in the current study. Frequent screening of animals and deworming should be practiced for complete eradication of gastrointestinal parasites.

...

Chibuzo Uzoma Izuogu1*, Robert Ugochukwu Onyeneke1, Loveday Chukwudi Njoku1, Gillian Chidozie Azuamairo1 and Mary Chikerenma Atasie2

 

Repositioning Nigeria’s Agricultural Extension System Towards Building Climate Change Resilience
... a better interface with development partners and optimization of the use indigenous mitigation strategies for climate change. The review recommends that essential strategies that must be in-cooperated in the extension service delivery in Nigeria should include adoption of new scenario thinking in communicating resilience building, establishment of emergency management unit by the agency, encouraging the involvement of the private sector in the extension servi...
Chen Zeng1,2, Baosuo Liu1,4, Kecheng Zhu1,4, Liang Guo1,2, Huayang Guo1,4, Nan Zhang1,4, Quan Yang1,3, Jing Wen Yang1,4 and Dianchang Zhang1,4*
...>To study the growth and development rules of the longfin batfish Platax teira, three nonlinear models, logistic, Gompertz and Bertalanffy, were used in the study to fit and analyse the body height, body length, full length and body weight growth curves of the fish at the age of 2-8 months. The results showed that the three nonlinear curves could fit the body height, body length, full length and body weight growth curves of the P. teira well, and...
Mohsin Ali1, Nargis Haider Kakar2, Rida Dawood3,4, Qurat-ul-ain Fatima5, Zunera Tanveer2, Shoaib Ahmad Malik6, Tauseef Muhammad Asmat1, Asadullah1, Muhammad Masood Tariq Kiani1 and Mohammad Zahid Mustafa1*
...cs to lessen the risk of development associated co-morbidities.
...

Muhammad Rizwan1*, Jehanzeb Farooq1, Muhammad Farooq1,2, Aqeel Sarwar4, Abid Ali3, Farrukh Ilahi1, Muhammad Asif1 and Ghulam Sarwar1

Quantitative Studies in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using Multivariate Techniques
...otton be contingent upon development of genotypes having better yield, tolerance with respect to abiotic and biotic stresses and enhanced fiber quality. Forty five elite lines of cotton were used to evaluate the genetic variability for fifteen parameters viz., plant height (cms), days taken in 50% flowering, monopodia plant-1, sympodia plant-1, boll weight (g), No. of bolls plant-1, ginning out turn (%), lint index(g), seed index(g), 2.5 percent span length(mm...

Muhammad Shahid1*, Unsar Naeem-Ullah1, Waheed S. Khan2, Shafqat Saeed1 and Kashif Razzaq3

Application of Nanotechnology for Insect Pests Management: A Review
... insecticides causes the development of resistance, environmental pollution, pest resurgence and unwanted effects on humans, animals and beneficial fauna. The pesticides residues remain in the different parts of the crops and cause the lethal effects on human health. Many countries in the world switched from chemical based agriculture to green based agriculture that are ecologically reliable, socially acceptable and economically sound. In current scenario, the...

Sabina Noor1*, Fatimah Abang1 and Hamady Dieng2

Biology of an Exotic Butterfly Acraea terpsicore (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae), in a Newly Invaded Region, Sarawak, Borneo
...f host plant leaves. The developmental time of A. terpsicore to complete its life cycle took an average of 30 ± 3.01 days with a total of five larval instars. The ontogenesis of larvae was accomplished without any disruption of diapause. The female adults were ochreous orange in color with a wingspan of about 50-60 mm. The males were brighter orange in color and had a wingspan of about 40-50 mm. The population index was found to be common throughout the...

Inam Ul Haq1*, Humara Umar2, Naeem Akhtar3, Muhammad Azhar Iqbal2 and Muhammad Ijaz1

Techniques for Micropropagation of Olive (Olea europaea L.): A Systematic Review
...f olive may expedite the development of important characteristics like biotic and abiotic resistance with high yield and premium quality olive oil. However, the commercial micropropagation of olive trees is currently not enough because of production cost and globally; it is mostly used for research and development on various aspects of olives. In this review, efforts are made to document the different techniques for successf...

Muhammad Umair Hassan1, Muhammad Aamer1, Muhammad Nawaz2, Abdul Rehman3, Talha Aslam3, Ubaid Afzal4, Bilal Ahmad Shahzad3, Muhammad Ahsin Ayub5, Faryal Ahmed1, Ma Qiaoying1, Su Qitao1 and Huang Guoqin1*

Agronomic Bio-Fortification of Wheat to Combat Zinc Deficiency in Developing Countries
...ired physical and mental development. Wheat crop play a chief role in daily food requirement and calories need in developing countries, however, inherently wheat has lower Zn contents. Moreover, soil Zn deficiency further increasing the problem of low Zn contents in wheat grain. Thus, the finest way to combat the Zn deficiency is to produce the grains of wheat having desirable Zn contents at farmer’s field. The breeding and agronomic (fertilizer applicat...
Imran Haider1, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza1*, Rashid Iqbal1, Salman Ahmad1,2, Muhammad Usman Aslam1, Muhammad Israr3, Umair Riaz4, Maliha Sarfraz5, Nasir Abbas6, Salman Haidar Abbasi7, Zafar Abbas8 and Muhammad Aamer9
 
 
...iticum aestivum L.), development and yield were observed. A field experiment was performed at Agronomic Research Area, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur in November 2019. Factorial arrangement in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used to design the experimentation. The experiment consisted of six treatments viz, Control, a drought at flowering and grain filling stages, Amino acid @ 1.5 ml L-1 ...
Tariq Mahmood Khalil1,2*, Muhammad Ajmal3, Iftikhar Zeb1,4 and Muhammad Azeem Khan1,5
 
 
...line water irrigation on development of total water potential within coarse and fine textured soils using a novel method based on water potential dynamics. Chilled mirror dew point hygrometer accurately captured the water potential dynamics when soil samples were irrigated with saline water. The instrument output showed that soil texture has profound effect on soil total water potential rising the water potential up to −4.56 for coarse soil and −9....
Shahid Hussain Abro1*, Mohammed N. Alghamdi2, Muhammad Sohail Hanif3, Hazim Moria2 andHamza Suharwardi1
 
 
...hing in which austenitic development morphology investigated. The CHQ steel analyzed in the context of Advanced Optical Microscope of Olympus GX51, SEM and Thin-film X-ray Diffracto-meter, with high-intensity mode have been deployed in order to examine the kinetics behavior of austenitic development at CHQ steel. On several quenching experiments the austenite formed at different temperatures and time 10s, 15s, 30s, and 60sec...

 Shuanping Zhao, Lei Xu, Hai Jin and Yutang Jia*

...tial for skeletal muscle development and maintenance through regulating the length of actin filaments. In this study, we aimed to identify common variations in CFL2 gene and investigate their effects on growth traits in Chinese Dabieshan (DBS) cattle. By DNA sequencing and (forced) PCR-RFLP methods, three polymorphisms (g.1500G>A, g.1694T>A and g.2213C>G) were identified and genotyped in our population (n=298). Genetic diversity analysis showed...
Humza Sami1, Mahnoor Sagheer1, Muhammad Amir Altaf1, Javaid Iqbal2 and Muhammad Zubair1,*
 
Abdul Waheed Solangi, Lei Zhang, Yunxia Cheng and Xingfu Jiang*
...s on progeny growth i.e. developmental time, larval and pupal mass. We found that forced flight females had early oviposition with higher fecundities and shorter lifespan, whereas control females had delay oviposition with lower fecundities and longer lifespan. In addition, to these maternal effects, flight stimulated changes in maternal egg provisioning had direct significances on progeny life history traits, progeny from forced flight females had poorer larv...
Muhammad Rashid, Mahmood Ahmad Sajid, Nosheen Noor Elahi, Sibgha Noreen and Kausar Hussain Shah*
 
...hat reduced crop growth, development and yield. While several physiological processes are played role in plant adaptations to drought stress. However, antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation play a key role in drought tolerance. The current study was intended to investigate physiological adaptations for drought tolerance in different wheat varieties. Three weeks old seedlings of each wheat cultivar were challenged with drought stress by skipping irri...
Muhammad Younis1, Muhammad Irfan-ur-Rehman Khan1*, Mustansar Abbas1Ali Murtaza1, Imran Mohsin2, Muhammad Shahzad3 and Muhammad Zahid Tahir1
...rmine ovarian follicular development and steroid hormones concentrations during estrous cycle of Lohi sheep. Ovaries of nine Lohi ewes were monitored for two consecutive estrous cycles using B-mode trans-rectal ultrasonography during the breeding season (Sep-Nov 2018). Plasma progesterone and estradiol-17β concentrations were determined throughout the cycle using radioimmunoassay. The average length of the estrous cycle in Lohi sheep was 17.0±0.1 d...
Ying Liu1, Shankun Liu1, Hui Wang2 and Weihua Su2,*
...showed the effect on the development and growth of the fetus. During the GDM increase the incidence of oxidative stress. Caffeic acid is a powerful free radical scavenger and possesses antioxidant effect against the various diseases. Previous study suggests that the caffeic acid have potent anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of the current study was to scrutinize the protective effect of caffeic acid against the streptozotocin induced GDM in rats and explores...

Muhammad Jahanzaib1*, Nazakat Nawaz1, Muhammad Arshad1, Haris Khurshid1, Muzamil Hussain2 and Shahid Ali Khan1

 

 

...mproved cultivars’ development. The current study was conducted to estimate genetic variability, traits association, and path coefficient analysis in eleven groundnut advanced breeding lines together with check vis BARD-479, using randomized complete block design with three replications at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. Through One-Way Analysis of variance significant discrepancies were found among the genotypes for mo...
Raheel Saqib1*, Muhammad Luqman2, Saleem Ashraf3, Tahir Munir Butt4, Abdur Rehman5, Imtiaz Hussain6 and Muhammad Umer Mehmood2
 
 
...ming in rural livelihood development. Among different potential benefits of family farming “minimize household food insecurity” was perceived as the highest with the utmost mean (4.71/5.00). Rural female in the research area faced a number of constraints inefficient adoption of family farming practices. Out of these constraints “non-availability of female rural development practitioners/workers” was o...
Sadaf Javaria1, Anum Marwat1, Muhammad Nadeem2, Mehwish Zerlasht1, Aiman Kareem3, Iqra Rubab1 and Masooma Munir4*
Tariq Ali Mastoi1, Zulfiqar Ali Mastoi2*, Zahoor Ahmed Khetran3, Ghulam Hussain Alizai2, Binish Baig4, Mitha Khan2 and Syed Jahangir Shah1
 
 
...ance on the agricultural development in the district Jaffarabbad, Balochistan through survey method. Eight districts were selected purposively by using random sampling techniques to investigate eligibility, education and obstacles of the respondents for obtaining micro finance loan from Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited (ZTBL). Out of selected districts; ten respondents were chosen randomly who obtained micro finance loans. The information of the selected districts...
Javaria Sherani1,2*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani1, Tanveer Ahmad2, Sohail Kamaran3, Abdul Manan2, Tehseen Ali Jilani2 and Mateen Sajid2
 
...ence on plant growth and development, including fruit ripening. However, the presence of a cross-interaction between grafting and rootstock is often neglected. To explore cross-interaction between grafting and rootstock on different fruit yield and quality traits, we examined the scion-root interaction of four scion cultivars viz. Delhi White, Suffen, Karela and Mahmud Wali during March-April 2013-14. After the establishment of plant, data were recorded for yi...

 Muhammad Ajmal1, Saima Mustafa1, Fizza Ibrahim Bajwa1, Cheng Zhou2, Guangdong Wen2, Soe Lwin Myint2, Syed Irfan Raza3, Ihtasham Bukhari4, Mubashir Hassan5, Muhammad Faisal6 and Furhan Iqbal1*

...soon after birth and the development of papular lesions of keratin-filled cysts over extensive areas of the body. Two consanguineous families were enrolled from Basti Mochi Wala, Mouza Gulab Shah in Muzaffargarh District of Punjab (Pakistan) having multiple siblings suffering from alopecia. The aim of this study was to find out the genetic mutation(s) in hairless (HR) gene, if any, in the enrolled subjects. A questionnaire was filled for each subject on...
Chen Tongde1, Fakher Abbas1, Jiao Juying1, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz2*, An Shoshan1, Muhammad Ansar3, Qaiser Hussain2, Mah-Noor Azad2 andAyaz Ahmad2
...e soil erosion caused by development and construction projects should be supervised and controlled, meanwhile, matching soil erosion prevention measures should be developed through research. Especially Murree region in the north requires rational planning and approval of a large number of construction projects to prevent the intensification of soil erosion and the deterioration of water quality and ecological environment. The research and control on headwater ...
Ryan Septa Kurnia1* and Radiana Dhewayani Antarianto2
 

...nism of disease and drug development is conducted in 2D cell culture or in animal models. The 2D cell culture models poorly imitate the condition in vivo and provide limited utility due to mimic tissue physiology in multicellular organisms. Although animal models can be used as pre-clinical tools for new-agent screening prior to clinical testing, there is a growing awareness of the limitations of animal research and its inability to make reliable predic...
Simeen Mansoor, Jabeen Farheen* and Meher Hassan
 

...egulate plant growth and development that govern acclimation in plants but little has been known under lethal-temperature stress. Thus, the impact of induction of thermotolerance by sublethal-temperature (40 °C), 100 µM indoleacetic acid (IAA), and 100 µM gibberellic acid (GAá´£) before lethal-temp...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Jennifer Ifeoma Okpara1, James Mogoret Dabol1, Joshua Adetunji1, David Adeniyi2, David O. Amanyi3, Otobo I. Ujah4, Veronica David1, Patience Omaiye5 and Onyemocho Audu6

...tion to avert subsequent development of end stage liver disease. Furthermore, larger studies are needed to gain better understanding of the HDV infection among chronic hepatitis B patients in endemic regions and other high-risk populations.

...

Faheem Aslam1,*, Aneel Salman2, Inayatullah Jan3 and Sarah Siddiq Aneel4

...ate change, research and development, inland navigation and the importance of the Indus River. Pakistan’s water policy does, however, fall short in terms of lack of attention given to water sensitive urban designs, risk management against natural hazards and mapping of water-sector development in line with the Sustainable Development Goals; and trade in water-intensive crops. Both go...
Shehzadi Saima1, Maqsoda Perveen2, Muhammad Nawaz1, Khalid M. Ahmad1,* and Haider Sultan1
... that play a key role in development and growth of plants. Therefore, the present study was planned to test the effects of potassium on Gladiolus by different treatment methods, and to find out which method is more promising. The corms of Gladiolus hybrid cv. yellow stone was used for plantation. Experiment was carried out in complete randomized design (CRD) with four replications and three fertilizer treatments (control, 2g/pot with side dressing, 2g/pot with...
Saima Siddiqui1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Tajwar Sultana Syed 1Abdul Sattar Buriro2, Sohail Ahmad3, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed4 and Muhammad Asam Riaz4*

 

Naveed Ali1, Umar Hayat1*, Shahid Ali1, Muhammad Imad Khan1 and Sanam Wagma Khattak2
 

... the impact of financial development on agricultural productivity in case of SAARC countries for the period of 1996 to 2019. Moreover, this study introduces trade openness, human capital, and income as important control variables of agriculture value-added. To serve this purpose, this study utilizes CS-ARDL approach. The results of long-run estimates show that financial development, income, trade openness and human capital a...
Uzma Ayaz1,* and Muhammad Fareed Khan2
 

...ull flowering days, full development days, total leaves per plant, chlorophyll content (mg/cm-2), height of plant (cm), disk length (cm), thickness of stem (mm), 1000-achene’s weight (g), fresh achene’s weight (g), dry achene’s weight (g) and achene’s yield (kg/ha). This experimental study depicts dependence and linkage of some agronomic factors with other inter-linked traits i.e flowering days, maturing days, width of stem, ...

Ali Zaman1, Nabila Roohi1 and Muhammad Irfan2*

...ls were analyzed for the development of clinical signs, hematology and serum biochemistry. All treatment groups exhibited clinical signs (ranging from mild to acute) like increased temperature, variation in rumen motility, mucous membrane, salivation, edema, dullness, depression, nasal discharge, respiratory distress and recumbence or death. A significant change in complete blood count (CBC) including packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration, r...
Tai-hua Jin1, An-gang Lou2,Jiu-xiu Ji1, Cheng-dou Cui2, Long-zheng Yu2 andLi-zeng Guan1*
... mechanism of growth and development of animals regulated by miRNAs. 
...
Fuhua Zhang, Yishuang Yu and Shibao Wu*
...pangolins and detect the developmental status of their embryos and fetuses. As a method of pregnancy diagnosis, B-ultrasound is not only easy to operate, safe, and noninvasive, but also very intuitive and efficient compared with hormone detection methods. Efficient detection methods such as B-ultrasonography are critical to avoid housing already-pregnant pangolins together with males, which may mate with the females again or stress them, resulting in abortion....
Md. Alal Hossen1, Mohammad Amzad Hossain1*, A.K.M. Munzurul Hasan1,2, Bipresh Das1, Sohel Mian1, Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal1
 
...atfish and its embryonic development could contribute to database and conservation approach. The S-GnRHa dose optimization and embryonic-larval development study were conducted in a freshwater condition in order specify optimal dose of synthetic hormones in induced breeding. The synthetic GnRHa was used as induction agent where male injected half of the doses of female and a control without S-GnRHa was assigned. The stages o...

Punjab University Journal of Zoology

December

Vol. 35, Iss. 2, pp. 167-268

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