Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...rticular virus strain or bacterial species and being maintained free of unwanted microbiota in sterile isolators. The sterile surgical derivation and gnotobiotic status of the pigs allow studies of the infection, disease and immune responses caused by a specific pathogen in the absence of interfering maternal antibodies, other maternal immune regulators, and intestinal and environmental microbes. Due to the similarities between pigs and humans in terms of gene...

Gultaj Hussain1, Abdur Rahman1*, Tariq Hussain2, Siraj Uddin1, Tariq Ali3

E-mail | abdur_rahman@aup.edu.pk

...t | Preservative and antibacterial effects of citric acid and lactic acid treated beef were studied previously on Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Salmonella typhymurium. This was aimed to investigate the effects of these acids on the total viable count (TVC) of these bacteria. Three diluted concentra- tions (1.0, 3.0 and 5.0%) of both citric acid and lactic acid were used. A total of 3024 meat samples were collected from cattl...

Tomas Jinnerot1*, Karin Malm1, Erik Eriksson1 and Jonas Johansson Wensman2

E-mail | Tomas.Jinnerot@sva.se

... is the most common bacterial cause of kennel cough or canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) in dogs. Other disease agents include various respiratory viruses and co-infection can exacerbate the clinical signs. CIRD is highly contagious and can spread rapidly, especially among dogs in close quarters. Fast and accurate diagnostics enables the selection of proper management. Our objective was to develop a sensitive and specific re...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

...h, ducks, plants, fungi, bacteria and everything else that belongs to the lake. If we apply this approach to clinical samples we can identify the community of etiological pathogens, without any knowledge on the targets in advance. However, clinical specimens usually comprise an overwhelming amount of host nucleic acids, which by far exceeds the number of pathogen nucleic acids in the sample. Subsequently, it is necessary to either decrease the amount of host n...

 John G. Bruno and Jeffery C. Sivils

...nd related Gram negative bacteria. However, unrelated Gram positive bacteria exhibited very few, if any, bands in common with those identified on the E. coli Western aptamer blots, thus attesting to the specificity of these aptamers. In general, the use of aptamers in Western blot formats is advantageous for validation of aptamer binding and specificity based on molecular weight matching of detected electrophoretic bands acr...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...lture. The occurrence of bacterial “suprainfection” with tolerance to antibiotics has attracted the significant attention, mainly due to the consequences of multi drug resistance and potential threat to human health and the environment. With the increasing incidences of antimicrobial contamination, especially in food, dairy products, agriculture and environment, their regular monitoring is on prime interest. Aptamers are synthetic short sequences o...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...de to isolate Leptospira bacteria from urine, soil and water samples. Antibody detection in animal and human serum samples will utilize Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Study outcomes will include (i) geo-referencing of adverse environmental attributes that support Leptospira growth, (ii) animal and human seasonal public health burden of Leptospirosis, (iii) seasonal variation in the distribution of Leptospira determinants in a slum setting, and (iv) a si...

Tayiba Latif Gulraiz1, Arshad Javid1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Muhammad Shahbaz3, Irfan3 and Sharoon Daud4

...twelve fungal and twelve bacterial genera were isolated. Four fungal (Candida, Fusarium, Penicillium and Saccharomyces) and two bacterial genera (Klebsiella and Nocardia) were isolated from bolus only, three fungal (Cryptococcus, Histoplasma and Trichophoton) and six bacterial (Acaligenes, Azotobacter, Bartonella, Nitrsomonas, Pseudomonas and Salmonella) genera were isolated from guano whi...

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

...ther bacteriophages. The bacterial challenge test in milk indicated that proliferation of S. aureus was successfully ceased until six hours post infection when applied at and MOI of 100.

...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...industry, the problem of bacterial resistance is emerging, hence leading to serious health issues. Among 24 strains isolated from Shaukat Banaspati Ghee industry (Grw) and Shezan foods (pvt) Ltd, Lahore, Pakistan food industry, 10 highly antibiotic resistant strains were subjected to morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization. 16SrRNA sequencing was performed to identify three highly resistant strains at species level. Antimicrobial activity...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

... Wilt causing fungus and bacteria, i.e. Fusarium oxysporum (87.50 ± 0.11% inhibition), Xanthomonas campestris (67.00 ± 0.46% inhibition) and Clavibacter michiganensis (72.00 ± 1.02% inhibition). The A. flavus was grown on two different media, i.e. Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) and Glucose Nutrient Broth (GNB) media for active secondary metabolites. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of PDB medium gave significant results against selected phytopat...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...otic resistance of major bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella and Pasteurella spp. in Egyptian quail farms. Such information is important for drug choice and success of treatment as well as spotting the light on emerging antimicrobial resistance that represent major concern for public health. A total one hundred swabs and 500 organ samples were collected from apparently healthy and freshly dead quails respectively.
Mirza Imran Shahzad1,*, Anna Iqbal2, Farrah Ali1, Nuzhat Sial3, Muhammad Ashfaq4, Abul Hasanat5 and Azra Khanum6
... each other. A total six bacteria including Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Pasteuralla multocida, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureius were used against each other to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. All of bacteria were cultured in LB media and further the culture of each bacterium was divided into three parts, the first part was centrifuged in order to collect s...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...had a positive effect on bacterial enumeration of Ileum (P<0.05). The use of antibiotic caused a reduction in all three forms of microbial population. On the other hand, herbs added as feed additive acted as prebiotic and enhanced the lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, supplementation of herbs as feed additive improved growth parameters and present results suggests herbs could be used as alternative to antibiotics growt...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
...nt Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) (No PGPR, PGPR-1, PGPR-2 and PGPR-1 + PGPR-2). The PGPR used in this study were pre-isolated and characterized, taken from soil microbiology and biochemistry laboratory, Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences (ISES), University of Agriculture Faisalabad. In this experiment Randomize Complete Block Design (RCBD) with factorial arrangements having three replications was used. Significantly maximum 1000 achene weight...

Zia Ur Rahman1*, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1, Hidayat Ur Rahman1, Fida Mohammad1, Mian Ahmad Raza1 and Ijaz Ahmad Khan2

... check cultivars against bacterial leaf blight disease at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar-Pakistan during 2011 rice crop growing season. On artificial inoculation with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae, the fundamental agent of bacterial leaf blight, most of the studied rice accessions and the two commercial rice cultivars displayed susceptible reactions. Seven rice accessions viz. UoA-2, UoA-5, UoA-11, UoA-48, UoA-53, U...
Ahmed Mujtaba1, Tariq Masud1, Asif Ahmad1, Waqar Ahmed3, Saqib Jabbar3* and Robert E. Levin2
...tudies concluded the antibacterial activity of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and its by-products. The aim of the study were to test the activity of chlorogenic acid isolated from apricot cv. Habi, against different food borne pathogens and quantification of the chlorogenic acid (CA) using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The chlorogenic acid was isolated using resin. The recovered amount of compound was calculated. Aliquots of the extracts...
Neenish Rana, Nosheen Ehsan, Awais Ihsan and Farrukh Jamil*
...ence of human pathogenic bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strain 26695. Computational analysis of the genome showed 6 transcriptionally active pseudogenes that can produce stable mRNA secondary structure compared to their functional parents. Moreover it was observed that their putative protein products will be thermodynamically stable. The sequence-based predictions suggested that the pseudogenes-derived proteins may involve in different ...

Honnur Basha, Vinaya Hemannavar, B.Ramanujam, R. Rangeshwaran and S.Sriram 

Screening of chilli microflora and other biocontrol agents for their antagonistic effects on Colletotrichum spp. infecting chillies
...amples, 94 fungal and 89 bacterial isolates were derived, which included 50 isolates of fungi and 44 isolates of bacteria from phylloplane and pomoplane, 44 isolates of endophytic fungi and 45 of endophytic bacteria from inside the leaf and fruit tissues, respectively. Among them, 70 fungal isolates belonged to plant pathogenic genera like,Alternaria, Cercospora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia...

M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
... four fungi and six rhizobacteria isolates from the rhizosphere of vegetable crops was studied for suppression of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita and wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato in laboratory and pot culture experiment. All the isolates were isolated by serial dilution and cultured in liquid protein supplemented broth medium and culture filtrates (CF) were prepared. In in-vitro test single eggmasses of uniform size we...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...ing strains belonging to bacterial genera such as Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces and Bacillus, and fungal genera such as Gliocladium, Trichoderma, Ampelomyces, Candida and Coniothyrium. Trichoderma and Pseudomonas fluorescens are the most important and widely used bioconrol agents being used across the world for the management of several plant diseases. Some bacterial biocontrol agents can inhibit both

Partha Pratim Ghosh and 2N. C. Mandal 

Some disease management practices for bacterial wilt of potato
...ture at 20:5:3:1 in each bacterial wilt affected plant + mancozeb spray @ 2.5 gL-1 at 50, 57 and 60 DAP) were the best treatment in terms of their responses to yield, disease management and higher return per rupee investment. The highest tuber yield and low disease intensity was obtained from T1 (TPS whole tuber planting) followed by T4 (supervised management) but under congenial condition for a particular disease like bacteria<...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
...or the evaluation of antibacterial activity of lactoferrin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of lactoferrin was determined by 96-well plate method using ELISA reader. Results depicted that CM-Sephadex C-25 was a good cation exchanger for recovery of lactoferrin. Camel raw milk produced 2.4 mg/mL of lactoferrin. The lactoferrin isolated from camel milk exhibited promising antibacterial activity against E. coli an...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...lign: justify;">Vascular bacterial wilt being an impediment of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) production under the acidic soil condition of Purulia district of West Bengal resulted in 20-30% yield loss every year. The present participatory action research was aimed to study the (i) adeptness of integrated module of prophylactic soil disinfection and bio-control, (ii) only prophylactic soil disinfection, and (iii) only curative soil disinfection over upr...
Obaidullah1, Zafar Ali Shah1* and Sami Ullah2
...es followed by their antibacterial assessment. Lapachol was isolated from stem heartwood of heterophragma adenophyllum seem through column chromatographic technique. Characterization of Lapachol was carried through melting point assessment and running its comparative TLC against standard, added with structure elucidation by FT-IR spectrum. Silver nanoparticles of Lapachol were  synthesized by treating 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution with 1 mM solutio...
Saba Irshad1,*, Ayesha Ashfaq1, Ammara Muazzam1 and Abida Yasmeen2
...d against five important bacterial and fungal strains. Both extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity against B. subtilis, E. coli and S. aureus. All alcoholic extracts were competent enough to reduce the growth rate of M. canis and A. flavus up to 35%, with no inhibitory influence on Candida species and F. solani. These extracts fully inhibit growth of PC3 cells. Moreove...
Tiansen Li1, Meiling Huang2, Zhen Wang1,Fei Guo3,Hui Zhang1,* and Chuangfu Chen1,*
...ucella is pathogenic bacteria that cause animal and human brucellosis. Currently, the mechanism behind the pathogenesis of Brucella remains unclear. For this reason omp10 mutant was constructed to examine the impacts of the outer membrane protein 10 (Omp10) on bacterial survival, virulence, phagosome-lysosome fusion, and apoptosis induction, as assessed in appropriate in vitro (cell culture) and anim...
Kulsoom Akhter1, Tahseen Ghous1,2,Saiqa Andleeb3,*, Faiz-ul-Hassan Nasim4, Samina Ejaz5, Zain-ul-Abdin1, Bilal Ahmed Khan1 and Muhammed Naeem Ahmed1
...us heavy metal resistant bacteria isolated from rhizosphere of Tagetes minuta, growing in soil adjoining automobile workshops to investigate their bioaccumulation capacity for three selected metals Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II). The plant was selected due to its natural abundance in the climate of Kashmir and also in the area of study. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates were identified as B. cereus BDBC...

Jawad Anwar* and Zafar Iqbal 

... novel and effective antibacterial compounds to treat, prevent and resist is highly demanded. Luckily fungi are potential producer of antibacterial natural products. The present study was initiated to investigate the antibacterial activity of Trichoderma harzianum against phyto and human pathogenic bacterial strains. T. harzianum was grown under differen...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
...tamase (NDM-1) producing bacteria being responsible for multiple ailments, pose serious threat to human health. The NDM infections are constantly increasing worldwide particularly in sub-continent including Pakistan. These bacteria show resistance to wide range of broad spectrum antibiotics leaving the treatment options limited. Manuka honey is traditionally used for medical purposes including remedy of

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Wasiullah1 and Wiqar Ahmad

...ifferent strains of cyanobacteria in improvement of some major plant nutrients and soil organic matter content (SOM) under saline soil and yield of rice crop at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC) Islamabad during summer 2016. Pots were induced with salinity of 7.0 dS m-1 and arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Six treatments consisted of a control (no strains) and 5 different strains of cyano<...
Ehab Bo Trabi1,2, Xianjun Yuan1, Junfeng Li1, Zhihao Dong1, Assar Ali Shah2 and Tao Shao1,2,*
... glucose and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) additives. The groups were as follow: silage without additive as a control (c); glucose 1% fresh matter basis (G1); glucose 2% (G2); glucose 3% (G3); Lactobacillus Plantarum (LAB1); Pediococuss acidilactici (LAB2); Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LAB3). All the silos were incubated at 25°C. Then, 90 days later, the fermentation quality of tested silages was analyzed. No significant difference was found ...
Jing Xin Mao1,2, Guo Wei Wang2, Yuan She Huang3, Rui Wang2, Guo Ze Wang4, Bing Zeng1 and Fu Yuan Zuo1,*
...ainst GNB (gram-negative bacteria) and their endotoxin by means of its antibiotic and endotoxin neutralizing and disposing functions. BPI has several biological functions in mammals such as human, bovine, pig and rabbit, it also has major influence in the natural defense of the animal body. In this paper, by comparative study on BPI gene expression in various tissues between Rongchang pig and Landrace, we confirmed the expression of pig BPI gene in various tis...
Temel Gokturk1, Elif Tozlu2,* and Recep Kotan2
...thods in which fungi and bacteria were used in the biological control against pests. Totally 10 bacterial strains including 2 strains of Brevibacillus brevis (CP-1, FD-1), 1 strain of Bacillus thuringiensis (FDP-1), 2 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kenyae (FDP-8, FDP-42), 2 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstakii (FDP-41, BAB-410), 1 strain of Bacillus subtili...
Aqsa Imtiaz and Abdul Rehman*
...to isolate keratinolytic bacteria from the soil contaminated with poultry waste. From amongst nine bacterial keratinase producing isolates were found. The BML5 isolate was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA Ribotyping. B. subtilis BML5 showed maximal keratinase activity at 37°C and at pH 8. An increase in keratinase activity of B. subtilis...
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Muhammad Shahzad2, Xiaokang Wu3, Chaofeng Ma4 and Jiru Xu1,*
...copy numbers of dominant bacteria of gut microbiota. The results indicated that a significant diversity difference between asthma and healthy groups (*P< 0.05), was shown in DGGE profile. Similarity index was found to be lower in inter-group than intra-group that indicated a change in composition of gut flora in asthma patients. Sequencing results also indicated a change of bacterial composition between both groups...

 Maryum Fakhar, Iqra Jabbar, Anjum Nasim Sabri*

...tals or toxic compounds, bacteria have multiple survival strategies involving several mechanisms of resistance and tolerance. Biofilm formation is one such resistance mechanism for bacterial survival. This paper provides the basis for use of bacteria isolated from saline environment and to check their biofilm forming ability under nickel stress. Our previous results showed that these

 Asma Akhtar, Abdul Rehman

...dustrial wastewater. Two bacterial isolates were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus lactis on the basis of biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence. The minimum inhibitory concentration of both isolates showed fair growth up to 1 mM of K2Te2O3. Both strains showed maximum growth at 37ºC and pH of 7. The bacterial growth in the presence of metal ions was delayed as compared to the control. High el...

 Bushra Mazhar1, Nusrat Jahan1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa andleeb2, Shaukat Ali2*

...ied out to explore local bacterial isolates for vanillin production using waste residues of rice bran oil. After the screening of different bacterial isolates, a novel strain Enterobacter hormaechei showed significant production of vanillin when inoculated in waste residues of rice bran based media. E. hormaechei produced 5.2 g/l of vanillin in culture media containing ferulic acid as a substrate. Optimum pH for E. hormaeche...
Ikramul Haq1, Aneela Zameer Durrani*1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Imtiaz Ahmad3, Amjad Khan2 and Mehboob Ali1
...sampled for isolation of bacteria. During the study 294 faecal samples (horse n=217, mules n=23 and donkey n=54) were diagnosed positive for bacteria. The overall prevalence of diarrhea was 72.56% with bacteria in 65.77% of diarrheic cases. The prevalence of different bacterial species shows that E. coli was the most prevalent

Farah Rauf Shakoori, Momina Shokat, Faiza Saleem and Tanzeela Riaz

...creen xylanase producing bacteria and to optimize cultural conditions for maximum production of enzyme from locally isolated bacteria and to optimize the assay conditions under which enzyme possessed maximum activity. Two bacterial isolates XPB-GS02 and XPB-CW01 with maximum activity ratio showed 18.3 and 12.2 U/ml xylanase activity, respectively. Maximum xylanase was produced in medium M1...

Ayesha Bibi*, Musharaf Ahmad and Shaukat Hussain 

... sources of inoculum for bacterial canker of tomato (BCT) caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), in a set of 20 weeds commonly found in tomato fields of major tomato growing areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Northwest Pakistan. Based on agroclimate, KP was divided into five zones as Northern KP, Southern KP, Eastern KP, Western KP and Central KP. A total of 100 collected weed samples were analyzed in laboratory for the presenc...
Alim-un-Nisa1*, Sajila Hina1, Sania Mazhar1, Imran Kalim1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Naseem Zahra1, Shahid Masood1, Muhammad Khalid Saeed1, Qurat-ul-Ain Syed1 and Maida Asif2
...growth rather it has antibacterial activity. The lethal dose and toxicity determination of the color extracted from marigold showed that it is safe for consumption as no clinical symptoms were observed in rabbits after giving the maximum dose of 1000ml of color.
...
Muhammad Naeem1, Bushra Sadia1,2,*, Faisal Saeed Awan1and Muhammad Anjum Zia3
...In this connection, wild bacterial strain Streptococcus equisimilis was mutagenized using ethidium bromide and UV radiation. The colonies (15 each) showing > 1% survival rate at 150 min of UV exposure and 12 % survival at 0.5 mg/ml of ethidium bromide for 120 min were selected. Casein hydrolytic assay identified EB3, EB4, EB6, EB7, EB9, EB11, EB13, UV2, UV4, UV6, UV7, UV9, UV11, UV12 and UV 15 mutants producing halo zones. Percentage blood clot lysis...

 Rahila Nazli, Tehmina Sohail, Bushra Nawab and Zahra Yaqeen*

...nst gram +ve and gram-ve bacteria. The study was also extended to some species of fungi. Results showed that the activity was more pronounced against gram +ve organisms and fungi. Maximum inhibition activity was calculated against all the groups of organisms, which was between 0.5 and 1mg ml-1 against bacteria and 2.5 mg ml-1 against fungi. It is therefore concluded that G. sepium provide a lead towards the exploration of ne...
Maryyum Khalil1, Hamda Azmat1,*, Noor Khan1, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Asim Ullah1 and Sumaira Abbas1
...ereas on skin only total bacterial count (0.36×103)was observed and no coliform bacteria were present while least CFU’s were counted in group 2 among skin 0.14×103 cfu ml-1 and gut 0.10×103 cfu ml-1 on nutrient agar. The results suggested that the enzyme supplementation improved the growth and health of P. hypophthalmus.
...

 Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Arshad Ali**, Tariq Sultan** and Muhammad Munir Ahmed***

CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM ROOT SYSTEM OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L) GROWN UNDER SALT AFFECTED AREA OF PAKISTAN
...nt growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) directly promote plant growth by providing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), solubilization of inorganic phosphates, nitrogen fixation and siderophores and other organic acid production, whereas indirectly support plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. The objective of this study was isolation and characterization of bacterial strains from rhizosphere, endosphere and rhizoplane of sun...

 Tosif Tabassam*, Tariq Sultan**, M.Ehsan Akhtar**, M.Mahmood-ulHassan** and Arshad Ali**

SUITABILITY OF DIFFERENT FORMULATED CARRIERS FOR SUSTAINING MICROBIAL SHELF LIFE
...nt growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains from maize rhizosphere. Different combinations of material were prepared using clay soil (35-50%), fly-ash (30-45%), press mud (5-15%) and lignite (5-15%). Clay soil (53% clay) was used for adhesion purpose but considering free of lump formation an important property of a good carrier, mixing 40% of soil with other material was found suitable. Using 40% of soil, six different treatments were formulated and physi...

Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Tariq Sultan**, Arshad Ali**, Ghulam Qadir*** Imdad Ali Mahmood**, Tauseef Tabassam**, Muhammad Arshad Ullah** and Nasir Abbas* 

EFFECT OF PGPR STRAINS ON SUNFLOWER GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS UNDER SALINITY STRESS
...nt growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are potentially useful for stimulating plant growth under harsh environment. A pot trial was conducted to examine the performance of four isolated strains in five treatments viz., KS 44, KS 7, KS 41, KS 42 and KS mix under four different artificially developed -1 salinity levels (5, 8, 10 and 12 dS m ) at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Hybrid seeds (SMH 0917) of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were u...
Rabia Faiz and Dilara A. Bukhari*
...der, respectively. These bacterial isolates have a great potential to grow into a bioinsecticidal formulation for the control of mosquitoes.
...
Abdul Nabi Jatt1,*, Sarfraz Ali Tunio1, Shaista Bano Memon1, Abdul Sattar Qureshi2 and Muhammad Aqeel Bhutto
...e enzymatic potential of bacterial species is an essential feature to carry out a wide range of biological and physiological processes, particularly involved in the hydrolysis of complex organic materials. Several pathogenic microbial species utilize enzymes as virulence factors to cause diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate enzymatic activities of the bacterial strain Shigella dysenteriae IM using AP...
Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska1,*, Magdalena Skibicka1, Barbara Cioch-Szklarz1, Jolanta Karakulska2, Karol Fijałkowski2 and Sonia Hiller3
...hogenic or opportunistic bacteria at the level of the average number of micro-organisms (11-50 CFU) or high (> 50 CFU), which negatively affected the health of the calves. However, in cold rearing there was recorded absence or presence of microorganisms in the nasal cavity in a small amount (<10 CFU).
...
Humaira Jabeen and Nazia Jamil*
...for bioplastic producing bacteria. Bacterial strains were isolated from the desert and urban soil samples. A total of 39 strains isolated from Cholistan near Bahawalpur and 24 strains were isolated from various areas of Lahore. Bacterial strains were screened for the production and accumulation of bio-plastic. Only three strains from urban soil sample were able to produce polyhydroxyalkano...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
...late pectinase-producing bacteria from local habitats. To enrich the diversity of isolated bacteria that produce pectinase, samples were collected from the soil, water, fruits and vegetables wastes. Initial screening of pectinase producing bacteria was carried out on pectin containing agar plates of pH 7 incubated at 37ºC. Among isolated thirty-seven strains, a total of thirteen strai...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
...late pectinase-producing bacteria from local habitats. To enrich the diversity of isolated bacteria that produce pectinase, samples were collected from the soil, water, fruits and vegetables wastes. Initial screening of pectinase producing bacteria was carried out on pectin containing agar plates of pH 7 incubated at 37ºC. Among isolated thirty-seven strains, a total of thirteen strai...
Jun-Ying Liu, He-He Liu*, Jie Kou, Yang-Mei Zhao, Ji-Wen Wang, Liang Li and Xiao-Hui Du
...mponent of gram-negative bacteria. To investigate how TLR4 responds to LPS, the TLR4 transcription levels in duck liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were examined after a model for immune stress was implemented through LPS injection in Peking ducks. The results from this assay suggested that LPS injection significantly increased the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in bursa of Fabricius (P<0.05), along with an inc...
Jiji Li*, Tianyang Zu, Xiangli Dong, Xiao Yang, Wei Liu and Changwen Wu
... 3) CCL24 in response to bacterial challenge in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). The results revealed that the immunological effect of CCLs in the croaker is weaker than that of other fish, and revealed the infectivity of the large yellow croaker. Thus, these findings could help to develop methods of disease resistance in the aquaculture industry.
...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Zahir Shah1 and Farmanullah Khan1 

...Among the microbes, cyanobacteria are known as photoautotrophic, blue green algae which is not a truly eukaryotic algae and grown in different and such complex habitats freely and symbiotic association with large numbers of plants and microbial mats. In this regard, a pot experiment was carried out with the aim to assess the impact of different strains of cyanobacteria on rice crop growth and nutrients uptake under saline so...
Ghulam Muhae-ud-Din1,4, Anam Moosa1, Umer Farooq Ghummen1, Muhammad Jabran1, Amjad Abbas1, Muhammad Naveed2, Abdul Jabbar1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1,3,*
...pplication of endophytic bacteria Pantoea agglomerans strain MN34 and Pseudomonas putida strain MN12 in a pot experiment. Both endophytes significantly decreased the galling index and promoted the growth of the plants root length, shoot weight and canopy length; however, the highest root weight was observed in the control treatment. P. agglomerans showed more reduction in galling index and increase in plant growth than P. putida. Th...
Ayesha Munir, Hafiz Muhammad Umer, Anjum Nasim Sabri and Imran Sajid*
...aused by multispecies of bacteria. Among the causative agents of dental caries, notable one is Streptococcus mutans, which is an obligate parasite. In this study eleven S. mutans strains were isolated from carious lesions on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar along with twenty potentially active Streptomyces strains were isolated from the soil of agriculture farmlands. The biochemical and physiological characterization along with the molecul...
Muhammad Waheed Mushtaq1,*, Jamil Anwar2, Omara Naeem3,Farah Kanwal1 and Waheed-uz-Zaman1
...ically for separation of bacterial contamination in aqueous systems. After complete freezing, the samples were collected from various sections of the frozen mass and bacterial colonies were counted after proper Gram staining. It was found that more than 90% bacteria were separated along with freezing front and were concentrated in the centre in the case of radial freezing and at the bottom...
Farrukh Jamil*, Samra Raheel and Haroon Rasheed
... that differs from other bacterial tHbs due to its large size, polar heme pocket residues and large cavity for exogenous ligand in the heme pocket. The crystal structures of HGbIV showed that its heme pocket can accommodate and interact with bulky PO4-3 ion. Here, we have docked different smaller molecules/ion like O2, NO, CO, CO2, NO3-1, CH3COO-1 and CN-1 in the...
Jun Chen1, Shuai Shang2, Xiaoyang Wu1, Jiakuo Yan1, Huaming Zhong1, Huanxin Zhang2, Weilai Sha1, Wanchao Zhu1 and Honghai Zhang1,*
...description of the fecal bacterial populations of the cape oryx by using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology. We analyzed 100,180 high-quality sequences of the 16S rRNA gene obtained from fecal samples from three cape oryx animals, one female and two males. At the 3% level in our research, we found 3959, 4553, and 3930 operational taxonomical units (OTUs). Additionally, the three samples have 754 OTUs in common, which comprised 19.59%, 16.55%, and 1...
Danyu Zhang1, Ying Liu1, Qinxin Shi1, Zhiwei Peng1, Yan Hua1 and Zhijun Hou1,2,*
...hundreds thirty four gut bacteria (genus) of the sable were detected by the saturated NaCl floating and next sequencing methods. The parasites were Capillaria sp., Baylisascaris devosi, Echinochasmus sp., and two Coccidianspecies. The Echinochasmus sp. andtwo Coccidian species were first time found either in sable or in other martens. The 434 genus of bacteria, b...
Nina Bao1,*, Yongguang Yin2 and Panpan Wang3
...t the extraction has antibacterial activity, and the purified one is better than the crude one.
...
Yang Yang1,2, Yun Liu1, Mingxu Zhou1 and Guoqiang Zhu1,*
...ured by motility assays, bacterial gene expression, and host responses to infection. The QS systems and flagellin were coordinately regulated, as deleting fliC caused decreased QS-II activity.
...
Masood Nizam Tabassum1*, Muhammad Ather Khan2, Saira Afzal3, Amir Gilani4, Abdul Wahab Gureja5, ShafaqTabassum6
...is an infectious chronic bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). More than 95% of cases and deaths are reported in developing countries. Tuberculosis affects all age groups but adults are mostly affected in their most productive age. However, all age groups are at risks. In the world, TB is one of the major killer infectious diseases, which place it in one of the top 5 causes of death for females aged 15 to 44. The death rate due t...
Sahar Naz1, Farhan Rasheed2, Muhammad Saeed3*, Shagufta Iram4 and Ambereen Anwar Imran5
...sample was processed for bacterial culture. Bacterial identification was performed according to standard guidelines. Every gram-negative isolate was further processed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by modified Kirby Baur disc diffusion method. Zone sizes were interpreted according to CLSI 2016 guidelines. Next day every carbapenem-resistant isolate were further processed for MβL detection by EDTA method, zone ...

 

Syed Aun Muhammad1, Muhammad Soaib Said2, Shams Ur Rehman2, Muhammad Dawood2, Muneer Ahmed Qazi3 and Nighat Fatima2,*
...
...
Safia Rehman1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1,*, Gerald B. Pier2, Iram Liaqat1 and Bushra Mazhar1
...inst multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in chronic and acute lung infections. It provides a practical approach towards the use of nanoparticles to enhance antimicrobial activity against these pathogens.
...
Arifa Mehreen1, Iram Liaqat2,Muhammad Arshad3, Muzzamil Waheed4 and Najma Arshad1,*
...div>The understanding of bacterial virulence and immune evasion mechanisms provide novel opportunities to adopt preventive measures and design therapeutics against most prevailing resistant and virulent strains. With this background, this study was designed to characterize Staphylococcus aureus, the most common pathogen,using conventional microbiological and molecular methods. The agar disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibi...
Ali Karabayir1,*, Nazan Arifoğlu2 and Mustafa Öğütcü3
...r, by reducing the total bacteria, coliform and E.coli counts. On the other hand, disinfectant addition decreased feed and water intake of all chicken strains. Furthermore, the results revealed that feed and water intake was strain dependent. Lower feed conversion ratio was observed for chickens provided with disinfectant supplemented drinking water. When considering the live weight gain (LWG) monitored through the 10-week trial, it was found out that t...

Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus1*, Olabode Mayowa Peter2, Muhammad Adamu Abbas3 and Mohammed Dauda Goni

...lopment of resistance in bacteria predates the era of antibiotic use. However, resistance developments in S. aureus have been reported since the early 1940-ties, when penicillin resistant S. aureus was first reported. Ever since, this pathogen has gain global notoriety as the most common cause of nosocomial, community and livestock associated infection. The mechanism of resistance development in bacteria involved the integra...
Junaid Akhtar1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Abdul Waheed1, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed4 and Shah Jahan5,*
...ta;-lactamases (MBLs) in bacteria have severely mitigated the efficiency of carbapenems. MBLs producing gram-negative bacteria have been reported from various hospital settings, worldwide. However, data is lacking in Pakistan regarding their frequency particularly among GNRs. Therefore, the present study aimed at determining the frequency of carbapenemase and β-lactamase producing GNRs recovered from different tertiary ...
Xiaojie Ding, Xiling Sun, Zuien Wang, Qiusheng Zheng, Xiaofei Yu, Wenjin Hao, Kejun Wang, Wenjuan Xu and Zhengping Dong*
...tion and accumulation of bacterial endotoxins; (3) Wumei Pill could reduce the transcriptional level of TLR4/9mRNA, to decrease TLR4/9 protein synthesis and expression. So we concluded that Wumei Pill probably reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the bacterial endotoxins by blocking the transmission of TLR4/9-NF-kB signaling pathway so that Wumei Pill has a significant therapeutic effect on IBS-D.
...
Qiang Li1,2, Guo Qiao2, Li Wang1, Jipeng Zhang1, Ruijun Li1, Ping Ni1, Yi Guo1 and Shigen Ye1,*
...s study investigated the bacterial diversity and Vibrio harveyi distribution associated with diseased fugu (Takifugu rubripes) in northeastern China from January to December in 2014. The main clinical signs included fin ulceration, skin darkness, hepatohemia and intestinal hydrops. Totally, 104 diseased live fish were collected and 70 strains isolated from naturally diseased T. rubripes. Most isolates were obtained in May, September and De...
Soumble Zulfiqar1, Khuram Shehzad1, Sana Tahir1, Khalid A. Al-Ghanim2 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori1,2,3,*
...ated concentrations. The bacterial cell utilizes a battery of copper detoxification and exclusion mechanisms of which multicopper oxidase (CueO) is an integral component. In addition to acting as copper regulatory elements, CueOs have been shown to possess laccase activity. In this study, we have cloned and over-expressed the CueO of locally isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae KW strain. The CueO protein was purified to homogeneity by nickel affinity ch...
Nimra Naseer, Adeela Fatima and Imran Sajid*
... metabolites against MDR bacterial pathogens. The identification of strains was done by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization and by 16SrRNA gene sequencing. For biological screening different methods including cross streak, agar plug and well diffusion method were performed. Seven Streptomyces strains including NWMD-6, NWMD-7, NWMD-10, NWMD-11, NWMD-12, NWMD-15 and NWMD-16 were found to have significant antimicrobial activity ag...
Mehwish Aftab, Tariq Mahmud*, Muhammad Asim Raza Basra, Aqsa Gulzar, Sumaira Basharat and H.M. Junaid
...II) complexes showed antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus by disc diffusion method and antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum. The metal (III) complexes are highly active under permissible limits.
...
Farah Mansha, Abdul Rehman*
...the present study, three bacterial isolates, named as H1, H4 and M4, were selected on the basis of chitinase assay and diameter of zone of hydrolysis. All the isolates were identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of biochemical tests, and showed optimum growth at 37°C and pH of 7. All the bacterial isolates showed highest enzyme activity at pH 7. Isolates H4 and M4 showed maximum enzyme activity at 55°C while ...

Asma Sohail1*, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi1, Maryum Arif2 and Fatima Najam1 

...which is a gram positive bacteria. Pumpkin seed oil and control Streptomycin had almost same inhibitory zone that showed its effective use in food. In general, results showed that encapsulation is an effective approach for protection of active ingredients of pumpkin seed oil. 

...
Zafar Iqbal*, Farah Ansar, Zil-e-Huma
...or parasitic, fungal and bacterial infection. The fish species studied were; Carassius auratus and its six varieties (shubunkin, comet, black moor, oranda, double tail and fantail); molly Poeciliasphenops; platy Xiphophorus maculates; sword tail Xiphophorus helleri; guppy Poecilia reticulata; tiger oscar Astronotus ocellatus; koi carp Cyprinus carpio; giant gourami Osphronemus goramy; blue line shark...

Nadia Khan1*, Abdul Waheed1, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Naveed Ahmed1, Zafar Iqbal2, Seemab Ali1, Madiha Bashir1 and Hina Gul3  

...emicals and in vitro antibacterial activity against two phytopathogenic bacterial species (Clavibacter sp. and Xanthomonas sp.) and a human pathogenic bacterium (Escherichia coli) in 2016. Experiment was carried out by using complete randomized design with three replications in vitro. Phytochemical analysis reveals that the methanolic fraction of oil possesses metabolites like carbohydrates, amino acids, alkaloids, flavonoid...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ammarah Hasnain2, Ateeq ur Rehman1 and Rashida Perveen1 

 Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa Andleeb2, Bushra Mazhar1, Anum Imtiaz1, Shaukat Ali2*

Assessment of antibiogram and resistogram of pathogenic bacteria isolated from irrigated wheat field water
...cerned with the study of bacterial pathogens associated with irrigated wheat field water. Study was carried out to check the efficacy of heavy metals and antibiotics against five isolated bacterial pathogens. Different morphological and biochemical tests were performed to identify and characterize bacterial pathogens. Among isolated strains, two belong to genus Staphylococcus spp., other t...

Farah Deeba, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir, Muhammad Irfan, Javed Iqbal Qazi*

Chitinase production in organisms: a review
...n various forms of life (bacteria to higher plants and animals) as one of the most durable, richest biopolymers distributed widely in nature both in the terrestrial and marine environments. Chitinase are chitin degradable enzyme have control of phytopathogens, physiological functions and degradation of chitinous waste. Interest in chitin wastes utilization is increasing day by day because of its natural resistance against degradation. The review focused on dif...

Dilara Abbas Bukhari1, Abdul Rehman2*

Isolation of bioactive compounds from exudate of edible fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus
...crobial activity against bacterial strain, Bacillus subtilus. Biochemical techniques, thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, were employed to study fungal exudate. A total of fifteen different metabolites were detected in the sample by GC/MS. The detected metabolites could be classified into chemical groups of 2 esters, 4 alcohols, 3 benzoic acids, ketone, aldehyde, phenyl and amide groups co...

 Haniya Mazhar1, Naaz Abbas2, Zahid Hussain3, Amir Sohail4, Syed Shahid Ali4*

Extracellular lipase production from Bacillus subtilis using agro-industrial waste and fruit peels
...substrate. A total of 14 bacterial strains were isolated, screened and compared for lipase production. Among the evaluated strains, Bacillus subtilis strain NL-39 was selected on the basis of best lipase production. The maximum enzyme activity (34.93 U/ml) was shown by B. subtilis using SSF with soya bean meal. The lipase production by other low cost agro-industrial waste, including sunflower meal, wheat bran, oat bran, rice bran and sugar cane bagasse was 23....

 Maleeha Manzoor1,2*, Ruijuan Ma2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabssum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1

Microalgal-bacterial consortium: a cost-effective approach of wastewater treatment in Pakistan
... plant. The use of algal-bacterial consortia for wastewater
treatments has proved more effective in biomass production, nutrient cycling and bioremediation of organic
pollutants, heavy metals and many other contaminants. The biodegradation approach of involving consortium might
attain self-sustaining level and may prove technically cheaper and advance technology. It will finally help in dealing
the dual mission of producing valuable...

 Siddra Tayyab Akhtar, Anjum Nasim Sabri

Twitching, swimming, swarming in biofilm forming strains in response to chemical and physical factors
...nd remarkable element of bacterial physiology and
determines the ability of bacteria to form biofilms. There is a need to control
bacterial motility. Present study determined swimming, swarming, and twitching
motilities in response to different physiochemical factors. Twenty-two
morphologically different bacterial strains were...

 Raazia Kiran1, Alya Riaz1, Muhammad Irfan1*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir2

An overview of pre-treatment methods used for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomasses into valuable products
... /> brown-rot fungi and bacteria, and quite a few combinations thereof to
breakdown the lignocellulose into its components. Pre-treatment process changes
cellulose morphological, chemical and physical features, making it prone to
enzymatic attack for saccharification. In this review, we have discussed different
pre-treatment methods and their effect on recalcitrant structure of lignocelluloses
for making it readily available...
Haniya Mazhar1, Naaz Abbas2, Tehseen Zamir3, Zahid Hussain1, Syed Shahid Ali4*
...me activity shown by the bacterial isolate (PCSIR NL-37) from the soil of Lahore (Punjab, Pakistan) are being reported. Lipolytic bacterial strains (100) isolated from soil and water samples from oil industry, mobile oil filling areas and kitchen wastages were screened on tributyrin agar and rhodamine agar plates. The strain PCSIR NL-37 was identified as Bacillus cereus following morphological, biochemical and molecul...

Ali Zohaib1*, Saima Yousaf1,2, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Tahira Tabassum1, Tasawer Abbas3, Wardah Muzaffar1 and Wasiq Ikram2 

...nt growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are cheap and excellent alternate and can be applied as seed inoculation to enhance nutrient use efficiency along with reduced nutrient losses. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of seed inoculation viz. control (no treatment), Rhizobium japonicum (nitrogen fixing bacteria) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (phosphorus solubilizing bacteria
Chao Zhao1,2, Juan Feng1, Haidong Xu1, Lihua Qiu1,2,*, Qibin Yang1, Zhenhua Ma1 and Jian G. Qin3
...s monodon larvae and bacteria communities in the rearing tanks. The survival of P. monodon in the 36 h experimental period was not significantly affected by the water pretreatment (P > 0.05). However, the bacteria communities were significantly affected by water pretreatment (P < 0.05). Heterotrophic bacteria and vibro counts in the formalin treatment were si...
Fatih Korkmaz1, Veysel Parlak2, Özgür Kaynar3, Arzu Ucar2, Gonca Alak1,* and Muhammed Atamanalp2
... on the protein profile, bacterial content (total aerobic mesophilic, psychotropic and lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and pH values on quality during 12 days. The decrease in bacterial growth activity, physicochemical values (TVB-N, TBARS and pH) and prol...

Saima Yousaf1,2, Ali Zohaib2*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum2, Tahira Tabassum2, Tasawer Abbas3, Sohail Irshad4, Usman Javed5 and Naila Farooq6 

...nt growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can be applied to improve the growth and yield by improving nutrient availability to crop plants. A field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of seed inoculation with PGPRs on yield and quality of different genotypes of soybean. Seed inoculation treatments [control (no treatment), nitrogen fixing bacteria (Rhizobium japonicum) and phosphorus solubilizer (Pseudomonas flu...
Peng Song1,2, Wei Feng2, Haiying Shi2,Jinsheng Zhao3, Renmin Liu3 and Wei Xu2,*
...s were investigated. The bacteria was incubated under static conditions in the presence of 50mg/L Amaranth or 5 mg/L Sudan I in LB media at 37°C for 10 h, and reduction of the dyes was monitored. The preferable pH for the decolorization of Amaranth by ts17 strain was between pH 6.0-9.0, and with the optimum pH at 7.0. The promotion effect of NaCl on the decoloration of Amaranth up to 5% (w/w) content, and the inhibition action appeared at 7% NaCl. The maxi...
Hao Gu*, Zhi Yang, Weiqiang Yu, Kan Xu and Yuan-fei Fu*
...ected to explore the antibacterial activity against the four cariogenic bacteria in terms of acid producing and biofilm. The antibacterial activity of capsaicin was evaluated by the minimal bactericidal concentration, change of pH in the first 12 h and OD values of biofilms. Besides, fluorescent images of exopolysaccharides and living bacteria of Stre...
Huseyin Cetin1,*, Oner Kocak2, Emre Oz1, Samed Koc1, Yesim Polat1 and Kalender Arıkan2
...ector of many pathogenic bacteria, fungi and parasites. The use of synthetic pyrethroid (SP) insecticides is recommended by the World Health Organization for the control of adult houseflies. Despite the fact that SPs have been used effectively, this insect has developed resistance in many regions/countries of the world. The use of synergistic substances to overcome insecticide resistance is widespread. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is used as a synergist in combina...
Dur-E-Shahwar1,2, Riaz Ahmad Sheikh1, Nazia Jamil2*
...factants from indigenous bacteria, isolated from produced water and produced water contaminated soil samples collected from three selected sites of Eastern Potwar, Punjab, Pakistan. Forty seven bacteria were isolated out of which five (F1, F3, F20, F23 and C16) were selected on the basis of high optical densities of 0.7, 70% oil and grease reduction potential and maximum CFU/ml of ≥3 ×106. The weights in ...

Hina Ali*, Iram Shaheen and Feroza Hamid Wattoo 

...coli, total coliform and bacterial contamination. The water samples of Dhoke kashmirian, Pandora Satellite town, and Gulshan dadan khan indicated coliform, yeast and bacterial contamination which caused water-borne diseases such as Dysentry, Diarrhea and Typhoid fever. 

...
Muhammad Usman Ahmadand Ikram-ul-Haq*
...cultivation of anaerobic bacteria by employing Hungate Technique where its antioxidant potential was compared with common reducing agent Cysteine-HCl (Cys-HCl). Four anaerobic bacterial strains (Anaerobaculum hydrogeniformans OS1, Akkermansia muciniphila, Bilophila wadsworthia, and Roseburia intestinalis) were selected as experimental models for this purpose. Significant improvement in cell densit...

Sabi-Ur-Rehman1, Anwar Khalid2, Qazi Najam Us Saqib3, Farooq Ahmad1, Shaheed-Ur-Rehman4, Neelam Zaman3, Ayeza Mehmood5 and Abdul Samad6*  

...ut, include in-vitro antibacterial and antifungal screening of aqueous methanolic extracts as well as crude saponins isolated from leaves and roots of Sarcococca saligna, using disc diffusion method. The tested bacterial strains include, B. subtilis, E. coli, S. aureus, P. fluorescens and fungal strains were Aspergillus. niger, A. flavus, and D. turcica. The maximum zones of inhibition, 23.00±0.56 mm and 25.00±...
Song Jiang, Fa-Lin Zhou, Jian-Hua Huang, Qi-Bin Yang* and Li-Shi Yang
...and Lactobacillus bacteria were added to the L. vannamei aquaculture water during seeding. Seven groups were established and the microecological preparations were added every 5 d. Bacillus concentrations in the Y1, Y2 and Y3 groups were 10 ppm, 15 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively, and the Lactobacillus concentrations in the R1, R2 and R3 groups were 20 ppm, 25 ppm and 30 ppm. The control (C) group had no microecological preparation adde...
Yang Liu1, Jing-xin Mao2, Xiao-dong Wei2, Man Yi2, Xiao-long Zhang2, Ke Zheng3, Xian-xin Chen4, Guo-Ze Wang5 and Bing-bo Chen1,*
...d BFA from above 3 mixed bacteria were added by a proportion of 1.5% to the conventional feed. Then the Sprague-Dawley rats were fed by normal feed and 4 different BFA feed for 4 weeks. It was observed that the counts of neutrophils, white blood cells, and monocytes was significantly decreased in the lactobacillus BFA group than the control group (P<0.05); neutrophil was reduced in bacillus BFA group than the control group significantly (P<0.05). Compare...
Tahira Moeen Khan* and Amat ul Mateen
...cal applications as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-cancer agents. In this work leaf extracts of Melia azedarach (commonly known as dharaik) a species of family Meliaceae and Morus nigra (commonly known as Shahtoot) family Moraceae were used for bio reduction of copper ions to CuO nanoparticles in place of harmful and expensive chemical/physical methods. A cheaper, simple to perform method giving high yield without by products is employ...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...e that no viruses or any bacteria has been reported from a singly tree in whole of the Indian sub-continent. Although the involvement of the insect’s species has been recorded and authenticated by various scientists reporting that these acts as the carrier of the fungal spores and produce tunnels in the bark of the trees. Since, many extensive filed surveys of forests, avenues, road sides and canal banks has been made to calculate the total losses and mo...

 Sohaib Afzaal1, Usman Hameed2, Nasir Ahmad3,*, Naeem Rashid3 and Muhammad Saleem Haider1

...of lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB) were screened, out of one hundred and forty-four (144) bacterial strains isolated from different local food groups, on the basis of stress tolerance assays. Identification of the screened strains was further confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA sequences and strain level differentiation was carried out by sugar fermentation tests. These strains were further analyzed for their ability to prod...
Jie Yang
...ts to mammals, recognize bacterial peptidoglycan, and function in antibacterial immunity and inflammation. Mammals have four PGRPs (PGLYRP1, PGLYRP2, PGLYRP3 and GLYRP4). They are secreted proteins expressed in different tissues. It is significant to make a study of human PGLYRP1 because neutrophils are a more dominant mechanism in human host defense. Related research results show the functions of human PGLYRP1 in the innate...
Muhammad Shahid Nadeem*, Maryam A. Al-Ghamdi and Jalaluddin Azam Khan
...nts. The asparaginase of bacterial origin has been extensively applied in the treatment of childhood lymphomas and leukaemia. However, the glutaminase activity of enzyme can cause serious side-effects triggering a search for highly specific and more stable enzyme. In the present study the gene consisting of 972bp coding for 323 amino acids was PCR amplified from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM-465 was PCR amplified and recombinant plasmid pET22b-Asn...
Fan Yi1,2, Xiaobin Yang1, Shigen Ye1, Hua Li1 and Ruijun Li1,*
...or its antiviral and antibacterial activities. In this study we are investigating the effect of HCT in aquaculture animals. In this study, 300 olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) were stochastically divided into four experimental groups: basal diet feeding group, 0.5% HCT continuous feeding group, 1% HCT feeding group, and 1% HCT interval feeding group. Three replicates were set for each treatment, and 25 fish were stocked on each replicate. The re...

Javed Asghar Tariq1*, Bashir Ahmed2, Manzoor Ali Abro2, Muhammad Ismail1, Muhammad Usman Asif1 and Raza Muhammad1 

...xt-align: justify;">Rhizobacteria have ability to enhance plant growth as well as to have antagonistic effect against another pathogenic microflora. Current studies were designed with the aim to search out such type of antagonistic bacteria from rice crop. For this purpose, soil was collected from rice growing areas of Tando Jam. The isolation from rhizospheric soil was done by dilution plate technique. Among isolated isolat...

Abdul Kabir1, Laiba Uroog2*, Naushad Ahmad3, Fawad Ahmad3, Muhammad Saqib3, Noor Badshah4 and Taj Ali Khan3 

...contagious environmental bacterial species. In Pakistan, it is the major disease of different dairy animals including bovines. However, only a little information is available about bacterial profile of the disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted to find the Etio-prevalence of bacterial species causing subclinical mastitis in a cohort of buffaloes at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. 120 quarter s...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi* 

...ticle on the destructive bacterial blight disease of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, in rice producing areas. This article comprehensively reviews the etiology, symptomatology, pathogen biology, disease development, disease cycle, epidemics and epidemiology, geographical distribution and strategies for the disease management viz., exploitation of host plant resistance, cultural, physical, chemical and biological control. Studies on pathogen vari...
Emel Banu Buyukunal1,*, Rojan Ibrahim Albazaz1 and Mehmet Ali Bal2,3
... of antibiotic resistant bacteria in food producing animals is considered an important transmission source for both direct and indirect transfer of those bacteria to human. For this reason, 45 cloacal samples comprising from 23 Japanase quails and 22 chickens were analyzed by conventional and molecular methods for E. coli isolation in this study. Subsequently, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of E. coli is...
Mohsan Iqbal1, Farid Asif Shaheen1, Rashid Mahmood2,*, Muhammad Khalid Rafique2, Imran Bodlah1, Farah Naz3 and Muhammad Usman Raja3
.../i> and entomopathogenic bacteria (EPB), Photorhabdus temperata and Xenorhabdus nematophila were studied as bio-control agents to manage this pest. In addition, percent conidial germination and % mortality of C. chinensis were also evaluated when B. bassiana was used with DEBBM. The minimum number of eggs (0.66 grain-1), number of holes (1 grain-1), number of F1 new emerged (5.6 jar-1), da...
Iram Liaqat1,*, Nazish Mazhar Ali2, Najma Arshad3, Riffat Iqbal1 and Zain-ul-Abideen1
... and chymotrypsin target bacterial virulence in Desulfovibrio spp. that causes bacteremia, periodontitis and abdominal infections. Ten soil samples were collected and screened by morphological and biochemical study. Only one strain DUV1 was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as D. vulgaris (accession number: KY698020). It showed significantly reduced biofilm formation (52%; p<0.05) by test tube method compared to liquid interface coverslip ...
Zhimin Yuan1, Yan Yu2, Yanmei Wang1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...thogens. Some strains of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of bats are pathogenic to humans. Hypsugo alaschanicus feeds on insects and has a wide geographic distribution in China, and people are in frequent contact with these bats. However, assessing the gut microbiota, especially the potential pathogens, is needed for public health. Thus, this study aimed to explore the microbial diversity of the gastrointestinal tract of H. alaschanicus...
Ghalia Nawal1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Saira Ashfaq3, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1    
...g microbial lipases, the bacterial lipases holds very prominent stance. The specificity of lipases is far-fetched for their point selection and kinds of reactions they undergo on their discernible substrates. Most suitable production plan involves Sub-merged liquid fermentation in fed batch manner using agricultural wastes. Bacterial lipases are preferred due to their extra cellularity, easy step down approach and pract...

Muhammad Shafique, Nosheen Noor Elahi*, Muhammad Rashid, Amjad Farooq and Kausar Hussain Shah

...nt growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is effective against this stress. Mung bean is an important crop that is used as food. Present experiment was conducted under natural environment to evaluate the effect of PGPR on biomass production, nitrogen and proteins percentage of four mung bean varieties under different NaCI levels in sand culture after 5,7 and 9 weeks of sowing. Both inoculated and uninoculated plants were grown on mineral medium that were N-free...

Yasir Ali1,2*, Bashir Ahmad1, Naqeebullah Jogezai3 and Adil Hussain

...producing psychrotrophic bacteria from water and soil samples collected from different glaciers of Karakorum Range of mountains, Pakistan. Serial dilution and plating approaches were exploited for bacterial isolation and the isolates were qualitatively screened for proteolytic and lipolytic activity with skim milk and Tributyrin agar (TBA plate) assay method. From the collected samples, a total of 20
Shujjah Haider1,*, Ayesha Maqbool1, Tariq Pervez1, Saima Parveen1, Arfan Ahmad2, Zahid Iqbal3, Javed Iqbal3, Shahid Mehmood3, Amanullah Khan4 and Sajid Umar5
Qiuxia Lei1, 2, Haixia Han1, 2, Jinbo Gao1, 2, Yan Zhou1, 2, Wei Liu1, 2, Chunlei Wang3, Jie Liu1, 2, Dingguo Cao1, 2, Huimin Li1 , Baohua Huang1,* and Fuwei Li1, 2, *  
...plored the efficiency of bacteria in decomposing the poultry manure through testing the variation of gas production and nitrogen(N), phosphorus (P), potassium(K)in the fermentation process. Poultry litter, sawdust and rice husk were mixed in equal quantities by volume. One was treated with a single strain of Bacillus; another was treated with a consortium of bacteria comprising several species; and the third kept as t...
Adel E.M. Mahmoud1, AdamCieślak2, Paulina Szulc2, Anna Łukomska3 and Małgorzata Szumacher-Strabel2,*
...ntly increased number of bacteria. D3 and D4 diets resulted in higher (P<0.001) concentration of Holotrichs. The ratio of acetate to propionate increased linearly with inclusion of dried sugar beet in the diet, however statistically significant differences were found only in D4. On basis of presented data, it could be concluded that yellow corn could be partially of fully substituted by dried sugar beet pulp without negative impact on rumen parameter...

Matiullah Khan*, Shameemul Sibtain Shah, Atiqullah Khan, Muhammad Sarwar and Shoaib Ahmed 

Abdul Waheed1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Junaid Akhtar4, Muhammad Saeed5, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed6 and Shah Jahan7,*
Lin Qi, Lu Li, Danyang Chen, Mingxiao Liu, Yan Wu and Wei Hu*
...sitive and Gram-negative bacteria. The molecular mass and purity of this polypeptide was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and Bruker micOTOF OllQ TOF mass spectrometry, respectively. The full amino-acid sequence of the monomericpeptide was analyzed by sequential Edman degradation using a protein/peptide sequencer. The antibacterial activity of the protein monomer in antlerplate was studied by disc...
Sabbah M. Allam, T.M. El-Bedawy, M.H. Bakr and A.E.M. Mahmoud*
...ount of fecal pathogenic bacteria e.g. E. coli and Salmonella spp. Forty lactating Holstein cows, weighing 550±50 kg, with an average of 20 kg daily milk yield, were randomly divided into four groups (ten in each group). Animals were fed rations containing DOP at 0, 25, 50 and 75% substitution of yellow corn grains (R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively). Digestion trail was conducted in the last week of the experiment using Acid Insolubl...
Mohammed Al Bratty1,*, Hassan A. Alhazmi1,2, Desam Nagarjuna Reddy3, Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab3, Sadique A. Javed1 and Zia ur Rehman1,4
...croorganisms for its antibacterial and antifungal activities. The major classes of compounds indentified in the extract were fatty acid esters and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Methyl-(7Z)-7-hexadecenoate, methyl-(9E)-octadecenoate and methyl tetracosanoate were found to be the principal fatty acid esters, while E-pentatriacont-17-ene and 2,4-dimethylpentane were identified as predominant aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds. The propolis extract has exhibited remarkable...
Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Asma Ashraf 2*, Iram Liaqat2, Bushra Mazhar2, Shaukat Ali2 and Saiqa Andleeb3
... characterize pathogenic bacteria from eye infections. The samples were taken from corneal eye infections. The collection of samples was done from “Layton Rehmat Eye Hospital, Township Lahore”. Isolated bacterial pathogens were identified on the basis of morphological and various biochemical tests. Morphologcal tests included different staining procedures includng Gram’s staining and Endospore staining. Ide...

Muhammad Naeem Khan* and Asad Jan 

...splayed considerable antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas campestris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing 12.6±0.54 mm and 20.6±0.53 mm zone of inhibition, respectively which was analogous to that of cefixime, used as standard drug. In case of antifungal activity MCE hindered the growth of Fusarium oxysporum effectively, causing 19.3±0.41 mm zone of inhibition, while the activity of other solvent was moderate. 

...
Fizza Anwar1, Muddassar Zafar1*, Zahid Anwar1, Raja Tahir Mehmood2
... leading to hindrance in bacterial growth. In addition, phylogenetic tree was also constructed using 18s rRNA gene of A. niger and gene clusters of secondary metabolites were determined through bioinformatics tools. 
...
Ali Mujtaba Shah1,2,3, Ali Raza Shah3, Muhammad Farooque Hassan2, Muhammad Yousif2, Zhisheng Wang1*
...ld otherwise be bound by bacteria. Moreover, the adequate colostrum reduces neonatal mortality, strengthen immunity and increase animal lifespan. Delaying intake of colostrum in dairy calves causes decreased transport of both immunoglobulins as well as fat-soluble vitamins. In this review, an attempt has been made to study the composition of colostrum, i.e. fat, protein, immunoglobulin, lactose, oligosaccharide, vitamins, minerals, growth factors and nu...
Hafiz Muhammad Tahir*, Palwasha Jabeen, Chand Raza, Shaukat Ali
...een found to possess antibacterial properties and application in culturing tissues including skin, bone, cartilage and nerves. Sericin has been hailed to have antitumor activity and has also been widely used in different cosmetics. The major hindrance in using spider silk for different purposes is due to its small obtainable amount. Efforts are being made to overcome this problem by modern biotechnological techniques including of making transgenic organisms.
Muhammad Shoaib1,3*, Arif Ismiyev2,Khudaverdi Ganbarov3, Aygun Israyilova3 and Sajid Umar4
...ty against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi by agar well diffusion method. In second step, minimum inhibitory concentration of test compounds was determined against bacterial species by using resazurin microplate assay. All the tested compounds exhibited variable antimicrobial properties against various test cultures. All the compounds showed stronger antimic...

Imran1*, Amanullah1, Muhammad Arif1, Zahir Shah2 and Abdul Bari3 

...f phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) (Pseudomonas) and phosphorus (P) on weeds frequency, and biomass at various growth stages of soybean and its yield contributing parameters. The consecutive field experiments for years 2016 and 2017 using randomized complete block design (RCBD) were conducted on soybean (cv. Malakand-96) crop. Experimental treatments included three organic sources, three phosphate rates and two beneficial microbes. Weeds found during the ...
Barkat Ali1,2, Wasim Sajjad1,2,3, Imran Khan1, Muhammad Rafiq1, Sahib Zada1, Aamer Ali Shah1 and Fariha Hasan1,*
...endolithic and epilithic bacterial strains from the rapidly weathering rocks collected from Nathiagali, Pakistan to characterize and screen them for antimicrobial activity. The isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Antibacterial activity of the isolates was checked against ATCC strains E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Seven different types ...

Saleha Ashfaq1, Manzoor Hussain1, Nazish Bibi2, Jan Alam1, Muhammad Junaid2 and Sabi-Ur-Rehman3*

...diffusion method against bacterial and fungal strains, while cytotoxic activity was studied in the methanolic extract using brine shrimp’s lethality assay. All the extracts showed significant biological activity against Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and selected fungal strains. Acetone, chloroform and methanolic extracts showed maximum activity i-e 39mm, 44mm and 35mm followed by ethyl acetate 27mm and n-hexane...

Muhammad Rehan3, Asim Aslam3, Javeria Umber4, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan3, Waqar Azeem3, Hassan Aftab5, Ahsan Anjum3, Muhammad Abid6, Abdul Hameed Khan3, Hafiz Hasnain Ayoub5, Altaf Hussain2 and Muhammad Farooq Khalid1* 

...against different viral, bacterial, parasitic infections and non-infectious disorders.  

...

Nosheen Noor Elahi1, Muhammad Shafique1, Muhammad Imtiaz2, Umer Farooq3* and Muhammad Rashid1 

...nt growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) play important role in eliminating the effect of salinity. Cicer arietinum L. is an important legume crop having high quantity of proteins. In the present study, four varieties (CM44, CM91, CM98 and CM2000) were grown in the presence and absence of PGPR inoculated media and nitrogen in different salinity levels (20, 50, 100, 200 and 300mM NaCl). The biomass production of the varieties CM91 and CM98 increased at 20-100m...
Erum Yawar Iqbal1*, Ashfaque Ahmed Nahiyoon1, Shahnaz Dawar2 and Shahina Fayyaz1
...igenous entomopathogenic bacteria (EPB) Xenorhabdus have been used to access their efficiency against cotton Aphid Aphis gossypii (Glov.). An efficient formulation of different parts of bacterial culture such as, cell-free supernatant, crude cell extract, bacterial culture and methanol extract in in vitro and green house condition have been exploited. The results have ...
Sana Aslam1, Wayne Thomas Shier2 and Imran Sajid1*
...was to explore the actinobacterial diversity of the saline lake, situated in the salt range, Punjab, Pakistan and to screen them for antagonistic activities against multi drug resistant pathogens and to characterize the bioactive metabolites produced by them. A total of seventy strains of actinomycetes were isolated from lake samples, out of them only forty bioactive strains were selected for further characterization on the basis of their preliminary antimicro...

Muhammad Rasheed*, Tayyaba Naseer, Asma Hassan, Fayaz ul Hassan, Rifat Hayat, Ghulam Jilani, Samman Gul Vaseer and Muhammad Bilal Ali 

...s the effect of isolated bacteria from nodules on growth and nodulation of the lentil cultivars. Different cultivars were used in this experiment; Markaz 2009, Masoor 2009 and NIA 2005 treatments were used viz BS0 (control), (Pseudomonas stutzeri), BS2 (Lysinibacillus pakistanensis) and BS3 (Pseudomonas stutzeri + P2O5@40kg/h). Application of BS3 enhanced the plant height (31.423 cm), leaf area plant-1 (15.459 cm2), leaf area index (1.9323) and leaf area durat...
Farzana Rashid1, Rabia Masood1 and Mariam Faiz2*
...ed worldwide among Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, 240 non repetitive gram negative clinical isolates were studied for antimicrobial resistance. Presence of bla NDM was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Among 240 strains, prevalence of MBL in K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, E. coli and Acinetobacter Species was 26%, 52%, 27% and 5% respectively. Prevalence of blaNDM-1 gene was 51% identified in 14 strains of P. aeruginosa, 2 strains of A. Baumanni, 29 ...
Mubashra Salim1, Omeira Ibrahim1, Hugo Vilhena2,3,4, Carla Maia5, André Pereira5, Maria Shahzeen1, Shabana Kalsoom1, Asim K. Mahmood6 and Furhan Iqbal1*
...e obligate Gram-negative bacteria that target red blood cells, and infect a wide range of hosts including cats, dogs, domestic ruminants, pigs, rodents and humans. The present study was designed for the molecular detection of Mycoplasma haemofelis and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum in feline blood samples collected from various pet clinics in Pakistan, by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), using 16S rDNA as the target sequence. Clinical and epi...

Kenneth Nnamdi Anueyiagu*, James Jingmang Kopmut, Chrysantus Achi Lagi and Kelly Nkem Okoh 

... and thereafter standard bacterial procedure continued. A total of 83 (51.9%) S aureus isolates were identified, 54 (33.8%) MRSA, and 15 (9.4%) Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). The study showed a statistical association between the prevalence of MRSA in livestock and students. This could lead to cross infection of MRSA from livestock to man and vice versa, hence of public health significance. 

...
Ali Asghar1*, Tariq Mukhtar1, Muhammad Usman Raja1 and Asim Gulzar2
... root-knot nematodes and bacterial wilt is lacking in chili, therefore, in the present study, effects of Meloidogyne javanica and Ralstonia solanacearum were studied on chili singly and in combinations. Significant effects of M. javanica and R. solanacearum and their interaction were observed in case of shoot and root lengths and weights of chili. The mean lengths and weights of shoot and root varied significantly as a result of bot...

Muhammad Zeeshan Nazar*, Ayyan Umer, Zahid Mahmood Sarwar, Faiz Ullah Faiz and Sikandar Hussain 

... diseases. Among the all bacterial diseases of B. mori, flacherie is injurious disease that is initiated by entomo-pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis var. sotto (Bts). The impact of this infectious disease is weight loss, reduction in cocoon quality as well as quantity and source of infestation for healthy larva. In current study, the 3rd instar larva of B. mori were fed on the leaves of Morus alba treated with B. t...
Mohammad Ejaz1, Salma Javed2, Muhammad Hamza1, Sadia Tabassum2, Muhammad Abubakar3, Irfan Ullah4*
...ed as antimicrobial, antibacterial and anticancer agents. Fungal endophytes like Taxomyces andreanae isolated from Yew plant have the potential to produce an anti-cancer compound called Paclitaxel. Other different fungal endophytic species produce various other types of anticancer compounds like camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, torreyanic acid, vincristine, and vinblastine. This review is organized to describe the general study of natural bioactive molecu...

Attique Ahmed1, Tariq Sultan1, Ghulam Qadir2, Obaid Afzal2*, Mukhtar Ahmed5, Shamim-Ul-Sibtain Shah3, Muhammad Asif4, Safdar Ali2 and Muhammad Zeeshan Mehmood

...nt growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) promote crop growth and seed yield. However, in farm management practices genotype and environmental conditions may also affect the growth and nutrient uptake. PGPR and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in combination with synthetic fertilizers can enhance crop productivity and soil fertility. Present experiment aimed to investigate the effect of PGPR and PSB inoculation with T1 C...
Samia Afzal*,Sadia Zahid, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Idrees
...he second most prevalent bacterial species in mosquitoe’s midgut. This observation may lead  towards the confusion that the outbreak is either of Dengue or Chikunguna virus. In conclusion, confirmatory molecular characterization of the viral genome remains controversial and further studies are needed in this respect.
...

Asad Ullah1*, Umar Sadique2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2 and Farhan Anwar Khan

...d positive for acid fast bacteria through ZN staining whereas the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis was confirmed in 65 (4.04%) and 85 (5.29%) isolates through culture and PCR respectively. The zoonotic spread of M. bovis infection was established in the study area. The data determines that animal food products in Pakistan are common reservoirs of mycobacteria and may pose great risk to the public. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) ...

Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Muhammad Zubair Khan1, Ayesha Bibi2, Muhammad Shehzad Khan1*, Bashir Ahmad

...ysanthemi (gram-negative bacteria). Highest plant height (75.3 cm) and maximum number of fruits plant-1 (14.3) were recorded with A. indica when applied at 15ml L-1 along with highest dose of boron at 3.95 g seedbed-1. The severity was observed 0.0% in supplement of boron of high dose with addition to neem extract and bactericide. Maximum yield (106.7 tons ha-1) was recorded with A. indica at the rate of 15ml L-1 and boron at the rate of 3.95 g seedbed-1. It w...

Ghulam Akbar1*, Muhammad Anjum Zia1, Ali Ahmad2, Neha Arooj1 and Shahneela Nusrat

...ecially by Streptococcus bacterial spp. Therefore, it is antigenic in nature due to microbial source which restricts its use. However, it is necessary to truncate antigenic regions present in the SK gene for the removal of streptokinase antigenicity. The basic goal of this research work is to highlight antigenic regions founded in streptokinase molecule and to give strategy to remove these antigenic sites. 

...
Imran Khan1, Muhammad Nawaz1,*, Aftab Ahmad Anjum1, Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad2, Adnan Mehmood1, Masood Rabbani1, Amina Mustafa1 and Muhammad Asad Ali1
...eived only the challenge bacteria (S. enteritidis) ATCC 13076 at day 07. Groups (3, 4 and 5) received probiotics (IKP23, IKP111, IKP333) at day 01 to 35 and challenge bacteria at day 07 in prevention model. Groups (6, 7 and 8) started receiving probiotic at day 07 to day 35 and challenge bacteria at day 07 in treatment model. Group 09 started receiving commercial probiotic Protexin ...
Murtala Muhammad, Ting Zhang, Siyu Gong, Jing Bai, Jiansong Ju, Baohua Zhao* and Dong Liu*
...c resistant strains. The bacteria was responsible for the disease outbreak that caused massive mortality of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) in 2016. We isolated the pathogenic bacteria (HNM-1) from the infected A. sinensis and identified its identity by conventional physiological, biochemical, and molecular techniques. Virulence and pathogenesis of the disease were determined by intraperitoneal injection ...
Shaheen Rahman1, Kafeel Ahmad1*, Niaz Ali2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Waqar Ali4
...pathogenicity tests. The bacterial cells were rod shaped having rounded ends. The strains were Gram positive. Results confirmed the pathogenicity of the isolated strains as shown by development of tumours on carrot and potato discs. The pathogenic potential of the isolated strains demand for proper management and control measurements to spread and prevent infections of A. tumefaciens.
...

Abid Khan*, Mukhtar Alam and Yousaf Jamal 

...pecies of photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodobacter spaeroides), lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus lactis), yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida utilis), actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces griesus) and fermenting fungi (Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor heimalis). Farm yard manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) were used as organic sources of nitr...
Fehmina Ashraf1*, Muhammad Irfan2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Shaukat Ali3, Muhammad Khan1
...ed in various species of bacteria, plants and in different genera of fungi. Laccases have been purified by various methods. It involves in di-oxygen to water reduction and 1e- oxidation of phenolic and its allied parts. Laccases are mostly used in different industries like food, paper and pulp, pharmaceutical and textile etc. Both laccases and mediators have been used in different process like delignification of pulp. Laccases from bac...

Md. Al-Amin Tan1, Mst. Antora Akter1, Md. Sabuj Rahman1, Marzia Rahman2 and Md. Mahmudul Alam1* 

...f these antiseptics. The bacterial swabs collected at different stages of skin preparations were transferred in nutrient broth and cultured in Plate Count Agar for counting of Colony Forming Unit (CFU). Results revealed that Chlorxylenol was less efficacious than PI and Chlorhexidine gluconate when mean CFU was counted at different stages of surgical field preparation. Soap water scrubbing and ethanol spray followed by aqueous Chlorhexidine gluconate painting ...

Anurag Sharma*, Naresh Kumar, Geetanjali Singh and Anika Sharma 

..., anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and galactagogue activity. The commercially available drugs pose health threats and prove detrimental to both human and animal health. The traditional use of herbal preparations suggests that they are safe and effective, however, scientific validation is still required for many of them especially for animal use. The phyto-pharmacological research on these two natural products show a ray of hope for the discovery o...

Pravin Mishra1, Md. Muket Mahmud2, Md. Ahosanul Haque Shahid2, Alamgir Hasan2, Vivek Kumar Yadav3 and Moinul Hasan1* 

...t with myiasis wound and bacteria associated with myiasis wound was studied and further molecular detection confirms the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from the outer part of the wound but not from the inner part. The study helps and aware the veterinarians, health-workers, and general people regarding the situation of antibiotic resistance. As maggot helps in the reduction of bacteria, this can be u...

Kajol, A. H. Bhat, Aasha and A. K. Chaubey

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Photorhabdus akhurstii associated with Heterorhabditis indica from Meerut, India
...3 domain. The associated bacterial symbiont of the DH3 strain was identified as Photorhabdus akhurstii based on phenotypic, biochemical and 16S rDNA data. Most of the biochemical tests were negative and only three tests were found positive viz., Urease, Nitrogen reduction and Oxidase. Further, we evaluated its pathogenicity against Galleria mellonella and Helicoverpa armigera. The LD50 value of strain DH3 against G. mellonella larvae at 48 hours was 8 IJs/larv...

S. Ahmed† , L. Yue, Q. Liu and H. Jian

Evaluation of media for mass production and fermentation of Pseudomonas spp. for integrated management of cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae)
...r 100 hours (4days). The bacterial culture filtrates produced during fermentation in different media compositions showed varied results on the bioassay against the second stage juvenile mortality (J2) of H. avenae. The culture filtrates formed in media No.8 (Corn flour 17g/L, Glucose 10g/L, Soybean Cake Powder 25g/L, Maltose 10g/L, Yeast Extract 5g/L) and media No.5 (Corn flour 5g/L, Yeast Extract 1.5g/L, Fish Peptone 2.5g/L, Soybean Cake Powder 20g/L, Peptone...

U. A. Al-Karim, A. A. Alshimaysawe, A. E. Mohammed† , W. A. R. Aljaafri and F. A. Al-Fadhal

Evaluation of biological seed treatments for management of Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton
...eated with Abamectin and bacteria had fewer vermiform adults in the soil in comparison with the non-treated seeds. The bacteria and Burkholderia spp., seeds treatments drastically suppressed the number of eggs isolated from cotton roots compared with the non-treated control. Abamectin also inhibited the number of vermiform life-stages found in the soil as compared to the nontreated control. Biological seed treatments produce...

Anjum and Ahmad Khan*

Phenology, Crop Stand and Biomass of Wheat in Response to Farmyard Manure and Soil Amendments
...beneficial microbes like bacteria, yeast and actinomycetes. Average over years, the maximum days to anthesis (126 days), physiological maturity (154 days) and enhanced emergence (9 days) were observed with 20 Mg FYM ha-1. The emergence m-2 (126), leaf area tiller-1 (107 cm2), plant height (96.5 cm) and biomass (11783 kg ha-1) were improved with 20 Mg FYM but were non-significantly different from plots having 15 Mg FYM ha-1 over two years averaged data. Among t...
Sumaira, Ali Mujtaba Shah*, Ghulam Asghar Solangi, Ifra Anwar, Qudratullah Kalwar 
..., such as antiviral, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-ageing. Besides, camel milk contains abundant proteins which are conductive to improve the immunity functions. Thus, it is necessary to illuminate the beneficial impact of camel milk and its composition. 
Ayesha Noreen1, Amina Elahi1, Dilara Abbas Bukhari2 and Abdul Rehman1*

 

... This arsenite resistant bacterial strain oxidized 76 and 86.5% As3+ from the original industrial wastewater after 3 and 6 days of incubation, respectively. This bacterially treated wastewater, when used for plant growth, revealed an improved growth of Vigna radiata as compared to the original (untreated) wastewater. This multiple metal resistant bacterium’s ability to convert toxic arsenite into rela...
Shikun Ge1, 2, Yanli Yang3, Brindha Chelliappan4, 5, Antonysamy Michael5, Fagang Zhong1 and Xiaoying Zhang1, 2, 3, 4*
... yolk powder can prevent bacterial contamination and inactivation due to the formation of sediment. This study provide basic data for IgY application in animal feed supplements.
...
Aribah Naz1*, Uzma Badar1,Afsheen Arif2*, Zaid Qureshi1, Sondas Saeed1,Erum Shoeb1, Maqsood Ali Ansari1 and Obaid Yusuf Khan1
...ize: small;">Luminescent bacteria are the most widely distributed organisms among glowing creatures, many of which are found in sea water while some are found in fresh water or terrestrial habitat. Marine micro flora possesses unique features that help them to survive under diverse environmental conditions including high salinity and low pH. Ease of detection is one of the prominent features of these glowing organisms to be the center of attention of many rese...
Safia Arbab1, Rehana Buriro1, Shams Uddin Bhugio1, Atta Hussain Shah2,  Jamila Soomro3,Qudratullah Kalwar4, Saqib Ali Fazilani1 and Waseem Ali Vistro5*
...e the exploration of antibacterial activity of the Aloe Vera in different families of animals. However, very limited information is documented about antibacterial activity of Aloe Vera in equines. The present study was designed to check the antibacterial activity of the Aloe Vera against most pathogens found in the wounds of donkey. For this purpose, two different concentrations 30 µ...
Chao Zhao1,2, Sigang Fana2 and Lihua Qiua2,3,*
...nvestigate the effect of bacterial dynamics and water quality factors on Penaeus monodon larvae. We recorded the survival rates, water quality (total ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate concentration), heterotrophic bacteria, and vibrios during different P. monodon stages(nauplii, zoea, mysis stage, postlarvae). In ponds 1, 2, 3 and 4, the survival rates were significantly lower but the nitrite concentration and...

Muhammad Arsaln1, Sair Sarwar2*, Rizwan Latif1, Junaid Nawaz Chauhdary3, Munazza Yousra2 and Shahbaz Ahmad2

Effect of Vermicompost and Microbial Inoculants on Yield, Soil Fertility and Economics of Wheat under Rainfed Conditions
... phosphorus solubilizing bacterial (PSB) as microbial inoculants along with recommended dose of NPK fertilizers (RDF) were applied at the time of sowing. The combined application of VC, PSB and RDF increased the wheat yield 2684 kgha-1 and 3179 kgha-1 while the yield recorded in control was 572 and 887 kgha-1 for two consecutive years. Same trend was observed in other yield attributes i.e. no. of tillers m-2 (T8; 348, 352 vs control; 240, 238), spike length (T...

Tahseen Ullah* and Noor ul Amin

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts
...ext-align: justify;">Antibacterial activities of four medicinal plants, Silybum marianum, Berberus lycium, Peganum harmala and Curcuma longa and standard antibiotic tetracycline was carried out in the biosafety level 3 Microbiology Lab, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK. Two different concentrations (low, 5 mg/ml and high extracts, 300 mg/ml) of these plants were evaluate against two different bacteria
Aatif Amin1,*, Zakia Latif2, Arslan Sarwar1, Basit Zeshan1 and Mushtaq A. Saleem1
...sistant (HgR) bacteria were isolated from heavy metal polluted wastewater and soil, collected from the proximity of some tanneries from Kasur, Pakistan. Three out of 30 bacterial strains were screened out on the basis of resistance level against various concentrations of HgCl2. Bacterial isolatesAZ-1, AZ-2 and AZ-3 showed resistance up to 40 μg/mL of HgCl2

Taqi Raza1*, Sergio de Los Santos Villalobos2, Muhammad Shehzad3, Shakeel Imran4 and Derly José Henriques da Silva5

PGP Characterization of Rhizobacteria Associated with Apple Gourd (Praecitrullus fistulosus L.)
...nt growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial group of microorganisms which improve plant and soil health by enhancing nutrient availability and protecting plant against stresses. The current study was carried out to characterization of rhizobacteria associated with Apple Guard (Praecitrullus fistulous L.). Morphological, qualitative and quantitative tests were performed to characterize the PGPR abilities of isolat...
Ayesha Talib1,2, Khanzadi Nazneen Manzoor1, Wajahat Ali1, Maria Saeed1, Muhammad Asif Gondal1, Malik Badshah3 and Abid Ali Khan1*
...ultidrug Resistant (MDR) bacteria is evaluated. The total formation of the Cu nanoparticles was observed visually with a color change and confirmed by the appearance of peak through UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis. The electron microscopy imaging revealed that the biogenic Cu nanoparticles were spherical in shape and had a diameter of 30-40 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles showed promising antibacterial activity against MDR cl...

Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed Youssef* and Suzan Abd-Elazeim Hassabo

The Role of Genetic Engineering in Management of Plant Parasitic Nematodes with Emphasis on Root-Knot Nematodes: A Review
...he cells into any virus, bacteria, plasmid or other vector system in which they are capable of continued propagation. Azotobacter spp. with nematicidal activity could control root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. The development of such strains by genetic manipulation by transferring gene (s) required for saponins production is effective in increasing crop yield together with fixing nitrogen. Escherchia coli is still used as a host for the recombinant DNA...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Muhammad Ehetisham ul Haq1*, Muhammad Kamran1, Muhammad Idrees1, Shahid Nazir2, Ihsan Ullah3, Sumera Naz1, Shaukat Ali1 and Muhammad Zafar Iqbal2

Morpho-Molecular Characterization of Xanthomonas Axonopodis Pv. Citri Associated with Kinnow (Mandarin) and its Management
... freshly growing aqueous bacterial culture using CTAB protocol with modifications. Amplification of 581bp fragment from isolated DNA from bacterial isolates confirmed the presence of pathogen i.e. X. axonopodis pv. citri. The amplified PCR product was purified and further confirmed by sequencing which showed 100% similarity with 40 nucleotide sequences of X. axonopodis pv. citri submitted in NCBI. Relative efficacy of six an...

Sidra Shehzadi, Sher Bahadar Khan*, Umar Sadique and Saqib Nawaz

Isolation and Molecular Identification of Clostridium perfringens Type D in Goats in District Peshawar
... D was confirmed through bacterial culturing, Gram staining, biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) . Results revealed that 25 feacal samples collected from suspected goats were positive for C. perfringens  Type D  and the overall prevalence of enterotoxaemia in goats in district Peshawar was 25%. The prevalence of enterotoxaemia was 24%, 44%, 20% and 12% in zone I, II, III and IV respectively.  Zone II showed the highest prevalen...

Delower Hossain1,5, Shuvo Singha2,5, Chelsea Marie Van Thof3, Sanna Gough3 and AHM Musleh Uddin4,5*

Effect of Somatic Cells on Milk Quality and Human Health
...consumer level devoid of bacterial presence in milk. This review highlights a brief overview of the importance and demand of estimating somatic cell count (SCC) and its effects on milk quality and human health.

...

Muhammad Tariq Mahmood1*, Muhammad Akhtar2, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Saleem2, Ali Aziz2, Irfan Rasool2, Zeshan Ali3 and Muhammad Amin2

An Update on Biology, Extent of Damage and Effective Management Strategies of Chickpea Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera)
...of plant extracts, virus/bacteria based insecticides). In case of pod borer outbreaks, chemical insecticides remain as last option for farmers. However, management of chickpea pod borer through use of resistant cultivars, adopting recommended cultural practices and biological control measures have been found more effective, economical, sustainable and eco-friendly.

...
Nadia Islam1, Khalil Ahmed1,*, Maisoor Ahmed Nafees1, Mujtaba Khalil2, Ishtiaq Hussain3, Muhammad Ali1 and Raja Imran1
.../i>Enterrococciand total bacterial count at the eye of spring of Mishto uch was zero during winter while other sampling sites showed an average of 17.4 CFU/100ml and 55.4 CFU/100ml E.coli, 15.4 CFU/100ml and 20.7 CFU/100ml Enterrococci, and 26.4CFU/100ml and 127.7 CFU/100ml TBC in both the seasons at Mishto uch. All the sampling sites of Bar spring did not show E.coli and Enterrococci in both seasons, TBC was within range of 7.0 CFU/100ml and 64....

Muhammad Shahid1*, Unsar Naeem-Ullah1, Waheed S. Khan2, Shafqat Saeed1 and Kashif Razzaq3

Application of Nanotechnology for Insect Pests Management: A Review
... materials i.e. polymer, bacteria, viruses, plant extracts, fungi, and protein. This review article climaxes the latest mileposts accomplished for the production and imminent perspective of nanoparticles for the controlling of insect pests. 

...
Abdul Nabi Jatt1,2*
.... Marine snow associated bacterial communities perform a crucial role in organic material degradation by producing extracellular hydrolytic enzymes and are considered as key components in global carbon cycle. The aim of this study was to screen marine snow associated bacterium, Citrobacter freundii B1 for the production of QS-signals particularly acyl-homoserine-lacto...
Ye Ge1, Chunmiao Zhao1, Weitian Xie2, Ying Liu2,* and Chunhou Xu1,*
...dy, to obtain functional bacteria with lactic acid and lactobacilli and simultaneously producing spores and digestive enzymes, we produced the protoplast as the parent strain of B. subtilis and Rhamnose lactobacillus and analyzed the production rate of spores, the ability to resist high temperature and hereditary stability. The results showed that RH-3 was a perfect protoplast from which 48 strains were obtained through regeneration, with a sporo...
Iram Liaqat1*, Tahir Hussain1,2, Aisha Waheed Qurashi3, Gulbeena Saleem2Asia Bibi4, Muhammad Fiaz Qamar5,ShaukatAli1 and Ikram-ul-Haq6 
Jiawei Hong1,2, Mingqiang Chen 1,2, Zhenghua Deng1,2, Youning Li1,2 and Yu Wang1,2*
...ative abundance of Proteobacteria increased (from 34.96% to 77.31%) with the increasing of enrofloxacin exposure dosage. The dominant position of Tenericutes was replaced by Proteobacteria, and in parallel the proportion of Tenericutes slumped to 3.85%. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Mycoplasma, dropped down from 58.38% to 3.85%, and Vibrio increased (from 15.23% to 40.8%) to become the dominant ...
Ryan Septa Kurnia1* and Radiana Dhewayani Antarianto2
 

...ing pathogens. Commensal bacteria as microbiome can potentially influence mechanism of disease either hindering or promoting the viral infection and sometimes aggravate the disease. In this review, we discuss the histology of respiration epithelium and mucous layers, various microbiome that contribute to the interaction between the host and microbes against infection on the mucus layer in top of the respiratory epithelium, and technology that can be developed ...
Hafiz Imran Iqbal1*, Zahir Ahmad Zahir2, Obaidur Rehman1, Rizwan Khalid1*, Abdul Waheed1, Raja Abad Raza1, Shahid Saleem1, Muhammad Rashid1, Sarosh Tariq Alvi1 and Asia Munir1
 

... through beneficial rhizobacteria that may increase the growth of plants. An experiment in pot was conducted to assess the effect of combined use of rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) (containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase) on the growth and yield of maize under salt affected conditions. In pots three levels of salinity were developed i.e. 1.2 (original), 6 and 12dSm1 b...
Asma Chaudhary1, Qurat-ul-Ain Ahmad1, Afia Muhammad Akram1, Sadia Roshan2 and Javed Iqbal Qazi3*
...ll as in vivo antibacterial and probiotic potential of Sphingomonas sp. AsCh-P3 (MF543123) and Bacillus aerius AsCh-A7 (MF543123) against fish pathogen Pseudomonas fluorescens. Antagonism by cross streak was observed in ten isolates out of total twenty. Six isolates showed better inhibition by well as well as disk diffusion methods with maximum growth inhibition zones i.e., 15 and 17 mm by Sphingomonas sp. AsCh-P3 and ...
Praptiningsih Gamawati Adinurani1,*, Sri Rahayu1, Endang Dwi Purbajanti2, Devi Dwi Siskawardani3, Karina Stankeviča4 and Roy Hendroko Setyobudi5
...th the help of Rhizobium bacteria. Rhizobium was requiring P elements for root nodules formation. This study aims to determine the effects of the application of mycorrhizae at different levels that play an essential role in increasing P elemental uptake and rhizobia inoculants to improve N element fixation and root nodule formation. Rhizobia inoculant applications were allotted to main plots and levels of mycorrhizae to the subplots under each main plot. Three...
Muhammad Farooq1*, Allah Rakha2,Jawad Ul Hassan2, Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi1, A. Shakoor3, Muhammad Bakhtiar4, Muhammad Noman Khan5,Shoaib Khan5, Ibrar Ahmad6, Shabir Ahmed7 andWang Yunyang1*
 

...d against several viral, bacterial and cancer diseases. Mushroom powder also used to reduce blood pressure and increase resistance of person against many diseases. Keeping in perspective the position of dietary and medicinal values of mushroom in this research mushroom powder was added into muffins to improve nutritious and dietetic status of muffin. To achieve desired objective mushroom powder was mixed with wheat flour to improve sensory attributes of muffin...

Ali Zaman1, Nabila Roohi1 and Muhammad Irfan2*

...terature has established bacteria’s pathogenesis, but still, the literature about the role of bacteria and its immunogens on the demonstration of clinical signs, hematology and serum biochemistry in Nili Ravi buffaloes under subtropics is lacking. This study was designed to fulfill this gap by analyzing the effects of exposure to the bacterial culture of Pasturella multocida (P. mult...
Rida Haroon Durrani1*, Fareeha Akhtar1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh1, Munazzah Maqbool1, Aleena Kokab1, Kiran Imtiaz2 and Muhammad Ilyas Riaz3
...perature associated with bacterial spoilage of fish meat. A total 24 samples were procured during three different seasons from local retail shops (n=12) and supermarket (n=12) in order to observe the bacteria which are associated with meat spoilage. Total viable count of aerobic psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria was performed through selective enrichment and culturing of ...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

August

Vol. 53, Iss. 4, Pages 1201-1601

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