Tom Gilson & Carson Weitnauer (eds), True Reason: Confronting the Irrationality of the New Atheism (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2013), 315pp, US$17.99 (paperback), ISBN 978-0-8254-4338-1

Reviewed by Gregory W. Dawes, Associate Professor of Philosophy

Science, Religion and Culture
... is simply to offer some general reflections on the strategies employed.

...

David N. Livingstone, Dealing with Darwin. Place, Politics, and Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with Evolution, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 265 pp., ISBN 13: 978-1-4214-1326-6

Reviewed by Francisco J. Ayala, University Professor & Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, email: fjayala@uci.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
...natural selection became generally accepted by biologists and other scientists. How was Darwin’s On the Origin of Species received by his contemporary scholars, particularly by theologians and religious authors? That is the subject of the thoroughly researched and elegantly written book by David N. Livingstone, Dealing with Darwin. Place, Politics, and Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with Evolution.

...

Aradhana Chopra1, Ravi Shukla2 and Tarun Kumar Sharma2,3*

... of antibodies. They are generated through an in vitro evolution process called SELEX. These single stranded nucleic acid aptamers can acquire various secondary and tertiary structures to bind their cognate targets with high affinity and specificity. The ease in synthesis and modification makes them an attractive candidate for a variety of applications. Since the last decade, aptamers have been regarded as an emerging player in biology. They have found applica...

Maureen McKeague1, Maria C. DeRosa2*

...ecognition elements, are generated through an in vitro evolution process called SELEX. The selection of aptamers with optimal specificity and high affinity remains a challenge, leading to the recent emergence of elegant new approaches and tools for SELEX. In this commentary, we discuss recent advancements in the selection of aptamers.

...

Kathryne E. Taylor1 and Karen L. Mossman1,2*

...cytoplasm that have been generally disregarded, due to the fact that many frequently used experimental manipulations restrict this protein to the nucleus. This commentary discusses the significance of these findings to the ICP0 field.

...

John Teehan

...e nature of religion, in general, with some, predictably, placing the blame for such hate-filled acts squarely on religion.

...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

...ution to GDP, employment generation, and export earnings in the economy of Pakistan. Due to modernization in agriculture sector over the last few decades, credit needs of the farmers have increased rapidly. Credit is considered an important factor for raising the productivity and income of the farmers. The current study attempts to analyse the impact of credit on wheat productivity in district Jhang. Furthermore, study explores the purpose of farmers for acqui...

Dallin D. Oaks

 

...f the Tower of Babel has generally not been taken seriously by scholars in historical linguistics, but what are regarded by some as problematic aspects of the account may actually relate to claims that have been incorrectly attributed to the account. In fact, the account may not be reporting a sudden and immediate confusion of languages, or even a sequence in which a confusion of languages led to a scattering of the people. Indeed, a close examination of the a...

Thomas J. Coleman III1*, Ralph W. Hood Jr.1 and John R. Shook2

...larship on secularity in general, and atheism in particular, has increased significantly. Moreover, these phenomena have been researched, studied and documented by multiple disciplines ranging from cognitive science to religious studies, and from anthropology to sociology. The study of atheism and secularity is of high interest to not only scholars, but also the public in general. In this special issue of Science, Religion &...

Ethan G. Quillen

... attempt at theorizing a general interpretation. This is evinced not just by the way the term has been contrarily defined, but by a number of novel approaches, such as the creation and use of umbrella terms such as ‘non-religion,’ or the precarious notion of a division between ‘positive’ and/or ‘negative ‘Atheism. This article will attempt to assuage this issue by mapping out the discursive shifts presented within the disc...

Joseph Langston1*, Joseph Hammer2, Ryan T. Cragun3

... the atheist movement in general by dividing nonbelievers (N=1,939) into four groups based on degree of formal affiliation and assessing attitudes, perceptions, and preferences in three areas. First, we examined the preferences of nonbelieving group members (“secular affiliates”), former members, and nonbelieving non-members (“secular nonaffiliates”) on nonbeliever group goals, functions, and activities. Second, we examined the percep...

Rabbi Paul Shrell-Fox

... in religious beliefs in general, and belief in God in particular. Approximately 25 rabbis voluntarily submitted vignettes concerning their shifts in religious belief. These vignettes were solicited via rabbinic list-serves. Those rabbis who denied a belief in a supernatural being were interviewed to explore the evolution of their religious faith and its impact on their religious practice and behavior. In as much as Judaism places a great emphasis on communal ...

Reviewed by Dr William Patterson

...en on that subject for a general audience and deservedly spent time on the bestsellers list. In his second book, Faith vs. Fact: Why Science and Religion are Incompatible, Coyne does less well. His aim is to demonstrate that the contrasting mindsets underlying science (with its emphasis on rationality, evidence, experimentation, and observation) and religion (with its emphasis on faith) are intrinsically opposed and that all attempts to reconcile them must res...

Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye1, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji1, 2 *

...PV and NPEV-C members to generate recombinant VDPVs in the region exist.

...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

...xt-align: justify;">Next generation sequencing (NGS) opened up a plethora of new research possibilities in biology and medicine. Metagenomics is one of these emerging NGS applications and offers the opportunity to study i.e. whole ecosystems. Basically, the metagenomics approach is similar to well-known shotgun-sequencing, though on a much bigger scale. For instance, the metagenome of a lake would include all the fish, ducks, plants, fungi, bacteria and everyt...

Ummara Waheed Khan, Raza Ahmed, Irum Shahzadi and Mohmmad Maroof Shah

Email | mmshah@ciit.net.pk

...formation and in vitro regeneration offered new dimensions of research to improve important crop species including wheat. The tissue culture by itself has increased the crop improvement potential to develop new cultivars with desirable traits through somaclonal and gametoclonal selection. While successful tissue culture is critical for genetic transformation, it has been facing greater impediments in wheat and related crop species. Its succ...

Tauseef Taj Kiani1*, Mozammil Hussain1 and Hidayat ur Rahman2

 

...re used to develop three generations F2, BC1 and BC2. Heterosis (in F1) and inbreeding depres- sion (in F2, BC1 and BC2) were quanti ed for traits including shelling percentage, kernels per row, kernel rows per ear, and 100-grain weight and grain yield. Non-additive gene action was evident for shelling percentage, kernels per row and 100-grain weight and grain yield for which both het...

Rongfei Lu1, 2, Zhiyang Liu1, Peng Fang1, Guangyi Chen1, Feng Sun1, Yongjian Fan1, Yijun Zhou1, Tong Zhou1*

...y and the reliability of generated data can be enhanced significantly appropriate measures. As a standard for the relative expression of target genes, the selection of reference genes is crucial. This review describes the history of the RT-qPCR technology, emphasizes the importance of reference genes and enumerates several algorithms to screen reference genes to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Additionally, several possible improvements in the selection of referen...

Maurice A. Finocchiaro

...riginal controversy, but generated a new one that continues today, for example, about whether the condemnation proves the incompatibility between science and religion. Recently the Galileo affair has been studied by several scholars whom I label “Berkeley para-clericals,” chiefly philosopher Paul Feyerabend and historian John Heilbron. Their approach is distinctive: it views controversial topics involving the relationship between science and religi...

Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

...ne fever virus (CSFV) is generally a noncytopathogenic virus in cell cultures. The development of reporter CSFV has provided an excellent option to directly detect viral replication without the use of secondary labeling. This mini-review discusses the applications of reporter CSFV in the study of CSFV biology, including efficiently screening the antivirals against CSFV and viral receptors, conveniently tracking the viral proteins in live cells as well as impro...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...summarizes the knowledge generated in epidemiology, diagnosis and surveillance of the disease in the Maghreb countries.

...

Tahir Khan, Raziuddin, Fakharuddin* and Muazam Jamal Razi

...ss of selection in early generations for the improvement of these traits.  

...

Qaizar Ahmed1, Fida Mohammad2, Hidayat-ur-Rahman2, Sheraz Ahmed2* and Fakharuddin2

...possible combinations to generate 7 x 7 diallel crosses. In 2008 and 2009, all F1 hybrids along with their parent cultivars were planted in randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replicates at Tobacco Research Station Mardan (plain) and Tobacco Research Substation Mansehra (hilly). Data for all traits were analysed in pooled analysis and individual environments. Heterosis over better parent was determined for all traits across environments...

 Muhammad Ishaq and Raziuddin

 
... highly significant GCA (general combining ability), SCA (specific combining ability) and RCA (reciprocal combining ability) effects for the studied traits. Based on GCA, best general combiners were AUP-7 for earlier flowering and maturity, AUP-2 for plant height, AUP-14 for primary branches plant-1 and AUP-9 for main raceme length. Based on SCA effects, best F1 hybrids were AUP-7 × AUP-14 (days to flowering), AUP-8 &t...

 Aqila Shaheen

...l series. All soils were generally deficient in nutrients as NO3-N was deficient in 97% surface soils (2.77-5.23 mg kg-1) and 100% sub soils (1.03-4.14 mg kg-1), P was deficient in 95% surface soils (0.76- 1.67 mg kg-1) and 100% sub soils (0.22- 1.22 mg kg-1), Zn was deficient in 100% both surface and subsoils and B was deficient in 85% surface soils and 90% subsoils. These results suggested that fertility status of these soils with respect to NO3-N, P, Zn and...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

..., twelve haplotypes were generated for G. p. palpalis and five for G. m. submorsitans. Similarly, for the combined loci, haplotype diversity (Hd) was higher for G. p. palpalis (0.90) than G. m. submorsitans (0.68). Nucleotide diversity was homogenous for G. m. submorsitans (0.24859) than G. p. palpalis (0.24093). A higher genetic diversity suggests a higher evolutionary rate. Haplotype diversity and Nucleotide diversit...

 Mukhtiar Ahmed, Jana Pickova, Taufiq Ahmad, Muhammad Liaquat, Abid Farid, Muhammad Jahangir

...cular mechanisms such as generation of reactive oxygen precursors and free radicals. Oxidation affects many interactions among food constituents, leading to both desirable and undesirable products. Food lipids are the foods components that are most susceptible to oxidation, therefore oxidation reactions are one of the major sources of deterioration that occurs during manufacturing, storage, distribution and final preparation of foods. Lipid oxidation products ...

Neha Singh and Anjana Pandey

...s, so the aptamers being generated could bind target molecules on live cells in their native conformation and it is possible to know the molecular profile of the cellular surface. Whole CELL SELEX is very useful in the field of diagnostics and targeted therapy and the aptamers generated can be utilized to differentiate cancerous cells from normal cells or even different types of cancerous cells, detect live pathogenic organi...

 John G. Bruno and Jeffery C. Sivils

... against the surfaces of general nonpathogenic Escherichia coli (ATCC No. 8739) as well as alpha and gamma intimins and Shiga-like toxin 2 (SLT-2) B subunit verified that the aptamers bound proteins of the correct molecular weights for intact outer membrane proteins (OMPs), intimins and SLT-2. Some bands on the aptamer Western blots were shared between the “Big 6” non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), E. coli O157 and related Gram negative...

 Ian von Hegner

... concept of democracy is generalized to be universally applicable, then the concept of hypothetical gods’ right to rule results in dictatorship. Whereas the concepts of dictator and tyrant originally had a more positive meaning, those meanings have changed. However, the concept of the gods in the philosophical debate has avoided a similar redefinition in light of democracy, despite the fact, that it involves the same negation of modern fundamental rights...

Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Himayatullah Khan

...ems to potential area to generate employment opportunities. Simultaneously there is need for initiating skill development programs.

...

Haji Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal* and Saira Saleemi

... species belonging to 43 genera and 17 families were recorded from the study area of Indus River. Thirty two species were commercially important. Alpha Diversity Indices study showed that fish diversity of the River was quite rich (species richness, 70) and diverse, (Shannon’s index=3.66), (Simpson-D=0.96), Evenness was also high (Evenness (H/S) =0.55) and Chao-1 (70.75). The Quadrate diversity Indices were applied to the data and Bootstrap replicates me...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...n electrochemical signal generation. Aptamers possesses the strong potential as receptors for the development of biosensors for antibiotics detection; therefore, a specially designed aptamer specific to an antibiotic may be suitable for this purpose. In this review, the importance of detection of antibiotic residue contamination, reported analytical methods, advancement in biosensing platform especially regarding electrochemical transduction are discussed in d...

Ambreena Hafiz1, Tanzeela Riaz2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*

.... The toxicological data generated from deltamethrin-resistant populations was compared with deltamethrin-susceptible population that has not been exposed to any insecticide since thirteen years. From analysis of metabolic profile, it was found that soluble proteins, glucose contents and free amino acids increased, whereas glycogen and lipid contents were reduced in all deltamethrin-resistant populations as compared to deltamethrin-susceptible population. Solu...

Syeda Farzana Bibi*, Lal Badshah and Siraj-ud-Din

...cies ,which belong to 29 genera and 16 families, were recorded from the area.Poaceae was the most dominating family including 7 genera. Ecological characteristics like life form spectra indicated that Therophytes (53.33%) were the most dominating life form. Leaf size spectra showed that the most abundant leaf size was Microphyll (50%). This study not only gives information about the flora of motorway but can provide a baseli...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

...ide is identical to that generated by the SS1 gene in other vertebrates. Tissue distribution of C. nasus SS1 mRNA was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which demonstrated high expression level in the brain. During embryogenesis, SS1 mRNA was detected during early-stage embryonic development, decreased during subsequent developmental stages then increased gradually from the stage of midgastrula onward. This study provides some basic evidenc...

Ecevit Eyduran1, Daniel Zaborski2*, Abdul Waheed3, Senol Celik4, Koksal Karadas5 and Wilhelm Grzesiak2

...e (4.49 kg) for MLP1. In general, the applied algorithms quite accurately predicted BW of Beetal goats, which may be helpful in making decisions upon standards, favourable drug doses and required feed amount for animals. The ascertainment of the body measurements associated with BW using data mining algorithms can be considered as an indirect selection criterion for future goat breeding studies. 

...

Tayiba Latif Gulraiz1, Arshad Javid1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Muhammad Shahbaz3, Irfan3 and Sharoon Daud4

...gal and twelve bacterial genera were isolated. Four fungal (Candida, Fusarium, Penicillium and Saccharomyces) and two bacterial genera (Klebsiella and Nocardia) were isolated from bolus only, three fungal (Cryptococcus, Histoplasma and Trichophoton) and six bacterial (Acaligenes, Azotobacter, Bartonella, Nitrsomonas, Pseudomonas and Salmonella) genera were isolated from guano while five fu...

Abdullah Mart1* and Orhan Erman2

...bspecies belonging to 10 genera of water scavenger beetles (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) collected from Bingöl province between May 2003-October 2004 have been described.

...

Faiqah Ramzan*1 and Muhammad Haris Ramzan2

...ns. As, dose dependent degeneration of prostate gland has been described following intraperitoneal kisspeptin treatment. However, effects of kisspeptin administration on the levels of prostatic citric acid remain elusive till date. The present study, therefore, addresses the effects of 12 day administration of kisspeptin on prostatic citric acid levels in male mice. Kisspeptin-10 was administered intraperitoneally in different dosage concentrations (1μg, 1 ...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

...chnique, we successfully generated transgenic Guangxi Bama mini-pigs carrying a fluorescent protein (DsRed) reporter gene regulated by the 2.2-kb human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter (hGFAP-DsRed). This study characterized transgene expression in such transgenic Guangxi Bama mini-pigs and their offspring. Our findings indicate that the hGFAP promoter contains matching regulatory elements for directing specific expression in porcine astrocytes. Howeve...

Muhammad Saeed* and Iftikhar Hussain Khalil

...d testers ZM04 were good general combiners for most of traits under consideration, while F1 hybrids B4N11 × PS08, B4N11 × JZ, BRF1 × ZM04, BRF1 × KT10 were best specific combiners observed for several important traits including grain yield plant-1 which can be subsequently utilized in future wheat breeding to develop high yielding new wheat cultivars from transgressive segregants recovered in latter genera

Hina Fatima, Lal Almas and Bushra Yasmin

...d pesticides reflect the general performance of the inputs in terms of their degree of changes in cotton-melon output to change inputs reflected by the allocative efficiency analysis. It is indispensable that policies aimed at adapting innovative farming techniques must be implemented in an efficient manner. Effectively implementation of agricultural schemes, formal education and in-formal education should be realized. During and after conducting the agricultu...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...with enzyme MspI and the generated bans corresponded to the predicted size.
...
Serkan Sayiner1* and Hilal Karagul2
...ma vitamin E levels were generally found within adequate ranges in all regions for both seasons. We suggest that feed supplements containing selenium should be added for the Iskele region during the winter months. For the Morphou region we advise that feed supplements should be added during summer due to low levels of selenium found in roughages.
...

 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

...ded pedigree for several generations however, this is really useful firsthand information.
...
Rashid Mahmood1,*, Waqar Ahmad1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Anjum Shahzad2
... Farmers in Pakistan are generally not aware of pollination needs of apple. Results depicted a high population decline of Syrphids and Non-Apis bees. Syrphids were recorded as 12.65 to 13.85 per 250 flowers in 2013 but decreased in year 2014 by 7.82 to 7.88 per 250 flowers and Non-Apis bees was recorded as 6.15 to 7.59 per 250 flowers in 2013 which also decreased and recorded as 5.35 to 5.70 per 250 flowers in year 2014. The results showed the trends of increa...
Fermín Lopez-Uriostegui1, Jesús T. Ponce-Palafox2,*, Fabiola Lango-Reynoso1, María del Refugio Castañeda-Chavez1, Virgilio Eugenio Arenas-Fuentes3 and Fernando Vega-Villasante4
...ly over a 24 h cycle. In general it was found that stomach repletion index showed both species feed 24 h, but forage activity differs in intensity in the two species. In M. tenellum repletion index was greatest during the day and M. americanum in the night.
...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...of durable resistance to generate virus resistant cultivars for economically important crops through molecular breeding techniques via utilizing advanced molecular markers involving cis and trans genetics. The review adhere recent research findings regarding disease resistance against viral diseases and concludes via shedding light upon the future prospects in this exciting field of research.
...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
... by using specific and degenerate primers. ToLCNDV is geographically wide spread Begomovirus (Family Geminiviridae), considered as a close relative of TYLCV, and cause severe losses for many economical important crops in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This is the first report of the use of heterologous polyclonal antibodies (PAbs), raised against a geographically distinct begomovirus, ToLCNDV. The described results have shown to exhibit a many ...

 Sheraz Ahmed and Fida Mohammad

...ility in broad sense was generally low for all traits except nicotine and reducing sugar. Days to flowering was the most environment responsive trait and its heritability fluctuated between 0.22 and 0.91. Plant height was significantly associated with yield at phenotypic level only. Yield exhibited significantly negative phenotypic correlation with days to flowering. Similarly, yield was positively correlated with leaves per plant, green leaves weight per plot...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...eat hygiene. Waste water generated during these activities typically has high presence of organic material such as blood, fat, flesh and excreta. In developing countries like Nigeria where access to portable water is lacking, it is not uncommon to “reuse” rinse water for processing several batches of poultry carcass.Several samples were collected from three poultry slaughterhouses within Jos metropolis at intervals for a period of 6 months to check...
Cansu Akbulut1,*, Tuğba Kotil2, Burcu Öztürk1 and Nazan Deniz Yön1
...n microscopy. Numerous degenerated follicles with cytoplasmic vacuolization, mitotic catastrophe in mitochondria , chromatin condensation, mitochondrial vesiculation and dispersion at ooplasm were observed. In mitochondria, mitotic catastrophe , vesiculation, swelling and loss of organization of cristae were detected.Here we showed that TiO2 exposure trigger paraptotic type cell death in zebrafish ovary.
...

Riffat Sultana*, Waheed Ali Panhwar and Muhammad Saeed Wagan

... to the 20 tribes and 22 genera of Tettigonioidea is provided, with figures, from Pakistan.
...

John G. Bruno

...y study was conducted to generate anti-idiotypic aptamers against Fab fragments of these antibodies and to determine if the aptamers were capable of emulating rickettsial antigens to enable sensitive detection of rickettsia exposure in humans who have seroconverted. Such anti-idiotypic aptamer antigens might also serve as rickettsial vaccines, if fully developed. The top five highest affinity R. rickettsii and top five R. typhi anti-Fab aptamers as assessed by...

Muhammad Noor, Hidayat ur Rahman and Muhammad Iqbal

...ross-III. The mean of F1 generations was low in almost all crosses from their parents for flowering and plant characters. It is concluded that in all crosses broad and narrow sense heritability estimates were of moderate to high range, indicating that the total variability was mostly of genetic nature and hence, could be effectively utilized in maize breeding programs for developing popcorn varieties having early maturity and accompanied with other desirable a...
Mustafa Cengiz1*, Jama Hussein Ali2, H. Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Adnan Ayhanci3
...ic results were found: degenerative changes in the liver tissue, significant decreased in the number of activated Bcl-2, while increased in the number of Bax and caspase-3-positive hepatocytes, a significantly increase in levels of the activities of biochemistry markers (serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)). In contrast, in the groups given D-GaIN and EA, a decrease in the damage of the liver tissue, a ...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...es are divided into four genera:Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus and Begomovirus. Begomoviruses are transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) and usually possess a bipartite genome of twoDNAcomponents approximately 2.7 kb in size, designated as DNA-A and DNA-B. Monopartite begomoviruses are also known to occur. Recently, a novel class of molecule, known as satellite DNA-? of ~1.35 kb size are also found to occur in India. Whitefly transmitted ge...

Honnur Basha, Vinaya Hemannavar, B.Ramanujam, R. Rangeshwaran and S.Sriram 

Screening of chilli microflora and other biocontrol agents for their antagonistic effects on Colletotrichum spp. infecting chillies
...nged to plant pathogenic genera like,Alternaria, Cercospora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Glomerella, Mycosphaerella, Phoma and Stemphylium and the other 24 isolates of fungi belonged to Aspergillus, Acremonium, Chaetomella,Cunninghamella, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Monodictys, Mucor, Myrothecium, Penicillium, Periconia and Pithomyces. One-hundred and thirteen isolates of chilli microflora and 49 isolates of Trichoderma, 19 isolates of Bacillus sp., 34 isolates o...

S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
...e pollarded plants) were generally infected with rot disease when it grows older. Phellinus contigus (under Polyporaceae), a white rot fungus, causes heart rot disease and Biscogniauxia mediterranea (= Hypoxylon mediterranea) (under Xylariaceae) causes canker rot disease of Som plant. A survey was conducted to study the infection of rotting pathogens on Som plants at Regional Muga Research Station (RMRS), Boko, Assam, India with during 2004-06. The disease inc...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...s belonging to bacterial genera such as Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces and Bacillus, and fungal genera such as Gliocladium, Trichoderma, Ampelomyces, Candida and Coniothyrium. Trichoderma and Pseudomonas fluorescens are the most important and widely used bioconrol agents being used across the world for the management of several plant diseases. Some bacterial biocontrol agents can inhibit both bacterial and fungal p...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh

Nilesh Suresh Gole and Bijan Kumar Das

Biology of Dichromia sagitta (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), a serious pest of Indian ipecac, Tylophora indica
...were several overlapping generations in a year. Descriptions of different life stages have been made. Adaptive behaviour of D. sagitta and its interaction with toxic host plant have been discussed critically.


...

M. A. Al-Helal, K. N. Ahmed, N-E-P. Khanom, and S. Bulbul 

Observations on papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) damag-ing some crops in Bangladesh

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...ble to Indian farmers in general. Due to Precision Farming (PF), production increased by 40 to 60 percent farmers’ margins of the produce and reduction of the commission charged by the middlemen to 7-10 percent. Further, bargaining power, capacity building, optimal crop protection and produce quality were improved and the cost of cultivation has reduced at Agaram Village, Dharamapuri, Tamil Nadu of Adhiyaman Precision Farmers Association (Ramasamy 2007)....

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
... to pre-rainy) months. A generalized 0-9 point scale was prepared and used to determine severity (= Percent Disease Index, PDI). Strongly predictive equations for severity in terms of intensity in all cases but one viz. Alternaria leaf spot of Dracaena deremensis in terms of occurrence were developed. Such relationships helped prior assessment of severity before the disease reaches the predicted level. Thus, although crop losses were neither determined nor sou...
Zhensheng Liu1,2, Hui Gao1,2, Jiapeng Dong1, Mingming Zhang3 and Liwei Teng1,2,*
...y dimorphic ungulate. In general, males are larger than females and the two sexes live in separate groups outside the breeding season. We studied the seasonal activity of blue sheep from May 2010 through August 2012 to test the activity budget hypothesis, which predicts that females spend more time on feeding and that the activity synchronization of same-sex groups is higher than for mixed-sex groups. Our results support the hypothesis. Both males and females ...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi2
...d total wet weights were generally less than 10 g and 80 g, respectively. The females were heavier than the males (~1.77x). The heavier females had more gonads (direct relation, r=0.45) while the lighter males had more gonads (inverse relation, r=-0.52). The males’ total dry weights were < 20 g and > 40 g but females’ were between 10 to 40 g. The total wet weight was > ~2x (females) and > ~7x (males) the total dry weight. The wet gonad ...
1Sitesh Chatterjee, 1Chirasree Gangopadhyay and 2Santosh Kumar Roy
...ield bio-efficacy of new generation molecules against rice insect-pests. Control of pests in seedbed is relatively less expensive than transplanted main-field because of smaller area of nursery that can be managed better way as compared to transplanted field. In the present study, chlorantraniliprole granule was applied both in seedbed and transplanted field along with spraying of some new generation insecticides like indoxa...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
...ptempunctata L. is a generalist predator and prefer soft bodied insects. Semiochemicals released by the plants in response to herbivorous attack influences third trophic level and natural enemies use these substances to locate their prey. Twelve-arm olfactory apparatus was used to evaluate the response of C. septempunctata toward aphids and different host plants of aphids. Different horticultural plants and field crops were used singly or in combina...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Amanullah1, Zafar Islam2*,Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Umair4, Mehmood Ayaz5, Asghar Ali Khan6, Muhammad Asif2 and Ya Sakina3
...;Inqalab Mung” for general cultivation in KPK. Inqalab Mung has 28-36% high grain yield potential compared to the standard variety Niab Mung-98 and parent Niab Mung-92 along with resistance to charcoal rot, cercospora leaf spot and Yellow mosaic virus.
...
Hazrat Ali1,*, Wajid Ali1, Karim Ullah1, Fazle Akbar1, Sher Ahrar1, Irfan Ullah1, Irum Ahmad1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Ikram Ilahi2 and Muhammad Anwar Sajad3 
...uscles of the study fish generally showed no significant differences among different sites on the rivers. However, in some cases, metal concentrations showed significant increase down the stream. Similarly, a comparison of metal concentrations in muscles of the two species generally did not show significant differences between the two species. Zn concentrations in fish muscles were higher than Cu concentrations in all cases....
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
...ded citrus practices was generally good. The results of the logit model for adoption of recommended irrigation practices however postulate positive and significant impact of citrus producing experience and family income on adoption of recommended number of irrigation and hoeing practices whereas age has significant negative impact on the adoption of hoeing practice and fertilizer applications. Positive and significant impact of family income is influencing the...
Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Fatima Sellami3 and Muhammad Afzal1
...dentified belonging to 9 genera and 4 subfamilies occurring along with 10 trophic associations. Five species viz; Coccinella septempunctata (Linnaeus 1758), Hippodamia variegata (Goeze 1777), Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius 1781), Micraspis allardi (Mulsant 1853) and Propylea dissecta (Mulsant 1850) belonged to tribe Coccinellini (Latreille 1807) of subfamily Coccinellinae (Latreille 1807). Two species belonged to tribe Ch...

Wali Khan1, Naushad Khan2 and Shaista Naz2*

...only served as an income generating activity but also an employment generating activity in present and in future. The major constraints in beekeeping were the expensive inputs, pest attack, lack of modern production and rearing techniques, and trainings which can be overcome by a comprehensive program focusing on the provision of low cost inputs, pesticides/insecticides, modern techniques and trainings, and value chain marke...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*, Shah Saud Ahmad and Asif Nawaz 

... were invited by FSC for general body meeting whereas only 26% participated in the process of election. Maximum respondents were provided farm machinery by FSC i.e. cultivator (51%), rotavator (56%), mold bold plough (56%), disk plough (48%), single furrow (47%), drill (61%) and ridge maker (53%). Market was the source of seed for majority of the respondents regarding cauliflower (43%), bitter gourd (32%), bottle gourd (13%), potato (34%) and squash (29%). Sim...

Qudsia Khalid, Safdar Hussain Shah*, Faiza Zaeem and Saad Hussain Shah 

...netin (0.25 mg/l). For regeneration MS medium with 1.0mg/l NAA and BAP + 30g/l D-Sorbitol was used. LiCl adapted line showed significantly higher indices of tolerance than unadapted line at 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM NaCl stress. Adaptation resulted in enhanced accumulation of saturated fatty acids (myristic and stearic acids), while unsaturated fatty acids exhibited variable profiles with enhanced oleic acid and significantly reduced linoleic acid. The re
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
... among the Ixodid genera whereas presumed risk factors were strongly associated with tick infestation and tick burden.
...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali

...ich whole plant can be regenerated. The results indicated that optimal embryo physiological age is 15 and 18 days after pollination and transient transformation efficiency decreased at 22 days after pollination. Enhanced transient beta glucuronidase (GUS) expression with average frequency of 40.56% was noticed with three days of co-cultivation period while two days of co-cultivation period resulted 24.07% transient GUS expression. Addition of 100 mgL-1 L-cyste...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali* 

...cient and reproducible regeneration system from coleoptilar node of elite maize inbred line was developed. Regeneration from coleoptilar node circumvented tedious procedures of raising the immature embryos as a starting material for genetic transformation. Unlike immature embryos, the development of coleoptilar node is seasonal free and green house independent which would accelerate the work relevant to genetic transformatio...

Attaullah Ansari* and Nasreen Memon 

...elonging to 8 species, 6 genera of two subfamilies were collected, among which Episurphusbaltatus, De Geer, Eritalinus aeneus, Scopoli, and Ischiodon scutellaris, Fabricius were found to be most prevalent whereas; Eristalis arbustorum was found least in number during study period. The abundance of hoverflies fauna varied seasonally, the highest abundance was recorded in spring while lowest in autumn. Pearson’s correlation coefficient results reveale...

Shahab e Saqib1*, Himayatullah Khan2, Sanaullah Panezai3, Ubaid Ali4 and Mazhar Ali5 

...vities by all farmers in general and small farmers in particular. The findings of the study suggest that a strong monitoring of farmers is needed in the study area. In addition, farmers may be supplied in-kind agricultural credit to control credit fungibility. 

...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
...henogenetically to three generations of fundatrigenous. In July, the winged form migrated to the secondary host, where successive generations have been born through parthenogenetic reproduction. Gynopara in October return to the primary host and give birth to wingless oviparae that mate with males and lay winter eggs. The biometrical measurements of Aphis nasturtii help to complete knowledge on external morphology of ...

Haidar Ali* and Malik Muhammad Shafi 

...the size of holdings. To generate off-farm employment opportunities agro based industries seems to potential area. Simultaneously there is need for initiating skill development programs. 

...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Yue-Hui Ma2, Ming-Xing Chu2, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Hui-Jiang Gao2, Huai-Zhi Jiang3, Di Liu4, Li Liu5, Yan-Bin Zhu6, Wang-Dui Basang6, Luo-Bu Danjiu7, Tian-Wu An8, Xiao-Lin Luo8, Shi-Cheng He7 and Yong-Fu Huang1,*
...t follicles of goat were generated through Illumina paired-end sequencing, and their mapping rate was 84.99% and 84.47%, respectively. A total of 12577 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 6009 upregulated and 6568 downregulated genes in dominant follicles compared with nondominant follicles of goat. Of the 1026 significantly differentially expressed, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) found, 419 were upregulated and 607 were downregulat...
Medeni Aykut
... total, 40 species in 17 genera of family Dytiscidae were recorded, of which 37 were new to the study area. Eretes sticticus (Linnaeus, 1767) is the second record for Turkish fauna. Furthermore, Hydroporus inscitus Sharp, 1882 is new record for the Turkish fauna.
...
Shumaila Ashfaq1, Liaqat Ali2*, Muhammad Ashraf Zia2, Rizwan Ahmad Khan2 and Mehtash Butt3
...n due to its safety than general anaesthesia. Post dural puncture headache (PDPH) is commonly occurring problem associated with spinal anaesthesia and causes a considerable morbidity. PDPH depends on several factor and various methods have been used to reduce and treat the pain of PDPH. We evaluated effects of hydrocortisone on the treatment of PDPH in obstetrical patient.To compare mean decrease in Visual Analogue Scalepain score in patients who developed PDP...
Muhsan Ali Kalhoro1,2, Danling Tang1,*, Ye Hai Jun1, Morozov Evgeny1, Sufen Wang1 and Muhammad Aslam Buzdar
...istani waters for future generation.
...
Hayat Badshah1, Farman Ullah1, Paul-André Calatayud2, Hidayat Ullah3 and Bashir Ahmad1
...reover, the % parasitism generally decreased drastically when the time of exposure on mealybug hosts increased. In addition, the host plants species influenced significantly the female fitness of the parasitoid expressed in term of hind tibia length and body weight. The female parasitoids coming from mealybugs fed on hibiscus exhibited a significantly longer tibia and body weight than the parasitoids coming from the mealybugs reared on the other plants. The ho...

SHARIF UDDIN, MD. HASIBUL HASAN, MOHAMMED MAHBUB IQBAL, MOHAMMAD AMZAD HOSSAIN

... reddish pelvis fins but generally smaller, narrower. The surfaces of male’s pectoral were little rough during the breeding season. The Gonado-somatic index (GSI) value of female Anabus testudineus was ranged from 12.71±0.73 (July) to 1.13±0.10 (October) while hepato-somatic index (HSI) value of female was ranged from 4.37±0.64 (January) to 1.58±0.19 (July). The GSI and HSI were inversely related with each other. The fecundity...

Safdar Ali1*, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Shahid Mehmood2, Asim Gulzar3 , Ijaz Ahmad4 and Bashir Ahmad Khan5 

...e and tillage systems in general did not affect soil moisture content (P > 0.05). However, soil moisture content was 9% higher in NT + GH as compared to check (1 MBP + 8 CS; P ≤ 0.05). Soil moisture content was significantly higher at 30-45 cm soil depth as compared to top soil (0-30 cm; P ≤ 0.05). Besides, higher soil moisture content was measured at wheat developmental stage relative to other stages (P ≤ 0.05). Soil porosity was significantly hig...
Faiza Ambreen*1 and Muhammad Javed2
...age of damaged cells. In general, a dose dependent response was observed in fish erythrocytes with induction of maximum DNA damage at highest concentration (1/3rd of LC50) of pesticide mixture. Statistically significant effects for both concentrations and time of exposure in terms of DNA damage were observed in treated fish as compared to control group. The results supported the use of Comet assay for evaluating the toxicity of pollutants...
Ghazala Saeed1, Rabia Wajid1* and Ayesha Yousaf Dar2
...v>...

Warda Fatima1 , Shahida Hasnain1 , Saqib Mahmood2

 

...n urgent need to educate general population about the consequences of disorder so that people take it cautiously and it may treated early and its bad consequences be reduced.
...

Manzoor Hussaina,b

...omal STR system fails to generate the DNA profile the semen donor in the post-coital vaginal swabs. Sixty two post coital vaginal swabs (x3) were collected from six volunteers at different TSI (time since intercourse). Out of these, 42 post coital vaginal swabs (up to TSI 5 days) were used to generate the autosomal DNA profile of the semen donor and twenty of the post coital vaginal swabs obtained at the TSI of 6, 7, 8, 9 an...
Telat Yanik1,* and Irfan Aslan2
...sity. Based upon current general consensus among researchers, a global legislation and action-plan is required. Additionally, regulatory authorities from both developed and underdeveloped countries should enforce the implementation of these legislations. Such initiatives are fundamental in conservation of aquaculture, sustainability of increasing food security and to maintain the ecosystem of the planet.
...
Zahid Farooq1, Sufi Muhammad Akram2, Muhammad Saleem Khan3,* and Muhammad Wajid4
...longed to 5 families, 16 genera and 25 species. Indian cobra (Naja naja)(8.83%; N = 46), Glossy-bellied racer(Coluber ventromaculatus)(7.87%; N = 41) and Common krait (Bungarus caeruleus)(7.49%; N = 39) were higher in prevalence. Northern wolf snake (Lycodon striatus striatus), Sind long-nose sand snake (Lytorhynchus paradoxus)and Afghan awl-head snake(L. ridgewayi)(0.38%; N = 2) were the least abundant. Snakes ...

Soraya Khosravian Dehordi*, Abdolnaser Mohebbi and Kahin Shahanipour

...mful health effects. The generation of oxidative stress creates by the common mechanism their carcinogenicity and toxicity. The present study was planned to determine whether an oral administration of nano-selenium (nano-Se) influencing on biomarkers of oxidative status in the rats spleen exposed to the cadmium (Cd) metal. For this purpose, thirty male rats equally divided into six groups, group I received nano-Se (0.1mg/kg) alone as dose, group II selenite od...

 Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal*, Mehedi Hasan Kanon, Mohammad Amzad Hossain, Abul Hossain, Shamima Nasren, Md. Jahidul Islam, Md. Arifur Rahman

...ep for the use of future generation.

...
Yakut Gevrekçi* and Çiğdem Takma
... mining approaches which generate model asses the response variable based on the predictor variables. The present study deals with evaluating relationship between egg production (EP) and some related traits by decision tree analysis with Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) algorithms. A total of 1912 EP records of layers which hatched at four different periods were collected from a commercial flock ...
Nancy R. Howell
...ill show that Peters has generated a fruitful method for and approach to Cosmic History.
...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...her use of penicillin in general ailments had positive association with MDR prevalence. The study concluded higher prevalence of MDR S. aureus in camel milk with significant association of assumed risk factors and some of antibiotics presented higher scope of treatment.
...

Zahid Akram, Saif Ullah Ajmal, Ghulam Shabbir, Muhammad Munir and Nasir Mahmood Cheema

INHERITANCE MECHANISM OF SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT
...or these traits in early generation may not be useful and it has to be delayed till segregating generations.
...

 Z. A. Soomro, M.B. Kumbhar, A.S. Larik*, M. Imran** and S.A. Brohi***

...y heritable in F2 and F3 generations except sympodia/plant, indicating quantitative pattern of inheritance, offering better chances of selection for these traits in F2 and F3 generations. The traits namely plant height, bolls/plant and seed cotton yield/plant displayed high heritability (72.97 - 75.55%) with remarkable genetic advance (112.46 - 357.01%) indicating that these traits were predominantly governed by additive gen...

Haq Nawaz Malik*, Iffat Ara**, Muhammad Naeem, Mozammil Hussain, M. Hanif Munawwar and M. Yousaf

 R. Hussain* and A. N. Naqvi**

 Aly Khan* and S. Shahid Shaukat**

...chistan Province. Twelve genera were recorded from the rhizosphere of pomegranate. The most dominant species was Meloidogyne incognita. Species diversity (H’) was highest in Wadh while lowest in Ali Dasht. Equitability (J’) component of diversity was highest in Kork and lowest in Ali Dasht, while species richness (d’) component was highest in Alat. The soils associated with Pomegranate orchards were coarse-structured, alkaline with low maximu...

 Abid Hussain*, Imdad Hussain Mirza and Muhammad Azeem Khan**

...and thrive for countless generations. Proper feeding and management is of fundamental importance to the success of any goats’ enterprise. In Pothowar region of Punjab, household and sedentary system of goat production is practiced. The availability of feed varies according to the season. Goats in the region are under nourished and producing less than potential. This study was conducted to find out the feed supplementation practices of goats in the Pothow...

 Ghulam Shabbir*, Muhammad Aftab, Abid Mahmood** Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah* and Nasir Mahmood Cheema***

...Seed Council in 2002 for general cultivation in the Punjab barani tract.

...

 Sarfraz Ahmad, Shaista Koukab, Nayyar Razzaq, Muhammad Islam, Aneel Rose*, and Muhammad Aslam**

...ecutita has also shown regeneration potential on marginal lands. Commercial scale production of M. recutita is possible in highlands of Balochistan. However, further studies are required to evaluate different genotypes/varieties, essential oil contents at various growth stages, oil extraction techniques, mechanized flower picking, drying/storage techniques and cultivation practices in the existing cropping patterns.

...

 Muhammad Azeem Khan*, Abid Hussain, Irfan Mehmood and Sonila Hassan **

...vironmental harshness in general and law of inheritance in particular. Due to increase in mean annual temperatures and irregular rain patterns, area under major crops at Kohat and productivity of major crop at Attock decreased. Bivariate correlations between mean seasonal rainfall, area and production of major crops were moderately positive and statistically significant (except for wheat crop at Attock). This means that an increase in rainfall contribute posit...

Muhammad Athar Khan1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Syed Amir Gilani3 and Ifrah Bukhari4 

Naveed Akhtar,1,* Riaz Muhammad2, Kausar Saeed2, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Muzaffar Shah3, Jehan Zeb2, Shahid Ahmad2, Azam Jan Afridi4 and  Aftab Hussain5
...amilies, 5 orders and 10 genera of mammalswere identified. The reported species are Naemorhedus goral, Panthera pardus, Sus scrofa, Lepus nigricollis, Macaca mulatta, Canis aureus, Vulpes vulpes, Myotis myotis, Herpestes edwardsii and Hystrix indica. During the research jackals and fox species were dominant in the area. It is concluded from this study that threats like deforestation, habitat destruction, illegal and over hunting, urbanizat...
Qin Liu1,2, Feiwei Liu1, Xiuyue Zhang1, Nan Yang1 and Jianghong Ran1,*
...chenyii using a next-generation sequencing technology. The allele number of these loci ranged from two to six in genotyped 35 individuals. Polymorphism information content ranged from 0.2735 to 0.7717 with an average of 0.5149. Observed and expected heterozygosities at each locus ranged from 0 to 0.879 and 0.332 to 0.814, respectively. These markers could be used to better understand the breeding system and protection manage of this species.
...

 Muhammad Arifullah, Muhammad Munir*, Abid Mahmood**, Saifullah Khan Ajmal and Ghulam Shabbir*

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS OF SOME YIELD ATTRIBUTES IN INDIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L.)
...is indicated significant general combining ability for most of the traits except plant height and siliqua length. UCD-8/4, KJ-119 and BRS-2 were good general combiners for yield related traits. A cross BRS-2 × UCD-8/4 showed best desired SCA for number of primary branches and siliquae per plant. S-9 × Canola Raya for siliqua length, Canola Raya × UCD-8/4 for number of seeds per siliqua, KJ- 119 × BRS-...

 M. Asif Masood, Irum Raza* and Muhammad Yaseen**

ESTIMATION OF OPTIMUM FIELD PLOT SIZE AND SHAPE IN PADDY YIELD TRIAL
...plot size of 3m×5m generally used for paddy yield in the study area. 

...

 Naheed Zahra*, Muhammad Zubair Anwar*, Sonila Hassan** and Irfan Mehmood**

INSTITUTIONAL CREDIT ARRANGEMENT AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON AGRICULTURAL INCOME IN THE SELECTED VILLAGES OF RAWALPINDI DISTRICT
...S) method was applied to generate the results. Results of this study revealed that there exists a positive and statistically significant relationship between institutional credit and agricultural income of the farmers. The other variables such as source of credit, ownership of farming machinery, access to market and family labour also have a positive and statistically significant relationship with the dependent variable except the age of the farmer. Therefore ...

 Shahid Ali*, Anjum Shehzad*, Muhammad Ather Rafi* and Ahmed Zia*

INSECT POLLINATORS OF LITCHI ( ) FROM DISTRICT HARIPUR, PAKISTAN
...lded 20 species under 16 genera of eight families belonging to orders Diptera and Hymenoptera. Family Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae and Syrphidae, represented the order Diptera, while families, Andrenidae, Apidae, Halictidae and Vespidae belonged to order Hymenoptera.

...

 Sadia Tehrim*, M. Yasin Mirza** and G. Mustafa Sajid*

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT GROWTH REGULATORS FOR EFFICIENT PLANT REGENERATION IN GRAPES
...rmonal combinations in regeneration media were studied to determine the best combination for in vitro morphogenesis of grapevine accessions viz., 4494(1) Kowar Sufaid, 4472(12) Harker Agoon and 4492(1) Kowar Naray. When levels of benzylaminopurine (BAP) were increased in the basal MS media for culturing the grape plantlets, there was a corresponding increase in the number of shoots and root mass. Additionally, the shoot proliferation response to increasing lev...

 Nazir Ahmad*, Sultan Ayaz*, Sumaira Shams**, Karimullah*** and Riaz Ahmad****

PREVALENCE AND MORPHOLOGY OF HELMINTH PARASITES OF FISH FROM RIVER SWAT, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...0 fish belonging to five genera and six species were examined. The parasites collected were Diplozoon khyberensis, Bathybothrium rectangulum, Bothriocephalus, Nippotaenia, Cucullanidae, Proteocephalus, Rhabdochona charsaddiensis, Rhabdochona schizothoracis and Neoechynorhynchus devdevi. They were identified by morphological characteristics through microscopic techniques. Overall prevalence of the fish parasites was 58% (145/250). Among these Schizothorax plage...

 Syeda Nasreen*, Mehwish Ishaque**, Muhammad Ayub Khan*, Saleem-ud-din* and Syeda Musarrat Gilani*

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS FOR SEED PROTEINS, OIL CONTENT AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
...and CMS-53 were the best general combiners for seed total proteins, oil content, oleic and linoleic acid, respectively. Among males, C-206-R, SF-187R, RHA-295 and RHA-854 were the potential parents exhibiting desirable GCA for seed total proteins, oil content, oleic and linoleic acids, respectively. Among the F hybrids, 1 highest specific combining ability (SCA) estimates were exhibited by CMSNDMTC x RHA-295 (3.837) for seed total proteins whereas for oil cont...

 Aniqa Iram*, Javed Khan**, Nadeem Aslam**, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Habib Iqbal Javed**, Muhammad Irfan*, Awais Rasool*, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi** and Sumera Aslam* 

EFFICACY OF PLANT DERIVED OILS AND EXTRACTS AGAINST WHITEFLY, BEMISIA TABACI (GENNADIUS) ON SESAME CROP
...control treatment but in general botanical oils showed significant results as compared to plant extracts. Soybean oil was quite effective in reducing whitefly population per leaf, while after second spray soybean oil and extract of Mentha spp. was more effective in the reducing whitefly population per leaf. The results indicated that plant derived oils and extracts have the potential to be used in plant protection strategies but still more research has to be i...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Abdul Razzaq*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASSES AND IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON FORAGE QUALITY
...ow palatable grasses was generally high (70-75%) as compared to Ipil ipil leaves (45-55%). DM content among mixtures was also variable. For the treatment grass 75% + Ipil ipil 25%, DM range was 65-70%, for grass 50% + Ipil ipil 50%, it was 60-65% and for grass 25% + Ipil ipil 75%, it was 55%. The CP value of the treatments showed significant variation ranging from less than 10% in grasses to almost 30% in pure Ipil ipil leaves. The mixtures had CP content corr...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Raheel Babar*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASS OF HETEROPOGON CONTORTUS WITH IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS
...ss and Ipil ipil were in general more digestible with more than 65% dry matter digestibility. The lowest digestibility of dry matter (41.66%) was observed in HC 100%. A similar trend was noted for CP digestibility. However, reverse trend was observed in digestibility of CF where highest digestibility was recorded in HC and lowest in II . It 100% 100% can be concluded that grass and ipil ipil leaf mixture are better regarding forage quality and nutrient digesti...

 Mazher Abbas*, Irfan Mehmood*, Arshed Bashir*, Muhammad Ather Mehmood* and Sonila Hassan* 

WOMEN COTTON PICKERS PERCEPTIONS ABOUT HEALTH HAZARDS DUE TO PESTICIDE USE IN IRRIGATED PUNJAB
...ve of largest employment generation both for males and females in the production and value chains. Cotton picking is primarily a female specific activity in all cropping zones of Pakistan. Women cotton pickers mostly belong to poor rural society involved in this labour force to feed their families. Cotton pickers in Pakistan face some serious health related problems due to heavy use of pesticides on cotton crop. The present study was designed to investigate th...

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool*, Abuzar Muhammad Afzal*, Abu Baker Siddique*, Waseem Akram**, Muhammad Saqalein*, Madiha Basit* and Muhammad Farooq Tahir***

ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF VIRO CARE GZ-08 AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN POULTRY AND ITS IN-VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY
...nst different viruses in general and NDV in particular. However, in-vivo use of GZ-08™ in poultry against NDV is recommended only as pre-treatment with ND vaccines as it significantly reduced morbidity and mortality as compared to the use of vaccines alone. However, further work is recommended in future on GZ-08™ for its use as post-treatment of ND as well as on other antiviral compounds of natural origin to develop a novel antiviral drug against N...

 Syed Asif Imran Shah*, Shah Jehan Khan**, Abdul Aziz Baloch*** ,
Obaid Ullah Sayal**, Kalim Ullah* andShujaat Ali**

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS IN VARIOUS INBRED LINES OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
...ean square values due to general combining ability were -1 highly significant (P≤0.01) for all studied attributes except kernels ear and grain yield. Highly significant variations for specific combining ability of direct and reciprocal effects were observed for all attributes. Azam -1 proved good combiner for days to 50% silking and kernel rows ear while -1 Islamabad Gold for kernels ear and grain yield. Islamabad White × Sadaf was the best combiner f...

 Muhammad Qasim*, Sonila Hassan*, Arshed Bashir*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood** and Irfan Mehmood*

ANALYZING PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF SELECTED FOOD AND LEGUME CROPS FOR FOOD SECURITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...od security to masses in general. 

...

 Junaid Alvi*, Ijaz Ashraf*, Khalid Mehmood Ch*, Muhammad Iftikhar* and Saleem Ashraf**

IMPACT OF LIVESTOCK IN UPLIFTING RURAL LIVELIHOOD
...idely adopted for income generation. More than 22% respondents earned a maximum income of more than Rs.15000. Livestock have dominant effect on domestic needs fulfillment. Farmers were spending income on family chores, education, health and other aspects of life. Informal discussions and observation dictated the lower productivity than the potential and inadequate awareness and adoption of precise dairy farming practices. Livestock keepers demanded provision o...

 Syeda Nasreen*, Muhammad Ayub Khan*, Muhammad Arshad*, Maryam Kamal**, Doulat Baig *, M. Tariq*, Talat Gilani* and Musarrat Gilani*

COMBINING ABILITY STUDIES FOR SEED YIELD TRAITS IN SUNFLOWER
...ential parents with high general 1 combining ability (GCA) effects were identified for yield related traits. Among

females, CMS-H55-2-2-1 expressed the highest significant GCA effects for 1000- seed weight whereas female, CMS-303 represented the highest and significant GCA estimates for head diameter, yield and harvest index. Among male parents, RHA-295 expressed the highest significant magnitude for head diameter while SF-187R possessed the h...

 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

MARKETING SYSTEM OF LIVE CAMELS IN THE DESERT ECOLOGIES OF PAKISTAN
...y. The camel markets are generally located far away from the villages. High marketing costs and lack of proper market infrastructure/facilities compel farmers to sell camels at village level to the village dealers and fellow farmers at relatively low prices. Percent difference in prices at wholesale market and village levels were 28.6, 12.9, 6.0 and 0.5 for adult male, wet female, dry female and young stock, respectively. The prevailing marketing situation of ...

 Tasawar Sultana*, Farah Deeba* and S.M. Saqlan Naqvi*

HIGH-THROUGHPUT AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA IN COMPARISON TO TWO EXPRESSION VECTORS
...lower number of explants generated hygromycin resistant plantlet for instance, 18.3 with pGOsRGLP1 vector as compared to 35.5% with pCOsRGLP1 vector. Transformation efficiency of PCR positive plants generated was 9.4% for pGOsRGLP1 while 21.6% for pCOsRGLP1. Furthermore 24.4% of explants -1 generated antibiotic resistant plantlet on 20 mgl of hygromycin which was -1 higher than on 15mgl of...

 Nasarullah*, Raiz uddin*, Fakhar Uddin* and Muhammad Jamal*

INTERPRETING WHEAT GENOTYPES FOR GRAIN YIELD UNDER DIFFERENT REGIMES OF KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...ss of selection in early generation for the improvement of these traits. Genotypes Faisalabad-2008 and line from Tajikistan (2S-3094) performed better for most of yield and associated traits across both environments therefore could be an asset for plant breeders to breed genotypes suitable for diverse environments.

...
Youbao Zhong1, Xianlai Zhang1, Xiaofen Hu1 and Yong Li1, 2,*
...te its similarity to the general mammal small intestine microstructure, the present results indicated that the hedgehog duodenum contained fewer Brunner’s glands, and that the Paneth cells were lacking in the crypt. The connective tissue was denser in the jejunal submucosa, but the muscularis was thicker. The intestinal glands were greatly developed in the ileum, lymphoid nodules were observed in the mucosa, and diffuse lymphoid tissue was distributed in...

Hina Zubair1, Saima Perveen2, Saeed Alam3, Akkad Rafiq4* and Sara Ejaz 

...ess compaigns to educate general public for better use of contraception especially male partner as it is less invasive compared to female partner. 

...

Samina Ashraf1*, Ghulam Haider2 and Maimoona Ashraf

...to any type of violence, generate a theoretical model for the ways in which women with disabilities survived and coped with their violence and finally to make suggestions and recommendations in order to reduce the elements causing violence against women with disabilities. In this study, a qualitative interpretive phenomenological research methodology has been used to explore, interpret, and evaluate the personal narratives of women with disabilities about thei...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2 and Zafarullah Baloch3 

...bserved that respondents generally get 76 kg of dates on average per tree. Many of the farmers use Radio and contact farmers as sources of knowledge for agricultural practices and date palm cultivation. However, more than 68% of the respondents do not get advisory services from government extension service institutions at all. Age and experience are significantly correlated variables with r = 0.951 at 1% alpha level. Results from regression analysis revealed t...
 Nazia Qamar1, Sher Khan Panhwar1,* and Ralf Riedel2,*
...n for current and future generations.
...
Ali Haider Saleem1,*, Khalid Javed2, Masroor Ellahi Babar3, Tanveer Hussain3, Asad Ali2, Afzal Ali2, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Zahid Farooq1 and Muhammad Dawood2
Mubashar Hussain, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Sehreen Siddique, Muhammad Umar, Tamkeen Zainab, Fatima Zafar
...ntation of 14 species, 6 genera and 3 sub families across all sites. Maximum abundance was noticed for Coccinella septempunctata (19.63 %) followed by Coccinella undecimpunctata (14.70 %), Coccinella transversalis (11.14 %) and Coccinella sexmaculata (10.29 %). Greater diversity (H´: 2.481), dominance (1-D: 0.8964) and evenness (J´: 0.7474) of coccinellid beetles were recorded from under-study sites. However, vari...
Zahida Parveen1, Safdar Sidra1*, Bushra Nisar Khan2
...the diet preferences and general behavior of these peafowls under captive conditions. Three different diets, based upon the availability of food items, were selected and fed to the birds over duration of one week each. During the fourth week, all three diets were combined and offered to the peafowls. The feed was pre-weighed and the leftover feed was collected and weighed the next day before offering the new feed. According to previous reports at site, the pea...
Muhammad Arshad,1* Sajjad Ahmad1, Muhammad Sufyan1, Zain-ul Abdin1 and Sumaira Maqsood2
...ichness and abundance in general and predators in particular.
...
Syeda Madiha, Zehra Batool, Saiqa Tabassum, Laraib Liaquat, Sadia Sadir, Tahira Perveen and Saida Haider*

 

...against different neurodegenerative diseases.
...
Jehangir Khan1,*, Rasheedullah1, Bakht Tarin Khan2, Ayaz Ahmad3, Muhammad Salman4 and Khalid Khan5
... in district Shangla and generally in Pakistan.
...

Shahid Ali1* and Salamat Ali2  

...ry sector of Pakistan is generating direct and indirect employment and provision of income for millions. This study, therefore, estimated and compared costs and revenues of open shed and environmentally controlled (EC) shed broiler farms in Punjab, Pakistan. Multistage sampling technique was applied for selection of sampled respondents. 120 farmers, 60 farmers of open shed and 60 farmers of EC shed were interviewed during 2014. Dummy variable regression was ap...

Nadia Faqir1, Aish Muhammad2*, Ghulam Muhammad Ali2, Armghan Shehzad2, Hafeez Ur Rahman3, Farhatullah4 and Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder

...ed cultivars. Tree plots generated showed inconsistencies in grouping of the cultivars thus showing no significant relationship of the plant morphology with the chemical composition of fruit. 

...
Mohammed Al Bratty1, Hassan A. Alhazmi1, Somaya Jadoh Ogdi1, Jana Ahmad Otaif1, Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab2, Mohammad Firoz Alam3 andSadique Akhtar Javed1,*
...ngs and brain, which are generally not consumed by the local population. Meat, the most consumed part of the chicken has been found to be among the least contaminated tissues. Importantly, the lead (Pb) content was found to be of serious concern in the tested chicken samples, as it was measured to be higher than its maximum permissible limit (0.1 mg/kg) in poultry meat set by WHO and European Union. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of the tested metals throu...

Muhammad Ismaeel1,2*, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1, Aziz Ur Rahman1 and Mian Ahmad Raza

...ended to develop advance generations and improved rice varieties 

...

Xiangbin Meng1,Tianxiang Gao2, Chunhou Li3, Na Song1, Lu Liu1, Liqin Liu2 and Xiumei Zhang1,*

 

...ecies. We performed next-generation sequencing and de novo assembly to obtain potential useful microsatellite markers for S. esculenta. Among 80 tested microsatellite markers, 19 showed polymorphism among S. esculenta individuals. The allele number of all polymorphic microsatellite markers ranged from 6 to 10. Expected and observed heterozygosity varied from 0.260 to 0.904 and from 0.292 to 0.861, with an average of 0.741 and 0.607, respec...
Nausheen Irshad1,*, Imran Yousaf1, Tariq Mahmood2 and Muhammad Saeed Awan1
...of its habitat. There is general lack of formal studies on the species. A survey was conducted from June to December 2014 to document existence of the leopard in Abbaspur area, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Direct field observations (opportunistic survey) and indirect observations based on signs of the species were recorded. This was supplemented with information collected through questionnaire survey. Results confirmed the occurrence of leopard at six out of twelve...
Tengfei Lu1, Wenhua Pei1, Shuang Zhang2, Yangnan Wu1, Fenghao Chen2, Xiao Han2 and Weijun Guan1,*
...tion for treatment and regenerative medical projects.
...
Souheila Slimani1,*, Sonia Hamouda1, Chahrazed Souadi1, Sara Silini2, Cherif Abdennour2 and Leila Delimi3
...gical profile revealed degenerative changes in testes of treated pigeons with elongated and irregular diameter of seminiferous tubules, degenerative of Sertoli cells, severe atrophy of Leydig cells and pronounced decrease in the interstitial space. However, in the treated groups the stages of spermatogenesis appear unaffected, accompanied withimmature and malformed spermatozoa in the lumen.To conclude, oral administration of...
Selçuk Kaplan
...phenotypic values do not generally indicate the real genotypic values of animals. However, using MAS approaches in selection of animals can increase the accuracy of selection. From this point of view, validation of candidate gene markers for marker assisted selection is very important to increase genetic gains in breeding. Leptin is a 16 kDa protein which is highly expressed in adipose tissue. Leptin is one of the most significant candidate gene marker for MAS...
Muhammad Shahid Saeed1, Adeela Shahid2, Samia Jawed3, Muhammad Akram4, Irshad Hussain Qureshi5 
...b III. Detailed history, general physical and systemic examination was conducted and all parameters were recorded. Modified Borg scale was used to determine the grade of dyspnea from 0-10. A total of 2ml of venous blood was taken to determine the serum magnesium levels. All patients were given Salbutamol inhalation and intravenous (I/V) Hydrocortisone. The study group was given 2gm of MgS04 intravenously in 20 minutes in a burette and Placebo g...
Maaz Ahmad1*, Mussab Ahmad2 and Tehreem Munir3
...roximately 15-20% of the general population in many developed countries suffers from dyspeptic symptoms at any time in a year, whereas in Pakistan, 14-22 % of general population suffers from FD. 
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of carica papaya extract (CP) in preventing functional dyspepsia in human volunteers. 
Methodology: A community based, ...
Ayesha Noreen1, Dilara A. Bukhari2 and Abdul Rehman1,*
...gen species (ROS) can be generated by intake of environmental pollutants, smoke, tobacco, xenobiotic, drugs, medical materials, radiations, pesticides, industrial solvents and ozone. The processes running in the cell membranes, peroxisomes, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum also generate ROS. ROS can be activated by numerous external factors, and play an important role in cancer growth and metastasis. ROS and tumor cell...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Ibrahim A. Alhidary1, Gamaleldin M. Suliman1,2, Abdullah H. Alyemni3, Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady3, Faisal A. Alshamiry1,Mohsen M. Alobre1 and Riyadh S. Aljumaah1
...ound 30% NDF improve the general performance and most of the required meat quality measurement.
...

Muhammad Siddiq1*, Sahib Alam2, Hamid Ullah Shah2, Zafar Iqbal2, Kalsoom Siddiq3 and Taufeq Ahmad4 

Adem Aksoy1, Yakup Erdal Ertürk2, Selim ErdoÄźan3, Ecevit Eyduran3 andMohammad Masood Tariq4,*
...o solution for CHAID was generated. In CART algorithm, the highest honey yield per hive (51.250 kg) was obtained from the 33.5 or younger enterprises that performed only beekeeping activity. The four most influential predictors in the MARS were age of enterprise (100%), number of full beehives (100%), other races (97%), and other works except for beekeeping (90%). The best performance order was MARS (r=0.920) > CART (r=0.619) > multiple linear regression...
Binbin Shan, Yan Liu, Changping Yang, Shengnan Liu and Dianrong Sun*
...v>...
Rida Zainab1, Sana Elahi1, Afshan Kaleem2,*, Daniel C. Hoessli3, Mehwish Iqtedar2, Roheena Abdullah2, Faiza Saleem2, Shanza Khan1, Anusha Ijaz1, Shagufta Naz2 and Abdul R. Shakoori4,5,*
...tual disturbances. First generation antipsychotics for Schizophrenia were replaced with by second generation ones with less side-effects like Parkinsonism and Hyperprolactinemia. A novel, computer-based drug designing technique, has emerged to develop more efficient drugs. One of the computational methods becoming increasingly popular to develop new drugs is relying on Pharmacophores. This method was utilized to develop phar...
Li Lv1, Liuan Li1,*, Ruibo Zhang1, Zhichao Deng1, Tianming Jin1 and Gaimei Du2
...g selenium using hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Selenium dietary supplementation significantly increased egg white, egg yolk and total egg levels, as well as daily egg production (P < 0.05). During the study, egg white, egg yolk and total egg selenium, as well as egg production, initially increased for low- and medium-dose groups and then plateaued. In contrast, these parameters initially increased and subsequently decreased for...
Qiang Li1,2, Guo Qiao2, Li Wang1, Jipeng Zhang1, Ruijun Li1, Ping Ni1, Yi Guo1 and Shigen Ye1,*
... isolates belonged to 10 genera, including Vibrio (72%), Staphylococcus (9%), Pseudomonas (4%), Bacillus (4%), Vagococcus (3%), Shewanella (3%), Planococcus migula (4%), Exiguobacterium (1%), Enterobacter (1%) and Kocuria roseus (1%). Vibrio spp. and Vibrio harveyi were the predominant genus and species, respectively. In addition, challenge tests demonstrated that 13 out of 70 ...
Ĺžehriban Çek Yalnız 1,* and Erdal Yilmaz2
...ge, surface blebbing and generation of apoptotic bodies by cell fragmentation were evidence of apoptosis. In pre and postovulatory follicles, karyorhexis and the budding phenomena were clearly detected. Karyorhexis and budding phenomena were also the sing of apoptosis. Atresia was also clearly detected in pre and postovulatory follicles. The detection of karyorhexis, characteristic of apoptotic cells may provide a better understanding in atresia mechanism. It ...

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

Abid Hussain1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2, Muhammad Anjum Ali Buttar3, Umar Farooq4, Muhmmad Islam5 and Zahid Ullah Khan1 

...tivity of major crops in general and high value crops in particular. Presently average weighted tax rate on all fertilizers is 5.83 percent. The imposition of uniform tax rate of 5% on all fertilizers, without cash subsidy on urea will reduce financial implication to Rs. 43 billion and at 2% tax rate financial implication will be Rs. 53.7 billion per annum. Imposition of uniform tax rates will result into decrease in market prices of fertilizers, consequently ...

Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1*, Maryam Bisola Adebayo2, Bashiru Shafa Abubakar3, Ibrahim Abubakar Yusuf2 and Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi1  

...ncrease awareness of the general populace on the virus and its acquisition.  

...

Monsif Ur Rehman1*, Hidayat-ur-Rahman1, Muhammad Iqbal2, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil1 and Zahir Shah3 

...Tester, T-4 was the best general combiner with desirable GCA for kernels ear-1 and grain yield. The testcrosses i.e. (P8 × P10-3) × T4, (P6 × P10-1) × T4, (P8 × P10-1) × T4, (P6 × P9-2) × T4, (P2 × P3-1) × T1, (P1 × P5-2) × T1 and (P4 × P10-3) × T3 were the best performers in terms of maximum grain yield (above checks) and desirable SCA effects. Another 33 crosses exhibited pos...

Sher Nawab Khan* and Ghulam Hassan 

...awar-Pakistan. Data were generated on spikelets spike-1, spike length (cm), days to heading and grain yield plant-1. Significant differences were present for all the studied parameters. In diallel analysis highly significant dominant (b) and additive (a) genetic effects were detected for all the parameters except spikelets spike-1. Scaling test for the adequacy of the model was complete to partially adequate for the studied parameters. Similarly, both dominant...
Shagufta Naz*, Saima Sharif, Hafsa Badar, Syeda Fareeha Tauheed

Asma Sohail1*, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi1, Maryum Arif2 and Fatima Najam1 

...ffective use in food. In general, results showed that encapsulation is an effective approach for protection of active ingredients of pumpkin seed oil. 

...
Zafar Iqbal*, Farah Ansar, Zil-e-Huma
...). The pathogenic fungal genera isolated were: Aspergillus, Alternaria, Penicillium, Mucor. Blastomyces, Rhizopus and Fusarium. Ten bacterial genera were also isolated; Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Moraxella, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus,. Carnobacterium. There has not been a single case of topically acquired infection among st...

 Tahir Abbas*1, Khawaja Raees Ahmad2, Asmatullah3, Khalid Pervaiz Lone4, Muhammad Ali Kanwal2, Sadia Suleman2

Reno-hepatic protective effects of Jambul against chromium induced anomalies in mice
...ver rehabilitation and regeneration. The JFE significantly recovered the histopathological alterations in reno-hepatic tissue by free radicals scavenging and metal chelating abilities due to presence of anthocyanin, flavonoids and β-sitosterol. The JFE’sprotective effects against heavy metals environmental toxicants especially Cr+6 is novel and cheapest; that should be sponsored for ethno-medicinal purpose.

...

 Abbas Ali1, Muhammad Altaf2*, Muhammad Samar Hussain Khan3

Winter survey of birds at Keti Bunder, district Thatha, Pakistan
... species belonging to 33 genera
and 21 families were recorded. A total of 4280 birds were recorded dedicated survey effort from the Keti Bunder.
Dominance (D), Shannon-Wiener diversity Index (H’), Simpson Index (S), Evenness (E) and Margalef (R) were
observed form the study area as; 0.06, 3.23, 0.94, 0.52 and 5.74 respectively. During the surveys noted that most
abundant species of the study area were little egret, cattle egre...

Sadaf Niaz1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Asif Nadeem1, Misbah Hussain1, Riffat Mehboob3*, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad3

Mutation analysis of RING1 domain of Parkin in early onset of Parkinson’s disease in Pakistani patients-a pilot study
...econd most common neurodegenerative disorder, occurring mostly in
men. Almost 9 genes have been reported to be involved in the progression of PD, if mutated. Among them, PARK2
gene is involved in 50% of the early onset cases. Aim of study was to do mutation analysis of RING domain of Parkin
gene as there is no mutation reported previously. In current study, sequence analysis of RING1 domain of Parkin
protein was performed in a sampl...

 Maleeha Manzoor1,2*, Ruijuan Ma2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabssum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1

Microalgal-bacterial consortium: a cost-effective approach of wastewater treatment in Pakistan
...cultural wastes/residues generated abundantly in energy deficient countries like Pakistan, having enormous
energy potential, are not utilized efficiently and considered as wastes only. The present review focuses on the current
research on algal-bacterial consortia and the construction of consortia by keeping in view the environmental
conditions of country, suitable for microalgal growth to deal with pollution control and production of anim...

Madeeha Arshad, Asmatullah, Chaman Ara

Embryotoxic effects of sodium arsenate in Mus musculus
...ium arsenate) other than general lethality additionally can be a teratogenic
agent. Present research work is focused on the teratogenic impacts of sodium
arsenate given to gravid mice (Mus musculus). Different doses of sodium arsenate
18.25, 37.5 and 75mg/kg B.W. were administered orally at day 6 of gestation
(single exposure group) to 15 females/dose group along with one control group
having 15 females, which was given only ...

 Halil Erhan EroÄźlu

The comparison of the Felidae species with karyotype symmetry/asymmetry index (S/AI)
... so that
species, genera, families and orders can be compared. Also the evolutionary
relationships of higher organisms can be determined. The symmetry/asymmetry
index is applied to the Felidae species. After a comprehensive literature search,
karyotype formulae, S/AI values and karyotype types of 23 species were
determined. According to the S/AI values, a phylogenetic tree was drawn showing
relationships among the spec...

 Raazia Kiran1, Alya Riaz1, Muhammad Irfan1*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir2

An overview of pre-treatment methods used for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomasses into valuable products
... /> environment. Second generation (2G) or cellulosic bio-ethanol is produced from the
biomass in three main steps that are pre-treatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation.
The pre-treatment method involves the use of different physical processes i.e., size
reduction, steaming or boiling, ultrasonication, and bursting, chemical methods i.e.,
solvents, acids, salts, bases, the physicochemical processes include liquid hot
water an...

Faheem Ali1*, Muhammad Naeem Arbab1, Abdul Basit2, Muhammad Kashif Khan1, Gulzar Ahmad1 and Muhammad Amir

...her processing units are generally inductive in nature. The power required by agricultural industry is broadly categorized into shaft power and process heat power, and could be used for planting, cultivating, pumping, harvesting, drying, cooking, baking, woodworking, forging and smelting etc. This results in lagging Volt-Ampere-Reactive (VARs), which must be balanced by the same number of leading VARs in order to ensure unity power factor, thus avoiding penalt...
Muhammad Muddassir Ali1,2 and İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci1,*
...ic to Turkey. It’s general anti-oxidant and anti-cancerous activities are explored, but no study has been observed on liver cancerous cell line in term of its genotoxicty. So, genotoxic evaluation was carried out for the alcoholic and hexane extracts of T. turcica. Methanol extracts showed the highest DNA damage (20±1) at 200 µg/ml concentration and 11.67±2.52 at 50 µg/ml. Ethanol extracts showed the 2nd highes...

Saman Fatima* and Shazia Iram 

... grow fungal colonies on generalized media, i.e. potato dextrose agar, from which six fungal colonies were also isolated and studied further. Under molecular approach direct DNA was isolated from the infected skin of sampled fruits by using CTAB method. The pathogens being identified through classical approach includes: Penicillium sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria sp., Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium sp. After sequencing of DNA the pat...

Neelum Andaleeb1*, Munir Khan1, Syed Attaullah Shah1 and Rahmat Ullah2 

...ariables, such as income generating individuals, milking animals, women participation in livestock farming, education level of the head, age of the head and agricultural land holding of the household, were used as explanatory variables in the model. Results of ordered logit model showed that education level of the head, numbers of income generating individuals, land holding, number of milking animals, women involvement in li...

Muhammad Shahzad Khattak1*, Amjad Khan1, Mahmood Alam Khan1, Waqas Ahmad2, Shafiq ur Rehman3, Mohammad Sharif4 and Sajjad Ahmad1 

...ere hydrological drought generally causes adverse impacts on agricultural production and hydropower generation. In this research, the characteristics of hydrological droughts in Indus River basin using stream flow data of major rivers of Pakistan were investigated. Stream flow drought indices (SDI) were used to determine the severity of droughts for the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab and Kabul River at Tarbela, Mangla, Marala and War...

Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Nazakat Nawaz, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan, Tahira, Doulat Baig, Ihsan Ullah Khan and Shamim ul Sibtain Shah 

...elections in segregating generations. This will help to increase sesame crop yield in the country. 

...
Fatih Korkmaz1, Veysel Parlak2, Özgür Kaynar3, Arzu Ucar2, Gonca Alak1,* and Muhammed Atamanalp2
Daniel Zaborski,1,* Muhammad Ali,2 Ecevit Eyduran,3 Wilhelm Grzesiak,1 Mohammad Masood Tariq,2 Ferhat Abbas,2 Abdul Waheed4 and Cem Tirink5
...ART, CHAID and MARS were generally low. In conclusion, the applied method of reproductive parameters prediction was rather ineffective, indicating that more powerful input variables are required to obtain better prediction results.
...
Abderraouf Chouaib Rebbah1, Mohcen Menaa2,*, Salah Telailia3,Menouar Saheb1 and Mohamed Cherif Maazi2
...orests was about 50%, in general, and produced by differences in abundance of Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, European Serin Serinus serinus, House Sparrow Passer domesticus, European Greenfinch Chloris chloris, Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata, andCommon Blackbird Turdus merula. The differences between pine woodlands and oak woodlands (about 60%) and oak-pine mixed woodlands and oak woodlands (about 50%) were ...
Xiao-Ying Ren1, Di Zhang2 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...e classified into two subgenera. Moreover, it was inferred that the varieties of skulls characteristics in E. miletus, E. eleusis, E. cachinus and E. melanogaster were main influenced by temperature and humidity; E. olitor, E. custos and E. chinensis were main influenced by diet. Thus, the environmental factors (temperature, humidity and diet) may lead to the difference of geometric morphometry of skulls charact...
Jair Millán-Orozco1,*, Jersson Millán-Orozco2 and Luz María Tejada-Ugarte3
...rce information has been generated on this topic, thus the present study was conducted to analyze the grazing behavior of Saint Croix sheep at 18º N in Mexico. The present study was carried out using ten adult ewes, 32.8±5.1 kg, stocked on a Taiwan grass (Pennisetum purpurem) pasture maintained at a sward surface height of 30 cm. Observations were conducted during daylight hours (06:00-18:00) from May to April of the next year for three cons...

Zakiullah1, Muhammad Farid Khan1*, Muhammad Mohibullah3, Muhammad Iqbal2, Irfanullah3, Faheemullah3, Madiha Urooj1 and Uzma Arif1 

...ean square values due to general combining ability were highly significant (P≤0.01) for all the experimental parameters except grain yield and biological yield. Highly significant specific combining ability for direct and reciprocal crosses shows highly significant differences for all the studied parameters. PSEV-3 proved best combiner for days to germination and grains moisture % at harvest while Azam for grain yield and biological yield. Sarhad White was ...
Shamesa Maryam1, Ajaz Ahmad Sandhu1, Imran Bodlah2*, Muhammad Asif Aziz2, Ayesha Aihetasham3

 

Muhammad Shabir Shaheen1, Shahid Mehmood1, Athar Mahmud1, Jibran Hussain1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi2, Muhammad Yaqoob3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Arshad Javid4,*
...evealed that all strains generally but Ross 308 particularly maintained on floor heating system (FH) exhibited significantly (P<0.05) better FCR, EEF and livability along with higher glucose and lower cholesterol level in blood with better immune response that led to higher profit margin. All these parameters were significantly (P<0.05) lowest on gas brooder in comparison of brooding systems.
...
Peng Song1,2, Wei Feng2, Haiying Shi2,Jinsheng Zhao3, Renmin Liu3 and Wei Xu2,*
...Bacterial decolorization generally demonstrates good color removal effects. In this study, the capability of Enterococcus avium to decolorize both water and oil-soluble azo dyes were investigated. The bacteria was incubated under static conditions in the presence of 50mg/L Amaranth or 5 mg/L Sudan I in LB media at 37°C for 10 h, and reduction of the dyes was monitored. The preferable pH for the decolorization of Amaranth by ts17 strain was between p...

Ali Awais, Charassri Nualsri and Watcharin Soonsuwon* 

..., the EMS response in M1 generation was also observed in the field condition by various quantitative measurements. The traits, especially plant height, panicle length, number of filled grains, number of grains per panicle, 1000 grain weight and yield per plant showed a clear fall off when compared to control while the panicle length in both mutants were higher than that of control. Several mutants also revealed some notable phenotypic variations in the roots, ...

Rizwan Ullah Shah* and Iqbal Munir 

...owed by shoot and root regeneration of Brassica carinata. Seeds were sterilized and germinated, of which one week cotyledon and hypocotyl were used for callus formation and shoot regeneration at five different level of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid NAA (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/l) and 6-benzyl amino purine BAP (0.1, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/l), and root regeneration at four levels of indo...
Liqin Liu, Maoting Wang, Zhenming Lü, Li Gong*, ChangWen Wu, Baoying Guo and Lihua Jiang
...araonis through next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 100 alleles were detected, and the number of alleles per loci ranged from 2 to 9. The observed and expected heterozygosities per loci ranged from 0.000 to 0.531 and from 0.031 to 0.751, respectively. Polymorphism information content (PIC) showed that six loci were highly informative (PIC > 0.5). Five loci (CL1142, CL1770, CL2683, CL3494, CL 3674) significantly deviated from the Hardy-Wein...
Nasira Khatoon1, Aly Khan2,*, S.S. Shahid3, Z.S. Saify4, M. Arshad Azmi1 and Wali Khan5
... early stage by training general practitioners. Scabicides must be applied at bedtime and wash off the next morning and finally if there is a single patient the entire family must be treated.
...
Khalid Khan1, Saima Liaqat2*, Somaiya Rasheed1 and Ihsanullah Kakar3
...sed livestock for income generation. Furthermore, livestock have a predominant role to accomplish the rudimentary needs of the households. Moreover, livestock offer opportunities of income generation and to spend it on education, health and housing, which eventually enhanced the living standard of the households. However, orthodox and dogmatic methods, inadequate awareness and lack of animals’ hospitals lead to hamper ...
Muhammad Hidayat Rasool1,*, Muhammad Zaheer1, Muhammad Farooque Hassan2, Muhammad Shafique1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar1
...and 4th generation cephalosporin and carbapenems is an issue of high importance. Present study was aimed to determine the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of MBL producing carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative rods (GNRs) isolated from clinical specimens. A clinical descriptive study was conducted in Faisalabad, Pakistan from June 2016 to January 2017. A total of 152 clinical samples were processed according to standard microbi...

Mohammad Wasiullah Khan1*, Abdur Rab1, Roshan Ali2, Muhammad Sajid1, Faiza Aman1, Imran Khan3, Iqbal Hussain3 and Akhtar Ali3 

...rients are suggested for general cultivation of potato in Swat valley. 

...

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Irshad Abbasi2, Himayatullah Khan1, Arjumand Nizami3, Abdul Hakeem4, Jawad Ali3 and Muhammad Jamal Khan

... (December to April). In general, monsoon period is dry, and only 18% of total annual precipitation occurs during the months of July-October. Burgay watershed is situated upstream of Satpara Dam. Water from this watershed is distributed among the communities according to historically agreed distribution patterns. Water availability vary from season to season. The objective of the instant study was to assess the glaciers/snow water dependence of agriculture act...
Catherine J. Allen
...al orientations that are generally consistent across the Andean ethnographic and ethnohistorical record. Underlying this vocabulary is a mindset that prioritizes relationships over individual agency; this entails connections among a multitude of human as well as other-than-human persons and necessitates collective work in which everything contributes to keeping the collectivity in a precarious balance. Although, at the national level, these notions of wel...
Brian Yazzie Burkhart
...ptualization of being in general and human being in particular that is both out in the land and at the same time arising from it. It is from this perspective of being that this essay tries to articulate a framework for understanding well-being that is both rooted in the land and in reciprocal kinship relationship with it. This essay examines Diné, Lakota, and Jalagi stories and language concepts for their rootedness in land in more ...
Seth Robertson
... in social contexts more generally. Finally, I argue that because of nunchi’s close relation to well-being and flourishing, that there is a strong case to be made for treating it as a virtue.

...

 Tung-Yi Kho

... of the state and of the general populace are today explicitly dominated by the project of modernization in all its grasping materiality and technological glory, my paper reveals that the capacity of a modernist lifestyle to engender well-being, much less the good life, is far from assured. Meanwhile, my research in Shenzhen disclosed an alternative, Relationist, conception of well-being that was seldom expressed or associated with the good life despite also b...

 Jennifer Mei Sze Ang

...r and a life filled with generally more positive emotions. It starts with outlining Sartrean existentialism – the ontological freedom we are born into experienced as feelings of anxiety and angst, and experiences of hostility as we encounter others through their gaze and objectification. From this framework, it examines and reflects on both the empirical models of well-being focused on desire/satisfaction/positive emotions and the eudaimonic strands of w...
Jason Shepard1 and Tyra Turner2
...d thought and well-being generalizes to non-WEIRD cultures. We found evidence that the relation between future-oriented thought and well-being was robust across cultures, including when analyzing a general trend across 64 countries (Study 1) and when examining specific cultural contrasts (Study 2 and Study 3). Taken together these three studies provide evidence that the relation between future-oriented thought and well-being...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...ed as constructional and general utility timber. This review article shows the work conducted on sheesham decline syndrome especially die back and wilt in Indian sub-continent. A diversity of plant pathogenic fungi has been identified and isolated from the various affected sheesham trees from Indian sub-continent, yet the actual cause of the diseases is still controversial. It is pertinent to mention here that no viruses or any bacteria has been reported from ...

Khadim Hussain Wagan1*, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1 and Abdul Ghani Lanjar2 

...lignments among the same genera and species demonstrated 91–98% identity. We then predicated that isolated encoded culture (MPS16) predetermine with Macrophomina sp. 

...

 Abdul Khaliq1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Akhlaq Ahmad2 and Yasir Iftikhar3

...llowing by F1 generation. Phosphine fitness in term of mortality mean calculated at 300 ppm was minimum against weevil but highly effective against red flour beetle after 24hours while, at 400ppm showed same resistance level in all. At 500ppm, lesser grain borer (LGB) was more susceptible as compared to others as in rice weevil. Nicotiana tabacum (L.) and Calotropis procera (Aiton) oil both at 15% were most lethal to LGB, weevil and re...

Huma Khalil1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Sajjad Khalil1, Farghama Khalil2 and Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel1 

...strinae and Opiinae), 12 genera and 16 species were collected. Out of them, two genera and 12 species were recorded for the first time from this area. Aphidiinae contains 1,107 individuals which showed that it’s a dominant braconid subfamily while Opiinae (209) was the least dominant. The richness of braconid parasitoids in different localities of Sargodha was also investigated. Braconid parasitoid populations were hig...
Guo-hai Wang1, Zai-xi Yang1, Pan Chen1, Wei-ning Tan2 and Chang-hu Lu1,*
...ed dispersal and plant regeneration in particular habitats by frugivorous birds are of great concern. In this study, we recorded the bird’s seed foraging and dispersing behavior of local bird species to examine their role in dispersing seeds of Kmeria septentrionalis, an endangered tree species in a karst habitat in southwest China. Twenty-seven bird species were recorded feeding on its seeds, and fourteen bird species were confirmed as seeds disp...

 Tazeen Jamil, Saba Ijaz, Rabia Arif*, Faiza Akram and Muhammad Saleem

...ents in four consecutive generations of different strains of Sordaria fimicola. The parental strains werecollected from two contrasting environments of Evolution Canyon i.e. harsh South facing slope and neutral North facing slope. Retroelements profiles were generated in order to detect retrotransposons. Strains from South facing slope exhibited more copy number of Ty3-gypsy, LINEs and Ty1-copia as compa...
Fakhra Soomro1,*, Riffat Sultana2 and Muhammad Saeed Wagan2
...e and usually giving two generation in a year but occasionally third generation of diapauses eggs of S. savignyi hatched in winter. A comparative key for immature stages of both species was constructed. Almost all immature stages occupied similar habitats as that of adults and their appropriate stages were differentiated through combination of characters i.e. coloration, morphometry, pronotum, femur bands, wing...
...he Journal of Zoology by generating fake reviewers email addresses. This led to an in-depth investigation by the Editorial Team and Executive Council of Zoological Society of Pakistan. The editorial team had written confidentially to all the reviewers at their official addresses, the list of which was provided by the corresponding author at the time of online submission of the manuscript. The editorial team was flabbergasted by the responses of scientists whos...
Senol Celik
...he basis of the smallest generalized cross validation (GCV). In the MARS algorithm, BL and CG were the predictors that had the highest relative importance (100%) in the prediction of live body weight and these two predictors could be considered as indirect selection criteria for breeding schemes. It could be suggested that the CART, the CHAID, the Exhaustive CHAID and especially MARS algorithms in the prediction of live body weight were significant statistical...

Iftikhar Ud Din* and Qamruz Zaman 

.... In MLM, apart from the general factors of sample size estimation, the test size, the effect size, SE (standard error) of the effect size and power of the test, additional factors like, magnitude of the ICC (Intra Class Correlation), total number of clusters, the number of parameters to be estimated, and the information whether the design is balance or unbalance play a significant role and discussed in the present study. 

...

Muhammad Shahid1*, Mehmood Shah2, Adiqa Kiani3 and Farhat Parveen4 

...e, the only sector which generates incomes and financial support for agricultural sector. This research paper debates on livestock implications in raising labour productivity by taking time series data from 1984 to 2017 and Auto Regressive Distributive lag model (ARDL) has been applied to conclude the results. The other econometric test CUSUM and CUSUM sum of square were conducted to check the stability of the model. The results of the study reveal statistical...

Abid Ali1*, Hidayat ur Rahman1, Farhatullah1 and Zahir Shah

...ackcrosses BC11 and BC12 generations during spring 2016. The total experimental material in this study consisted of three parental inbred lines, six F1s, six F2s, six BC11, six BC12 and check cultivar P30K08 which were evaluated at two locations i.e. CCRI, Pirsabak, Nowshera and The University of Agriculture (UAP), Peshawar-Pakistan in a RCB design having three replications during kharif, 2016. Generation means analysis (GMA...

Mehboob Arslan* and Xin Yang 

...f virus-host interaction generate a favorable environment for the viral pathogens. This phenomenon is a hotspot for investigations in order to improve the diagnosis and drug development of future antiviral therapeutics. In fact, metabolism is considered as a crucial player in the cascade of viral interactions, its modulation is essential to decide the final outcome of viral infection. Here, we concisely present how viruses alter the metabolic pathways for thei...
Pin Lyu1, Xiangxian Chen2* andQinlong Liu3*
...ssion, skeletal muscle regeneration, control of skeletal muscle fibrosis and muscular tissue re-construction. The skeletal muscular structure and C-reactive protein level could reflect the recovery process after skeletal muscles injury with high sensitivity in groups with the four different rehabilitation methods. 
...
Bo Zhang1, Changbo Zhu1, Zihao Meng1,4, Baosuo Liu1, Lian Zhong3, Guiju Huang1, Jiaqi Su1, Sigang Fan1 and Dahui Yu1,2,*
Songhao Zhang1, Yiwen Gong1, Jian Xu1, Mou Hu2, Peng Xu3 and Yanliang Jiang1,2,4,*
...of 434 million reads was generated, resulted in 203,590 assembled contigs, which was used as the reference sequences. Comparing the skin and blood transcriptome files showed that 2,767 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed, including 1,663 genes up-regulated and 1,806 down-regulated in purse red carp. Moreover, gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes was conducted. We proposed the skin color and body shape depended upon at le...
Hong Ma*, Bo Fu, Liang Wang, Zhong-qiu Li and Di Liu*

 

...mbryonic development, we generated transgenic porcine embryos by handmade cloning. We then assessed the embryonic developmental rate at cleavage and blastocyst stages. Our results showed that the HSPC117 transgenic embryos had markedly higher cleavage and blastocyst rates when compared to the embryos with pcDNA 3.1 vector, (69.7 ± 3.5% vs. 64.6 ± 1.8%, and 24.8 ± 2.2% vs. 15.9 ± 4.3%, respectively). However, bla...
Rabia Khalid1, Saleema Bashir Shams1, Bibi Nazia Murtaza1,*, Gaitee Joshua1, Saira Mushtaq1, Hassan Al-Talhi2 and Abdulaziz Al-Amri2
...besity was 67.53% and in general population it was 57.1%. The mean values of body mass index (BMI) for bank employees and control population was 24.10± 0.5 kg/m2 and 20.43±1.0 kg/m2, respectively. Analysis of the components of metabolic syndrome demonstrate an abnormal level of low density lipoproteins (LDL) 24.4% and 17.5%, total cholesterol 15% and 7.8%, triglycerides 17.35% and 8.8%, fasting blood glucose 24.49% and 16.5%...
Zhimin Yuan1, Yan Yu2, Yanmei Wang1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...e two dominant bacterial genera in the stomach, accounting for 46.1% and 7.4% of total bacteria, respectively. Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium were the two dominant genera in the intestine, accounting for 10.5% and 7.3% of total bacteria, respectively. Furthermore, the results revealed that H. alaschanicus carried a large number of human pathogens and thus should be the subject of greater study to prevent...

Abdul A. Mirani1,2*, Chee H. Teo2, Adel A. Abul-Soad3, Ghulam S. Markhand1, Tahira Jatt1, Ameer A. Mirbahar1,4, Najamuddin Solangi

...entage of true-to-type regenerants. 

...
Lusha Liu1,*, Lei Cheng2, Xingqi Zhang3, Yulong Li1 and Jianping Jiang1,*
...,385 unigenes which were generated by Illumina paired-end sequencing in M. fissipes. Within all microsatellites, AG/CT, AAG/CTT, and AAAG/CTTT are most prevalent motif in each repeat class. We randomly selected 61 unigenes with the microsatellite to design primers and do genetic analysis in the Sichuan basin population of M. fissipes. Of all, 35 primer pairs (57.38%) successfully amplificated in M. fissipes, of which 14 (40.00%) were polym...

Wesam Mady*, Nahed Yehia, Mohammed Hassan Elhussieny, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Moataz Mohamed El Sayed, Neveen Rabie Bakry, Asmaa Shaaban, Abdel Satar Arafa, Afaf Abdel Baset Mahmoud and Wafaa Mohammed Hassan 

Saeed Murtaza1,*, Nazir Ahmad2, Muhammad Asif Raza3, Muhammad Saleem Akhtar1, Muhammad Mazhar Ayaz4, Muhammad Ali5 and Rais Ahmed6
...epididymis, testicular degeneration with or without mineralization, testicular abscesses and chronic epididymitis. In early stages, sperm granuloma appeared as an anechoic mass with ill-defined border. In advanced stages, it exhibited a mixture of anechoic and hyperechoic areas, encircled by a thick hyperechoic border. In early cases of testicular degeneration, testicular parenchyma showed reduced echogenicity. However, in a...
Wen-Feng Li1, Rong-Yue Zhang1, Chun-Hua Pu2, Jiong Yin1, Zhi-Ming Luo1, Xiao-Yan Wang1, Xiao-Yan Cang1, Hong-Li Shan1 and Ying-Kun Huang1,*
...ng regions in Yunnan. In general, these natural enemies can be divided into two groups: parasites and predators. The dominant species include Apanteles flavipes (Cameron), Sturmiopsis inferens Townsend and Trichogramma sp., which parasitize the sugarcane borer; Synonycha grandis (Thunberg), Lemnia biplagiata (Swartz), Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) and Thiallela sp., which prey on Ceratovacuna lanigera <...
Naheed Ikram and Nafisa Shoaib*
.../i>sp. from 14 different genera of commercially important marine fishes Acanthopagrus sp. Parastromateus niger, Nemipterus sp., Pampus argenteusIlisha sp., Alepes djedabaEpinephelus sp., Teraponjarbua, Terapon puta, Scomberomorus koreanus, Epinephelus coioides, Lutjanus sp., Pomadasys sp. and Lutjanus johnii procuredfrom Kemari fish harbor (Pakistan). Ou...

Ayub Khan* and Ghaffar Ali 

... sufficient funds can be generated from local farming community to implement the suggested program, and in this direction the concerned government and non-government organizations can play key role in educating and mobilizing farmers 

...
Ghaleb Adwan*, Sami Bdir and Kamel Adwan
...I could be placed in the genera Lecithodendrium and Opecoeloides, respectively, or to closely related genera. Further studies are needed using laboratory experimental infections to clarify the complete life cycle for these larval trematode species.
...

Muhammad Noman, Yong Tong Mu*, Muhammad Mohsin, Aamir Mahmood Memon and Muhammad Talib Kalhoro

...hery resource for future generations.
...
Abd El-Nasser Ahmed Mohammed1,2,*
...and hyperglycemia due to general anesthesia. Seventy-five albino female mice (21.74 ± 0.19) were distributed into three groups; control (G1; N=25; not receive N. sativa oil) and two N. sativa oil groups supplemented with either 1.0% (G2; N=25) or 2.0% (G3; N=25) for 30 days. Changes of body temperature, heart rate, blood parameters (RBCs, WBCs, hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose and total protein), oocyte quality after ovarian transplantation...

Muhammad Amin1,2*, Khalid Mahmood2 and Imran Bodlah3 

...mic studies on aphids in general and tree dwelling aphids in particular have received much less attention in Pakistan with to-date no work reported from Azad Kashmir-Pakistan, where natural tree flora abounds and silviculture is common. Surveys conducted during 2015-2016 in the Poonch Division of Azad Kashmir-Pakistan, yielded 24 aphid species in 14 genera, representing subfamilies, Aphidinae, Lachninae, Calaphidinae, Hormap...

Durr-e-Nayab*, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil, Fida Mohammad and Shad Khan Khalil 

...ate plantings. There was general reduction in mean performance of genotypes for important yield component traits due to late planting but the magnitude of reduction varied over genotypes and traits. Mean of 29 genotypes (9 parents and 20 F1 hybrids) were 18.0 vs. 7.4 for spikes plant-1, 23.4 vs. 20.5 for spikelets spike-1, 70.2 vs. 51.6 for grains spike-1, 47.7 vs. 40.4 g for 1000-grain weight and 35.6 vs.19.6 g for grain yield plant-1 under normal and late pl...

Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Mian Anjum Murtaza2, Ejaz Ahraf3, Zahoor Hussain4, Syed Muhammad Ali Zahid1 and Maryam Riaz1 

...nt study showed that CLM generated larger mines; 1.64 cm2 on Grapefruit, 1.44 cm2 on Kinnow and 1.40 cm2 on Succari compared to other five cultivars. However, the percent leaf damage due to the feeding of CLM larvae was observed higher 44.2% on Fairchild, 36.5% on seedless Kinnow, 36.3% on Feutrell’s early and 35.8% on Kinnow that showed great susceptibility to CLM. Smallest mines generated by CLM larvae were found on ...
Gul Afshan1,2,*, Soumble Zulfiqar2, Sumaira Mehboob2, Muhammad Tahir Javed Khan1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,*
...e sequence, out of which general and specific differences were 93 (9%) and 47 (4%), respectively. The general differences usually occur in common population while the specific differences are present only in some cases. The 3D structure of E2 was determined. Protein docking with appropriate ligand revealed that V342 and L349 residues were involved in the ligand binding. Interaction of HCV3a infected human sera with HCV3a E2 ...

Syed Muhammad Hassan Raza1*, Syed Amer Mahmood1, Syeeda Areeba Gillani1, Syed Shehzad Hassan1, Muneeb Aamir1, Muhammad Saifullah1, Mubashar Basheer1, Atif Ahmad1, Saif-ul-Rehman2 and Tariq Ali1 

...d and red wavelengths to generate Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets. The annual NDVI and RVI based rice yields were compared with CRS based yield records by applying linear regression and generated yield equations. Rice area was estimated using satellite datasets of 11-years by applying supervised classification to 15 bands composite. The satellite extracted areas under r...
Muhammad Saleem Hanif1, Khalid Javed Iqbal1,*, Arshad Javid3, Noor Khan2, Irfan4, Hamid Majeed5, Muhammad Altaf3
... of living as well as in generating brilliant mind towards global economy. 
...

Wajid Khan* and Raziuddin 

... full diallel fashion to generate 56 F1 crosses. These parental genotypes and their F1 hybrids were evaluated during 2015/16 in the field at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. Mean squares revealed significant genetic variability among parents and their F1 crosses for days to maturity, primary branches plant-1, pods main raceme-1, 1000-seed weight and seed yield plant-1, signifying the occurrence of considerable variability in the tested materi...

Mustasim Famous*, Obaidul Islam, Shameema Khatun, Mohammed Mustafizur Rahman and Tania Ferdoushi 

...tensive system (50%) was generally practiced by the rural farmers. They have very little idea about breed and variety of turkey and prevention of diseases of turkey. But farmers have very little knowledge about turkey management procedure. There is no specific feeding standard for turkey. Farmers used to feed their turkey according to broiler and layer feeding manual. So, research needed to improve the status of turkey. 

...
Abdul Waheed1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Junaid Akhtar4, Muhammad Saeed5, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed6 and Shah Jahan7,*
... resistant against third generation cephalosporin and Aztreonam. Notably, 15% of ESBL producing strains harbored blaSHV gene while 43% were positive for blaOXA gene. In a nutshell, diverse variety of ESBL-positive GNRs is distributed, the findings of the present study should be considered for planning strategies to treat and prevent the further spread of ESBL-producing gram-negative rods infections.
...

Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Ayesha Zafar1 and Sher Muhammad2 

...ext-align: justify;">The general response of plants to soil and water salinity depends upon climate, soil characteristics, topography and management strategies. Water, even may be saline, is becoming more precious natural resource. Hence, there should be more crops and jobs per drop while conserving the quality of present terrestrial and groundwater. Saline water has been used for production of fodder and forages in many countries. Managing soil and water sali...
Yacheng Hu1,2, Xueqing Liu1,2, Jing Yang1,2, Kan Xiao1,2, Binzhong Wang1,2 and Hejun Du1,2,*
...squo;s sturgeon via next-generation sequencing from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis). The 17 microsatellites were polymorphic with 3 to 6 alleles per locus and the total number of alleles is 80. The mean expected heterozygosity (HE, 0.506 to 0.781), observed heterozygosity (HO, 0.542 to 1), Hardy-Weinberg departure value (d, -0.042 to 0.427), polymorphic information content (PIC, 0.482 to 0.753) and...
Mohammed Al Bratty1,*, Hassan A. Alhazmi1,2, Desam Nagarjuna Reddy3, Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab3, Sadique A. Javed1 and Zia ur Rehman1,4
... bacteria and yeasts. In general, significant antimicrobial activity was recorded against gram positive bacteria (zone of inhibition: 16.3±0.35–30.6±0.11 mm; MICs: 1–4 μg/ml); while gram negative bacteria (zone of inhibition: 10.1±0.23–17.2±0.13 mm; MICs: 4–16 μg/ml) and yeasts (zone of inhibition: 9.1±0.23–18.7±0.10 mm; MICs: 2–16 μg/ml) showed comparatively lower susceptib...
Aqsa Pervaiz1*, Rukhshanda Afridi1, Zahra Pervaiz1, Rabia Masood1 and Hira Pervaiz2
...observed in liver were degeneration of hemopoietic tissue, destruction of hepatocytes, degeneration of bile duct, inflammatory infiltration, vacuolization, pyknosis, presence of MMCs and necrosis in hepatocytes. It can be concludedthat methylmercury has harmful effects on histology of liver of fish. Therefore, the present work suggests that the exposure to the methylmercury should be prevented to avoid injurious health hazar...
Jiaxin Guo1, Xiumei Zhang1,2, Xiaoyan Wang2, Liqin Liu2 and Tianxiang Gao1,*
... In this study, next-generation sequencing and de novo assembly were used for potential useful microsatellite markers obtaining of S. japonica. A total of 120 microsatellite markers were designed and tested, 25 primer pairs showed polymorphism among S. japonica individuals. Number of alleles, observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 2 to 8, 0.083 to 0.922 and 0.042 to 0.866, respectively. The PIC ranged from 0.04 to 0...

Ahmed Zia1*, Iqtidar Hussain2, Sardar Azhar Mehmood2, Shabir Ahmad2, Muzaffar Shah3 and Abdul Rauf Bhatti1 

...d four families, fifteen genera and twenty-six species. Among recorded fauna, family Libellulidae appeared to be a dominant group representing 19 species, followed by family Coenagrionidae with 5 species and family Calopterygoidae and Aeshnidae representing single species each. Being a flying insect group, seasonal surveys and temporal data collection for odonates in this ecologically rich area can surely bring forward important information for the migratory s...

Muhammad Khuram Razzaq1,2*, Saeed Rauf1, Mohsin Khurshid3, Shahid Iqbal1,4, Javaid Akhter Bhat2, Ayaz Farzand5, Adeel Riaz1,6, Guangnan Xing2 and Junyi Gai

 

...ility in the segregating generation warrants good selection response. Moreover, magnitude and type of genetic variation associated with pollen viability also important in improving the trait and breeding procedures to be adapted for the improvement of trait per se. Genetic studies results under heat stress in sunflower showed additive to partial dominance towards higher pollen viability in the inheritance showing that trait can be improved through selection in...

Hala Rajab1, Muhammad Sayyar Khan1*, Safdar Hussain Shah1 and Syed Mehar Ali Shah2 

...thod led to successful regeneration of shoots on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media containing BAP 3 mgL-1 and developed roots in ½ MS media supplemented with IBA 3 mgL-1 in case of OSCAR cultivar. Successful selection of transgenic lines was achieved using selective antibiotic kanamycin 50 mgL-1. NtSAT4 gene integration into the plants genome was confirmed by PCR using the NtSAT4 gene specific primers. The positive transgenic lines were successfully accli...

Umar Hayat1*, Shahid Ali1, Abdul Mateen2 and Hazrat Bilal

...these sectors for income generation activities which will provide a solution to the key economic issues in the country to meet the sustainable development targets of United Nations 

...
Haq Aman Ullah1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Muhammad Ijaz2, Aqeel Javeed3, Muqadder Shah1 and Ikramul Haq1
...ses injurious effects on general health status of lactating goats.
...
Chaman Ara1*, Asmatullah1, Sehrish Kanwa1, Asma Chaudhary2, Ayesha Siddiqua1
...lone antibiotic of third generation, is widely used to treat respiratory and genitourinary infections. Keeping in view the controversy about its toxicity, current study was conducted to assess the levofloxacin induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and its likely noxious effects on spermatogenesis in mammals. Forty mice, randomly categorized into four groups (N=10) were administered orally with different concentrations of levofloxacin (0.00, 9.37, 18.75 and 37...
Peng Chen1,2, Zuhao Huang3,Chaoying Zhu1, Yuqing Han1, Zhifeng Xu1
Guanglong Sun1, Zhen Zhang1, Dongqin Zhao4, Gang Ge1 and Luzhang Ruan1*
... study, we used the next-generation sequencing method to obtain mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Porzana paykullii, Rallus aquaticus and Gallirallus striatus in Gruiformes, and Hydrophasianus chirurgus in Charadriiformes, after which we analysed and compared structure, phylogeny, and taxonomic origin of the Gruiformes and Charadriiformes. Based on sequencing, splicing, and annotating the mtDNA of four birds, the results showed that the ...

Sanaullah1, Fazli Rabbi2*, Shahid Ali2, Zeeshan Khan3 and Muhammad Zamin4 

...97 million US$) could be generated as consumer surplus. The poisson regression estimates show that visitors’ frequency to the site is significantly affected by traveling cost, gender, and visitors’ perception of the quality of the site. The policy should legislate to introduce payment system for visiting the tourist site to generate funds for its development. Moreover, development programs shall be initiated to a...
Qamar Zeb1*, Silvia I. Rondon2, Hayat Badshah,1 and Arsalan Khan1
...ost common predators. In general, aphids were reported in all wheat cultivars. Cultivar Saleem-2000 presented the highest number of aphids per tiller (9.1), while Gomal-2008 presented the lowest (1.9). Based on aphid presence per tiller, no cultivar was found to be Susceptible or Highly Susceptible, but 1 cultivar was found to be Moderate Susceptible, 8 Moderate Resistant, 9 Resistant, and 2 Immune. Rate of parasitism and predation increased when aphid density...
Zübeyde Kumbıçak1,* and Hatice Poyraz2
... autosomal bivalents and generally one chiasma per bivalent (rarely two chiasmata) were obtained, the types of chiasmata were proximal, interstitial and terminal. In second meiotic division, two types of nuclei were showed as n=12 and n=10 chromosomes. Considering our results and previously obtained data in other ground spider species, the conventional staining provide important chromosome markers for karyotype evolution in gnaphosids and chromosome structure ...
Romaan Hayat Khattak1,3, Hussain Ali1, Ejaz Ur Rehman1 and 
Muhammad Ali Nawaz1, 2*
...animals are harvested to generate economic revenues for poor mountain communities, which in turn protects the entire population and associated ecosystem from illegal massive hunting. The present study successfully tested CMR method, and produced reliable and accurate estimate of the population, which could help in determining sustainable trophy quota.
...
Sajida Rasool1, Saba Irshad1*, Neelam Saba1, Mehak Fiaz1Muhammad Sajid Hussain2, MuhammadWajid Hussain3 and Peter Nürnberg2

 

...linically diverse neurodegenerative ailments with distinguishing feature of lower limbs spasticity and upper motor neuron degeneration. BICD2 is an adaptor protein which regulates the cellular trafficking of cargo molecules crucial for motor neuron growth and maturation. In present study, a Pakistani family of HSP penetrating in autosomal recessive pattern was ascertained. Patients presented spasticity and stiffness of upper...

Muhammad Sohail1*, Imtiaz Hussain2, Maqsood Qamar2, Sikander Khan Tanveer2, Syed Haider Abbas2, Zeshan Ali1 and Muhammad Imtiaz3 

...and drought stresses are generally considered main wheat yield limiting factors in rainfed environment, especially during reproductive growth stages. However, variability might exist among wheat genotypes in response to stressful conditions. The objective of the study was to test the climatic adaptability potential of the wheat genotypes using canopy temperature measurement as physiological indicator. The trial was comprised of forty spring wheat genotypes whi...
Ibrahim Tapki1*, Huseyin Bahadir Ozalpaydin2, Nuran Tapki3, Mehmet Aslan4 and Muhammet Hanifi Selvi1
...ing blood parameters and general health status of Holstein Friesian calves. Twenty-eight Holstein Friesian calves were allocated into three groups: (a) Control calves were fed with whole milk (n=10), (b) OreganoLow (n=9), and (c) OreganoHigh (n=9) calves were fed with whole milk, plus 100 and 150 mg/l oregano essential oil per kg milk respectively. The amount of the milk offered on daily basis was calculated as 10% of each calf live weight and was given in two...
Sameh S. Tawfik, Ahmed A. Elkady* and Ehab T. Mohamed
...ge with or without few degenerative changes. TSE acts as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug to prevent and/ or ameliorates the hazardous-effects of γ-rays
...
Nurlybay Kazhgaliyev1*, Talgat Kulmagambetov2, Dulat Ibrayev1, Saule Bostanova1 and Zhanat Titanov1
...rd heifers of the second generation at the age 18-22 months was 378.5 and 375.2 kg which was 8.7 and 20.6 kg (2.2-5.4%) higher than that of Aberdeen-Angus herd-mates. Chemical analysis of feedstuff was carried out in Altyndan LLP and AKA whereas physiological and clinical indicators of second-generation heifer calves were within the normal range in various seasons. The highest thermal resistance index was in animals of group...

Bamigboye Olutoyin Omolara1, Fapohunda Funmilayo Omotoyosi1, Oladipo Elijah Kolawole1,2, Oni Mattthew Olujenyo1, Ajibade Oluwatosin Akinola1, Kaka Mary Oluwatosin1* 

...BcAb while using a third generation ELISA kit for screening. The mean CD4+ count and age were 479.12 ± 23.48 cells/µl and 48.56 ± 1.27 years, respectively. Only six samples out of ninety-three HIV-positive samples were positive to HBsAg while fifty-four samples (58.1%) were positive for HBcAb however, HBeAg marker was negative among all samples. Interestingly, the prevalence of the HBV infection was more in females (66.6%) compared to the m...
Ahsan Anjum1, Asim Aslam1, Raheela Akhtar1, Tahir Yaqub2,  Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Rizwana Sultan3, Saba Usman1Aneela Zameer Durrani4 and Muhammad Usman4*
...es, necrosis and other degenerative changes were observed in tissue samples of infected cattle. Significantly higher (P<0.05) micro-pathological lesion scores were given to lungs, kidney and lymph node samples from infected cattle as compared to those of non-infected ones. In conclusion, CBPP, being a major factor affecting cattle production and associated economics, warrants the implementation of control measures to mitigate the economic losses associated ...
Haroon1,2, Yu-Feng Meng1, Zahid Khan1, Farzana Perveen2, Muhammad Ather Rafi3, Sayed Waqar Shah4, Xiao-Hong Su1 and Lianxi Xing1,*
Dilara Abbas Bukhari*, Mehwish Faheem, Shamoona Arshad and Khalid P. Lone
...l organs like kidney. In general female physiological system seems to be more prone to damage caused by these diets as compared to male physiological system.
...
Bhandari Jyoti1,2, Yasen Shali3, Zhang Zehua4, Yao Xiaoho5, Deng Jiang3, Zhang Yaling5, Wang Cuiling5, Li Yang5, Lei Xueping5, Wang Wenfeng5, Mohammad Farooque Hassan6 and Li Can1,*
...ring summer (June/July), generating two incomplete generations a year in meadow and one generation a year in farmland. The Iwao’s M*-m regression analysis, Taylor’s power law and aggregation cause analysis showed an aggregated distribution pattern for L. m. tibetensis Chen. It is concluded that insect behavior and environmental conditions co-influence the population dens...
Ramazan Ä°lgün1*, Nilgün Kuru2, Ferhan BölükbaĹź3 and Fatih Mehmet Gür4
...scope, and photos of the general histologic structures were taken. The tongue was triangular shaped, and consisted of apex, corpus, and radix sections. The dorsal and ventral surfaces of the tongue were covered by a keratinised stratified squamous epithelium. Lamina propria and submucosal layers were distinguishable underneath the epitelium. SEM observations of surface of the radix linguae revealed conical papillae and tongue caudally directed lingual papillae...
Nafeesa Batool1*, Javed Iqbal Qazi1, Nida Aziz1, Ali Hussain2 and Syed Zawwar Hussain Shah3
...Co-AD upturns the biogas generation efficiency. Thus, we can conclude that BMP assays are extremely useful to determine the amount of bio-methane and bio-degradability of the organic substrates and would facilitate in the preliminary selection systems for the field scale applications especially in framework of developing countries.
...

Iqbal Javed1, Abdur Rehman2*, Farhana Khaliq1, Amar Razzaq3, Mudassar Yasin4, Ghulam Mustafa5, Allah Bakhsh6 and Raheel Saqib7 

Muhammad Ilyas1, Sardar Ali Khan1, Shahid Iqbal Awan1, Shafiq-ur-Rehman1, Waqar Ahmed1, Muhammad Riaz Khan2, Raja Mohib Muazzam Naz2, Muhammad Mohib Ullah Khan3 and Sumaira Hafeez1* 

...ls in basic experimental generations. Initially, 108 inbred lines of maize were planted in two separate trails under water deficit and normal irrigation conditions in the experimental field of Department of Plant Breeding and Molecular Genetics. Selection of parents for further study was done with regards to grain yield and its component traits. Broad range of genetic diversity was shown by the inbred lines and displayed different levels of drought tolerance. ...

Muhammad Ilyas1*, Sardar Ali Khan1, Shahid Iqbal Awan1, Shafiq-ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Riaz Khan2 and Sumaira Hafeez1 

...lected inbred lines. Six generations as P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 were prepared for both the crosses to calculate heterosis and inbreeding depression for Randomized Complete Block Design under split plot arrangement. Highly significant inbreeding depression was recorded for all traits indicating a dominant type of gene action. Heterosis was high for both crosses along with high inbreeding depression. All these results exhibit that the hybrid breeding is the ...
Riffat Sultana1, Nuzhat Soomro1,*, Santosh Kumar2, Ahmed Ali Samejo1 and Samiullah Soomro1
Syed Basit Rasheed*, Ahmad Yar, Farrah Zaidi and Qaisar Jamal
... species representing 11 genera and three subfamilies namely Formicinae, Myrmicinae and Dolichoderinae were identified during the present study. Myrmicinae was the most diverse subfamily with five genera (Crematogaster, Meranoplus, Messor, Monomorium and Pheidole) and 11 species (Crematogaster subnuda, Meranoplus bicolor, Messor instabilis, Monomorium aberrans, Mo. dichroum, Mo. indicum, Pheidole binghami, P...
Seval Dernekbasi* and Emin Karatas
...(mainly EPA and DHA) was generally decreased in the fillets of the CO, SFO, CSFO groups compared to the FO group. The proportions of n-3 PUFA in the fillets of the FO/CO, FO/SFO and FO/CSFO groups throughout the experimental period were significantly higher than in the CO, SFO, CSFO groups, confirming the major effect of the fish oil intake at the cycled feeding stages of the experiment. This study shows that cycled feeding regimes by diets including vegtable ...

Amjad Usman1*, Arshad Khan1, Ruidar Ali Shah2 and Toheed Iqbal3 

...rded after June 22nd. In general, Roma supported lowest no. (4.16±0.23) of S. dorsalis plant-1 and Riogrande supported the highest (4.89±0.25) S. dorsalis plant -1 and were found comparatively resistant and susceptible respectively. There were more glandular trichomes than non-glandular trichomes on leaves. Among the glandular trichomes, Type IV was the most abundant followed by Type VI whereas Type I and VII were rarely found on the leaf of the ...

Bahadar Sher Khattak1, Muhammad Kaleem1, Waqas2*, Humaira Naz1 and Muhammad Yasir

...t in establishing income generating entrepreneurs, purchased quality seeds, fertilizers and small scale modern technology. These innovations brought substantial enhancement in their farm productivity and income that ultimately improved those farmers’ socioeconomic position. However, 16.7% of the respondents’ remains deprived of acquiring the micro-credit facilities of the project where no change in their livelihood conditions was observed. Overall,...

Hina Maryam1, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Ahmed Zia1, Ghulam Rasul3, Muhammad Kamal Sheikh3*, Muhammad Qasim4 and Gulnaz Parveen

.... Total 18 species of 14 genera under seven families of orders Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera were identified. Order Diptera was represented by family Syrphidae with four species under three genera. Order Hymenoptera represented four families i.e. Apidae with six species under four genera; Halictidae with two species under two genera; Megachilidae ...
Jing Zhang1,2, Xin Wang2, Yun Zhao2, Yongcheng Jin2, Yongfeng Zhou2, Junmei Wang2, Yurong Fu2, Rui Wang2, Ruihua Li2, Hengtong Fang2 and Hao Yu2,*
...osal Mucin-1, Mucin-2, regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (Reg3γ), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were significantly downregulated. The mRNA expression levels of mucosal β-defensin, regenerating islet-derived protein 3 alpha (Reg3a), regenerating islet-derived protein 3 beta (Reg3β) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels were significantly increased. The inte...

Muhammad1*, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Syed Akhtar Ali Shah1 

...62.5%) of solid waste is generated from domestic sources followed by commercial (26.9%), institutions (5.8%) and industrial (2.9%) sources. While the majority of respondents (81%) were concerned about the unsafe disposal of solid waste and are willing to pay for organic fertilizer alternative to chemical fertilizer for urban agriculture. We also found that socio-economic variables namely education, monthly expenses, and agriculture farm size positively affect ...
Mohammad Ejaz1, Salma Javed2, Muhammad Hamza1, Sadia Tabassum2, Muhammad Abubakar3, Irfan Ullah4*
...rganized to describe the general study of natural bioactive molecules or secondary metabolites secreted by fungal endophytes as novel sources of anticancer drugs. The main purpose of this review is to organize the effective compound of the fungal endophytes for cancer treatments. 
...

Fazli Ahad1, Raziuddin1, Nazir Ahmad1,2*, Muhammad Nauman1, Touheed Iqbal3, Nabeel Khan1, Fazli Hameed4 and Quaid Hussain2 

...e effective in the early generation for the improvement of these traits. Correlation analysis indicated that flowering (rp=0.45), primary branches plant-1 (rp=0.49), main raceme length (rp=0.41), seeds pod-1 (rp=0.41) and 1000-seed weight (rp=0.38) had positive and significant association with seed yield plant-1. Genotypes, DH4, DH5, DH8, CA5 × DH6, CA5 × DH7, CA5 × DH3, and CA2 × DH7 displayed well genetic potential for the majority of...

Grigory Antonovich Nozdrin1*, Regina Gabdrahmanovna Utkina2, Anastasia Aleksandrovna Lelyak2 and Yana Viktorovna Novik1 

... µl/kg. During the general autopsy, no pathologic changes of internal organs were observed in the fowl in the experimental groups. At the end of the research, Vetom 20.76 was classified as a substance of Toxic Class 4 according to GOST 12.1.007-76 Occupational safety standards system, 1976. 

...

Rabia Iqbal, Muhammad Naeem*, Samrah Masud and Abir Ishtiaq 

...tion parameters revealed generally in different feeds an increasing trend in total protein, total ash and total organic content, while a decreasing trend in total fat content. Total length in all (T1, T2, T3) feeds observed no influence on total water content, total protein content and total organic content, while an influence on ash content and total fat content was observed. 

...

Muhammad Usman Saleem, Nadeem Iqbal, Shawaiz Iqbal*, Usama Bin Khalid, Adila Iram, Muhammad Akhter, Tahir Latif and Tahir Hussain Awan 

...stan, after wheat and is generally cultivated through raising nursery seedlings and transplanting them in puddled soils. Declining surface water, high cost of pumped groundwater, high labor costs, and drudgery in manually transplanted rice (TPR) have motivated researchers to develop alternated technology such as direct seeded rice (DSR). About 30% of total water used in rice cultivation is consumed for puddling of soil (land preparation) and transplanting oper...

Iqbal Javed1, Abdur Rehman2*, Iftikhar Nabi3, Amar Razzaq4, Raheel Saqib5, Allah Bakhsh6, Muhammad Mohibullah7 and Muhammad Luqman

Arifa Savanur1,*, Tallat Naz1,2, Tayyaba Hamid1,3, Syed Abid Ali4, Mian Jahangir1,3 and Muhammad Abdul Azeem4
...lement (CE). Reptiles in general and Uromastix in particular have been less investigated regarding the mechanical responses and the characteristics of elastic elements of their visceral muscle tissues. Therefore, a comparative study was conducted to determine the mechanical properties of esophageal and intestine tissue strips of Uromastix hardwickii. Tissues were subjected to electrical stimulation in order to observe the graded mechanical...
Xiuqing Hao1, Zhe Hong2, Huili Gao1, Fumin Tian1, Hongke Zhang3, Yu Zhou3, Yuming Guo3, Guang Yang1,* and Bingyao Chen1,*
...nowledge. The best model generated the seabirds’ density of 11.47 (95% confidence interval 6.90-19.05) individuals/km2 and 1.94 (1.27 - 2.95) individuals/km2, respectively in Beihai and Shatian. The coefficient of variation value of 20.42% and 25.43% showed moderate accuracy. The Beihai and Shatian seabird communities had similar fixed kernel home range. Seabirds’ distribution largely overlapped with various vessels’ con...

Abdur Rehman1*, Sajjad Ahmad1, Ahmed Zia2, Asad Ali3, Kiran Shahjeer4, Abdul Latif1 and Taimur Khan

...ealed 23 species from 15 genera under 3 families. The abundant family was recorded as Libellulidae that was comprised of 19 species belonging to 11 genera, family Gomphidae included 3 species belonging to 3 genera and family Aeshnidae included one species belonged to one genus. Detailed description of each species, valid scientific names, their habitat, ecological observation, collection d...
Muhammad Tahir Waseem1, Abdul Majid Khan1*, Saliha Khalid1, Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Ayesha Iqbal1, Muhammad Ameen1
...e specimens belonging to genera Pachyportax and Selenoportax. The available information on both taxa is scanty and only few specimens are known for both genera especially Pachyportax. The members of both genera have medium to large sized body with strong hypsodonty of teeth representing grazing on coarse grasses and shrubs in the Late Miocene Siwalik habitats of Potwar...
Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1, Imran Bodlah1*, Ammara Gull e Fareen1,2, Muhammad Shakeel Khokhar1
... genus are considered as generalized foragers and cryptic in nature. Collected material was verified using most recent and available literature provided by Bharti and Akbar (2014). Herein we report one species of this genus C. raja (Forel, 1902) based on queen for the first time from Himalayan Foothills of Pakistan. Differential diagnosis, morphometric and illustrati...

Muhammad Medrar Hussain*, Asad Jan* and Sayyar Khan Kazi 

...transgenic plants were regenerated and established in greenhouse. For the evaluation of OsTZF8 gene role in drought stress tolerance, two weeks old rice seedling were subjected to drought stress. OsTZF8-OX transgenic indica line A and B displayed 69% and 64% survival rates respectively compared to 33% of control. These results confirmed that due to overexpression of OsTZF8 gene, transgenic line A and B displayed considerable level of drought stress tolerance. ...

Filza Fatima Rizvi1, Muhammad Umair1, Muhammad Kahlid Jamil2*, Masooma Hassan2, Komal Qayyum1 and Syed Mohsin Raza Kazmi

...nt, living standards and generation of wealth of any country. Globally, energy generation scenario is shifting towards renewable sources and its application in different sectors for example Agriculture. Oil, gas and coal. The same is true for Pakistan that has agriculture based economy. The present study was undertaken to review energy consumption in the agriculture sector of Pothohar region of Pakistan. This region has no p...

Ghani Akbar*, Muhammad Asif, Zafar Islam and Shahid Hameed 

...gligibly adopted and are generally considered as late time solutions. Although furrow bed irrigation, a relatively more efficient irrigation method, has been adopted, especially for row crops but decision support guidelines for their appropriate installation and management is very limited, thus potential benefits of furrow beds are yet to be achieved on Pakistani farms. Consequently, water productivity of major crops is below global average in
Fehmina Ashraf1*, Muhammad Irfan2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Shaukat Ali3, Muhammad Khan1
... plants and in different genera of fungi. Laccases have been purified by various methods. It involves in di-oxygen to water reduction and 1e- oxidation of phenolic and its allied parts. Laccases are mostly used in different industries like food, paper and pulp, pharmaceutical and textile etc. Both laccases and mediators have been used in different process like delignification of pulp. Laccases from bacterial species are used in dye decolouration and biobleachi...

Md. Al-Amin Tan1, Mst. Antora Akter1, Md. Sabuj Rahman1, Marzia Rahman2 and Md. Mahmudul Alam1* 

...ne gluconate solution to generate aseptic surgical site which is very basic to prevent SSI and postoperative complications. 

...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1 and Onyemocho Audu2 

...and its affordability to general population to curb the catastrophic cost of managing the epidemic. However, the diagnosis of HCV infection is faced with several challenges, therefore there is a demand for development of easy to use and inexpensive molecular methods for accurate diagnosis. The sub-Saharan Africa HCV genotypes distribution are diverse, but genotype I is the most common. This review highlights the need for more robust surveillance studies with i...

Yasir Iftikhar1, Mustansar Mubeen1,2*, Waqas Raza1, Qaiser Shakeel3, Waseem Abbas1, Shehzad Iqbal1 and Ashara Sajid

...uded that PLRV incidence generally influenced by environmental factors and aphid population. It is proposed that PLRV can be managed through resistant varieties and monitoring of aphid population. 

...

Pravin Mishra1, Md. Muket Mahmud2, Md. Ahosanul Haque Shahid2, Alamgir Hasan2, Vivek Kumar Yadav3 and Moinul Hasan1* 

...ans, health-workers, and general people regarding the situation of antibiotic resistance. As maggot helps in the reduction of bacteria, this can be used as medical therapy in the case of a different wound. 

...

A.N. Ashfaque1, F. Shahina1 and S. Dawar2

 

Diversity of nematode fauna associated with cotton fields of high temperature areas of Sindh, Pakistan
...ation among all nematode genera in particular but no correlation have been found establish between genera with reference to temperature fluctuation during studied years.

...

M. Rufai1† , A. A.Wahab2 , Q. O. Adeshina1 , J. C. Umehokoh1 and O. O.Ologunro1

Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria
...es, they belonged to the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis. Steinernema spp. was found prevalent in both cultivated and undisturbed soils. Frequency of occurrence of EPNs in the sampled soils from the different senatorial zones was determined: soil samples from the Central zone recorded the lowest prevalence 87.50% while the soil samples from Western senatorial zone revealed 91.43% presence of the EPNs. The highest frequency of occurrence of EPNs94.29% wa...

K. Osei1† , A. I. Adama1 , E. C. Tagoe2 and J. Sackey-Asante1

 

Biochar effect on nematodes and insects population density, soil improvement and yield of okra
... significance and income generation potential. Agricultural production worldwide is constrained by abiotic and biotic factors. Chemical fertilizers are usually used to solve soil infertility problems. However, chemical fertilizers are expensive and when applied continuously, degrade agricultural lands (Savci, 2012; Bhattacharyya et al., 2015). Biotic factors such as plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) and foliar insects have been implicated as major constraints to...

Sahib Khan1, Muneeza Wahid2, Muhammad Abeer Irfan1, Muhammad Naeem3, Asma Gul4, Muhammad Haseeb Zafar2

ROW LEVEL IMAGE FORGERY DETECTION TECHNIQUE USING EMBEDDED DIGITAL SIGNATURES
...hm, digital signature is generated from selected pixels of each row using selected pixels for and embedded in the least significant bits of selected pixel of the corre- sponding row of digital image. The proposed technique is powerful enough to detect different image manipulations. The results show that it can successfully detect one least significant bit alteration made in any pixel of digital image.

...

 Tajwali Khan1*, Ihtzaz Qamar1, Feroz Shah2, Kareem Akhtar2, Rehman Akhtar3

MODEL FOR FUEL DROPLET EVAPORATION IN COMBUSTION CHAMBER OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES
...t is not zero. A code is generated and applied. The results of the model show that
fuel droplet diameter, combustion chamber pressure, chamber diameter, mass flow rate and droplet relative velocity
with hot gas has significant effects on the life of droplet and characteristic length. Effects of chamber pressure and
diameter are more significant for larger droplet size.

...

Muhammad Ismail1, Shahid Maqsood1*, Abdul Shakoor2, Feroz Shah2 

DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS OF MOLD MAKING FACILTY AT GHANI GLASS INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY
...try. The layout problems generally exist in the manufacturing industries. In the
industries the layout problems deals with the facilities like departments, machines etc. As a case study, this paper
presents a machine shop producing molds for local based bottles production industry. The mold making machine
shop capacity is enhanced to fulfill the annual requirement by minimizing travel distance, removal of bottlenecks
during producti...

Muhammad Amjad*1, Abdur Rafai1, Saeed Badshah1, Rafi Ullah Khan1, Sajjad Ahmad1 

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE REAL LIFE LOADINGS ON THE TI-27NB HIP BONE IMPLANT
...model of the implant was generated using CREO PARAMETRIC software. Two weight
categories 75Kg and 100 Kg with four different daily life activities stand up, sit down, knee bend and walking were
considered in this study. The FEA analysis was performed using commercial FEA software ANSYS. The implant model
was meshed using tetrahedral element type. The simulation result show that maximum stress occurs at the neck of
the implant for ea...

Kifayat Ullah*1, Tahir Mahmood2, Naeem Jan3, Zeeshan Ali4 

A NOTE ON GEOMETRIC AGGREGATION OPERATORS IN T-SPHERICAL FUZZY ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN MULTI-ATTRIBUTE DECISION MAKING
...ggregation operators are generalizations of the aggregation operators of IFSs and PFSs. Multi-attribute
decision making (MADM) process is comprehensively discussed in T-spherical fuzzy environment and elaborated with
a numerical example. The results obtained are analyzed and their advantages over existing structures are studied.

...

Khizar Azam1*, Abdul Shakoor1, Shahid Maqsood2, Muddasar Habib3, Muhammad Fahad4, Akhtar Zaib1 

IDENTIFICATION OF SITES FOR ESTABLISHING PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR FARMS IN PAKISTAN USING SOLAR GEOMETRY
...tility scale Solar farms generally consist of multiple arrays of Photovoltaic (PV) Panels which collect and convert
solar energy into electrical energy. Pakistan is facing a serious energy crisis. It is working on solar energy options.
Therefore, it is imperative to identify most viable sites that have a high solar radiation. We utilized solar geometry
and the Google Earth, a geographical information program to identify optimal sites for P...

Misbah Ullah1, Rehman Akhtar1, Sikandar Bilal Khattak1, Khawar Naeem1 and Khizar Azam2 

FACTORS IDENTIFICATION FOR COAL BRIQUETTES MANUFACTURING USING STATISTICAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN APPROACH
... design of experiment in general and factorial
design in particular is vital in identifying these significant factors in comparison to the conventional techniques. This
paper provides a statistical approach towards manufacturing of coal briquettes in Northern Province of Pakistan.
Binder composition, pressure, particle size, and coal type are analyzed for higher calorific value and compressive
strength simultaneously. Experiments ar...

Bibi Safia Haq1,2, Hidayat Ullah Khan3, Abdul Shakoor4, Shahnaz Attaullah5, Ishrat Rahim1 

PROJECTION ETCHING OF KERATIN THIN FILMS FOR FABRICATION OF SKIN STRUCTURE USING ARF EXCIMER LASER
...l skin need
to be generated. Therefore an ArF excimer Laser wavelength (193nm) with the ability to pattern square mm areas
per pulse was used even though the maximum repetition rates are typically an order of magnitude slower. Keratin
samples with different film thicknesses were ablated with different pulses. The depth of the ablated keratin layers with
different pulses were also measured by scanning the sample using a Dektak KLA-Te...

Bibi Safia Haq1,2, Shahnaz Attaullah3, Abdul Shakoor4, Hidayat Ullah Khan5, Khan Alam5, Kausar Shaheen1 

CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFICACY OF ULTRAFAST LASER PULSES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
... of a seed laser and a regenerative amplifier. It is
important to have knowledge of these characteristics to be able to predict the transport of the beam through various
optical elements and also to analyse the subsequent interaction with materials. The whole optical intensity profile in
two dimensional space of a laser beam i.e. across the beam radius and its detailed shape has been measured and it
has been demonstrated that Ti: sa...

Nazish Huma Khan1, Mohammad Nafees1, Adila Bashir1, Farooq Ahmad1 

STUDY OF POLLUTION LAOD IN PAPER MILL EFFLUENTS AND ITS RECYCLING BY SUNDRY PLANTS AT HAYATABAD INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, PESHAWAR
...antity of waste water is generated during paper manufacturing and its direct discharge into receiving water is an
emerging concern. While the study proved that pollution level of paper mill effluents can be discouraged by recycling
of sundry plants. Therefore it is recommended to enhance the installation of sundry plants in proposed industrial estate. 

...

Shabana Rafique1, Shahnaz Parveen Khattak1, Tanveer Hussain2, Faiza Tauqeer1, Bashir Ahmad3 

EVALUATION OF FLEXURAL RIGIDITY AND ABRASION RESISTANCE OF POST AND META-FINISHED PIGMENT DYED P/C FABRICS

Farid Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Iqbal1 

DEVELOPMENT OF A TESTING RIG FOR VIBRATION AND WIND BASED ENERGY HARVESTERS
...amplifier and a function generator
are utilized to provide the desired signal for the operation of the shaker. The wind generating portion of the testing
rig comprised of a variable speed fan, a duct pipe and an anemometer. The vibration and wind producing units of
the testing rig are assembled on the same base, such that, these can operate separately as well as simultaneously.
In the testing rig ...

Muhammad Masood Tahir1, Ayyaz Hussain2, Saeed Badshah3, Qaisar Javaid2 

RULE-BASED IDENTIFICATION OF BEARING FAULTS USING CENTRAL TENDENCY OF TIME DOMAIN FEATURES
... as
references to generate rule-set for testing the unknown vibration samples. The results are evident that the proposed
RDS may be an effective alternative to the existing classifier-based fault diagnosis, even if the vibration signals are
contaminated with considerable background noise. 

...

Farid Ullah Khan*, Tashfeen Ali*, Khubroo Jamil* 

DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW VOLTAGE AC TO DC CONVERTER FOR MESO AND MICRO ENERGY HARVESTERS
...of the energy harvesters generated
voltage levels are sinusoidal or random in nature, moreover, the output voltage levels these produce are in
low (in mV range). For sensor operation, in order to convert this low AC voltage levels into relatively high DC
voltage DC, a three stage Cockcroft Walton converter is developed. The paper presents fabrication and characterization
of a 3 stage Low Voltage Cockcroft-Walton converter in an area...

Farid Ullah Khan*, Adeel Ahmed*, Uzair Khan Jadoon*, Fahim Haider* 

MODELING, SIMULATION AND FABRICATION OF AN UNDERSHOT FLOATING WATERWHEEL
...ing waterwheel for power generation
for run-of-the-river applications. For the undershot floating waterwheel, analytical modeling and simulation are performed
to estimate the optimal design parameters. Moreover, the dependence of output power on various parameters
of waterwheel is also investigated during simulations. It is found, during analysis that the water flow velocity is the
major factor affecting the output power and due to ...

Numan Habib, Naseer Ahmed, Riaz Muhammad, Himayat Ullah, Muftooh Ur Rehman, Kareem Akhtar 

ANALYSIS OF CHIP PRODUCED IN FREE MACHINING OF TI-6AL-7ZR-3NB-4MO-0.9ND AND TI-5AL-7ZR-7NB-0.7ND ALLOYS
... like aviation and power generation increased its use in many applications, not only because of its chemical properties but also because of its excellent properties including, high strength to density ratio, withstand with high stresses, better fatigue and corrosion properties and ability to resist high temperatures. However, all these properties of this alloy results in poor machinability, hence, make the automatic machining of these alloys nearly difficult...

Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

December

Vol 36 No 2 (2017)

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