El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...and the establishment of infections in vaccinated poultry. The Egyptian H5N1 viruses remain susceptible to oseltamivir, but genetic markers indicating resistance to amantadine have increased dramatically. In this mini-review, we discuss recent findings on the H5N1 viruses endemic in poultry and humans in Egypt, and suggest possible options to control the infection.

...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

...e attention due to human infections and the contribution of internal genes to H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses. Multiple H9N2 AIV genotypes have been identified from various species, including birds and mammals. H9N2 AIVs could spread through water, air, and live bird markets. Since the first isolate from 1994 in China, H9N2 AIVs have been prevalent over 20 areas of China, especially in South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, and Fujian provinces. Vaccination ...

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...igs allow studies of the infection, disease and immune responses caused by a specific pathogen in the absence of interfering maternal antibodies, other maternal immune regulators, and intestinal and environmental microbes. Due to the similarities between pigs and humans in terms of genetics, physiology, intestinal anatomy, and immune system, pig is particularly a suitable animal species for the modeling of human enteric pathogen infect...

Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

... important morbillivirus infection of sheep and goats, is widely distributed in Middle East, Central and South Asia, China and Africa. Whereas PPR antibodies were first reported in Kenyan small stock as early as 1995, the clinical disease was observed later in 2006 following dramatic and devastating PPR outbreaks in Turkana County. In this context, an outbreak of PPRV was observed in Tukana County in 2011 and the current study detail the clinical, pathological...

James Ayukepi Ayukekbong1,2

E-mail | james.ayukekbong@microbio.gu.se

...nce of dengue-malaria co-infection is high. Differential diagnosis of fever is therefore necessary to initiate the appropriate clinical care. Despite the endemicity of dengue in Nigeria, the disease is not a reportable disease and routine diagnosis is neglected. Here I undertake an exhaustive assembly of known records of dengue prevalence in Nigeria and provide a focus for public health intervention.

...

Weili Kong1, Guangpeng Ma2 and Jinhua Liu1*

...positive role during the infection of influenza A viruses. However, this regulation is contributed by multiple factors and has variable impact on the pathobiology of influenza A viruses.

...

Nayle Maria Oliveira da Silva1*, Ricardo do Carmo Zanella2

 

...titis C, whereas chronic infection is established in 60 to 80% of all cases, 20 to 40% of which may evolve to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Genetic differences among infected hosts can determine the progression and outcome of the virus infection, causing different individuals to respond in different ways to the viral infection.

 

 

Chun-Yi Lin1, Meng-Ling Wu2, Tang-Long Shen1, Hsin-Hung Yeh3, Ting-Hsuan Hung1*

 

...an CEVd and simultaneous infections were common in field. Uneven distributions of both viroids also occurred in different tissues of citrus. Two multiplex molecular detection methods provide the understanding of the genetic diversities among viroid isolates and quantify viroids in citrus host. Our field survey can help clarify citrus-viroid relationships and develop proper prevention strategies in the near future.

 

...

Suresh V Kuchipudi* and Kin-Chow Chang

 

...and other systemic viral infections which warrants further in-depth investigations.

 

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Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

...nate immune responses to infection play important role in the pathologenesis of NDV, and correlate with the severity of the clinical disease. Virulent strains of different genotypes induce distinct pathological manifestations in chicken organs, especially in lymphoid tissues. Genotype VIId of NDV, which is currently endemic in many countries of Asian and Middle East, replicates at a significantly higher level, induces more potent innate antiviral and inflammat...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...ad to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immune dysfunction. Studies of the innate immune responses to HP-PRRSV infection are crucial to gaining insight into HP-PRRSV-induced pathogenesis and for the development of novel protective vaccines. In this review, we discuss the innate immune responses a...

Huaichang Sun

...gy against various virus infections. Recently, a significant advance in RNAi technology is the use of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) to fight virus infections. However, different strategies are needed to prevent virus variation or mutation escape. This review is intended to present the current situation of antiviral roles of amiRNAs, against variable RNA viruses in particular.

...

Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

... acute and self-limiting infection with a high risk of developing chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised individuals usually leading to liver cirrhosis. Individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus have a greater risk to the virus due to their impaired immunity. The study was carried out to determine the sero- prevalence of Hepatitis E among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Ogbomoso. The blood sample of consented two hundred and seven...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...re enveloped viruses. Disinfection against avian influenza viruses at the poultry farms would significantly reduce and/or limit the chance for its transmission and outbreaks. Many disinfectants have been evaluated for their inactivation ability, but there is still a need for their evaluation under different conditions and in different ways. In the present study, representative disinfectants from chlorine and non-chlorine oxidizing agents ha...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...cating that high risk of infection is directly proportional to that of transmission vectors. Moreover, results demonstrate that the life stage “bumper” of the female imicola is the indicator of the infecting activity of C. imicola. Collectively, the distribution patterns and emergence of BT can be predicted by the abundance of the Culicoides species in a specified locality so that control measures
can be implemented well in ti...

Tomas Jinnerot1*, Karin Malm1, Erik Eriksson1 and Jonas Johansson Wensman2

E-mail | Tomas.Jinnerot@sva.se

...spiratory viruses and co-infection can exacerbate the clinical signs. CIRD is highly contagious and can spread rapidly, especially among dogs in close quarters. Fast and accurate diagnostics enables the selection of proper management. Our objective was to develop a sensitive and specific real-time PCR for detection of B. bronchiseptica in samples from dogs with respiratory signs. A genome comparison program was used to select a sui...

 Shubhada K Chothe, Bhushan M Jayarao and Suresh V Kuchipudi

...rocesses including viral infections. Cellular and virus encoded lncRNAs are emerging as novel regulatory factors which can escape the anti-protein environment in the virus infected cells and are likely to be conserved across the species. Here, we summarize our current knowledge about the role of lncRNAs in influenza virus infection and the exciting prospect of exploiting lncRNAs as targets to develop novel anti-viral therapi...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1, Faizah Abood2, Yusof Bin Ibrahim3

...ysed. Beauveria bassiana infection was in range of 27-30ºC. Based on these findings, it is concluded that B. bassiana has promising potential as microbial control agent against A. sciodoxa and should be exploited under field conditions.

...

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...tian disease virus (ADV) infection in mink typically cause hypergammaglobulinemia, plasmacytosis and immune complex disease. Due to lack of success in eradicating Aleutian disease (AD) by stamping out, a new strategy for disease control with focus on evaluation of disease progression has been proposed. For estimation of antibodies in serum and dried blood samples collected from mink, a VP2 ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) syste...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...nd effectively to exotic infections. Emergence and re-emergence of FMD virus genotypes/lineages has been detected necessitating frequent replacement of the vaccine strains. The present review summarizes the knowledge generated in epidemiology, diagnosis and surveillance of the disease in the Maghreb countries.

...

Mohammed M. Islam1, 3 *, Damian F. J. Purcell2 and George Kannourakis1,3

...cause of uncharacterized infections but also to estimate the dynamics of viral population in the infected hosts. Several recent methodologies and chemistries have been proposed for viral diagnostics with variable outcomes and successes. In this review, we discuss a novel approach to identify the least transcripts of viral genomes using suppression subtractive hybridization that can be adapted to unanimously identify viruses of diverse genetic backgrounds. ...

Ashley C. Banyard1* and Satya Parida2

...influence the outcome of infection with both viral and host genetics being thought to influence the outcome of disease. Following the successful global eradication of rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus has also been targeted for global eradication by the OIE. Whilst the tools are available to attempt eradication there are a number of factors that will influence the strategy taken to progress with the aim of eradication. Here we desc...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

... active PPR virus (PPRV) infection was confirmed by antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR in both swab and body tissue samples. The molecular characterization revealed clustering of the PPRV within lineage IV with significant substitutions in the nucleoprotein (NP) gene. Genetic variations within NP gene, and possibly in other proteins which are essentially mediating protective immunity, may explain the extreme infectious nature of the virus and its host-specific p...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...e juveniles (J2) (95.8%) infection. In greenhouse experiment, similar trend was found. L. muscarium proved to be more effective against M. hapla whereas S. rugosoannulata and C. rosea showed better results among other tested fungi in experiments. Moreover, plant growth parameters were also improved due to antagonistic relationship of fungi and nematodes in soil.

...

Felwa A. Thagfan1, Mohamed A. Dkhil1,2* and Saleh Al-Quraishy1

...ria paillata induced infection in mice jejunum. Three different doses, 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg were used after infection of mice with sporulated oocysts. A dose of 300 mg/kg reduced the number of oocyst output in mice faeces by about 56.8 % and also improved the body weight. In addition, the root extract decreased the number of parasitic stages and the number of goblet cells in the jejunal villi in the infected mice. More...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...of bacterial “suprainfection” with tolerance to antibiotics has attracted the significant attention, mainly due to the consequences of multi drug resistance and potential threat to human health and the environment. With the increasing incidences of antimicrobial contamination, especially in food, dairy products, agriculture and environment, their regular monitoring is on prime interest. Aptamers are synthetic short sequences of single stranded (ss)...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...e larvae and caused some infection after 2, 3 and 4 days. Greatest invasion took place with the highest dose (80,000) with 8 IJ successfully finding and penetrating the larvae. A positive correlation was observed between dose and time and invasion of the host. It is concluded that application of EPN in cadavers may be appropriate in Pakistan because of the non-availability of industrially produced isolates.

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Adedeji A.J, Sati N.M, Pewan S.B, Ogbu K.I, Adole J.A, Lazarus D.D, Ijiwo S.J, Okpanachi A, Nwagbo I.O, Joannis, T.M and Abdu P.A

...sal disease (IBD) and co-infection of CIA and IBD. Infectious bursal disease was tentatively diagnosed in 5,000, 5 weeks old Hy-Line and ISA Brown pullets in a commercial poultry farm in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria with mortality of up to 79.12%. The clinical signs observed were prostration, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, anorexia, trembling and mortality that lasted for 6 days. Postmortem findings include ecchymotic hemorrhages in the breast and thigh muscles, m...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

... the distribution of the infection and transmission determinants for urban Leptospirosis in developing countries. This study aims to source dynamic ecological and epidemiological field parameters to describe a slum household-based pathogenic Leptospira population dynamics simulation model. The model will be analyzed to assess the role of slum-based biotic (human and animal) and abiotic (soil, water and weather) habitats in Leptospira propagation. Influential h...

Taghreed A. Hafiz1, Murad A. Mubaraki1*, Mohamed A. Dkhil2,3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy2

...ard drug to treat herpes infection.

...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...progression of secondary infections. This review gives an overview of the known immunosuppressive strategies of PPRV, among the Paramyxoviruses, as well as the strategies developed by this virus to evade the immune system, focusing on the newly identified factors involved. In the last years substantial progress has been reported in the identification of viral factors involved in the host immunosuppression, although future studies employing in vivo

Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud1,2, Fathy A. Abdel-Ghaffar2, Azza El-Amir2, Gamal Badr3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy1*

...tant role during malaria infection. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that affects many body organs including spleen. However, the effect of Plasmodium chabaudi infection on the spleen of the murine lupus model BWF1with the comparison between live and gamma irradiated parasite was not studied before. A total of 30 female BWF1 mice were randomly divided into three groups as follows: group (I) control...

Rongrong Li1, Kun Li2, Xiaoqiang Wang2, Houqiang Luo2, Gang Qiu2, Hui zhang2, Yanfang Lan2 and Jiakui Li2,3*

Hussain Ahmad1, Inamullah1, Ijaz Ali2, Tauseef Ahmad3, Muhammad Tufail4, Kabir Ahmad5 and Bibi Nazia Murtaza3,6*

...ore susceptible for this infection.

...

Ahmed Samy, Wesam Mady, Naglaa M. Haggag, Samah H. Mohamed, Ebtissam N. AlShamy, M.K. Hassan

...cilitating the secondary infection. Many reports take into account the genotypic and pathogenic characterization of H9N2 in avian species. However little is known about the impact of different strains on the innate immune response. In the present study, using quantitative real-time PCR, cytokines gene expression were examined in response to infection with two strains of Egyptian H9N2 (namely V3 and RSF/1) in chicken peripher...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole, Oloke Julius Kola and Awoyelu Hilda Elukunbi

...certain the impact of co-infection on public health.

...

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

...t high risk of foodborne infections. Escalating antibiotic resistance strived us to explore the alternate option to control mastitis. In ongoing era, bacteriophages are an alternate possible effective remedy. Therefore, in this study the infection ability of three lytic phages SA, SANF and SA2 was determined against ten isolates of Staphylococci and one Micrococcus, isolated from five raw milk samples. Their morphological, b...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...so facilitate control of infections. A total of 50 isolates were isolated from 60 swab samples collected from two poultry processing plants represented broiler carcasses swabs and worker (hand swabs and nail scrapings). Phenotype-based methods for identifying yeast especially Candida species are often difficult, time-consuming and not enough to identify most yeast species. . Molecular biological techniques provide a useful alternative approach. Concerning with...
Kiran Afshan1*, Sarwat Jahan1 and Mazhar Qayyum2
... indicating high risk of infection in sheep. The current study showed that commercial bovine F. hepatica ELISA test is effective in Pakistan for small ruminants.
...

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

...these genes against IBDV infection in susceptible cells. The protection ability of ISGs to safeguard chicken cells against the virus could be potentially applied for vaccine production, better vaccination protocols and infection control in the future.

...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
....11%) pool of concurrent infection with type 2 & 3 was also detected. The adult Ae. aegypti belonging to Shuba Bazaar showed 33% positivity for DENV with minimum infection rate (MIR) 11.1 while that of Wazir Bagh showed 16.67% positivity with MIR 5.5. Similarly, the Ae. albopictus of Shuba Bazaar resulted in 22.22% positivity with MIR 7.4. The pooled larvae showed 3 (17.64%) positive out of 17, the pooled <...
Muhammad Luqman Sohail1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor2, Omer Naseer1 and Muhammad Usman Saleem3
...ed at day 0, 7 and 21 of infection. Results showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and platelets while total leucocytes count (TLC), neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were increased significantly (P < 0.05) which indicated hemolytic anemia. While,...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...ccus aureus mastitis infection, associated risk factors and subsequently their antimicrobial susceptibility.The milk samples were screened with surf field mastitis test and furthered to biochemical analysis. Pearson’ Chi-square test at nighty five percent confidence interval was used to analyze the collected data. Antibiotic sensitivity was checked with twenty four antibiotics by disc diffusion method. Over all mastitis was found 52.5% (63/120) with ...
Sadaf Ijaz Malik1, Kiran Afshan2* and Mazhar Qayyum1
...ntocotyle explanatum infection. Of the 558 slaughtered buffaloes from central Punjab, Pakistan, 18.99% were infected, and morphometric analyses were made of 115 mature amphistomes and gravid eggs with traditional microscopic methods on the basis of standardized measurements. Amphistomes were flattened and stained in Borax carmine, some were sectioned in the median sagittal plane and histological slides of the worms were prepared for detailed morphological ...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...strategies against viral infections. In the 21st century, considerable progress has been made in understanding the available natural resistance in plants against viral threats. The review aims to explain the molecular mechanisms involved in triggering the antiviral resistance in plants. Antiviral RNA silencing, R-gene mediated resistance and host factor related recessive resistance are categorized as most beneficial plant defense approaches used by ...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
... virussubgroup A (ALV-A) infection in free-range chickens in five different cities of Anhui province, a total of 732 serum samples were analyzed through enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) in 2015 and 2016. The diagnosis of avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV-A) infection was confirmed by necropsy, histopathological examinations and PCR analysis. The results showed, 20 chickens as positive for ALV-A (2.73%, 95% CI 1....
Akbar Ali1,*, Khalil Mohamed2 and Fawzia Toulah3

 

...most worldwide parasitic infections of warm-blooded animals including man. In most adults it does not cause serious illness, but it can cause serious health problems in infants, pregnant women and immune compromised patients. Abortion is one of the most serious outcomes in pregnant women. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 162 women of child bearing age were included from Rafha city of Saudi Arabia. Demographic data was recorded. Specific Toxoplasma ...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...mixed compared to single infection. Different serotypes of E.coli and Salmonella could be recovered from dead birds however E.coli (O78) and S.enteritidis were recovered mainly from heart and liver. The recovered E.coli, S.aureus and P. haemolytica isolates recovered from mixed infection cases showed (57.1-100%) resistance to highly important antibiotic group (Doxycycline, Tetracycline, Trimethoprim sulfa methoxazole and Chl...
Shahzad Ali1,*, Heinrich Neubauer2, Falk Melzer2, Iahtasham Khan1, Shamim Akhter3,Tariq Jamil2 and Sajid Umar3
... is a worldwide zoonotic infection in animals including Pakistan. A study was conducted to identify the potential cause of infection in three different cattle farms located at Potohar Plateau in Punjab, Pakistan. A total of399 serum samples from indeginous and exotic cattle were tested for brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and multiplex real-time PCR for Brucella sp., Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis. A t...
Wali Khan*, Ghazal Mumtaz, Saima Bibi and Salma Afzal
... prevalence of parasitic infection in vegetables collected from the vegetable markets in Lower and Upper Dir districts. A total of 520 vegetable samples were collected during April to October 2016. These vegetable samples were screened for parasitic contamination. The results showed that 10.7% of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with one or more than one species of parasites. Intestinal parasites Ascaris lumbricoides 26.7%, Trichuris trichura 19.6%...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1,*, Samia Afzal1, Zareen Fatima1, Sadia Zahid1, Usman Ashraf1 and Muhammad Idrees2
... patients had concurrent infection with serotype 2 and 3. Higher incidence of RNA positivity by PCR was found in males (71%) as compared to the females (29%). The higher incidence of PCR positivity was found in age group of 16-25 rather than teenage (≤16) and older age group (≥50). From the result of this febrile illness study we concluded that males and young people are more susceptible to Dengue virus infection. More...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

...esent study, some milder infection with field strain of IBDV almost a week ago recorded were also found in the control group when challenged with IBDV, IBD vaccines in the presence of specific maternally antibodies of IBD could no induce antibodies titer 1500 with live vaccines were protective against the IBDV. Based on the findings of present study, it can be concluded that all vaccinated group displayed similar antibody response irrespective of the types of ...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
...s lesion scars or active infections among household members. No active cases of dracunculiasis were observed in the present study. However, 11 individuals, had history of affliction by the disease during 1972-1992. All the water samples from drinking water sources tested negative for the presence of Cyclops species. No recurrence of dracunculiasis to an extent corroborates the proclaimed eradication by Guinea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP) from Dera Is...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...Due to potential of H9N2 infections in human, LPAI H9N2 poses serious public health risk. Therefore, development of new potent and cost-effective influenza vaccines is urgently needed to safeguard poultry and to contain zoonosis. The primary goal of this study was to develop H9 plasmid-based DNA vaccine against the currently circulating AIV subtype H9N2 targeting HA gene of the virus A/Turkey/Egypt/1341V/2013(H9N2). The full length sequence of HA gene was codo...

Muhammad Asif Zahoor1, Zeeshan Nawaz1, Abu Baker Siddique1, Sajjad ur Rahman2 and Shahid Ali1*

...gn: justify;">Mycoplasma infections in gallinaceous birds are reported throughout the world and are caused by either Mycoplasma gallisepticum or Mycoplasma synoviae. Hence, in the present study we have detected Mycoplasma spp. from tissue samples collected from clinically sick (60 samples) and apparently healthy broiler birds (30 samples) in a commercial farm, using classical isolation and compared with molecular identification of Mycoplasma
Urooj Fatima1, Arslan Mehboob2, Muhammad Abid3, Muti-ur-rehman Khan4 and Tahir Yaqub4*

 

...suspected for parvovirus infection were collected from different geographic areas of the country. Samples were screened for positivity and verified for CPV using PCR. From a 30% positive samples for hemagglutination, nineteen (38.4%) samples were positive in PCR. Sequence analysis of the selected positive samples revealed that both CPV-2 and new CPV-2a strains are circulating in the domestic dog poputlation in Pakistan. This pioneer research on the molecular c...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...es of nematode and virus infection were also reduced significantly with allamanda spray. Active compounds in allamanda leaves have been separated and identified.Formulated trichoderma effectively controlled soil-borne diseases including root-knot nematode. Mahogany oil spray reduced infestation of stem borer,leaf hoppers of rice; shoot & fruit borer of brinjal and fruit flies of vegetables.Biopesticides (formulated trichoderma) and bio-agents (bracon,trich...

Bushra Afreen, Geetesh Baghel, Akil A. Khan and Q.A. Naqvi

Virus- vector relationship of yellow vein disease of calendula and the whitefly
... virus and showed 20.55% infection and fifteen whiteflies were required for 100 percent transmission. The minimum acquisition access feeding period and minimum inoculation access feeding period for the present virus were 10min and 30min, respectively. Acquisition access feeding period and inoculation access feeding period was 100 percent at 6hr and 3 hr respectively. A pre-acquisition access feeding period of 3hr or more gave 100 percent transmission. Post acq...

S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
...s conducted to study the infection of rotting pathogens on Som plants at Regional Muga Research Station (RMRS), Boko, Assam, India with during 2004-06. The disease incidence (DI %) caused by B. mediterranea was 12% while P. contigus showed 20% infection. Correlating the age of Som plants with susceptibility rot infection was found to be maximum in 10 years old plantation. Keywords: Rot dis...

Sunita J. Magar and D.D. Nirmal

Effect of plant spacings and cultivars on spread of Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) disease
...hani Kranti. The rate of infection was higher at 45 to 60 days after sowing in both kharif and summer while in cv. Local it was higher at 30 to 45 days after sowing. Less infection rate was observed at 30 to 45 days after sowing in closer plant spacing 30 x 30 cm in both kharif and summer seasons also the minimum infection rate throughout its growth period was observed in closer plant spac...

Partha Pratim Ghosh and 2N. C. Mandal 

Some disease management practices for bacterial wilt of potato
...es the lack of incipient infection of bacterial wilt pathogen in seed tuber. Therefore, it is always desirable to obtain planting tuber from reliable source. So, integration between whole tuber planting or seed piece treatment units supervised management may offer better protection from the dreaded disease. Dynamic nature of disease management offers the scope for future modification.
 

 

...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
...sup>th day of post infection for biochemical analysis. The Albumin and total protein values were significantly low (P<0.05) in infected groups A and B as compared to control groups C and D on 5th and 7th day. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly (P<0.05) high in infected groups A and B. On 3rd, 5th and 9th day five birds from each group were...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
... of prophylactic soil disinfection and bio-control, (ii) only prophylactic soil disinfection, and (iii) only curative soil disinfection over uprooting and destruction of diseased plants (farmers’ practice). Results indicated all the management approaches under study performed significantly superior to farmers’ practice in terms of reduction in disease severity (32.8-43.6%), yie...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

... the chicks overcome the infections. In conclusion, our results indicate that vaccination at 5th day old with baculovirus H5+ND inactivated vaccine can interfere with MDA of H5 vaccine and has negative impact on H5 vaccine titer. However, NDV titer remained unaffected under same experimental conditions. These findings highlight the need of country or region specific optimization of vaccination schedules for viral infections ...
Nasar Khan1,2, Fahad Ali3,7, Sulaiman Bahadar5,*, Khalil ur Rahman3, Abdul Aziz3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Daud6, Azam Hayat5 and Mujaddad ur Rehman5
...>Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection is a major health problem globally and more prevalent in Pakistan, which is the main etiological agent of chronic hepatitis B, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis. A total of 659 HBsAg ELISA positive patients out of 16825 patients during July to October, 2013 were screened for HBV by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Out of 659, 522 (79.21%) were found positive for HBV, of which 318 (over all 4.4%) were male, whil...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

... to not only control the infections in chicken but also to safeguard public health.

...
Usman Waheed1,*, Humayoon Shafique Satti2, Muhammad Arshad3, Ahmed Farooq3, Abdul Rauf4 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer1,5
... five times, and this co-infection is common among HRGs. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis among selected HRGs. During a period from September 2015 to February 2016, community-based sampling was done from 134 Hijra sex workers (HSW), 101 female sex workers (FSW), 104 jail prisoners and 48 intravenous drug users (IDUs) through community outreach, peer referring and field sampling. Blood samples were tested fo...
Omar S.O. Amer1,3,*, Mohamed I. Waly2,4 andSaeed A. Al-Zahrani1
...ted intestinal parasitic infections for patients visiting Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, KSA from 2010 to 2014. Our retrospective study estimated a total 775 case out of 11110 case were infected with one or more intestinal parasites, with prevalence rate 6.98 %. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection during the period of study was as follows; Ascaris lumbricoides (n= 205, 1.8%), Giardia lamb...

Jawad Anwar* and Zafar Iqbal 

...ign: justify;">Bacterial infections are prevalent in crops and humans, therefore, the need for novel and effective antibacterial compounds to treat, prevent and resist is highly demanded. Luckily fungi are potential producer of antibacterial natural products. The present study was initiated to investigate the antibacterial activity of Trichoderma harzianum against phyto and human pathogenic bacterial strains. T. harzianum was grown under different conditions a...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
...to human health. The NDM infections are constantly increasing worldwide particularly in sub-continent including Pakistan. These bacteria show resistance to wide range of broad spectrum antibiotics leaving the treatment options limited. Manuka honey is traditionally used for medical purposes including remedy of bacterial infection. However, scientific evidences for its antimicrobial effects particularly against NDM-1 producin...

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

...sented concomitant viral infections of two or three investigated agents. The relative high frequency of occurrence of the studied viruses both in single or concomitant infection emphasizes the need for continued monitoring of poultry flocks to better understand its epidemiology and understanding the impact of one virus on the pathobiology of second virus 

...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...inuous exposure to viral infection. Respiratory viruses including influenza virus, coronaviruses and herpes viruses are important pathogens that cause significant losses in the poultry industry. However, successful establishment of infection in the respiratory tract switch on the pathogen recognition by innate immune receptors and establish first line of defense against viral infections. W...

Rabia Tahir1*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muti-u-Rehman Khan2, Farah Khan1, Hassan Bin Aslam1 and Arslan Mehboob

..., 21 and 30 days of post-infection with AAV-4. The presence of AAV-4 DNA was detected through PCR. Chicks from virus-challenged breeders failed to show a clear and expected PCR positivity. The connotations derived from these findings are that vertical transmission via transovarian route is reported the field conditions. However, based on genetic detection such evidences are lacking. The molecular mechanism and establishment of latent i...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali

...ibility to Agrobacterium infection by investigating different parameters such as embryo physiological age, co-cultivation period, addition of L-cysteine in co-cultivation medium, heat shock to immature embryos prior to infection, resting stage and Agrobacterium strains that deliver T-DNA into plant cell from which whole plant can be regenerated. The results indicated that optimal embryo physiological age is 15 and 18 days af...
Xue-yang Wang1, Shang-zhi Zhang1, Ming-hui Liu2, Dong Yu1, Yan Ma1, Dong-qiong Fei1, Hai-zhong Yu1 and Jia-ping Xu1,*
...ic line) following BmNPV infection as compared to P50 (susceptible strain), which was further validated in the midgut of A35 (resistant strain). The expression levels of BmARM-like protein showed similar trends with transcriptional levels in the midgut following BmNPV infection. Based on the analysis above, we speculated that BmARM-like is involved in response against BmNPV infection
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
...opcorn disease, a fungal infection is reportedly known to affect the production of mulberry, however, there is no known research data available regarding the effects of popcorn infected leaves on silkworm performance. One group of silkworms was fed infected mulberry leaves and the second silkworms group was given control mulberry leaves that were infection free. Results showed that infected leaves exhibited limited toxicity ...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

...tes through subcutaneous-infection. Out of 81 E.coli isolates, the most prevalent gene detected was ompA (90.12%), followed by ETT2 (69.14%), irp2 (54.32%), EAST1 (46.91%), CS31A (41.98%), estB (19.75%), eaeA (14.81%), estA (12.35%) and K88 (1.23%), while others were negative. The result showed that the main serotypes of E. coli were O8, O64, O138, O157, O139 and O141, accounting for ...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Aly Khan3
...div>Intestinal protozoan infections remain a public health problem in low and middle-income countries. The current study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of potentially pathogenic intestinal protozoan parasitic infection in farmers, education concerned and shepherds of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration...
Rana Hanan1*, Muhammad Waqar Shafi1, Sumair Anwar2 and Numrah Nawaz1
...and are as common as flu infections by affecting 1 in every 5 persons. In order to determine frequency of hypertension and pre-hypertension among medical students and their association with various variable and fixed risk factors, this study was designed. The cross sectional study of 4 months was carried out on the students of Shalamar Medical and Dental College. Students were aged from 18-25 years and a sample of 100 students was enrolled by stratified random...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
... 3.59% (25/696) as mixed infections, suggesting EIV current and active circulation in equine population of Pakistan. Statistical analysis suggested predicting variables including “local equine density per 2 KM”, “equines workings in ponds and rivers”, and “geography of the equine” were significantly (P<0.05) associated with seroprevalence of EIV. Our findings of the EIV occurrence in equine population in Pakistan, suggest...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

...ecially during during co-infections of respiratory pathogens. However, impact of co-infections is not well known, especially in broilers. The current study was aimed to assess the probable synergism of E. coli (O78) and velogenic Newcastle disease virus in the broiler model. Three-week-old commercial broilers were inoculated with either vNDV, E. coli serotype O78 or both agents simultaneously or 3 days apart. T...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz3
...pis nana (tapeworms) infections among farmers, education concerned and shepherds of Swat, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. Two hundred and twenty one (21.2%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal tapeworms. Seventy seven (7.39%) of the participants were infected with single parasite and one hundred forty four (13.8%) with mu...
Justyna Batkowska1,*, Lukasz Wlazlo2, Kamil Drabik1, Bozena Nowakowicz-Debek2, Karrar I.A. Al-Shammari3 and Magdalena Gryzinska1
...i>) for hatching eggs disinfection. 420 eggs were randomly divided into 3 groups (150 pcs each). 1st group was not disinfected (NC – negative control), the 2nd one was disinfected with formaldehyde and KMnO4 fumigation (PC - positive control). In 3rd group fresh juice of red grapefruit was used as disinfectant (GT). Eggs were incubated under standard condition. On 14th day eggs were candled to determ...

 Nasreen Sultana* and A.Ghaffar**

...d rot, seedling and root infection on bottle gourd was studied in vitro and in vivo. Carbendazim and Topsin-M completely inhibited the growth of L. theobromae in vitro at 50 ppm whereas Aliette, Benlate, Mancozeb, Ridomil and Vitavax showed complete inhibition of colony growth at 100 ppm. Invariably all fungicides at three different concentration viz., 1, 2, 3 g (a.i.) kg-1 seeds reduced the recovery of the seed borne fungi. The most effective seed treatments ...

 Mohammad Siddique Munawar, Shazia Raja, Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure* and Muhammad Barkat**

...owed visual signs of AFB infection. Twenty four hives positive for AFB were identified from the apiary (4 colonies in each replicate). Half of the colonies were treated with shook swarm method while other half were left without any treatment. The treated colonies showed significant difference from untreated colonies (t test, P< 0.005) and moribund colonies got recovered with increased bee population while the control colonies collapsed. It is therefore conc...

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

...troenteritis is a common infection in young dogs and is caused chiefly by canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine parvovirus (CPV). While, CPV is considered the most important cause of diarrhea, studies have shown an increasing prevalence and importance of CCoV around the world. Fatal CCoV infections have been described, however, there is limited information on the molecular diversity of CCoV in many parts of the world. In this...

 A. N. Naqvi and K. Fatima*

INCIDENCE OF LIVESTOCK DISEASES IN NOMAL AND NALTAR VALLEYS GILGIT, PAKISTAN
...were digestive diseases, infections, mastitis, reproductive diseases, endoparasites, ectoparasites, wounds, hematuria, respiratory diseases, emaciation, hemorrhagic septic-emia, tumour, blue tongue, cow pox, enterotoxaemia, tetanus, paralysis and arthritis. In precise, endoparasites were found in 25.3% animals followed by respiratory diseases (24.74%). Most of the cattle (2053) and sheep (926) were found affected with endoparasites, whereas most of the goats (...

 Maqsood Qamar*, S. Dilanawaz Ahmad Gardazi**, Riaz-ud-Din*, Muhammad Sohail* and Syed Haider Abbas*

PARTIAL RESISTANCE TO STRIPE RUST AND ITS EFFECT ON SUSTAINABILITY OF WHEAT YIELD
...8 and NR 285) showed the infection type (IT) less than 7 (incompatible reaction) to the mixture of prevailing stripe rust inoculums. Very low level of DS and AUDPC were recorded in the remaining cultivars/lines indicating a high level of partial resistance to stripe rust compared to the susceptible check cultivar, Inqalab 91. Among eight cultivars/lines that showed compatible type of reaction (IT ≥7), one was resistant (relative AUDPC ≤ 20% of Inqalab 91...

 S. Talat Gilani*, Shahid Hameed* and Hussain Shah* 

OCCURANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POTY VIRUSES INFECTING GARLIC IN PAKISTAN
...sease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. Altogether 690 samples were collected from 29 locations of Punjab and 40 locations of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa to determine the prevalence of Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV) and Leek Yellow Stripe Virus (LYSV). Serological testing DAS-ELISA technique was used to test the samples collected from the farmer fields. Based on the DAS-ELISA poty viruses OYDV and LYSV were detected from both province...

 Muneeb Zafar*, Tahir Mehmood**, Irfan Ahmad Baig**, Abdul Saboor** Mazher Abbas***, Shumaila Sadiq** and Khalid Mahmood****

ANALYTICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF NON-OPTIMAL USE OF PESTICIDES AND HEALTH HAZARDS FOR VEGETABLE PICKERS
...he, eye irritation, skin infection, cough and shortness of breath. Health cost consists of costs related to precautionary measure, medication, traveling, the opportunity cost of attended persons and productivity loss. The mean health cost of vegetable pickers in the study area was about Rs. 385 per picker per year. Health cost model was used to measure the health cost of vegetable pickers. The regression results showed that pesticides were being applied non-op...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Muhammad Kashif Prince1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*, Mian Saeed Sarwar2, Hazrat Ali2, Tahir Usman2, Asadullah Khan2, Siffat Ullah Khan3 and Shahid Zaman5
...een known to cause human infection. Three hundred and sixty fecal samples (n=360) were collected through convenient sampling from apparently healthy lambs and were examined using the modified Ziehl Neelsen acid fast staining. Prevalence was calculated along with different risk factors associated with the disease (month, age, sex and season). Results showed highest prevalence (P < 0.05) of the Cryptosporidium in Kohat (33.33%) followed by Lakki Marwat...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
... the dynamics of malaria infection relative to Anopheles mosquito abundance, relative humidity and temperature in Nsukka, Nigeria. Hospital records from three hospitals in Nsukka town: Bishop Shanahan Hospital, University of Nigeria Medical Centre and Sadiq Hospital were examined for malaria prevalence and intensity from January to July 2015. Indoor biting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected by standard procedures within the study duration. Meteo...
Grace Chinenye Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie, Joseph O. Okoro, Christopher Didigwu Nwani*, Ngozi Ezenwaji, Ndubisi Stanley Oluah and Fabian C. Okafor
...st (76.4%) prevalence of infection; A. degneri had the least (37.5%). A total of 1 563 helminthes belonging to three species Cosmocercoides sp., Capillaria sp. and Philonema sp. were recovered. Mean intensity of Capillaria in A. achatina was 8.33 (5.00 – 12.00 [95% CI]) while Cosmocercoides sp. intensity in L. gracilis was 7.67 (6.00 – 11.00 [95% CI]). Diversity of parasite species in the snai...
Ahmad Farooq1, Usman Waheed2,3, Hasan Abbas Zaheer2,3, Abdul Rauf4, Abida Arshad5, and Muhammad Arshad1,*
...revalence of HBV and HCV infections among thalassaemia major patients. The study was conducted from June – December 2016, at the Thalassaemia Centre, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad and the Pakistan Thalassaemia Centre, Pakistan Baitul Mal, Islamabad, Pakistan. Data were obtained by clinical testing of 1,440 ß thalassaemia major patients visiting for blood transfusions at regular intervals. The confirmatory screening for H...
Ligia Neves Scuarcialupi, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra, Julia Rosas Hochheim, Rodrigo Martins Soares, Fabio Gregori*
...cted in laying hen, in coinfection with RVF. This data contributes to a better understanding of rotavirus distribution in Brazil.
...
Lotta Wahldén1, 3, Ulf Emanuelson1, Torsten Møller2 and Jonas Johansson Wensman1*
...parvovirus (CPV) are two infections threatening the survival of this species. Based on a limited number of animals, live attenuated vaccines have been suggested to provide protective immunity in the African wild dog; however, their use has been hampered by the fear of vaccine-induced disease. Kolmården Wildlife Park in Sweden has used a live attenuated vaccine without any apparent cases of vaccine-induced disease, but no studies to evaluate immune respon...
Jehangir Khan1,*, Rasheedullah1, Bakht Tarin Khan2, Ayaz Ahmad3, Muhammad Salman4 and Khalid Khan5
... was used for active HCV infection. Our study reports an overall prevalence of HCV among 131 (14.55%), 103 (11.44%), and 94 (10.4%) by ICT, ELISA, and RT-PCR techniques in individuals belonging to 5 different age groups. The RT-PCR based results showed 53% HCV infection rate in samples from Tehsil Puran, 23% in Alpuri and 18% in Besham. The gender wise result (non-significant) showed 10% and 10.7% active HCV
Ghulam Muhae-ud-Din1,4, Anam Moosa1, Umer Farooq Ghummen1, Muhammad Jabran1, Amjad Abbas1, Muhammad Naveed2, Abdul Jabbar1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1,3,*
...showed varying degree of infection of M. incognita. Rhapis excels and Ophiopogan japonicas were moderately resistant, Cordyline fruticosa, Hibiscus syriacus and Carrisa macrocarpa were moderately susceptible, Murraya paniculata and Ficus benjamina were susceptible, F. elastica, Artemissia stelleriana and Duranta repens were highly susceptible to M. incognita
Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam1, Iram Gull1, Zaigham Abbas2,* and Muhammad Amin Athar1
... fight against different infections such as cancer and hepatitis with its immune modulating properties as well as through its direct action on target cells. The recombinant expression of some proteins in E. coli produces inclusion bodies which are misfolded proteins. The objective of this study was soluble expression of IFNα2-Tα1fusion protein in E. coli using pET-SUMO vector and determination of its biological activity. SUMO-IFN&alph...
Niamatullah Kakar, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad Shafee and Tauseef Asmat*
...cterium tuberculosis infection. Moreover, the suspected samples were further investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three samples were found positive by PCR test while other detection methods were not that sensitive to detect the tuberculosis at that stage. Two patients were reported with history of tuberculosis but were effectively treated before imprisonment. On age basis, 128/186 (68.88%) patients were of younger age (18-30 years) and 1...

Nashwa Mohamed Eid1, Al-Hussien Mohamed Dahshan1, El-Shayma El-Nahass2, Basma Shalaby3 and Ahmed Ali1* 

... from 3 days’ post infection (DPI), the second 2 set of birds without EOs addition were fed ration containing 0.25% and 0.125% thyme and clove oils as treatment in comparison to an antibiotic control group using for 5 days. The results showed that the use of EOs improved growth performance of broiler chickens especially when used as preventive feed additive continuously. The thyme EO showed better anticlostridial activity in terms of reduced CP counts in...
Jia-kui Li1,2,*, Kun Li2, Zhao-qing Han2, Hui Zhang2, Xiao-qiang Wang2, Hou-qiang Luo2, Yan-fang Lan2 and Gang Qiu1,2
.... The prevalence of BVDV infection in 2012 to 2014 was 45.3% (95% CI: 38.6%-52.1%); 56.0% (95% CI: 49.7-62.2) and 60.5% (95% CI: 43.4-76.0), respectively with a significant difference in the three years (P<0.05). The current result reveal a growing prevalence of BVDV infection in yaks in this area.
...
Muhammad Asim Khan1,*, Shahid Niaz Khan1, Sanaullah Khan2, Abdul Jabbar Khan3, Muhammad Adnan4, Nawab Ali5 and Ijaz Ali6
...were identified as mixed infections. Malaria was most prevalent in the age group 11 - 20 years (61.68 %,) and 40 -50 > (81.63%) years patients. The results also showed that highest infection (72.56%) was found in the month of August and (68.52%) in September, while the lowest prevalence of malaria infection was found in the months of December (7.93%) and in February (12.62%).
...
Hasina Baloch1, Rahmatullah Rind2,*, Muhammad Rafique Rind3, Viram Kumar4, Nazia Baloch5 and Rajesh K. Oad6
...cy of non-apparent udder infection in animals was documented during August (36, 10.90%). The overall higher mean incidence (31.81%) of subclinical mastitis was detected in hot humid summer.
...

Fatma Abdallah1*, Ola Hassnain2, Elsayed Attar3, Haytham Ali3,5, Mohamed Megahed1 and Venugopal Nair

...a, were screened for MDV infection. Pathological findings in the visceral tumours and presence of viral DNAs with variable mitotic figures were observed in the examined visceral organs. Eight samples were screened positive for the major MDV-encoded oncogene Meq which was subjected for alignment and phylogenetic analysis. The eight studied consensus amino acid sequences of Meq proteins possess several amino acid mutations associated with the MDV virulence and a...
Ali Zaman1,*, Abdul Haleem1, Sajjad Ur Rahman2, Adnan Amin3 Asma Saeed1, Sana Ullah4 and Naimat Ullah4
...b>) is highly contagious infection of birds as well as humans which is zoonotic of significant economic and public health concern. From total 650 broilers sera were taken, around the five geographically distinct districts and analyzed through hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for detection of H5 antibodies. Highest sero-prevalence of Avian Influenza (H5) was recorded in district Abbottabad 36.15% (47/130) followed by Dera Ismail Khan 33.08% (43/130), Tank ...
Xi-wen Chen1,2, Qian Wang1,3, Miao Yin1, Zhong-hui Pu1,2, Ai-wei Guo3, Lian Li 1,3, Wen-tao Luo1,3 and Xiong-qing Wang1,*
...economic consequences of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) for the global swine industry a rapid and practical early detection assay is required. This study established a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PRRSV. Four primers were designed targeting the ORF5 gene of PRRSV were designed. Reverse transcription and amplification of the viral RNA using AMV reverse transcri...
Yang Yang1,2, Yun Liu1, Mingxu Zhou1 and Guoqiang Zhu1,*
...n, and host responses to infection. The QS systems and flagellin were coordinately regulated, as deleting fliC caused decreased QS-II activity.
...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
...ection against challenge infection.
...
Muhammad Kashif Munir1*, Sana Rehman1, Rizwan Iqbal1, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Muhammad Aasim1
...nization to diagnose the infection on urgent basis.
Objectives: This study was designed to apply GeneXpert MTB/RIF assays for the detection of rifampicin resistant tuberculosis and validation of assays by comparing with conventional standard drug proportion method. Additionally, to explore whether the assay can be utilized in treatment of Multidrug Resistant TB
Settings: This study was undertaken in Pakistan Health Researc...
Sahar Naz1, Farhan Rasheed2, Muhammad Saeed3*, Shagufta Iram4 and Ambereen Anwar Imran5
...clinicians to treat such infections. Colistin remains the only choice of drug for MβL positive and Negative isolates with 0% resistant rate except for Proteus species, to which it is intrinsically resistant.
...
Faisal Masood*1, Ranjit Kumar Sah2 and Ahmad Humayun Sarfaraz3
...ses (20%) with pin-tract infection that were managed with dressing and oral antibiotics according to culture and sensitivity. There were no loss of reduction 
Conclusion: Our pilot study demonstrates good result with CRPCP (Faisal’s Technique) in volar Barton’s fracture and warrants further randomized control trial study to establish its efficacy in such cases.
...
Naveed Rashid*1, Muhammad Aamer2, Uzma Malik3, Nimra Arif4, Muhammad Waqar Akram5 and Ayesha Irshad6
...and post hemodialysis disinfection were not in correspondence with the level of knowledge representing a discrepancy between knowledge and practice in some aspects of the of the AVF care. Knowledge scores when compared between different age groups, greater proportion of patients between age of 45-65 (p<0.017) possessed good knowledge as compared to age groups of 25-45, 65-85 years. 
Conclusion: Despite good understanding and adequate...
Hanif Ur Rahman1, Umer Saddique1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Kamal Shah1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Farhan Anwar Khan1Fazli Rabbani2, Muhammad Asif Hussain2, Attaur-Rahman2, Irshad Ahmad3,4 and Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*
...nd Mccp suggesting mixed infection. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time on the molecular identification of Mccp and Mmc, and on predominance of Mccp as etiological agent of CCPP in sheep and goats of Northern Pakistan. The results have implications in the epidemiology and vaccine strategy against CCPP infection in small ruminants in the Northern region of Pakistan and therefore, a comprehensive country...
Sana Rafique1, Hina Saqib1, Khushi Muhammad2, Nazia Akbar2, Abdul Rauf3, Muzafar Shah4,*
...ositive for dengue fever infection. Out of 725 positive cases, 410 (56.5%) were males and 315 (43%) were female’s patients. The high rate of DENV infection was found in the age group of 10-20 years that was 133(57.3%) followed by age group of 31-40 years that was 129 (57%) and 41-50 years that was 96 (57%). The lowest infection was found in age group above 70 years. Tehsil Mansehra a...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla

... gene of PPRV from fatal infections in small ruminants. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from suspected animal samples (n=18) and were screened by real time-PCR. Additionally, to assess the phylogenomics, the N gene was amplified and sequenced from sheep and goats (n=12). Nucleotide identity among Hail strains was identified to be 96.2-100%, while identity with previously sequenced Saudi Arabian strains and with reference PPRV retrieved from GenBank was fou...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

... candidate for small pox infection in humans. This virus causes contagious form of disease, mainly but not limited to sheep and goats, which lead to high economic impact in developing countries including India. The causative agent, Orf virus (ORFV) belong to the genus Parapoxvirus (PPV) of the family poxviridae produces a typical papillomatous, cauliflower like external growth around mouth regions and rarely the lesions are found in other parts of the body and...
Safia Rehman1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1,*, Gerald B. Pier2, Iram Liaqat1 and Bushra Mazhar1
... successful treatment of infection. Additional and novel measures to control this pathogen are needed, along with contemporary information about antibiotic resistances that are present in isolates from different environments. In the present study 72 samples from blood, 43 from sputum, and 19 were obtained from tracheal aspirates patients suffering from chronic and acute lung infections admitted to a local hospital in Lahore....

Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus1*, Olabode Mayowa Peter2, Muhammad Adamu Abbas3 and Mohammed Dauda Goni

...and livestock associated infection. The mechanism of resistance development in bacteria involved the integration of a complex systems that included the efflux pump, alteration of drug target site, enzymatic inactivation and, mutation in drug target site and gene acquisition of resistance determinants through horizontal gene transfer. This review focused on the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus. Understanding the concept of resistance developm...
Junaid Akhtar1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Abdul Waheed1, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed4 and Shah Jahan5,*
...>Gram negative rod (GNR) infections cause a substantial amount of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients across the globe. Currently, β-lactam ring containing antibiotics predominantly carbapenems, are considered as last treatment option against multi-drug resistance GNR infections. However, the emergence of carbapenemases particularly metallo β-lactamases (MBLs) in bacteria have severely mitigated the...
Zain ul Abidin1, Aisha Khatoon2, Abdul Whab Manzoor1,*, Nida Arooj1, Sajjad Ali1 and Muhammad Numan1
...ies, a Lyssavirus infection of Rhabdoviridae family, is a potential neurotropic disorder affecting all mammals and humans. This infection spreads through biting of infected and/or carrier animals to healthy ones including humans. Incubation period of this infection is quite variable ranging from a few days which can last up to one year in few cases. This case report presents the dia...
Asad Ullah1, Umar Sadique Khattak2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Imad Khan1, Ibad Ullah Jan2, Irfan Khattak1, Raheela Taj3, Sahar Nigar4,    Naimat Ullah Khan1,Mumtaz Ali Khan5 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail6,*
...>Mycobacterium bovis infection. Data regarding socio-demographic status, risk factors and farming practices were gathered through a pre-form questionnaire. Results revealed that prevalence of bovine tuberculosis was 5.88%. Statistical analysis revealed significant association of age (OR= 3.267; CI = 1.686-6.331) and herd size (OR = 2.600; CI = 1.421-4.760) with CCIT positivity. Similarly, induction of new animals into the herd (OR= 2.661; CI = 1.758-4.028)...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1*, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Dakwang Nalong1, Rengkat Jonah1 and Olabode Mayowa

...nificant source of human infection with T. gondii in the study area through consumption of undercooked meat. 

...
Neelima Gupta

 

...ssful up to 17 days post infection suggesting that ducks were not the final hosts of the worm. Channa punctatus serves as a paratenic host for Eustrongylides.
...

Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1*, Maryam Bisola Adebayo2, Bashiru Shafa Abubakar3, Ibrahim Abubakar Yusuf2 and Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi1  

...ent human parvovirus B19 infection. So, there is an urgent need to embark on mass education and enlightenment campaign to increase awareness of the general populace on the virus and its acquisition.  

...
Zafar Iqbal*, Farah Ansar, Zil-e-Huma
...ic, fungal and bacterial infection. The fish species studied were; Carassius auratus and its six varieties (shubunkin, comet, black moor, oranda, double tail and fantail); molly Poeciliasphenops; platy Xiphophorus maculates; sword tail Xiphophorus helleri; guppy Poecilia reticulata; tiger oscar Astronotus ocellatus; koi carp Cyprinus carpio; giant gourami Osphronemus goramy; blue line shark Pangas...

Riffat Mehboob1*, Sami Ullah Mumtaz2, Zoya Manzoor3, Sajid Abaidullah2, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad1

Deranged biochemical and hematological profile of septicemia patients in Mayo hospital, Lahore
...auses were urinary tract infection (31.68%), bed sores (17.82%), chest infection (12.87%) and wound infection (7.92%). According to this study, diabetes (45.56%) was the main comorbidity of septicemia. Most of the patients were between 51-70 years while septicemia occurred equally in both genders. Major predictors for diagnosis were WBCs, hemoglobin, AST, ALT, ALP, urea and creatinine. Oth...

Nasir Raza Zaidi1, Mian Waheed Ahmad1, Mahesh Gautam1, Riffat Mehboob2*

Risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Pakistani population- A crosssectional study
...sitive history for viral infections. 8 % of the patient had low level of
serum vitamin D and 30% of the patients had positive family history. Current study shows viral infections, smoking,
and hypovitaminosis D as frequently associated with MS.

...

 Zafar Iqbal*, Hafiza Madhia Imtiaz

Parasites of double tail goldfish, Carassius auratus L. imported to Pakistan
...to investigate parasitic infection of imported ornamental fish, double tail goldfish,
Carassius auratus. A total of 25 experimental fish were examined for parasitic infection. One fish
specimen showed head lesion (1x1cm). Eight different species of parasites were observed on the fish.
The gills showed 100% infection by Dactylogyrus sp. and mean intensity was 35.4. Fins...

 Ihsan Ali1#, Asim Aslam1*, Habib-ur-Rehman2, Beenish Zahid3, Ishtiaq Ahmed1

Effect of fish oil on growth performance and immune response in experimentally infected broiler chicken with avian influenza virus H9N2
...st avian influenza virus infection.

...

Saman Fatima* and Shazia Iram 

...fruit leading to various infections or they can enter through various lesions caused by physical stress and worsen the condition. 

...
Ajmal Khan* and Rehan Ullah
... be positive for malaria infection with different Plasmodium species in their blood smears. Male population accounts for higher prevalence rate (14.59%) than female (11.24%). The infection was more prevalent in November (21.4%), December (21.1%) and October (18%) and was lowest in the month of April (6.7%). The highest prevalence was recorded in autumn (36.8%) and summer (30.3%) and the lowest rate of
Muhammad Saqib Shahzad1, Amina Arif1,*,Saeeda Kalsoom2, Javed Iqbal3, Shahnam Shafique2, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem4 and Rafique Ahmed5
... 1b (37.3%), 3a+3b mixed infection (29%), and 1a+1b mixed infection 24.9%. In summary, we found a genotype specific response of drug therapy against HCV. Our findings can guide the local clinicians to inform the patients about the possible effectiveness of drug therapy and to manage the disease with more efficient plan.
...
Tamoor Azeem1,*, M. Yasin Tipu1, Asim Aslam1, Sajjad Ahmed2, Salman Ahmed Abid1, Abdullah Iqbal3, Naeem Akhtar4, Muhammad Saleem4, Aamerzish Mushtaq4 and Sajid Umar4
...led that blood parasites infection in camels results in decrease in PCV, Hb, RBC and PLT values and increase in TLC values. On the other hand, serum analysis revealed increase in ALT, AST, ALP and GGT while decrease in total protein and albumin (p>0.05).
...
Jian Wang1,*, Zhi Liu2, Sheng Xu2, Mei-Fen Hu2, Xiao-Rui Liu1 and Wen-Jie Cai1
...ils of the patients with infection were (136.048±15.551) pg/mL and (1.391±0.119) lgcDNA/lgGAPDH, and were significantly higher than those in the cases without infection (t=3.2901, P= 0.023; t=3.3701, P=0.0018). After treatment of Hemodialysis for 12h, CXCL8 and mRNA levels in peripheral blood of the patients were decreased very rapidly, and mainly found in the patients with

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

...Helminths cause multiple infections in animals of significant economic importance. Haemonchus contortus, (helminths worm), is highly infectious parasite of small ruminants, and is a major cause of diseases and significant mortality in various cattle, sheep, deer, buffalo and goat, etc. Various synthetic anthelmintics have been used, on wide scale, to control the helminths infections.But the parasite worms have develop...

Omer Baris Ince* 

...e region and the risk of infection and given information on the immune ratio of the animals. As a result, prevalence was observed to be 6.6% for breeding enterprises, 13.3% in bovine animals and 1% in ovine animals individually. Prevalence was found 13.3% throughout Konya. Generic immune ratio in bovine animals was found 58.8% for serotype O and 61.1% for serotype A; and in sheep, 51% for serotype O and 55% for serotype A. Difference was detected to be signifi...

Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Syed Burhan-ud-Din2, Muhammad Fahad Khan1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Naila Ilyas1

...ive in suppressing plant infection as compared to infected control, but the most promising outcome of treatments was observed when SA and BTH were applied at the concentration of 5mM and 150mg/L respectively. Three weeks’ analysis of treated mungbean leaves with SA and BTH exhibited peak accumulation of phenols and defense related enzymatic antioxidants. Highest enzymatic activity was observed in treated plants followed by inoculation with MYMV. Increase...

Muhammad Aslam Rajput1,3, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan2, Rehana Naz Syed3 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi3* 

... inoculation method. The infection caused by S. scitamineum and subsequent whip smut development has also been greatly varied with the inoculation method. Injection method followed by wound+paste method and dipping method produced maximum disease incidence, highest number of whips, more tillering and less germination. While, other inoculation techniques, including soil infestation and spraying method caused least infection t...

Ahmed Samy1*, Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba2, Gamelat Kotb Farag3 and Ahmed Abd El Halim1 

...ing, that with extensive infection with PPMV represent a potential threat to chickens. Therefore, strict biosecurity measures and control measures at live bird markets, alongside the development of a vaccine may be required to reduce the risk of PPMV1 outbreaks. 

...
Nasira Khatoon1, Aly Khan2,*, S.S. Shahid3, Z.S. Saify4, M. Arshad Azmi1 and Wali Khan5
...arbage bins. The highest infection was recorded on the knees and the lowest on groin. There is need to diagnose dermatoses at early stage by training general practitioners. Scabicides must be applied at bedtime and wash off the next morning and finally if there is a single patient the entire family must be treated.
...
Muhammad Hidayat Rasool1,*, Muhammad Zaheer1, Muhammad Farooque Hassan2, Muhammad Shafique1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar1
...d thus better control of infections caused by these bugs in future.
...

Khadim Hussain Wagan1*, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1 and Abdul Ghani Lanjar2 

...the isolates could cause infection. Maximum plant mortality (46.67%) was recorded in plants inoculated with MPS16 isolate followed by MPS17 (43.33%) and MPS12 (43.0%). Similarly, length of necrotic lesions was also significantly higher in MPS16 (6.67 cm) followed by MPS17 (6.33 cm), MPS12 (6.30 cm), MPS15 (6.17 cm) and MPS 13 (6.07 cm). The predicted isolate (MPS16) was aligned with different species and observed that MPS16 belongs to M. phaseolina isolate. Th...

Manzoor Hussain1, Muhammad Awais2, Farhatullah3, Saiqa Bibi1, Muhammad Rameez Khan3, Afifa Khalid1 and Sajid Ali3* 

...der rust progress curve, infection rate, co-efficient of infection and final rust severity. A moderate crown rust pressure was observed during oat season 2015-16, with relatively late crown rust onset after mid of April. Based on the crown rust resistance response, the tested germplasm was clustered into four groups i.e., G1 contained eight, G2 contained three, G3 contained two and G4 contained three genotypes. Group 1 could...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1, Batim Turdam1, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Waziri Ibrahim Anjili2 and Mayowa Olabode2 

...actors for endoparasitic infections in donkeys at Ganawuri district market, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal and blood samples were collected from 300 donkeys and analyzed using a standard laboratory procedure. Coprological examination conducted using flotation and sedimentation techniques showed that 276 (92.0%) were positive for gastrointestinal nematodes. A greater proportion (70.7%) of the nematodes were Strongyles followed by mixed
Muhammad Zain Saleem1,*, Raheela Akhtar1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Adeel Manzoor1, Bilal Ahmed Shah3, Rais Ahmed4 and Muhammad Yasin5
...n risk factors for cross-infection of Brucella species in their non-specific hosts. B. abortus could be identified as causative agent of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Pakistan. Results of this study can be used for the development of effective eradication and control strategies for brucellosis in small ruminants.
...
Sumreen Hayat1,6, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique2, Bilal Aslam1, Habibullah Nadeem2, Asma Ashraf3, Muhammad Saqalein1, Mohsin Khurshid4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Saima Muzammil1,*
...comial and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pediatric and adult population. The ESBL producing K. pneumoniae present an alarming situation for clinicians by limiting the treatment options. We aimed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern and characterization of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae isolated from children of different age groups. K. pneumoniae isolated from blood and urine samples were identified through API®...
SiRui Wang1,2, Fekede Regasa Joka1,2, XiaoLong Wang1,2,* and SuYing Bai2,*
... risk of avian influenza infection in the tested wild birds.
...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...pping or controlling NDV infections among Egyptian poultry farms. On the other hand, the vaccination strategy depending on such vaccines may lead to the emergence of new variants and, consequently, the emergence of a different evolutionary pattern of NDV in Egypt. Therefore, it is necessary to test if genotype II-based vaccines apply unique selective pressures on NDV glycoproteins and their role in changing the NDV evolution in Egypt. 

...
Fan Yi1,2, Xiaobin Yang1, Shigen Ye1, Hua Li1 and Ruijun Li1,*
...Edwarsiella tarda infection; and the relative protection ratios were 60% and 50%, respectively. It was also obtained that interval feeding experiments also significantly boost non-specific immunological function of P. olivaceus compared with continues feeding experiments, HCT application in P. olivaceus farming potentially enhances P. olivaceus resistance against E. tarda infection.
...

Muhammad Usman Ghani1*, Muti Ur Rehaman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Zubair Shabbir2, Li Bo3 and Naveed Anwar4 

...rds the establishment of infection. Contagious Ecthyma is an extremely contagious, highly communicable, economically important viral disease of skin that affects most of animals. The purpose of current study was to establish and familiarize a precise and rapid detection approaches with molecular diagnostic tool. The method relies on periodically thermo cycling heating and cooling of DNA in presence of certain chemical reagents. In order to detect and different...

Mehboob Arslan* and Xin Yang 

...ry to successfully cause infections. In order to succumb hosts, viruses have evolved strategies to manipulate specific cellular metabolic pathways that aid the production of viral particles. Viruses need to breach a complex network of metabolic intrinsic factors and microenvironment established within the host cells. The pressure exerted by invading pathogen disrupts the internal balance and dictate the host-pathogen niches. For absolute survival, proliferatio...
Shamsudin Bojang1, Idris Abd Ghani2, Jugah Kadir1, Adamu Saidu Paiko1, Yasir Iftikhar3 and Muhammad Kamran3,4,*
...Meloidogyne graminis infections on the turf grasses. Samples were collected based on the sparsely growth and chlorotic appearance of the greens. A total of 36 soils and roots sample were collected. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to identify the parasitic nematode. Both the field symptoms and SEM micrographs confirmed that the nematode isolate was M. graminis. Since this nematode has been known to damage the greens and other plants in ot...
Iram Liaqat1,*, Nazish Mazhar Ali2, Najma Arshad3, Riffat Iqbal1 and Zain-ul-Abideen1
...iodontitis and abdominal infections. Ten soil samples were collected and screened by morphological and biochemical study. Only one strain DUV1 was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as D. vulgaris (accession number: KY698020). It showed significantly reduced biofilm formation (52%; p<0.05) by test tube method compared to liquid interface coverslip assay (35%) and congo red assay. D. vulgaris was treated with various concentrations (5, 40, 8...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosad, Fatema Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali Abdel Maged, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...ion especially with a co-infection with other circulating pathogens. In this study, 1026 confirmed positive H9N2 cases by RT-PCR out of 23182 different examined samples of different species and sectors in Egypt, with a prevalence rate 4.4% by the year 2015/2016. However, the LPAI H9N2 showed a wide range distribution with high geo-prevalence rate in 2015/2016 (96.3%) as positive cases were recorded in 26 governorates., the positive samples were distributed in ...
Wafaa M. Hikal1,2,* and Hussein A.H. Said-Al Ahl3
...is responsible for human infection. In inappropriate conditions, it forms cyst with high levels of resistance to disinfection methods. The aim of this study was to isolate the pathogen from the dental units and hospital water network and treatment of Acanthamoeba with Trachyspermum ammi essential oil that have the ability to kill cysts. The amoebicidal activity of T. ammi oil was determined in vitro.<...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosaad, Fatma Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan  

...ion especially with a co-infection with other circulating pathogens. In this study, a total of 23182 cloacal and tracheal samples were collected from suspected cases between 2015 and 2016 and submitted to the Reference laboratory of veterinary quality control on poultry production (RLQP) from different poultry sectors and bird species which are distributing all over the Egyptian governorates for examination of LPAI (H9N2) virus by real time RT-PCR. The resu...
Tariq Mukhtar1,* and Muhammad Arshad Hussain2 
... and suppressed nematode infections at all inoculum levels and therefore, recommended for cultivation in root-knot nematode infested fields to abate yield losses and repress the nematode from further multiplication. 
...

Shaikh Abdul Lateef, Zhou Lin, Wu Jian, Junjie Qian, Jonathan Hartanto Tan and Zheng Shusen*
 

Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1, Samia Afzal1,*, Zareen Fatima1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...outbreak of dengue viral infection, started in the commencement of year 2013 and continues to infect Pakistani population till now.
...
Aqsa Javaid and Nageen Hussain*
...the basis of confirm HIV infection and 25 healthy controls as well. First genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood and then amplified by using specific designed primers. Gradient PCR was performed and the product length was 197 bps which was further analyzed on 1% agarose gel. Sequencing was done through genetic analyzer (3500 ABI). No mutation was observed in FOXP3 gene exon 1of Pakistani HIV patients.
...
Qudrat Ullah1,8,*, Huma Jamil1, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Shakeeb Ullah1, Tariq Jamil2, Iahtasham Khan3, Shahbaz Bashir4, Qudratullah5, Inamullah Wazir6M. Abdus Sallam1 and Muhammad Zubair7
...is is worldwide zoonotic infection. A total of 384 serum samples were collected from cross bred dairy cattle at three different private farms located in Gujranwala, Pakistan. The samples were analysed by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and by indirect-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA). The overall seroprevalence was found to be 28.90 and 27.86% by RBPT and iELISA, respectively. Previous history of animal reproductive disorders was found to be significan...
Zil-e-Huma1, 2, Abdul Malik Tareen3, Kaleem Ullah3, Tauseef M Asmat4,Abdul Samad4Asim Iqbal2, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa3*,Irshad Ahmad5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman6
...ified in 11% cases of co-infection. Results showed that children with less than two years of age were affected significantly. However, gender had no significant effect on acquiring diarrhea. In conclusion, pathogen spectrum of pathogenic E. coli is EAEC strain. Children under one year of age were affected significantly, and no significant effect was observed when data was stratified on gender base. Further studies are required to investigate the other p...
 

Aftab Shaukat1,*, Khalid Medmood3, Irfan Shaukat2, Tauseef ur Rehman3, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem1,5, Ashar Mehfooz1, Muhammad Ijaz Saleem1, Zia-ud-Din Sindhu1, Shahid Ali Rajput4, Mubashar Hassan1,4, Saqib Umar1, Muhammad Ali Jamil1, Rao Zahid Abbas1 and Anas Sarwar Qureshi1

 

...ood smears showed 10.84% infection of cattle with Anaplasma. A. marginale positive cases were further confirmed through PCR. Among risk factors, age (χ2=19.35, P value=0.001), breed (χ2=29.08, P value=0.000), frequency of acaricidal treatment (χ2=18.56, P value=0.001), number of cleaning times (χ2=16.11, P value=0.002), feeding system (χ2=23.41, P value=0.001), floor pattern (&ch...
Ghaleb Adwan*, Sami Bdir and Kamel Adwan
... laboratory experimental infections to clarify the complete life cycle for these larval trematode species.
...
Muhammad Tariq Adnan Khan*, Tariq Mukhtar and Muhammad Saeed
...al Jamak. Similarly, the infection of M. javanica caused an increase in root weights of all the cultivars. The increase in root weight was the minimum in cultivar Brinjal Jamak while it was the maximum in case of Round Black followed by Global Brinjal PPL. Regression analysis showed positive and significant relationships between number of galls and reductions in shoot and root lengths and weights. As the plants of moderately resistant cultivar Brinjal J...
Muhammad Saeed1,2,*, Tariq Mukhtar1 and Malik Abdul Rehman3
... new roots from nematode infection.
...

Chukwuemeka Calistus Okolo1*, Ikenna Onyema Ezeh2, Chinelo Nnenna Uju3 and Nwakaego Ernestina Nweze1 

... clinical outcome of the infection

...
Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Shahid Yousaf1, Salman Khurshid1*, Qurrat Ul Ain Akbar1, Saqib Arif1, Nasreen Fatima2 and Ali Murad Rahoo3
...14 to 8.5% due to fungal infection. Whilst, the infected samples had increased sugar to acidity ratio. The correlation coefficient (r) has also confirmed the influence of fungal disease on postharvest physiological disorders and organoleptic properties. The overall acceptability of citrus had strong relationships with pH (r = -0.95**), total soluble solids (r = 0.96**), Acidity (r = 0.93**) and sugar/acid ratio (r = -0.93**)....
Gul Afshan1,2,*, Soumble Zulfiqar2, Sumaira Mehboob2, Muhammad Tahir Javed Khan1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,*
...ant vaccines against HCV infection.
...
Abdul Waheed1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Junaid Akhtar4, Muhammad Saeed5, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed6 and Shah Jahan7,*
...ucing gram-negative rods infections.
...
Huma Sattar1, Sehrish Firyal1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Habib-Ur -Rehman2, Muhammad Sajid Hasni3 and Amjad Islam Aqib4*
...valence of mammary gland infection. Despite significant technological developments in animal husbandry, udder infection is still widespread; particularly in large herds that causes high production losses to the dairy industry of Pakistan. Identification of molecular marker sequences that are directly related to immunity against mastitis might be helpful for animal selection trait and prevention of this disease. The aim ...
Uzma Rafi*, Asmat, Muqaddes Niaz, Syeda Shazia Bokhari and Aisha Waheed Qurashi*
...faces showing chances of infection. Present study aims to check biofilm formation and auto aggregation potential of the bacteria associated with cockroaches. For this purpose, cockroaches were captured from house sewerage and two bacterial strains CXA1 (Planomicrobium chinense) and IM2 (Alkaligenes faecalis) were isolated from external surface and rectum portion of cockroach, respectively. Bacterial autoaggregation started increasing after 1 h of...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Naimat Ullah Khan3, Muhammad Asfandyar Khan2, Kashif Prince1,*, Mahboob Ali1, Ghazunfar Rashid1 and Azmat Ulah Khan2
...stridium perfringens infection were analyzed by Chi- square test of association (χ2). The results indicated that Colostrums feeding, hygienic condition and body condition scores of animals are significantly (P<0.05) associated with Clostridium perfringens type A, B and D in both lambs and kids. Besides that, Season with Clostridium perfringens type A in kids, Area and Season with Clostridium perfringens type D in lamb...
Rais Ahmed1,2,*, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor1,2, Iftikhar Hussain1, Muhammad Saqib3, Muhammad Hammad Hussain4, Amjad Islam Aqib5, Haleema Sadia6, Javed Muhammad7, Asma Irshad8, Kashif Prince5, Muhammad Zain Saleem9 and Abdul Whab Manzoor10
...es are at a high risk of infection. In this study, the status of paratuberculosis was assessed in a slaughterhouse located in district Faisalabad, Pakistan. A total of 455 blood samples were collected from slaughtered cattle and buffaloes at random and then tested by a commercially available ELISA kit for the detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Data were analyzed using chi square for ELISA and odds r...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

December

Vol. 51, Iss. 6, Pages 1999-2399

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