Timothy Helton

In a Mirror Dimly: Anthropology and Restoring a Sense of Presence to an Empty World
...nalysis discover in it a model of an objectified universe; and those that assume a universe subject only to natural law find in the religions that they study worlds devoid of others–sterile worlds populated only by selves incapable of meaningful relationships. The essay urges that those who see in religions only objects for analysis participate in the construction of worlds inhabited by zombie-like beings devoid of selfhood. On the other hand, those who ...

Sandeep Satapathy and Rupam Ghosh

...DAC6 is investigated for modelling several intracellular processes that come into action to bring out the viral clearance. The shuttling of HDAC6 takes place from nucleus to cytoplasm and vice versa controlling the overexpression of IFN-beta and ISGs which subsequently triggers virus specific immune response.

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Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...e animal species for the modeling of human enteric pathogen infections, immune responses and for vaccine evaluations. These are the basis for the successful establishment of the infection and disease models for human rotavirus, human norovirus and human enterovirus 71 using neonatal gnotobiotic pigs. The differences between germ-free and normal animals in the maturation status of immune systems caused by the lack of gut micr...

Sajid Ali1, Nouman Badar1, Hina Fatima2

E-mail | sajid_economist@yahoo.com

...d Moving Average (ARIMA) models of forecasting. Using data for 1948 to 2012, productions and yields of both crops were forecasted for 18 years starting from 2013 to 2030. ARMA (1, 4), ARMA (1, 1) and ARMA (0, 1) were found appropriate for sugarcane production, sugarcane yield, and cotton production respectively, whereas ARIMA (2, 1, 1) was the suitable model for forecasting cotton yield. Some diagnostic tests were also perfo...

John Stinespring, Ryan T. Cragun*

... develop a simple Markov model to forecast future rates of religious nonaffiliation. A two-period, two-variable Markov switching model is used which yields a tractable steady state solution and growth path for the share of the population that is nonreligious. The model setup and solution are shown to be both intuitive and determined by three parameter values. The authors illustrate its use...

Rabnawaz1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Tahir Sarwar2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3

...t using dummy-regression model. The difference in means for maize, sugarcane and tomato crop was found highly significant while in case of wheat it was non-significant. This study concludes that the public system remained more productive with high CWP at farm level for all the major crops. However, there is a great potential for increasing CWP under civil system by rationalizing the water allowance.

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Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

...es using the SIV-macaque model of neuroAIDS, the incorporation of
spatial, temporal, and demographic inference into intra-host evolutionary analysis using Bayesian phylogeography allows for inference of pathogen migration between infected tissues and cell types, provides valuable insight into immunopathological processes, and ultimately paves the way for a better understanding of the interplay between viral evolution and pathogenesis.

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Rick Repetti

...be used to ground a model of the possibility of free agency that stands up against four powerful arguments for free will skepticism in contemporary analytic philosophy: Peter van Inwagen’s consequence argument, which asserts that if choices are lawfully necessary consequences of prior events, then they are unfree; Derk Pereboom’s two arguments for hard incompatibilism: the manipulation argument, which asserts that manipulat...

Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde1*, Kayode Ayinde2, Tofunmi Emmanuel Ilori1, Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde1

E-mail | opeyemi@unilorin.edu.ng

...t, ordinary least square model, Cochrane-Orcutt, least absolute deviation estimators and simultaneous equation model. The study further established that the prices of staple foods were inter-related. Also, it was showed that agricultural credit guarantee scheme funds (ACGSF), agricultural policies during structural adjustment period (SAP) and post-structural adjustment period (PSAP) were statistically sig...

Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

Abiodun D. Olabode

...ponses; while regression model established significant relationships between rice yield and farm management methods adopted in this area. Results were presented using charts and tables. The study revealed that; chemical fertilizers, manual weeding and shifting cultivation are essential for rice cultivation in the study area; the regression model established strong influence of farm-size at R-value of 0.64 on the yield of ric...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

.... Different mathematical models were used to assess the losses due to mortality in young and adult sheep/goats, body weight loss in young and adult sheep/goats, milk loss, loss due to increased inter-lambing/kidding period, loss due to increased abortion, cost of high feeding and rearing inputs in young and adult sheep/goats etc. The results revealed that at the annual 10% incidence level, the estimated total loss due to PPR in sheep and goats was INR 5041.5 m...

 Shahab e Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah, Khalid Khan Khattak

...redit adequacy. A probit model was employed to find the important factors affecting access to credit. Results of access to credit ratio showed that small farmers had lower credit access to formal sources compared to medium and large farmers, whereas they had more access to informal sources. Similarly, small farmers have more credit inadequacy compared to medium and large farmers, and most of their credit gap was filled by informal sources. Probit

Koksal Karadas1, Muhammad Tariq2, Mohammad Masood Tariq3* and Ecevit Eyduran4

...easured comparatively by model assessment criteria, such as R2, R2ADJUSTED, SDRATIO, CV(%), RMSE, RAE, MAPE, MAD and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between actual and predicted milk yield values, respectively. Minimum farm numbers for parent and child nodes were assigned at 10:5 for producing the best predictive accuracy in CART and both CHAID algorithms. According to the criteria, the significance order in the ...

Yingbin Wang*, Ting Ye, Xiaogang Wang and Congyu Zhou

...y;">Generalized additive models (GAM) were used to analyze the relationships between the catch of Portunus trituberculatus in the northern East China Sea, and 6 main impact factors, which include the number of main catch vessel (NMV), power of main catch vessel (PMV), number of trawl vessel (NTV), power of trawl vessel (PTV), release number of larval crab (RELE), and sea surface temperature (SST). The results showed that the interpretation ratio (IR) of the 6 ...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

...ults of the inefficiency model reveal that the factors like education, experience and distance from the main market, are the most influential determinants of the technical efficiency in both NonBT and BT- cotton farms. Extension of cotton production required the development of cottonseed that will be suitable for environmental conditions of Pakistan.

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Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

... t-test, binary Logistic model and Propensity Score Matching (PSM) with algorithm of near neighbor (NN) and interval matching. The impact of cooperative membership on small milk producers was evaluated by calculating the values of average treatment effects (ATE) on eight performance indicators. The outcomes of study disclosed that cooperative members have higher farm income, more milk production, reared improved cattle breeds, get better access to veterinarian...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

...using CRD as statistical model for analysis. Lipid profile and serum glucose was significantly improved. Lipid profile and serum glucose was significantly reduced in all treated groups. Mean cholesterol was (157.66 mg/dl), triglyceride (65.64 mg/dl), HDL (58.88 mg/dl) while no alteration in LDL contents. Significantly effect of water based infusion was notice on mean serum glucose (73.83 mg/dl) Observation of the study indicating that water based infusion of W...

Mehreen Zaidullah and Hina Fatima

...adratic variables in the model except for the Oils’ group. The presence of these shifts have been proved in Pakistan and hence there are other factors as well like urbanization that causing these shifts in food demand, apart from the changes in expenditures and the relative prices. Hence, agricultural import and export, and farm related policies should be made harmonious with the changing population statistics and pacing urbanization in Pakistan to make ...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

...most Ideal Demand System model is used to estimate food demand patterns using the Household Integrated Economic Survey of Pakistan for the year 2011-12. Food products are categorized into fourteen groups including milk, meat, fruits, vegetables, sugar, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats, tea and coffee, backed products and other food. Economic factors such as food commodities price and household’s income and their...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...tion dynamics simulation model. The model will be analyzed to assess the role of slum-based biotic (human and animal) and abiotic (soil, water and weather) habitats in Leptospira propagation. Influential habitats would serve as key targets for interventions. To achieve this aim, we have designed a pseudo-longitudinal survey to be undertaken for two years in Kibera slums in Nairobi city Kenya. Human and animal blood and urine...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...loying in vivo infection models are needed to clearly understand the mechanisms developed by these viruses, in particular PPRV, to interact with the host immune system. A better comprehension of this behaviour could lead the global strategy for the control and eradicaton of PPR, initiated by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on 2015.

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Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud1,2, Fathy A. Abdel-Ghaffar2, Azza El-Amir2, Gamal Badr3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy1*

...leen of the murine lupus model BWF1with the comparison between live and gamma irradiated parasite was not studied before. A total of 30 female BWF1 mice were randomly divided into three groups as follows: group (I) control group (lupus uninfected); group (II) live P. chabaudi infected group (lupus + live P. chabaudi infection); and group (III) irradiated P. chabaudi-infected group (lupus + irradiated P. chabaudi-infection). All groups were killed at day 14 pos...

Abdul Mannan Babar1* and Abdul Hannan Nagi2

...ar no practicable animal model of Keloid has been made. Recently a prototype rabbit ear keloid model has been produced by the authors by giving Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 injection, and then skin punch excision on rabbit ear. In the present follow-up study consisting of eight refind techniques, best Keloid was produced by the technique where Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 injection was followed by ventral skin, ve...

Muhammad Shafiq and Tahir Maqsood

... return of wheat crop to model based applied fertilizer B. For this idea, B adsorption isotherm of the soil was developed at the Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during 2013-14. Adsorption procedure was done by harmonizing 2.5g soil in 0.01M CaCl2 solution having diverse B doses (0, 0.01, 0.03 , 0.05 , 0.07, 0.09, 0.11, 0.13,0.15 and 0.17 mg B L-1). Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption ...

Nighat Sultana1,2,*, Shazia Iftikhar1, Nafeesa Qudsia Hanif2 and Iffat Tahira2

...led maize fodder using a model fermentation system and raw materials from different areas of Punjab, Pakistan. A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus were the most dominant followed by A. terrus and A. ochraceous in fresh and ensiled maize fodder. Total fungal counts ranged from 1×103 to 4×103cfu/ml for all species in both fresh and ensiled maize fodder. Total aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) analysis showed that AFB1was ...

Jixue Hou1,2, Xueling Chen3, Jing Wang4, Hongwei Zhang2, Yu Xi2, Jie Xia2, Xinyu Peng2,* and Xiangwei Wu2,5*

..., also more easy to form model of atherosclerosis. Thus, a mouse model of vascular injury is vitally important for researching the pathophysiological mechanisms to restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) as well as translational approaches. In this Experiment, we established a unique murine model of femoral artery injury through a home-made wire. The mouse

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

...mber of transgenic mouse models carrying astrocyte-specific transgene expression of transgene have made significant contributions to understanding astrocytic structure and function in vitro and in vivo, evidence suggests that mouse models are limited and sometimes do not fully replicate the complete spectrum of neurological phenotypes seen in human diseases. On the contrary, pigs, especially mini-pigs, show exciting potentia...

Abdul Baset1, Qun Liu1,*, Muhammad Tariq Hanif1, 2, Baochao Liao1, Aamir Mahmood Memon1,3 and Muhammad Mohsin1

...efer and Pella Tomlinson models and ASPIC (a surplus production model incorporating covariates) contain Fox and Logistic models. The average annual landings of S. longiceps stocks were 38 353 t while the highest and lowest 65 050 t in 1994 and 26 937 t in 2009 was recorded correspondingly. The MSY was estimated using the initial proportion (IP) value of 1 because the starting catch was app...

Bahattin Cak1, Orhan Yilmaz1, Siddik Keskin2, Tahir Bayril3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4*

...-align: justify;">Growth models present a visual assessment of growth as a function of time and predict body weight at a specific age. We investigated the growth characteristics of Colored Mohair goat using four nonlinear growth models. Thirty (n=22 males and n=8 females) Colored Mohair kids were used. The kids were weighed at 2-week intervals from birth to 150 days. The Monomolecular, Gompertz, Richards and Three Parameter ...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

...e level. In inefficiency model grower age, experience and contact with extension workers has significant contribution in decreasing farm inefficiency. However, grower’s family size, his off-farm income and distance between farm and house were found non-significant. The coefficient of education reveals that in study area inefficiency raised with increase in grower’s formal education. In order to increase grower’s productivity government should...
Yusuf Koc1, Ecevit Eyduran1* and Omer Akbulut2
...together with estimating model quality criteria.
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 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

...nd Tripathi. Statistical model included fixed effects of period and season of calving and parity and random factors of animal. Indices values for Wood, Johnson and Hansen, Mahadevan, Ludwick and Petersen and Gajbhiye and Tripathi were 138.66, 75.68, 243.65, 85.84 and 275.41, respectively. Moreover, our results indicated that all indices were significantly affected by period and season of calving and lactation number except that Wood index that did not vary wit...

John G. Bruno

..., 3-dimensional computer models of these top ten anti-idiotypic aptamer candidates showed some topological similarities which suggest common binding motifs. Unfortunately, without knowledge of the hypervariable region amino acid sequences of the target antibodies, no docking simulations are possible to test this topological hypothesis, but the present work illustrates feasibility of the approach and paves the way for more sophisticated analysis that could lead...
Yi-qiang Ouyang1, Zhen-xin Liang1, Shi-wen Huang2, Ying Zhang3, Shao-shi Luo1, Jin-ning Liang1, Jia-fu Li1, Yu He4 and Song-chao Guo1,*
... the tree shrew as an AD model, we examined how well the model recapitulates features of the disease. Injecting animals intraperitoneally with d-galactose to induce acute senility, and then injecting them with β amyloid fragment 1-42 and ibotenic acid into the bilateral hippocampus led to significant learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze test. Pathology analysis of treated animals showed obvious gliosis ...

Neelum Andaleeb, Munir Khan and Syed Attaullah Shah

... and a linear regression model was used to determine factors affecting women’s involvement in livestock farming. Results reveal that women were mostly involved in almost all farming activities. The average composite index value is 4.81 which indicate that women were on average involved for 4.81 hours per day in livestock farming activities. Regression results show that respondent’s age, experience in livestock farming and education, education of th...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

...d vector auto regression models (VAR) along with times series data from 1980 to 2013 for Pakistan to estimate the potential effects of climate change on Maize production. Result professed that average temperature will affect Maize crop negatively bringing about 6% reduction in maize production till the year 2030. Average minimum temperature brought about 9% increases in maize production till 2021. Increase in overall rainfall will also benefits Maize crop prod...

1S. A. Khan and 2S. Jha

Effect of dates of sowing, moisture regimes, varieties and weather factors on incidences of aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in rape and mustard
...Weather based regression models, which had coefficients of determination (R2) being significant at 1 % level of significance, were able to account for 59 to 69 % of total variation in aphid population. It is concluded that weather thresholds as identified and regression models developed, along with medium range weather forecasts of 5 days available from India Meteorological Department (IMD), could be useful to forewarn aphid...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...ords: Disease prediction model, weather parameters, Pestalotia psidii, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Phytophthora nicotianae var parasitica.

 

 

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A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...id. This is a successful model of partnership of private sector-public institutions in biocontrol of the PMB biocontrol which has practically impacted through rise in quality and quantity of latex supply and area increase in papaya cultivation.


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Fariha Imtiaz1, Muhammad Islam1, Hamid Saeed2,*, Bushra Saleem1, Maryam Asghar1 and Zikria Saleem2
...ned using alopecia mouse model. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of higherquantities of carbohydrates, proteins and secondary metabolites in methanol compared to other extracting solvents. Moreover, only ethanol (5 and 10%) and petroleum ether (5%) demonstrated significant hair growth promoting effects (p < 0.05) compared to standard, i.e., 5% minoxidil and extracts in other solvents. Likewise, ethanol (5% and 10 %) and petroleum ethe...

Umer Wahid1, Shahid Ali2* and Nihal Ahmad Hadi3

...stic frontier production model. After running various econometrics software the output of the Frontier 4.1 was found good fit. The findings of the study showed that technical efficiency ranges from 0.83 to 0.99 with the mean technical efficiency of 0.93. The findings further shows that among the inefficiency factors experience was significantly contributing to the technical efficiency of the farmers. On the basis of this study it is recommended that tomato gro...

Naveed Muhammad, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Ibrahim and Salman Khan

...-Douglas type production model is used to estimate tomato yield and identify important factors affecting yield. Ordinary Least Square estimates for the model indicate that machinery, seed quantity, labor, number of irrigation, chemicals spray and fertilizers have positive significant effects on tomato yield. Allocative efficiency analysis reveals that machinery, seed quantity, number of irrigation, fertilizers and chemicals ...
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
...s. The binary regression model has been used to evaluate the effect of different socio-economic variables on the adoption response of different recommended production practice for citrus. Average age, education and experience of the citrus growers were estimated 43.92 years, 9.74 schooling years and 17.72 years respectively. The awareness and adoption of recommended citrus practices was generally good. The results of the logit model

Dilshad Ahmad*, Muhammad Irfan Chani and Asad Afzal Humayon

...d Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Sixty-seven years annual time series data from 1947-48 to 2013-14 was obtained to forecast major crops and per capita food availability for 21years from 2014-15 to 2034-2035. Findings of the study pointed out increasing trends; major crops area, production, and yield except the sugarcane crop as mentioned decreasing trend in sugarcane yield. Decreasing of sugarcane yield in forecasted period is reported to lack of potential use ...

Aftab Wajid1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Awais2, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman3*, M. Aown Sammar Raza2, Usman Bashir2, Muhammad Naveed Arshad1, Sana Ullah4, Muhammad Irfan5 and Umair Gull1
 

...opping system. Empirical model was developed on the basis of field observations to compute the seed cotton yield beyond the application of 200 kg N ha-1. It is predicted that seed cotton yield increased with additional increment of nitrogen (>200 kg ha-1) but it is not significant change in yield per unit increment as compared with previous ones. 

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Yijin He1, Song Ma2, Bo Liu1,*, Ting Xue1, Qunlan Zhou1, Wu Jin1 and  Kui Chen2,*
...d as one of human genome model animal since mid-1990s. In this experiment, we cloned a pair of DNA fragment sequence including complete ORF (921bp) of taste receptor candidate gene T2R1 of T. fasciatus and studied the differential expression spectrum of tissues in combination with bioinformatics analysis so as to understand the possible functions in response to chemical sensation behavior of taste receptors. The receptors when compared with T....
Ali Karabacak1, Senol Celik2, Adile Tatliyer3, Ismail Keskin1, Yakup Erdal Erturk4, Ecevit Eyduran5, Yasir Javed6 and Mohammad Masood Tariq7,*
Tiansen Li1, Meiling Huang2, Zhen Wang1,Fei Guo3,Hui Zhang1,* and Chuangfu Chen1,*
...cell culture) and animal models. Results showed the omp10 mutant was dramatically attenuated for survival in macrophages and mice than the parent strain 2308. With decrease in the spleen/body weight ratios of mice infected with omp10 mutants were noted, inhibition of phagosome-Lysosome fusion was dramaticly impaired, and profound increase of apoptosis rate after exposure of RAW264.7 to omp10 mutants at 12 h, 24 h and 48 h compared to RAW26...
Kulsoom Akhter1, Tahseen Ghous1,2,Saiqa Andleeb3,*, Faiz-ul-Hassan Nasim4, Samina Ejaz5, Zain-ul-Abdin1, Bilal Ahmed Khan1 and Muhammed Naeem Ahmed1
... Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied and found suitable to describe biosorption of selected metals by the isolated strains.
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Saleem Khan1, Amir Hamza2, Farhadullah Khan3, M. Subhan4, Aziz Khan1, Irfan Ali Shah1, Shakirullah Khan Shakir3*
... point using cotton as a model plants, the present study was designed. For this purpose, dry seeds of four cotton genotypes (Gomal-93, Bt-131, Bt-121 and Bt-CIM-602) were exposed to gamma rays with 10, 15, 20 and 25 Kilo Radium (KR) doses sourced from 60Co. The irradiated seed samples were assumed treated seeds while non-irradiated seeds of each genotype were used as control. Field experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) ...
Zuhao Huang*, Meifang Li, Rujue Ruan and Jiawei Qin
...ic trees based on HKY+ G model. The phylogenetic tree grouped members of every genus were grouped into each clade, except the genus Gorsachius. Our results indicated that the genus Gorsachius might not be monophyletic.
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Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...uare test and regression model were applied to analyze the data. The results of study found Rhepicephalus the most prevalent genus followed by Heamaphysalis, Hyalomma, Dermacenter and Amblyomma with the prevalence of 78.50%, 10.33%, 10.08%, 0.67% and 0.42%, respectively. On species basis, R. (Boophilus) annulatus, R. (Boophilus) microplus, Heamaphysalis aciculifer, R. appendiculatus, and R. decoloratus were note...

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

Ghani Akbar1, Steven Raine2, Allen David McHugh3, Greg Hamilton4 and Qurban Hussain5 

...ted using the irrigation modelling software, WinSRFR, to explore irrigation management strategies for improving irrigation eficiency. The study revealed existing average application efficiency of low quarter (AE lq) 71%, 87%, distribution uniformity of low quarter (DU lq) 70%, 80% and adequacy of low quarter (AD lq) 100 %, 90% for NB and WB, respectively. Majority (67%) of WB irrigations monitored were under irrigated while large number (50%) of NB irrigat...

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...er, RNV66, in an in vivo model of human A549 lung cancer. VEGF TrapR1R2 is a commercial anti-angiogenic fusion protein. Our earlier studies demonstrated the anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative activities of VEGFR1(D1-D3)-Fc and RNV66 in in vitro functional assays. We compared the anti-tumorigenic properties of these three molecules for tumor volume reduction in xenotransplanted SCID mice and by histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Our results...

Abbas Ullah Jan1, Muhammad Fayaz1*, Yousaf Hayat2, Dawood Jan3 and Ghaffar Ali3 

...-log-inverse econometric model, representing nonlinear Engel curve relationship proved to be a valid estimation technique for fruit consumption in Pakistan. The results show that quantity elasticity with respect to income is constant for dates, grapes, guava and mango and tends to increase in all fruits, apple, banana and citrus with increase in household income for urban households. For rural households with increase in household income, quantity elasticity o...
Farid S. Ataya,1,2,* Dalia Fouad,3,4 Ajamaluddin Malik,1 Nikolaos E. Labrou,5 Mohamed S. Daoud1,6 and Hesham M. Saeed7
...ofa. The 3D homology model of CdGSTP1-1 showed similar fold and topology with the porcine GSTpi enzyme. Gene expression analysis in five camel tissues was examined employing real-time PCR. The highest level of transcripts was found in the camel testis, followed by liver, spleen, kidney and lung. CdGSTP1-1 was heterologously expressed in Eschericia coli BL21(DE3) as a ~24 kDa soluble protein and showed to be catalyticly active towards t...
Semra Benzer1,* and Recep Benzer2
...rk and linear regression models goodness of fit. The results of the current study show that ANNs can be a superior estimation tool compared to LWR equation. Thus, as an outcome of the present study, ANNs can be considered as a finer method especially in the growth estimation of the species in biological systems. Another outcome of this study is that crayfish of Uluabat Lake well accommodates itself to the ecologic features of the environment and so its growth ...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

...ination test and a mouse model was built to assess the lethality of the E.coli isolates through subcutaneous-infection. Out of 81 E.coli isolates, the most prevalent gene detected was ompA (90.12%), followed by ETT2 (69.14%), irp2 (54.32%), EAST1 (46.91%), CS31A (41.98%), estB (19.75%), eaeA (14.81%), estA (12.35%) and K88 (1.23%), while others were negative. The result showed that th...
Muhsan Ali Kalhoro1,2, Danling Tang1,*, Ye Hai Jun1, Morozov Evgeny1, Sufen Wang1 and Muhammad Aslam Buzdar
...ed on surplus production models. From CEDA Fox, Schaeder and Pella-Tomlinson were used with initial proportion (IP) 0.9 were used because the starting catch was 90% of the maximum catch the MSY estimated value from Fox with three error assumptions (normal, lognormal and gamma) were 3378 (R2=0.590), 3360 (R2=0.582), 3369 (R2 =0.586), respectively, whereas the obtained values from Schaefer and Pella-Tomlinson with three error ass...
Pan Hong, Ruonan Li, Yumeng Li, Hainan Lan* and Xin Zheng*
...e used as a somatic cell model to study the internalization and subcellular localization of porcine growth hormone (pGH), and the results showed that pGH could be internalized into porcine hepatocytes in a time-dependent manner. The results also showed that pGH could be translocated into cell nuclei in a time-dependent manner. In addition, the subcellular localization, according to immunoelectron microscopy, showed that pGH was localized in cytoplasmic organel...
İbrahim Aytekin1,*, Ecevit Eyduran2, Koksal Karadas3, Rifat Akşahan4 and İsmail Keskin1
...ictive accuracy of MARS, model evaluation criteria such as coefficient of determination (R2), adjusted coefficient of determination (R2ADJ), SDRATIO andPearson coefficient (r) between actual and predicted values in fattening final live weight were calculated. To reveal the highest predictive ability in the MARS algorithm, numbers of terms and basis functions were set at 21 and 45 where order of interactions was three...
Sidra Iqbal1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabbsum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
...ction time. The proposed model was found highly significant as revealed by their F-values, P-values and R2 values. Results suggest the efficiency of Bacillus subtilis K-18 for cellulase production from eucalyptus leaves and it would be fruitful for future industrial exploitation in all perspectives.

 

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Telat Yanik1,* and Irfan Aslan2
...ations. However, several models have been presented that elucidate the negative impact of global warming on the aquatic biodiversity. While impact of global warming on habitat is imperative, additional factors such as predation, food shortage or heavy fishing may exacerbate the climatic impacts on the aquaculture biodiversity. Based upon current general consensus among researchers, a global legislation and action-plan is required. Additionally, regulatory auth...

Sajid Muhammad* and Fida Mohammad 

...r 50 genotypes using GGE model. Germplasm was field-tested using alpha lattice design in two replications at Peshawar (E-1 and E-3), Hangu (E-2 and E-4) and Kohat (E-5) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan during 2011/12 and 2012/13.GGE biplot analysis explained 79.89% (PC1=56.57 and PC2= 23.32%) of the total variation. Genotype G19 positioning on vertex in sectorE-3, E-4 and E-5, while G30 in sector E-1 and E-2 revealed their specific suitability to these en...
Yakut Gevrekçi* and Çiğdem Takma
...pproaches which generate model asses the response variable based on the predictor variables. The present study deals with evaluating relationship between egg production (EP) and some related traits by decision tree analysis with Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) algorithms. A total of 1912 EP records of layers which hatched at four different periods were collected from a commercial flock in west o...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

...ase virus in the broiler model. Three-week-old commercial broilers were inoculated with either vNDV, E. coli serotype O78 or both agents simultaneously or 3 days apart. The birds were clinically observed and swabbed daily. They were killed at 4 and 14 days after single or dual inoculations and were inspected for gross lesions. Samples of the respiratory organs (trachea, lungs, and air sacs) were taken for histological analyses. All the infected subjects...
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 
...ltiple linear regression models were created with mid maximal expiratory flow, FEV1, and FVC as surrogate markers for lung function in different models. We found that 28 (20.4%) of our COPD patients were frequent exacerbators. All three multiple linear regression models for identifying risk factors for frequent exacerbations were significant (p< 0.001). The mode...

Ronaq Zaman*, Shahid Ali and Inam Ullah 

...findings three different model was estimated for small, medium and large farms, respectively. The mean calculated technical efficiencies for small, medium and large farms were respectively 0.76, 0.96 and 0.92. This implies that the medium size farms in the study area were the most efficient in resource utilization as compared to small and large size farms whereas the small size farms were the most inefficient in resource allocation. Education has a positive an...
Senol Celik1,* and Orhan Yilmaz2
...On the other hands, MARS model’s finding showed that the dogs which had the values of WH > 51 cm can be expected to have the highest body weights. The calculated model evaluation criteria of CART algorithm was R2=0.6889, Adj. R2=0.6810, r=0.830, SD ratio=0.5549, RMSE=1.1802, RRMSE=6.3838 and ρ=3.4884, respectively, whereas the calculated model evaluation criteria of MARS metho...

Wang Jian1, Abdur Rehman2*, Noor Khan3, Wang Zhengjia4, Ji Peng-fei5, Xie Cong6, Muhammad Niamatullah Khan Babar7 and Raheel Saqib8 

...xpenditure System (ELES) model, Gray relational analysis and the residual test have been used in this study.The results of the study indicates that all the rural households consumption have the increasing trend except the Engel coefficient shows the declining trend from 39.508% to 29.355%.The study of regression analysis, MPC (marginal propensity to consume) and APC (Average propensity to consume) clearly shows that in the study area with the rise of rural hou...

Zahid Akram, Saif Ullah Ajmal, Ghulam Shabbir, Muhammad Munir and Nasir Mahmood Cheema

INHERITANCE MECHANISM OF SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT
...ty of additive-dominance model to account for the data analysis. The estimates of genetic component of variation in all the traits exhibited the preponderance of
over dominance gene action. The estimates of average degree of dominance for spike length (1.139), 1000 grain weight (1.421), number of spikelets spike-1 (2.293), number of grains spike-1 (1.631) and grain yield plant-1 (1.111) evidenced the prevalence of non additive gene action controlli...

 Farhan Ahmed, Hassnain Shah, Irum Raza* and Abdul Saboor**

...to 2010. ARIMA (p, d, q) model is considered for estimation where ‘p’ is the order of the autoregressive process; ‘d’ is the order of the homegeneity and ‘q’ the order of the moving average process. Presence of trend in data was checked through time series plots and stationarity through auto correlation and partial auto correlation functions. Using the ARIMA (p, d, q) forecasts from 2010 up to 2015 were made and production o...

 Muhammad Afzal, Sarfraz Ahmad , Abdul Salam Baloch* and Qazi Bashir Ahmad**

...fy;"> Hedonic price model was used to examine factors affecting livestock price formation while price variations due to time were examined using means and coefficients of variation. A sample of price observations of 725 animals (389 sheep and 336 goats) from Quetta livestock market was collected for one year on quarterly basis with a minimum sample of 150 animals. The objective was to determine seasonal price variation considering the effects of different...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Sehrish Bilal1, Madeeha Khalid1, Muhammad Tahir Nazir1 and A.R. Shakoori2

 

...pose a dissection of 3-D model of A. mellifera and T. castaneum AChE enzyme was studied which showed that change in amino acid sequence of primary structure of enzyme exists at the saponin binding site, resulting in weak interaction for A. mellifera as compared to T. castaneum enzyme protein. Computational studies inidicate that A. mellifera enzyme had a little binding affinity for saponin as compared to T. castaneum A...
Saleem Abid1*, Nasir Jamal2, Muhammad Zubair Anwar3 and Saleem Zahid4 
...an using the best fitted model. Time series data of potato area and production in Pakistan from 1980-81 to 2012-13 (33 years) were used. Five different forecasting models such as Linear trend model, Quadratic trend model, Exponential growth model, S-curve trend model and double expon...

 Saima Rani and Irum Raza*

COMPARISON OF TREND ANALYSIS AND DOUBLE EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING METHODS FOR PRICE ESTIMATION OF MAJOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...nd MSD) were used as the model selection criteria that could best describe the trend of prices of major pulses such as gram, mash, masoor and mung during 1975-76 and 2009-10. Double exponential smoothing method was found to be pertinent for price estimation of major pulses in Pakistan because of smaller values of accuracy measures. Six-year's forecasts of prices of gram, mash, masoor and mung in Pakistan in 2010-11 were Rs.31.80, Rs.84.09, Rs.72.06, and Rs.47....

 Sajida Taj*, Akhter Ali*, Nadeem Akmal*, Shujaat Yaqoob** and Mubarik Ali***

RAISED BED TECHNOLOGY FOR WHEAT CROP IN IRRIGATED AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...dern/latest water saving models to draw some solid method of irrigation with less wastage. Raised bed planting method is also one of the modern methods of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted by the Social Sciences Research Institute, Faisalabad in 2011-12 to assess the determinants of the adoption of the raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted at three sites of the...

 Ayesha Tahir*

FORECASTING CITRUS EXPORTS IN PAKISTAN
...a from 1990 to 2011. Two models of trend analysis were applied but most appropriate model for trend analysis of the present study was quadratic trend model. Forecasting was done from 2012 to 2016.The forecasted export quantities are 1643.13, 1854.03, 2077.80, 2314.46 and 2564.00 thousand tons and forecasted export values are 673.67, 782.34, 898.57, 1022.35 and 1153.68 thousand dollars. For...

 Saima Rani*, Hassnain Shah*, Umar Farooq** and Bushra Rehman**

SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND POLICY ENVIRONMENT FOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...Nerlove's adjustment lag model as the basic framework supply and demand aspect has been studied at the national level, based on the time series data from 1974-75 to 2010-11. Acreage response results revealed that farm harvest prices, lagged area and good moisture availability at sowing time positively influence the area allocation decision of the farmers. But yield for mung and fertilizers price for both pulses were insignificant factors in influencing the far...

 Sajid Ali*, Quratulain Altaf** and Umar Farooq* 

ACREAGE RESPONSE OF FLUE CURED VIRGINIA TOBACCO IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...e Distributed Lag (ARDL) model for cointegration was used to estimate the short-run and long-run elasticities. The study found a long-run price elasticity of 0.33, thereby revealing that FCV acreage response to its own price is relatively inelastic. The short-run acreage response was also low (0.13) and therefore relatively inelastic. This implies that price policy could not be used as the sole instrument to affect area under FCV. The provision of some other n...

 Usman Shakoor*, Abdul Saboor*, Irfan Baig*, Anila Afzal** and Abdul Rahman***

CLIMATE VARIABILITY IMPACTS ON RICE CROP PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...or Auto Regression (VAR) model. Annual seasonal data of the climatic variables from 1980 to 2013 has been used. Results confirmed that rising mean maximum temperature would lead to reduction in rice production while increase in mean minimum temperature would be advantageous towards rice production. Variation in mean minimum temperature brought about seven percent increase in rice productivity as shown by Variance Decomposition. Mean precipitation and mean temp...

 Muhammad Aamir Khan*, Abdul Saboor*, Rauf-i-Azam**, Abdul Qayyum Mohsin* and Fayyaz-ul-Hassan***

IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE LIBERALIZATION ON INCOME INEQUALITY IN PAKISTAN
...tabase and Standard GTAP model to include multiple households and labor types. This disaggregation allows to analyze distributional impacts and to implement policy scenarios that target particular households. The economy wise results showed that agricultural trade liberalization increases income inequality and somewhat detrimental to the rural household types, who guage most of their income from agricultural business. Trade policy must be pursued keeping deriv...

 Syed Asif Imran Shah*, Shah Jehan Khan**, Abdul Aziz Baloch*** ,
Obaid Ullah Sayal**, Kalim Ullah* andShujaat Ali**

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS IN VARIOUS INBRED LINES OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
...ough 6 × 6 diallel model in maize inbred lines, was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan, during 2012. Variance analysis exhibited highly significant (P≤0.01) variation among genotypes for days -1 -1 -1 to 50% silking, ear length, kernel rows ear , kernels row , kernels ear and grain yield. Mean square values due to general combining ability were -1 highly s...

 Muhammad Qasim*, Sonila Hassan*, Arshed Bashir*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood** and Irfan Mehmood*

ANALYZING PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF SELECTED FOOD AND LEGUME CROPS FOR FOOD SECURITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...efficient for all growth models (area, production and yield) of selected commodities were statistically highly significant at 1% level except yield of gram which was significant at 10% level. The estimated annual growth rate of area for wheat, rice and sugarcane was 0.9%, 2.1% and 0.8%, respectively with the production growth of 3.0%, 3.8% and 2.2%, respectively and yield growth of 2.1%, 1.6% and 1.5%, respectively. The results highlighted that the major contr...

 Nouman Badar*, Hina Fatima**, Abdul Jabbar*** and Muhammad Asif*

MAJOR FOOD CROPS PRODUCTION AND YIELD FORECAST IN PAKISTAN
...g Average” (ARIMA) model and data from 1948 to 2011. The data was obtained from Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Islamabad and various Economic Surveys of Pakistan. The result predicts that wheat (production and yield) forecast for 2029-30 to be -1 about 37188 thousand tons and 3454 kg ha , respectively. The rice (production -1 and yield) forecast for 2029-30 will be about 7176 thousand tons and 2630 kg ha , respectively. The maize (production and yield...

 Sobia Naheed*, Irum Raza*, M. Zubair Anwar*, Nusrat Habib*, Naheed Zahra* and Sabeen Siddiqui*

FORECASTING AREA AND PRODUCTION OF BARLEY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... from 1976 to 2011. Four models namely quadratic trend, linear trend, exponential growth curve and double exponential smoothing were compared and the best fitting model was chosen by reason of three accuracy measures namely mean absolute deviation (MAD), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and mean squared deviation (MSD). The values of these

measures were lowest for the double exponential smoothing metho...

 Saqib Shakeel Abbasi*, Ayesha Tahir**, Irum Raza* Saleem Abid* and Muhammad Nisar Khan*

TREND ANALYSIS AND FORECASTING OF WHEAT AND RICE IN PAKISTAN
...and based on statistical models, forecast their prices from 2013 to 2017. Different models have been applied to get the best fit model. These were linear trend model, quadratic trend model, exponential growth model and S-curve model. The minimum va...

 Muhammad Mohsin Raza*, Muhammad Aslam Khan*, Irfan Ahmad**, Ali Ahsan Bajwa***, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam*, Badar Ahsan Ullah****, and Kashif Riaz*

FOREST PATHOGENS AND DISEASES UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE -A REVIEW
...ategies like monitoring, modeling prediction, risk rating, planning, genetic diversity and facilitated migration, genetic protection and breeding for disease resistance and relating results to forest policy, planning as well as decision making, the suspicions innate to climate change effects can be minimized.

...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Umme Rubab* and Abass Ullah Jan* 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER ANALYSIS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
...ting the good fitness of model and inefficiency impact, respectively. The estimated value for Γ was 0.77 underscores that 77% variation in the production frontier was explained by technical inefficiency effect. The inefficiency indices showed that farmers with more schooling years and more number of contacts with extension agents were more efficient. Contrarily, age of the farmer and large farm size have inverse relation to technical efficiency of the fa...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Muhammad Nasrullah* and Noor P. Khan** 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER PRODUCTION ANALYSIS OF TOBACCO GROWERS IN DISTRICT MARDAN, PAKISTAN
...inputs. The inefficiency model estimates demonstrate that only experience of tobacco growers in study area was significantly decreasing the inefficiency of the growers. The study has concluded that tobacco growers are operating in the second stage of production; therefore, tobacco production can still be enhanced. It is recommended that season long trainings for tobacco growers may be undertaken by the concerned authorities to enhance the crop management skill...

 Umar Ijaz Ahmed*, Liu Ying**, Muhammad Khalid Bashir***,
Muhammad Amjed Iqbal*, Muhammad Rizwan*, Muhammad Mazhar
Iqbal****, Muhammad Rafi Qamar***** and Aftab Nazeer******

SPATIAL PRICE TRANSMISSION IN PAKISTAN: THE CASE OF WHEAT AND RICE MARKETS

 Naheed Zahra*, Nadeem Akmal*, Sobia Naheed*, Nusrat Habib*, Sabeen Siddiqui* and Irum Raza*

TREND ANALYSIS OF RICE AREA AND YIELD IN PUNJAB
...curacy measure quadratic model was selected. The estimated results revealed that there is an increasing trend in the area and yield of rice in Punjab. The area of rice was 276800 ha in 2012 and would be 2934280 ha in 2016. Likewise results about yield indicated that it was -1 -1 2438kg ha in 2012 and would be 2678kg ha in 2016. This increasing trend will provide a great opportunity for rice export from the country.

...

 Hafiz Saqib Habib*, Arshad Mahmood Malik*, Abid Ali** and Muhammad Aamir Khan***

SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF RURAL HOUSEHOLD FOOD EXPENDITURES IN RAWALPINDI
...le double log regression model was used because it has an advantage that estimated parameter can easily be explained as expendi-tures elasticity. This model is used to give details of responses in socioeconomic factors to monthly household food expenditures. Regression analysis showed that 23 % of the changes in the food expenditures were due to explanatory variables. Household incomes, marital status of household head and n...

 Tasawar Sultana*, Farah Deeba* and S.M. Saqlan Naqvi*

HIGH-THROUGHPUT AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA IN COMPARISON TO TWO EXPRESSION VECTORS
...Medicago truncatula as a model legume plant for molecular analysis resulted in the development of efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols. In current study, M. truncatula transformed plants expressing OsRGLP1 were obtained through GATEWAY technology using pGOsRGLP1 (pH7WG2.0::OsRGLP1). The transformation efficiency of this vector was compared with expression vector from pCAMBIA series over-expressing same gene (pCOsRGLP1). A lower number of e...

 Muneeb Zafar*, Tahir Mehmood**, Irfan Ahmad Baig**, Abdul Saboor** Mazher Abbas***, Shumaila Sadiq** and Khalid Mahmood****

ANALYTICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF NON-OPTIMAL USE OF PESTICIDES AND HEALTH HAZARDS FOR VEGETABLE PICKERS
...er per year. Health cost model was used to measure the health cost of vegetable pickers. The regression results showed that pesticides were being applied non-optimally in the study area i.e., number of pesticide applications for vegetables (7-31) were substantially higher than the recommended dose. Health cost function was significantly different from zero as 2 indicated by F-stat (32.18) and it is also supported by R that about 70% variation in health cost is...

 Waqar Akhtar*, Muhammad Sharif**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla*** and Muhammad Azeem Khan*

COMPETITIVENESS OF TOMATO PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ty price. Results of PAM model revealed that tomato production in both regions of Punjab has competitiveness under prevailing market situation as indicated by positive private profitability and private cost ratio (PCR) which is less than 1. Competitiveness difference in two regions indicated that Central Punjab has more competitiveness at farm level in tomato production. Economic efficiency results i.e. Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) ratio remained 0.39 and 0.51...

 Ghulam Sadiq Afridi*, Abdul Saboor**, Zahoor-ul-Haq***, Sultan Ali
Tariq**** and Muhammad Ishaq*****

EXPLORING POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PAKISTAN'S COTTON EXPORT
... (RCA) index and gravity model approach was employed considering country and time specific fixed effect. The RCA index revealed that cotton sub-sectors have competitive advantage in export and there is gradual gain in the competitiveness with time. The opportunity exists in the markets of low, lower-middle and uppermiddle income countries and countries those have fair trade (low tariff and nontariff barriers) for cotton export. Greater export potential lies wi...

 Saleem Abid*, Anum Fatima*, Sobia Naheed*, Asrar Sarwar** and Muhammad Nisar Khan*

DOUBLE EXPONENTIAL FORECASTING MODEL FOR DATES PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...selection of best fitted model. These accuracy measures are mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute deviation (MAD) and mean squared deviation (MSD). Double exponential trend was located to be best fitted model among other five models (linear trend, quadratic trend , exponential growth , s-curve and moving average) for estimating predicted values of area and production of date...

 Hina Fatima** and Bushra Yasmin**

EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF PAKISTAN'S FARM SECTOR: A META-ANALYSIS*
...from 1971 to 2014. Three models separately estimated included methodological model, crop specific model and provincial model. These models incorporated the impact of methodological variables, crop specific variables and regional variables impact on Mean Technical Efficiency Scores (MTES), such as parametric, non-parame...

 Ummad-ud-Din Umar*, Muhammad Aslam Khan**, *Ateeq-urRehman*, Abdul Hannan***, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi*, Azhar Ali Khan****, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar****

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF POTATO LEAF ROLL VIRUS DISEASE PREDICTION MODEL BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS FOR FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN
...bsp;A disease predictive model for Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) was developed based on a ten year dataset of disease incidence and environmental variables and validated by two years data collected in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Maximum and minimum air temperatures, relative humidity and rainfall were employed as independent variables while PLRV disease incidence served as the response variable. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to select potentially useful...

 Raza Ullah*, Mariam Rehman*, Maria Anjum*, Muhammad Asif
Kamran**, Khuda Bakhsh***, Abdul Saboor****

NAVIGATING FARMING RISKS BY SIMULTANEOUS DIVERSIFICATION AND CREDIT THROUGH FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
...e and multinomial probit models are used to assess the impact of access to information on farmers' risk management adoption decisions using data collected from 330 randomly selected respondents from four districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. Bivariate and multinomial probit models take into account the possibility of simultaneous adoption of the two risk management tools at the same time. The decisions to ado...

Sher Muhammad , Ijaz Ashraf*, Amir Khatam**, and Naima
Nawaz*** 

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FARMERS AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN ACTIVITIES OF MODEL FARM SERVICES CENTERS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
Waqar Islam*
...via inclusion of various models being utilized worldwide.  
...

Samina Ashraf1*, Ghulam Haider2 and Maimoona Ashraf

..., generate a theoretical model for the ways in which women with disabilities survived and coped with their violence and finally to make suggestions and recommendations in order to reduce the elements causing violence against women with disabilities. In this study, a qualitative interpretive phenomenological research methodology has been used to explore, interpret, and evaluate the personal narratives of women with disabilities about their experiences with viol...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2 and Zafarullah Baloch3 

...strong predictors in the model to increase the knowledge level of the respondents for production, processing and marketing of the dates in district Panjgur.
 

...
David Beckwith Greene
... and the preceding arias models what Nagel is seeking: Both a fresh grasp on the discontinuity between humankind and other moments of natural history and a new kind of continuity.
...

Irfan Ullah, Shahid Ali*, Muhammad Fayaz and Abbas Ullah Jan 

...tive inefficiency effect model, estimates of education and experience were negative and statistically significant which implies that educated and experienced broiler farmers efficiently allocated resources on their farms. Therefore, the policy makers needs to provide education and training facilities to the farmers which are appropriate to rearing of broiler in open shed farms for the efficient utilization of resources and enhancing productivity of broilers.&n...
Ali Haider Saleem1,*, Khalid Javed2, Masroor Ellahi Babar3, Tanveer Hussain3, Asad Ali2, Afzal Ali2, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Zahid Farooq1 and Muhammad Dawood2
...483). Generalized linear model was used to minimize the environmental effects. The variation i.e. “W” type heterozygous condition showed a higher average daily weight gain. Sequence analysis of LEP gene confirmed the presence of genetic variability among Lohi animals; this variation might be associated with other economic traits for future breeding programs and marker assisted selection.
...
Kaori Sasaoka1, Takahiro Kataoka1, Norie Kanzaki1, Yusuke Kobashi1, Akihiro Sakoda2, Yuu Ishimori2 and Kiyonori Yamaoka1,*
Senol Celik1,*, Ecevit Eyduran2, Adile Tatliyer3, Koksal Karadas4, Mehmet Kazim Kara2 and Abdul Waheed5
...ertalanffy and Janosheck models, based on monthly records of body weight from birth to 1 year in Daera Din Panah (DDP) goat. Based on coefficient of determination (R2), adjusted coefficient of determination (R2ADJUSTED) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used. Janosheck model was chosen as the most appropriate model for its highest R2 (0.999)...
Jun-Ying Liu, He-He Liu*, Jie Kou, Yang-Mei Zhao, Ji-Wen Wang, Liang Li and Xiao-Hui Du
...us were examined after a model for immune stress was implemented through LPS injection in Peking ducks. The results from this assay suggested that LPS injection significantly increased the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in bursa of Fabricius (P<0.05), along with an increase in the concentrations of immunoglobulin-G (IgG) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) in the serum of ducks at 1 day and 7 days after LPS injection (P<...
Liumeng Zheng1, Yanmei Wang1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yuanzhao Qin3, Yuming Guo3, Hongxing Niu1,* and Yanzhen Bu1,*
...e used a maximum entropy model with seven environmental variables to evaluate habitat suitability. Our results indicate that the current reserve may be too small to meet the crested ibises’ needs in the future, and we believe that more ibises will disperse outside the reserve as the population expands. The distribution of crested ibises in the Dongzhai Reserve area was mainly affected by altitude, followed by distance to forest, and distance to roads. No...

Murad Khan1* and Muhammad Afzal2 

... and multiple regression model, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent t test were used. The average profit of large size farm was Rs. 85228 followed by medium and small farm that were Rs. 58049 and Rs. 36090 respectively. The results of independent sample t-test indicated that there is no significant difference between the profit of the sole proprietors and partnerships. Further results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that at 5% significance le...

Abdur Rehman1*, Wang Jian2, Noor Khan3 and Raheel Saqib

... the VaR (Value at Risk) model. The practical consequences indicated that the normal distribution model is not appropriate used in evaluating the major crops market risk due to various degrees of market risk in various crops such as the cotton and soybean crops with higher levels of market risk, while the coarse grain rice with the medium risk level and finally the corn and wheat with lower levels of market risk. According t...
Hongqun Li1, Xiaoli Liu2,*, Zhenmin Lian3,RenheWang4, Yongbin Wang4, Yongyao Fu1 andDingyi Wang5
... regarded as the optimal model. The model indicated that nest-site success of brown-eared pheasants was negatively related to cover of shrubs, and first-order interaction between cover of trees and cover of shrub at a height of 1.0 m, suggesting bigger cover of shrubs, cover of trees and cover of shrub at height of 1.0 m were the best predictors of nest success from a diverse predator community. In addition, brown-eared phea...

Saima Rani*, Hassnian Shah, Nusrat Habib and Muhammad Azeem Khan 

...ted by using the probit model. The model contains the information of socioeconomic characteristics, awareness and preferences of organic vegetables and product attributes. The empirical findings indicate that age, employment status, income, education, number of children, taste, no chemical residual, high nutritional value, freshness and colour of the vegetables have positive effects on consumer to pay a high price. While i...
Tengfei Lu1, Wenhua Pei1, Shuang Zhang2, Yangnan Wu1, Fenghao Chen2, Xiao Han2 and Weijun Guan1,*
...rgans were obtained from model animals but rarely from livestock. In this study, AMSCs were obtained from aborted sheep fetuses (1-3 month) under sterile conditions. Primary AMSCs were sub-cultured to passage 25 in vitro. The gene of Oct-4, Rex-1, CD29, CD44, CD71, and CD73 were identified by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence technique. The results showed that they were positive in AMSCs. The growth of different passages cells typically appeared in S curve....
Musrrat Fatima, Muhammad Saad Khan, Hamid Rashid, Asim Mehmood, Sumaira Kanwal, Muhammad Asif Rasheed and Farrukh Jamil*
...e used for pharmacophore modeling, and Zinc natural compounds database (ZND) is screened against the developed pharmacophore. The compounds with the highest pharmacophore fit scores are screened and docked on the identified allosteric site of NS2B-NS3. Analysis of the data showed two compounds (ZINC00845171, ZINC08782519)as potential inhibitors for NS2B-NS3 of ZIKV.
...
Yakup Erdal Ertürk
...termined that predictive models based upon MARS algorithm explained virtually all of variability in the final fattening weight (FFW) for each gender when model assessment criteria (viz. R2, SDRATIO, GCV and Pearson correlation coefficient between real and estimated scores in the final fattening weight) in the current study were considered. SDRATIO estimates of the MARS
Naveed Akhtar1, Humaira Zareen2* and Rubina Sarmad3
...le doctors can be a role model for their patients.
Objectives: This study was designed to access the dietary habits, nutritional status and their association in young adolescent female medical students.
Methodology: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out in Medical College of Lahore. A total of 114 female students from 1st year and 2nd year were selected. Their socio-demographic ch...
Fouzia Hadi Ali1, Farhat Naz2, Aban Abid Qazi3
 
...e of 83%. The sequential model was tested by applying Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling 3.2.
Results: The sequential model proved significant with a partial mediation of work life balance and vitality at work between the relationship of positive psychological capital and work performance.
Conclusion: The study provides recommendations...

 

Syed Aun Muhammad1, Muhammad Soaib Said2, Shams Ur Rehman2, Muhammad Dawood2, Muneer Ahmed Qazi3 and Nighat Fatima2,*
... diaportheins. Auto Grid model showed the most energetically favorable binding mode of natural compounds to beta-lactamase. Docked energies for diaporthein A and B were -8.02 and -8.41 kcal/mol, respectively. These outcomes revealed that these ligands could be potential drugs to treat infectious diseases.
...

Dilshad Ahmad1*, Muhammad Irfan Chani1 and Muhammad Afzal2 

...ong-run cointegration of model. Empirical findings of the study indicate positive (5.178151) and significant relationship between agriculture credit and agricultural output. Labor participating in agriculture has positive (14.98381) yet insignificant relation to agricultural output while trade openness has negative (-39.64926) and significant impact on agricultural output. Similarly, the relationship between cropped area and agriculture output is positive (114...

Mohammed Al Mahish* 

...d using Rotterdam demand model. The results show that the demand for lettuce is price and income inelastic, and lettuce is a necessity good. The results of the supply model show that the supply of lettuce is price inelastic, and wage increase has a negative impact on lettuce supply. The total elasticities of wage show that an increase in wage increases price and reduces quantity. Furthermore, the paper shows that the reducti...

Sadiqa Begum1, Murad Khan2* and Noor Pao Khan

...hile multiple regression model is used to estimate the relationship between inputs and output of wheat. Per acre yield of wheat production in district Mardan was 1809.032 kgs. while in district Peshawar it was 2143.230 kgs. Total cost of wheat per acre in district Peshawar was more than that of district Mardan. The net revenue from per acre wheat production was high in district Peshawar as compared to district Mardan. The results revealed that all the inputs i...
Adem Aksoy1, Yakup Erdal Ertürk2, Selim Erdoğan3, Ecevit Eyduran3 andMohammad Masood Tariq4,*
...velop a honey production model for 180 beekeeping enterprises at Agri, Kars and Erzurum provinces of Turkey and to identify factors affecting honey production through CART, CHAID and MARS data mining algorithms, which are more flexible compared to classical approaches. Several potential predictors in the survey were age of enterprise, province of enterprise (Agri, Kars and Erzurum), educational level, membership status of enterprise to an association of beekee...
Binbin Shan, Yan Liu, Changping Yang, Shengnan Liu and Dianrong Sun*
...of transcriptomes of non-model organisms.
...
Adem Aksoy1, Yakup Erdal Ertürk2, Ecevit Eyduran3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4,*
...lt;0.01). The respective model evaluation criteria for CHAID algorithm were estimated as 0.671 R2 and 0.574 SDRATIO. Whereas, the respective correlation coefficient for CHAID algorithm was 0.819 (P<0.01). MARS outperformed CHAID algorithm in predictive quality. In the CHAID algorithm, the first live weight, farmer’s age, pasture land, SOCSEC, fattening period and sex of the beef cattle were found for FFW as the influential predic...
Gokhan Sahin1, Ecevit Eyduran2,*, Mete Turkoglu3 and Fatma Sahin2
...that the MARS prediction model had a very good fit for a cross validation of 3. As a result, the obtained results may be baseline information about global irradiation parameters at location of migratory birds in Iğdir, Turkey for next studies with the scope of global warming.
...
Rida Zainab1, Sana Elahi1, Afshan Kaleem2,*, Daniel C. Hoessli3, Mehwish Iqtedar2, Roheena Abdullah2, Faiza Saleem2, Shanza Khan1, Anusha Ijaz1, Shagufta Naz2 and Abdul R. Shakoori4,5,*
...to develop pharmacophore models of Akt2 inhibitors and β2-Adrenoceptor agonists. A pharmacophore model is proposed, using fourteen second generation and one first generation antipsychotic drugs for Schizophrenia that are effective against both 5-HT2a and D2 receptors. Hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA), aromatic rings (AR ring) and positive ionizable (PI) groups were identified computationally as pharmacophore features by Li...

Nusrat Habib1*, Asim Zubair2 and Aisha Siddiqua3 

...nalysis was applied. The model pointed out that the area under sunflower have opposite relation with the seed cost, land rent, area under tobacco, area under sugarcane and price of sunflower seed, while positively related to the area under sunflower with the variables such as total operational holding, sunflower yield and sale price of sunflower. In case of determining yield of sunflower use of DAP and organic manure were significant and positively correlated....

Qaisar Mehmood1*, Muhammad Riaz2, Maqbol Hussain Sail1 and Muhammad Moeen1 

...ltiple linear regression model and analysis of variance techniques are used which show that variety, sowing mode, nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorous fertilizer have significant effect on the wheat yield. Irrigation mode and weedisides spray also has much impact on the wheat yield. 

...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Bushra Hassan2, Nadeem Anwar2, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel3 and Shafique-ur-Rehman

...sed. Complete regression model was applied with independent factors of educational opportunities, agri-business opportunities and training opportunities. The results were significant at 5% level of significance as F (3, 119) = 140.74; p< 0.05 and explained 78.4% of the variation in dependent factor of job opportunities for the respondents which is responsible for economic prosperity of rural communities. The results from second, third, fourth and fifth obje...
Haozhen Liu1, Xiangfu Li2, Yinong Wang1,*, Xun Liu3,4, Li Wang1, Dong Liu1, Chen Chen1, Jinjing Li1, Haifeng Jiao5 and Zhongjie You1,5
... were studied to provide models for spatial patterns of macrobenthic assemblages. Result showed that most of variation in macrobenthic spatial patterns were explained by the studied environmental variables. Sedimentary sulfide, sedimentary total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and water colour are the certain environmental factors that have proved shaping the distribution of macrobenthic abundance, diversity and multivariate structure of the assemblages.
...
Xiaojie Ding, Xiling Sun, Zuien Wang, Qiusheng Zheng, Xiaofei Yu, Wenjin Hao, Kejun Wang, Wenjuan Xu and Zhengping Dong*
...el syndrome (IBS-D). The model was established by means of acetic acid enema plus restraint stress. The rat fecal moisture content, fecal trait score, and abdominal wall withdrawal reflex (AWR) score were used to determine whether the model was successful. The effects of Wumei Pill on the TLR4/9-NF-kB signaling pathway rats with IBS-D was observed by testing the contents of serum level of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-...
Peng Xu1, Bin Liu1,2, Yongqiang Zhao3, Shicheng Lv3 and Changhu Lu1,*
... Then, an interpretation model with high deviance explained was explored. More and continuous attention should be paid to improve considerable measures of crane conservation based on climate change.
...

Sher Nawab Khan* and Ghulam Hassan 

... for the adequacy of the model was complete to partially adequate for the studied parameters. Similarly, both dominant (H) and additive (D) genetic components were observed significant for the studied characters. Moderate to high broad and narrow sense heritability was recorded for the studied traits which indicated the expression of additive gene effect for controlling the inheritance of these traits. 

...

Amjad Ali1, Abbas Ullah Jan1, Lal Almas2, Noor Piao Khan1 and Khurran Nawaz Saddozai

...worked out with frontier model. Randomly 118 sugarcane growers were interviewed during crop season 2014-2015. For survey data a pre-tested structured questioner set according to objectives of the study was used. Coefficients of parameters were calculated by maximum likelihood estimation techniques. Per acre total yield, land rent and per acre inputs cost (labor hired, seed, tractor hours, irrigation, Urea, DAP, FYM and pesticides) were considered determinants ...
Ashraf M. Mounir, A.N. El shahat* and A.M. Abdul Azeem
...ne that can be used as a model to produce myocardial infarction (MI). Frankincense is a gum resin that possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Gamma-irradiation is used for decontamination of Boswellia tears to achieve satisfactory microbiological quality and public health safety. Hence, examining the effect of gamma-irradiation on the contents of Boswellia oleo-gum resin and also investigating the role of gamma-irradiate frankincen...
Muhammad Mohsin1, Dai Guilin1,*, Chen Zhuo1, Yin Hengbin1 and Muhammad Noman2
...SPIC (a stock production model incorporating covariates) were employed. Three surplus production models (SPMs) viz., Fox Model (FM), Schaefer Model (SM) and Pella-Tomlinson Model (PTM) were used in CEDA along with three error assumptions (EAs) viz., normal error assumption (NEA), log-normal error assumpti...

 Saiqa Andleeb* , Shaukat Ali

RNA interference; A tool for treatment of human diseases
...ssential tool in several model organisms such as invertebrates, mouse and fly to explore the role of individual gene. In recent era, RNAi is directly used in therapy of various infectious and non-infectious diseases. Variety of human diseases like cancer, viral and neuromuscular has been controlled through RNAi. Some vectors and inducible systems are available now to treat numerous disorders. This review paper provides the basis for further development of RNAi...

 Jhan Zeb, Muhammad Javed

Forecasting percentage contribution of plankton biomass towards increase in fish yield under composite culture conditions
...t; T5> T2. Regression model developed for T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7 illustrated 63.40, 51.60, 64.50,
64.00, 52.20, 58.70 and 54.00% dependence of increase in fish yield on plankton productivity, respectively.

...

 Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi1, 2, Sana Fatima3, Khawaja Abdul Mujeeb2, Nadeem Sheikh1

Alterations in proteins and transaminases activity induced by thioacetamide in albino rats
...he development of animal models of hepatic damage by a number
of researchers. The current investigation was designed to evaluate changes in tissue and serum total proteins and
albumin along with urea, uric acid and serum transaminases activity after 12 and 24h of TAA administration in albino
rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=3) namely control group, 12h group and 24h group. Each
experimental group (12h and 24h) w...

 Sobia Faisal1*,Qurat-ul-Ain Ahmad2, Maleeha Manzoor3, Madiha Manzoor4, Faisal Rifaq5

Socio-psychological factors related to tuberculosis diagnostic test seeking behavior in Pakistan
Atiq-ur-Rehman1,2,*, Abida Latif1,*, Rukhsana Anwar1, Nasir Abbas1, Sajid Nawaz2 and Hamid Turab Mirza3
...out in Wistar albino rat models. Changes in postprandial levels of blood glucose in rat models (normal and diabetic) were examined after starch load with or without chloroform fraction. Chloroform fractions (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg b.w.) dose levels were administered to the rats and the samples of blood were taken at 0 h, 0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h intervals. In vitro results showed that chloroform fraction at concentrat...

Neelum Andaleeb1*, Munir Khan1, Syed Attaullah Shah1 and Rahmat Ullah2 

...nalyzed by ordered logit model to determine factors affecting households welfare, measured as daily per capita income level. Variables, such as income generating individuals, milking animals, women participation in livestock farming, education level of the head, age of the head and agricultural land holding of the household, were used as explanatory variables in the model. Results of ordered logit mo...
Daniel Zaborski,1,* Muhammad Ali,2 Ecevit Eyduran,3 Wilhelm Grzesiak,1 Mohammad Masood Tariq,2 Ferhat Abbas,2 Abdul Waheed4 and Cem Tirink5
...o train and evaluate the models. The highest correlation coefficients (r) were found for LI (0.18 - 0.29; P0.001), GL (0.05 - 0.21; P0.001 to P>0.05) and FR (0.11 - 0.26; P0.001 to P0.05). For the remaining output variables, it was usually lower than 0.10. The smallest values of SDratio (0.96 - 1.06) were found for LI, GL and FR. For the rest of the output variables, it was usually above 1.00. The measu...
Shaher Bano1, Sarah Ghafoor1,* and Nadia Naseem2
...d of rat is an excellent model to study salivary gland organogenesis. The study is designed to understand T3-mediated regulation of TGF-α expression during postnatal salivary gland development as it is currently unknown.Twelve male rats were taken at week three and twelve at week seven and divided into control and experimental groups. Control rats were given normal saline while experimental rats were given T3 at a dose of 1mg/kg body weight. All the anim...
Farhat Iqbal1, Mohammad Masood Tariq2,*, Ecevit Eyduran3, Zil-e-Huma4, Abdul Waheed5, Farhat Abbas2, Muhammad Ali2, Nadeem Rashid2, Majed Rafeeq2, Asadullah2 and Zahid Mustafa2
...nlinear sigmoidal growth models were estimated through Bayesian inference. Gompertz, Logistic, Brody and Von Bertalanffy models were fitted to average monthly body weight data of (n = 412) Mengali sheep from birth to 24 months of age for both sexes (male and female) and type of births (single and twin). The overall goodness of fit was checked by calculating Deviance Information Criteria (DIC) and the square of correlation (<...
Bei Liu1, Yanli Hong1, Huifang Zhou1,*, Zhenzhen Cao1, Shuang Zhang1, Jing Jin1, Miao Jiang1, Cunsi Shen2 and Jianjian Ji2
...ptor (GnRHR) antagonized model of pituitary cells was established by using the blocking agent of Cetrorelix. The cells were treated with BSZYD-containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Thus, a total of five groups of cells, including blank (+) group, Cetrorelix (+) group, CSF with BSZY (+) group, model-treated (+) group and corresponding blocker-treated group were established. Secretion levels of related hormone and their mRNAs ...
Hao Gu*, Zhi Yang, Weiqiang Yu, Kan Xu and Yuan-fei Fu*
... via establishing animal model of caries simulating human oral environment. After the complete experiments, capsaicin is expected to be used as adjuvant medicine to treat caries.
...

Aisha Siddiqua1*, Munir Ahmad1 and Nusrat Habib2 

...itching (MES) regression model to analyze and compare the impact of different adaptation strategies in isolation or in combination on yield. The primary data of ‘Climate Change Impact Survey 2012-13’ used for this purpose. Crop-specific strategies of change in the time of sowing, use of inorganic fertilizer, change in irrigation, and varietal change. Change in irrigation practice gave rise to the highest yield suggesting that this might be the nece...

Syed Amjad Kamal Jan* and Naushad Khan 

...ariables remove from the model then production of rice will be 5.434 Kg per acre averagely of the respondents. According to analysis Farm Size, Tractor hours, Fertilizers, Number of irrigations, Farmer’s education were found significant at 5% level while , Seed Variety, Pesticides, Farming experience, Number of labors were found non-significant at 5% level. The R-Square value was 0.92 which means that 92% variation is explained by the independent variabl...

Sonia1, Khuram Nawaz Sadozai1*, Noor Paio Khan2, Abbas Ullah Jan1 and Gulnaz Hameed3 

... were used to verify the model stability. Therefore, LM test was encompassed to detect the serial correlation. The result of Hausman test has suggested applying “Fixed Effect Model” for further analysis. Major estimates of the overall 30 years data reveal that among non-climatic variables, area under wheat cultivation and seed are highly significant to the wheat yield at 1 percent level of significance. Whereas, ...

Noor ul Ain*, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Haidar Ali* 

...lyzed through Double log model for estimation of demand for the selected vegetables. It was found that household head in Landi Arbab includes 87.10% male and 12.90% female whereas in Deh Bahadar, 94.82% household heads were male and 5.18% of the household head were female. Descriptive statistics showed that the average household size was 6. The average education level was 12.92 years and average household’s income was Rs. 91,336.66 during the study perio...

Rehmat Ullah* and Khalid Nawab 

...nary logistic regression model was utilized (binary responses (1 if exists 0 otherwise) both of dependent and independent variables) to find out the effect of precautionary measures and Personal Protection Equipment on self-reported acute poising cases. Binary logistic regression analysis depicted highly significant negative association between adverse effects of pesticides like headache, dizziness, feeling weak, difficulty in seeing, chest pain, burning sensa...
Muhammad Usman Ahmadand Ikram-ul-Haq*
...selected as experimental models for this purpose. Significant improvement in cell density of Anaerobaculum hydrogeniformans culture with maximum OD600nm of 0.80±0.0017 reached after 4 days of incubation when oxyrase used as reducing agent, and maximum OD600nm 0.65±0.0016 in presence of Cys-HCl. Akkermansia muciniphila culture reached maximum OD600nm value of 2.1±0.07 in the presence of oxyrase...

Tanweer Ahmed*, Kashif Saeed Khan and Mohammad Naeem 

...rm (-.537563) in the ECM model is negative and statistically significant, which validates stable long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables, with speed of 53 per cent to restore disequilibrium in case of any shock. The regression results reveal that public spending on education, health and road length has a positive influence on agriculture value addition in Pakistan. The study recommends the allocation of greater resources to education, health and ...

Irfan Ullah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Muhammad Fayaz, Amjad Ali and Atta Ullah Shah 

... Demand System (LA/AIDS) model is used to estimate food demand patterns using the Household Integrated Economic Survey part of Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement for the year 2011-12. Fourteen food groups as per HIES including milk, meat, fruits, sugar, vegetables, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats, tea and coffee, backed products and other food were considered for the study. The data given in the survey r...
Jesse Butler
...ESU and thereby serve as models toward the cultivation of ecological well-being.
...

 Jennifer Mei Sze Ang

...ts on both the empirical models of well-being focused on desire/satisfaction/positive emotions and the eudaimonic strands of well-being studies emphasizing autonomy. It shows that the strand of well-being which places good mood and satisfaction as central goals of a happy life are projects of bad faith, and that authenticity promotes a more fundamental notion of freedom than the conceptualization of a meaningful life based on autonomy. Finally, it argues that ...

 Adile Tatliyer1,*, Sinan Bas1 and Serdar Yagci2

 

...ltiple linear regression model. The 2FS at the first period, 3 FS at the second period, 4 FS at the third period accounted for 80, 45 and 57 % of the total variability in live weight, respectively. The achieved results revealed that using of body measurements could allow breeders to conduct better breeding programs. Also, it is recommendable that periods in wide variability should be taken into consideration in selection program.

...

 Xu Lijie, Obaid Ullah, Liu Haixing, Ihsan Ali, Zhongshu Li* and Nan-Zhu Fang*

...(MZT), we used an embryo model of oxidative damage by H2O2. We found that H2O2 exposure significantly decreased embryo development, increased the intracellular ROS level, and upregulated the expression levels of the NADPH oxidase genes NOX2, DUOX1, and NOXA1. By contrast, embryo treatment with pioglitazone after H2O2 exposure promote embryo development, significantly decreased the ROS level, dow...

Farhana Gul1*, Dawood Jan1 and Muhammad Ashfaq2 

...ed in this study. TOA-MD model was used to measure the impact of climate change adaptation strategies. Adjustment in sowing time, improved fertilizer application method and increasing sowing densities were three-major adaptation practices whose benefits were analyzed. The adaptation results indicated that adopters of adaptation technology would range from 33 % to 74.47 % in Dera Ismail Khan and 62 % to 65.18 % in Peshawar. Before adaptation, poverty rates wou...
Bibi Nazia Murtaza1,2, Azhar Qayum3, Shamaila Inayat Nadeem1, Naif Awdh Al-Maliki4, Abdulaziz Alamri4 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,5,*
Zhaochao Deng1, Jingchen Chen1, Na Song2, Yongzhen Li3 and Zhiqiang Han1,*
...mography showed a stable model in this species in the South China Sea population. To reveal its population structure within the large-scale geography distribution, we added 169 sequences of the mitochondrial control region already genotyped from northern Australia. The South China Sea and northern Australia groups were successfully distinguished by the NJ tree with significant genealogical branches of haplotypes. These results indicated that there might have o...
Zhaochao Deng1, Na Song2, Yongzhen Li3, Tianxiang Gao1 and Zhiqiang Han1,*
... showed sudden expansion model in lineage A and stable model in lineage B. These results indicated that there might be three different fishery management units of L. olivaceus in the South China Sea. Each of archipelagos should be treated as one independent management unit.
...
Tianlong Cai1, Falk Huettmann2, Kisup Lee3 and Yumin Guo1,*
...Asia. A machine learning modeling algorithm of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) weas applied and evaluated with Stochastic Gradient Boosting and Random Forests based on 115 every year used occurrence points (1990-2013) and 14 environmental layers as predictors. Results show that the Songnen Plain and Korea Peninsula are the most important stopover habitats. Four other major areas are also suitable for stopover: (i) the coastal area of the Bohai Sea, (ii) the Three Riv...

Qaizar Ahmed1, Fida Mohammad2, Sheraz Ahmed2*, Sultan Akbar Jadoon2, Imtiaz Ali2 and Ajmalud Din2 

...ts obtained through both models. Griffing analysis revealed additive type of gene action in the expression of all traits across all environments, except nicotine content. Contrarily, Hayman analysis identified both (additive and dominance) type of gene actions for yield and other traits. Similarly, Hayman analysis discriminated gene actions for various traits more specifically across environments. Based on this study, Griffing analysis was revealed to be more ...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...Sota vaccine strain as a model of genotype II. Velogenic NDV of genotype VII are a major threat to the Egyptian poultry industry since 2011 onwards with continuous evolution and diversity. In the present study, manure from specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks was contaminated with allantoic fluid of NDV and kept at room temperature ranged from 20 to 25oc which is nearly the same as poultry farms on different coupon surfaces (metal, plastic and cooling pads). Da...

Tariq Shah1*, Umar Hayat1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad3 

...ember respondents of the model farm services center. The facilitation of farmers through these centers in term of involving private livestock doctors and the provision of livestock inputs on reasonable rates can boost the prosperity in farming community. 

...

Shahid Ali1*, Asim Khan1, Aftab Khan1 and Bakhtawar Riaz

...s of inefficiency effect model indicated that farmers’ experience has negative and significant relationship with technical inefficiency. Efforts should be made to keep experience farmers in tomato farming. Government also needs to allocate more funds for extension services to provide formal and informal education to tomato growers. 

...
Farhat Iqbal1, Abdul Waheed2,*, Zil-e-Huma3 and Asim Faraz2
...rowth functions used for modelling the body weight of farm animals. Gompertz, Brody, Von Bertalanffy and Logistic growth models were employed on the basis of nonlinear least squares and Bayesian methods. Using the monthly body weight data of 2070 weight records of Thalli sheep from birth to 24 months of age for both sexes (male and female) and type of births(single and twin), the estimates of parameters and their credible in...
Senol Celik
...f the tested algorithms, model evaluation criteria such as the correlation coefficient between actual and predicted LBW values (r), Akaike’s and corrected Akaike information criterion (AIC and AICc), root-mean-square error (RMSE), mean absolute deviation (MAD), standard deviation ratio (SDratio), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were estimated. According to these criteria, MARS produced better predictive accuracy in explaining the var...

Asim Khan1, Shahid Ali1*, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Aftab Khan1 and Raza Ullah2 

...recommended fixed effect model (as opposed to random effect) as a fit model for given estimation. The major findings proclaim that maximum temperature has negative impact on the yield of maize. Impact of precipitation show a positive and significant contribution to maize yield. High temperature has deleterious impact on maize productivity. Therefore, policy exertions needs to be concentrated toward impact of climate change o...

Kubra Siddique*, Ghaffar Ali, Irfan Ullah, Atta Ullah Shah and Muhammad Fayaz 

...Pakistan. Working-lesser model is used to estimate elasticities using cross-sectional data from Household Integrated Economic Survey of Pakistan for the year 2013-14. Economic factors such as food commodities prices, households’ income and their socioeconomic characteristics are included in the model. The results reveal that on the average, households in rural region spend more on the food items while, urban households...

Iftikhar Ud Din* and Qamruz Zaman 

...or the use of multilevel model. The study reveals that for such data structure highly significant improvement is achieved when we shift modeling approach from classical linear regression (CLRM) to multilevel modeling. The study also discussed an important problem in Multilevel Modeling (MLM) i.e. to find sufficient sample size for accurate estimation pur...

Muhammad Shahid1*, Mehmood Shah2, Adiqa Kiani3 and Farhat Parveen4 

...ressive Distributive lag model (ARDL) has been applied to conclude the results. The other econometric test CUSUM and CUSUM sum of square were conducted to check the stability of the model. The results of the study reveal statistically significant positive impact of livestock and on labour productivity while the role of Govt. fixed capital and inflation are insignificant. This comprehensive research will support the govt. in ...

Essossinam Ali* 

...it and linear regression models were used to analyze the effect of farmers’ risk aversion on fertilizer and DTS uses, and labour allocation, respectively. The results indicate that on average 86.22% of farmers have risk aversion behaviors. Widening the land devoted to maize cultivation would increase farmers’ risk aversion while increasing the land devoted to sorghum, tuber and cotton crops would reduce it. Being risk averse leads farmers to reduce...
Muhammad Naveed Sheas1, Haris Rasool2, Muhammad Nouman Rafique2, Muhammad Rizwan Tariq1*, Abid Muhammad1, Khubaib Ali1
...gainst depression in rat model. 24 male wister rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. After the trial, blood biochemistry was done in which antioxidant enzymes like SOD, Catalyze, Glutathione peroxidase were performed that shows significantly high levels in the blood than the group that was treated with nicotine and shows a positive correlation with the days at which the rat’s groups were given a supplemented feed. Total antioxidant capacity and antio...

Umar Hayat1*, Tariq Shah1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad

... is used to estimate the model. The result shows that Institutional credit is playing a significant role in achieving agricultural growth in the country. The other variables of the model like agro-based industries, livestock, mechanised inputs and agricultural exports have shown a positive impact on agricultural growth and ultimately on the overall GDP growth of the economy. The government needs to allocate more funds for in...

Hakim Shah1*, Noor Jehan2, S. Shafiqur Rehman1 and Syed Said Badshah Bukhari

...a good fit of the linear models. 

...
Nazia Qamar* and Sher Khan Panhwar
... weights. The regression models estimate for otolith dimensions and fish body parameters estimates can be useful for studies on population structure of five important carangids species.
...

Muhammad Noman, Yong Tong Mu*, Muhammad Mohsin, Aamir Mahmood Memon and Muhammad Talib Kalhoro

...SPIC (a stock production model incorporating covariates) are used to analyze the fishery output (FO) and fishery input (FI) data of Scomberomorus spp. to evaluate their fishery stock status in Pakistani marine waters from Balochistan coastline.Three surplus production models (SPMs) viz. Fox (F-M), Schaefer (S-M) and Pella-Tomlinson (PT-M) along with three error assumptions (EAs), log (L-EA), log normal (...
Kun Wang1,2, Yinglin Cui2, Xu Zhao2 and Changjiang Hu1*
...tive effect of XN on ICH model rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms of this therapy. In this study, experimental ICH was induced by the administration of stereotaxic collagenase type VII into the caudate nucleus. XN (at a high dose and a low dose of 3.60g·kg-1 and 1.80g·kg-1, respectively) was administered via enema. The detection of neuronal apoptosis was measured by TUNEL assay. Using immunofluorescence, the expre...
Nouf Alharbi*, Mai Elobeid and Promy Virk
...male Sparaque Dawley rat model. There were four experimental groups with 6 rats in each: Group I control orally received normal saline, Group II orally administrated cadmium chloride (5 mg/kg bw/d), Group III orally administrated cadmium chloride (5mg/kg bw/d) and treated with low dose of quercetin (50 mg/kg bw/d), Group IV orally administrated cadmium chloride (5mg/kg bw/d) and treated with high dose of quercetin (70 mg/kg bw/d). Experimental period was four ...

Rizwan Ahmad and Muhammad Zulfiqar* 

...as collected. Analytical models used are Logit Model and ARDL Model. Regarding farmers perceptions, results show that age of farmers, farming experience and education level of the farmers are positively and significantly, except education, associated with perception regarding climate change. However, size of HH, farming types and area under cultivation are negatively associated. Whereas as...

Muhammad Waqas, Shahid Ali*, Syed Attaullah Shah and Ghaffar Ali 

...DL) approach was used to model long and short run elasticities. AIC, HQ and FPE proposed 3 lags, therefore model was estimated up to 3 lags. Bound test confirmed the existence of long run relationship among the variables. ARDL results indicated that long and short run elasticities of unirrigated wheat production in response to wheat price were 0.447 and - 0.116, respectively and statistically significant. Long and short run ...

 Aftab Khan1, Shahid Ali1, Murtaza1, Sufyan Ullah Khan2 and Syed Attaullah Shah1

... production function was modelled to estimated allocative efficiencies of individual inputs used in maize production. The estimated allocative efficiencies of Urea and DAP were 3.24 and 2.04, respectively. This implies that these inputs were underutilized that might be due to poor farming skills of the sampled respondents, lack of information regarding application of such inputs and lack of availability of credit to them to use the appropriate and recommended ...

Muhammad Ashfaq* and Inayatullah Jan 

...e Distributed Lag (ARDL) model for maize crop in KP. This study reveals that the impacts of climatic variables are increasing from the southern climatic region to the northern climatic region. The study also reveals that any negative shock to the crops productivity can be overcome by increasing the area under maize cultivation. It is concluded that the variations in climatic variables have significant effects on maize productivity in the short-run as well as i...
Min Li1,2, Jingjing Wang3, Suxian Hu3, Philip Stott4, Baoqing Lin5, Lianshan Li5, Hui Liu1, Heng Bao1, Duoying Cui6 and Guangshun Jiang1,* 
...epwise linear regression model and regressions of proportions of cover types at different spatial scales. We recorded 109,026 sightings comprising 94 species, and found that avian diversity indices were positively influenced by the presence of open water, farmland, and alkaline marsh, and negatively by human settlement; and in addition, these relationships were only apparent when scale was considered. We detected the dependence of the avian assemblage on alkal...

 Li-na Li1, Sheng Li2, Ping Gui3, Jing-hui Li1, Fen Ai4,* and Li-li Cai1,*

... cells (uMSCs) in a cell model of radiation pulmonary fibrosis. MRC-5 cells were irradiated and cultured in the presence of conditioned medium from uMSCs (MSCCM). MSCCM inhibited MRC-5 cell proliferation and reduced collagen deposition as measured by CCK-8 assay, Sircol assay, qPCR and western blot. MSCCM also reduced the expression of the pro-fibrotic TGF-β1 and increased the expression of anti-fibrotic IFN-γ at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthe...
Faheem Aslam1*, Aneel Salman1 and Inayatullah Jan2
...dictability tests due to model uncertainty and parameter instability. Recent studies introduce several machine learning algorithms to improve time series prediction accuracy. The purpose of this study is to develop a precise wheat production model using artificial neural networks (ANN). A total of 71 years’ wheat production data from 1948 to 2018 is divided into training data and test data. The
Po Bunnika, Khalid Khan and Guo Xiangyu*
...nary least squares (OLS) model to examine the relationship between profitability ratios and performance measures, which indicates that return on assets and equity are linked to technical and distribution efficiency. The cooperatives could increase their profits by upsurging sales performance instead of improving technical performance. These results also confirm that cooperatives managers should give greater importance to the effective use of capital and labor ...
Zahra Eftekhar1, Morteza Naderi2,*, Mohammad Kaboli3, Hamid R. Rezaei4 and Nematollah Khorasani3
...een frequently used as a model to enrich our knowledge of patterns of arboreal species adaptation to the glacial oscillations. Ancient Hyrcanian forests, as one of the old-growth relicts of the temperate deciduous forests, have been recently documented as an important refugium during the last glacial maximum (LGM). More investigations based on skull and mandible morphological assessments revealed considerable intraspecific evolutionary divergence among the loc...
Hande Kucukonder1, Pinar Celebi Demirarslan1*, Sezai Alkan2 and Özgür Baris Bırgul3
...s study, it was aimed to model broiler growth curves of chickens with nonlinear regression analysis and grey prediction model. For this, the growth of 118 broilers was analyzed by using their weekly individual live weights from hatch to 49 day-old. In the analysis, nonlinear functions and Rolling-Grey Model (1,1) prediction method were used. The time-dependent growths of mixed sexes broile...
Shou-Hong Zhang1*, Ying Zhang1, Kun-Ming Wen2, Wei Wu3 and Wen-Yan Li3
...We established a BDL rat model of hepatic fibrosis. HGF carrier was administered through tail-vein injections. The gene therapy efficacy was evaluated in vivo. Before and after treatment the rats were examined with MR-PWI. The perfusion parameters of PWl were compared with the fibrosis stage. The total fibrous tissue in the liver of rats treated with HGF was lower than that in control group. The time-signal intensity curve (TIC) peak of liver parenchyma...

Wajid Shah Yousafzai1, Irfan Ullah1*, Amjad Ali1, Mahmood Iqbal2 and Salman Khan1 

Jahangir Khan*, Syed Attaullah Shah, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai, Muhammad Fayaz, Shahid Ali, Abbas Ullah Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

...ed using hedonic pricing model. Results show that Consumers have strong preferences for apple freshness, size, color and juiciness and their willingness to pay for these attributes are significantly greater than zero. On the basis of these findings the study recommends that apple growers should focus on best quality apple varieties and should maintain post harvest quality of their product. 

...

Umar Hayat1*, Shahid Ali1, Abdul Mateen2 and Hazrat Bilal

... is used to estimate the model. Empirical results of the study reveal that agricultural growth and other important variables of the study such as cash crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry are significantly affecting poverty head count rate in Pakistan. Thus, long-run agriculture growth programme in line with overall economic development targets of the country needs to be planned on operational grounds with strict implementation mechanism. It will enhance t...

Shahid Ali1*, Farhan1, Murtaza1, Neelum Andaleeb2 and Amjad Ali1 

...elihood estimates of the model-1 showed that seed quantity, urea, chemicals (Pesticides and weedicides), labor and tractor hours were statistically significant with the coefficients of -0.027, 0.090, 0.060, 0.223 and 0.056, respectively. The estimated results of SFP model-2 revealed that household’s education level was having negative and significant effect on technical inefficiency. Among the sampled respondents owner...
Sobia Nazir1, Muhammad Irfan1*, Muhammad Nadeem2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3*, Muhammad Khan3, Shaukat Ali4, Quratulain Syed2
...substrate). The proposed model was highly significant as depicted by ANOVA. The results recommended that seed pods of Bombyx ceiba play important role in cellulase production, which is useful for the food industry, textile industry and ethanol production.
...
Hafiza Sadaf Zahra1, Asia Iqbal2, Sayyeda Hira Hassan1, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1*, Muhammad Khan1*, Muhammad Irfan3, Chaman Ara1, Shaukat Ali4
...ion through epigenetic remodeling by DNA methylation and histone acetylation.
...
Rimsha Munir1, 2*

 

...e systems. Two cell line models (HepG2; liver cancer cell line and HCT-116; colorectal cancer cell line) were selected that showed inverse proliferation trends under 2D and 3D cell culture systems: HCT-116 displays decreased, while HepG2 displays increased proliferation rates under 3D system. The presented data indicated that the proliferative capacity of the given cell line was associated with its ability to deal with metabolic stress under 2D or 3D system. H...
Abu ul Hassan Faiz1,*, Fakhar-i-Abbas2, Mehboob ul Hassan3 and Lariab Zahra Faiz1
...mber 2017 by selecting 5 model plots of maize. On each study site, line transect method for small mammalian pest, for large mammals spot light count and for birds point count methods were used to determine abundance of each species. The study, documented 10 species of mammalian pests, 13 species of pest birds of maize crop and their population density differed significantly (P≤ 0.05) at study sites. The habitat analysis of study sites and correlation of spe...
Mustafa Koyun1*and Şenol Çelik2
...for each individual MARS model, different second, third and fourth-degree interactions were tried. In order to determine the most suitable model, it was taken into consideration that the cross-validity coefficient (GCV), square of error squared mean (RMSE) and Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) statistics were the minimum, the determination coefficient (R2) and Adj R2 values were maximum. In order to est...

Muhammad Akbar Ali Shah1, Gamze Özel2, Christophe Chesneau3, Muhammad Mohsin4, Farrukh Jamal5* and Muhammad Faheem Bhatti6 

... linear regression (MLR) models are applied to study the relationship between the yield of rice (dependent variable) and the various factors (independent variables) which are affecting the rice crop production. The Model I is based on monthly average temperature and humidity during crop period and Model II is based on average temperature and humidity during crop period. The factors affecti...

Muhammad Sohail Memon1*, Khadim Ullah1, Altaf Ali Siyal1,2, Naimatullah Leghari1, Ahmed Ali Tagar1, Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto1, Syed Tahir Ata-ul-karim3, Muhammad Tahir4 and Noreena Memon1 

...carried out by HYDRUS-2D model showed that with increasing size of raised bed, the center of the raised bed did not get the required quantity of water, hence remained unsaturated. Moreover, the highest crop yield and water productivity were recorded 8,748 kg/ha and 3.74 kg/cm3 respectively under T2 treatment as compared to other treatment. Furthermore, the experimental and simulation results of present study concluded that the sides of raised-bed/furrow, where...

Qaisar Mehmood1*, Maqbool Hussain Sial1, Saira Sharif1, Abid Hussain2, Muhammad Riaz3 and Nargis Shaheen4 

...d Moving Average (ARIMA) model for forecasting the production of fisheries, using Box-Jenkins’s (1976) methodology. Secondary data, “50 years of Pakistan: volume-iii (1947-1997)” published by Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS) and World Development Indicators World Bank (2016) from the year 1947- 2016 was used. After comparing all possible ARIMA model diagnostically, ARIMA (2, 1, 3) is the most parsimoniou...

Muhammad Israr1*, Helen Ross2, Shakeel Ahmad3, Nafess Ahmad4 and Urooba Pervaiz5

...ng the Alkire and Foster model. The expanded dimensions of multidimensional poverty identified are wealth status, participation/empowerment, environment, health, education, and standard of living. We apply the methodology to a study in northern Pakistan. The index of multidimensional poverty demonstrates that alongside the other dimensions there is severe poverty in terms of environment, empowerment/ participation, and wealth dimensions. The measure of intensi...

Muhammad Ramiz Murtaza1, Tahir Mehmood2*, Aziz Ahmad2 and Uzma Arshad Mughal3 

...nize the data double log model was renovated from Cobb-Dougles production function. Results showed that Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) with and without intercropping was 1.72 and 2.48 respectively. Nearly 64 percent of the factors analyzed were affecting mango production and adjusted R2 was at 0.62. The whole goodness of fit model was enlightened by the high significance of F-value i.e., 26.5 where p<0.01. Mango plantations wit...

Anwar Ali1*, Muhammad Irfan Ashraf2, Saeed Gulzar2 and Muhammad Akmal2

...to develop an allometric model for biomass estimation of Chirpine (Pinus roxberghii) an important species of subtropical pine ecosystems in the Himalayas. Data was collected through destructive sampling of 32 sample trees growing in subtropical pine forests of Hazara Forest Region, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) of the selected sample trees ranged from (12-93 cm) and height (H) varied between 9.50-40.10 m. Allometric equatio...

Dilawar Khan1*, Arif Ullah2, Zainab Bibi1, Ihsan Ullah1, Muhammad Zulfiqar4 and Zafir Ullah Khan

...9-30. The order of ARIMA model was identified using autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF). Suitable model for area and production of guava are ARIMA (0,0,0) and ARIMA (1,1,0) respectively. The projected area of guava for the forecasted period is 61.37 thousand hectares each year. Area of guava shows a static trend throughout the forecasted period. The forecasted production of guava is 502...

Malak Atiq Ullah Khan1*, Fida Mohammad2, Fahim Ullah Khan3, Sheraz Ahmad2, Mian Ahmad Raza1 and Tariq Kamal

... comparison of stability models is essential to give an insight to breeders for developing relatively stable wheat cultivars. A multi-environment trial (MET) was conducted to assess the pattern of genotype by environment interaction (GEI) effects on yield using multiple stability models viz. Additive Main effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI), GGE biplot analysis and stability parameters. Eighty-one wheat genotypes we...

Saba1, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Waqar Khalid2* and Saifullah Khan

...ltiple linear regression model was proposed to measure factors influencing women’s participation in livestock management practices. The computed value of the mean composite index was 4.81 which showed that women farmers on average engaged for 4.81 hours per day in the livestock management practices. The multiple regression results illustrated that women’s education, family size, and livestock income significantly affect women’s participation;...

Muhammad Ilyas1, Sardar Ali Khan1, Shahid Iqbal Awan1, Shafiq-ur-Rehman1, Waqar Ahmed1, Muhammad Riaz Khan2, Raja Mohib Muazzam Naz2, Muhammad Mohib Ullah Khan3 and Sumaira Hafeez1* 

...analysis. Five parameter model (mdhij) indicated that genes which control the grain yield were mostly dominate in nature but also influenced by the epistatic effects of additive genes under natural conditions. These results favoured that the hybrid breeding is the best option in the given set of inbreds to best exploit their potential. 

...

Tanweer Ahmed1*, Kashif Saeed Khan1, Zilakat Khan Malik1, Fazal Wahid1 and Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal2 

...est and error correction model (ECM) is applied to estimate the long run and the short run relationship amongst the variables. The long-run analyses revealed the existence of a positive relationship among variables. The coefficient of ECM term (-0.389026) was found to be negative and statistically significant, which validates stable long-run relationship among variables, with a speed of 39 per cent to restore disequilibrium in case of any shock. The empirical ...
Tian-Yi Zhao1, Zi-Qing Liu2, Shu-Fei Ma3, Bo-Yang1, Fan-Fan Guo1 and Ming-Hua Duan1*

 

... rats, Morris water maze model was applied in vivo, and the activity of the NF-κB signaling pathway and concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were measured. The results demonstrated that biatractylolide can reduce apoptosis in hippocampal cells, prevent and improve the cognitive decline induced by Aβ, prevent the morphological changes in hippocampal nerve cells and can reduce the activation of NF-κB signal pathway in vivo. Taken ...
Mingsan Miao*, Hui Zhao, Jiaojiao Jia, Xiaoyan Fang and Yanyan Miao
...schemia-reperfusion mice model and to assess the protection mechanism of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice model was used where bilateral common carotid artery was targeted to block blood flow, reperfusion and then re-blocking the arteries. Brain tissues were examined 24 hours post-drug administration to determine the level of biochemical indicators such as serum NSE in the...
Ju Zhang1,2, Dong-Sheng Jia3, Shi-Hao Zhao1,2, Xiao-Liang Xie3, Hong Chen4 and Hai-Feng Li4,*

 

...ans was exploited as model organisms. The anti-aging capacity of HGQwas determined by lifespan and lipofuscin fluorescence assays in wild-type C. elegans N2. Calorie restriction pathway was detected by pharyngeal pumping rate assay and lifespan examination in sir-2.1 mutant nematodes. The antioxidant activity of HGQ was investigated by determining reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, paraquat-stress survival rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) conten...
Derya Kocamaz* and Elif Oruc
...romis niloticus as a model organism. The fish exposed to 1/20, 1/10 of 96-h LC50 value of thiamethoxam and λ cyhalothrin (477.29 mg/L, 2.901 µg/L), individually and in mixtures, for 7 and 15 days. Fish were then left to depurate in pesticide-free water for 7 days. Results showed that acetyhcholin-esterase, catalase and estradiol/testosterone levels decreased, while the amount of etoxyresorufin-O-deetylase (EROD), superoxide dismutas...
Sevil Demirci*, Aydın Demirci and Emrah Şimşek
...h;IV years). Four growth models used to identify the growth characteristics were von Bertalanffy, Logistic, Richards, and Gompertz growth models. Growth type of Randall’s threadfin bream has rapid property; hence the fish population may be continued increasing in the Iskenderun Bay and other of Eastern Mediterranean regions.
...

Mahfooz Khan* and Himayatullah Khan 

...mial logistic regression model was used for choice of alternative energy sources for cooking purpose. Results of the study showed that income of farm households, education level of household head and cooking cost had significant effect on the use of electricity, firewood and natural gas as against animal dung cakes for cooking purpose which was the base category. The study concluded that the use natural gas for cooking was less expensive as compared to other a...
Kadir Seyhan1,*, Nimet Selda Başçinar2, Nadir Başçinar3 and Umar Khan3
...ribed by the square root model. The relationship between GER and body mass was then determined by a power function of fry mass that can be summarized by the equation (g h-1), where St is current stomach mass (g), M is fry mass (g), and t is time (h). The course of GE in S. fontinalis fry is similar to that previously reported for adult S. fontinalis
...
Nazia Qamar1,2*, Sher Khan Panhwar2 and Wang Ping1
...mated by fitting a liner model and a negative allometric growth pattern in E. styliferus, P. stylifera and slight positive growth was calculated for M. monoceros. A moderate growth rate for E. styliferus whereas fast growth rate for M. monoceros and P. stylifera was calculated by applying von Bertalanffy model. Higher natural mortalities (M) for E. styliferus and M. monocer...
Ertuğrul Kul*
...s and to choose the best model that defines the lactation curve. Data were composed of 4897 test day milk yield (TDMY) records from Anatolian buffaloes calved during 2014-2017 raised under different farm conditions in Amasya Province, Turkey. Five different lactation curve models such as Wood (WOD), Cobby and Le Du (CLD), Exponential (EXP), Parabolic Exponential (PEXP) and Quadratic (QUA) model
Mehtap Bayir*
...i> genes in fugu—a model organism—were determined. Maximum amino acid similarity identity was found between putative fugu Sod1 and Sod2 proteins and their orthologs from teleost fish and tetrapods. Phylogenetic clustering was seen between sod genes in fugu and their orthologs. Finally, highly conserved gene synteny was determined between fugu sod genes and their orthologs from teleost fish and human.
...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 52, Iss. 3, Pages 825-1224

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