Victor J. Stenger

Science, Religion and Culture
...nce on society. The new approach takes a harder line in criticizing religion than was previously the case amongst secularists. The new atheists question whether faith, which is belief despite the absence of evidence or even in the presence of contrary evidence, has any moral or intellectual authority. New Atheism recognizes religion for what it is—a set of unfounded superstitions that have been the greatest hindrance to human progress that ever existed o...

Timothy Helton

In a Mirror Dimly: Anthropology and Restoring a Sense of Presence to an Empty World
...ir study. Scholars that approach religion as an object fit only for analysis discover in it a model of an objectified universe; and those that assume a universe subject only to natural law find in the religions that they study worlds devoid of others–sterile worlds populated only by selves incapable of meaningful relationships. The essay urges that those who see in religions only objects for analysis participate in the construction of worlds inhabited by...

Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
...ploy an instrumentalist approach to the study of the laws of nature. Their aim is to deal, not with things in themselves (the Kantian noumena) but with their empirical manifestation (Kantian phenomena) via tentative hypotheses subject to empirical verification. In the humanities, there is deep suspicion of so-called “meta-narratives” that offer a comprehensive vision of reality on the grounds that their authors are consciously or unconsciously tryi...

Mark Zelcer

...well educated enough to appreciate them? Why would Jews put such a Jewish spin on science?

...

Muhangi Denis

...c pigs with mortalities approaching 100%. The disease severely impacts on the socio-economic status of farmers. The disease is endemic in a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, in Sardinia (Italy), the Russian Federations, the Caucasus and it has shown possibilities of spread within Eastern Europe. Involvement of all stakeholders in the pig value chain in designing and implementing of prevention and control strategies could be explored in future control ...

Maureen McKeague1, Maria C. DeRosa2*

...mergence of elegant new approaches and tools for SELEX. In this commentary, we discuss recent advancements in the selection of aptamers.

...

Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

James Ayukepi Ayukekbong1,2

E-mail | james.ayukekbong@microbio.gu.se

...cessary to initiate the appropriate clinical care. Despite the endemicity of dengue in Nigeria, the disease is not a reportable disease and routine diagnosis is neglected. Here I undertake an exhaustive assembly of known records of dengue prevalence in Nigeria and provide a focus for public health intervention.

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John Martin Fischer

...the great appeal of his approach to a whole range of interrelated issues. I’m not going to mince words: this book is a masterful and comprehensive articulation of Derk Pereboom’s very important and original theory of free will and moral responsibility. Throughout his career, and especially here in this book, Pereboom has developed and defended one of the real “contenders” as a comprehensive theory of freedom and responsibility. This ...

Derk Pereboom

...ischer for his generous appraisal of the book, and for his astute and challenging comments on my treatment of the manipulation argument in Chapter 4. Fischer’s core strategy for resisting this argument is (at least initially) a soft-line reply. Soft-liners claim that in some manipulation cases the agent is not morally responsible, and in others he is. A corollary of the soft-line reply is that there is a plausible compatibilist condition on moral respons...

Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

...oC) and then applied to appropri- ate pots. The treatments of farm yard manure (FYM) @ 10 t ha-1, press mud @ 20 t ha-1, compost @ 0.7 t ha-1 and poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1 were applied with half of the recommended dose of NPK @ (75:60:30 kg ha-1) with or without EM. In 2009-10, the application of EM with Press mud @ 20 t ha-1 significantly enhanced spinach growth by exhibiting higher average spinach plant height (35 cm), number of leaves (16.4), fresh foliage ...

Sajid Ali1, Nouman Badar1, Hina Fatima2

E-mail | sajid_economist@yahoo.com

... ARMA (0, 1) were found appropriate for sugarcane production, sugarcane yield, and cotton production respectively, whereas ARIMA (2, 1, 1) was the suitable model for forecasting cotton yield. Some diagnostic tests were also performed on fitted models and were found well fitted.

...

Varadaraja V. Raman

...other hand disgruntled, oppressed, and frustrated citizens (Irish Catholics, Algerian Muslims, Sri Lankan Tamils, etc.) have terrorized people and governments for various causes.There has also been terrorism by the majority on the minority in communities and nations: for example, Jews in Nazi Germany, Kurds in Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, and Blacks in South Africa. In recent years a new kind of terrorism has been emerging in which individuals or groups attack...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

Thomas J. Coleman III

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2, Pages 39-41
...t least they have often appropriated him in this fashion. However, J. David Pleins’s book The Evolving God endeavors us to carefully rethink this position, as he attempts to reclaim Darwin from the grasp of the New Atheists by charging him with uncovering “[t]he truth about religion.

 

...

Qingzhong Yu

 

...n: justify; ">Different approaches have been used to investigate the most suitable insertion site for optimal expression of a foreign gene without compromising the replication of the Newcastle disease virus. Recently, inserting a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene upstream from the GE sequences of the viral genes and subsequent quantitative measurements of the GFP fluorescence intensity, we have concluded that the P and M junction region is the optimal inser...

Josef D. Jarhult1, 2

...influenza symptoms with approximately 24 hours, and increases nausea and vomiting by 3-5%. Whether oseltamivir treatment has an effect on the frequency of influenza complications or not remains controversial. Oseltamivir is still standard as prophylaxis, treatment of severely ill patients and patients with risk factors for severe influenza disease as well as an important part of pandemic preparedness plans. Resistance development is a potential problem both in...

Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho1*, Isreal Ogunlade1, Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde2

...justify;">Participatory approaches to agricultural extension service delivery emphasize the need for accountability of extension to the end users. This study analysed farmers’ perception of the accountability of agricultural extension services rendered in Oyo State, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule was used in eliciting information from 195 farmers in rural communities across the four agro-ecological zones in the study area using a two-stage random...

Ethan G. Quillen

...logical and theoretical approaches so as to develop a truly inter- and multi-disciplinary understanding about what we mean when we discuss Atheism. On the other, this myriad of voices has equally led to an ever-broadening discordancy, an equivocal discourse that makes it all the more difficult to identify any sort of common or universal definition. This latter issue is, as this paper will argue, the result of a theoretical abstraction, a scholarly attempt at ...

Joseph Langston1*, Joseph Hammer2, Ryan T. Cragun3

...nces around how to best approach religion and religious individuals. Seventy-seven percent of all respondents opted for the group goal of charitable contributions and humanitarian activities, while only 23% of all respondents selected “proselytizing” as a desirable group goal. Secular nonaffiliates’ strongest reason for not joining groups was that joining such groups was a low priority for them, followed by nonbelief not being a salient part ...

Rabbi Paul Shrell-Fox

...f in God in particular. Approximately 25 rabbis voluntarily submitted vignettes concerning their shifts in religious belief. These vignettes were solicited via rabbinic list-serves. Those rabbis who denied a belief in a supernatural being were interviewed to explore the evolution of their religious faith and its impact on their religious practice and behavior. In as much as Judaism places a great emphasis on communal deeds rather than cultural creed, the rabbi...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...tural sources for weed suppression. Field trials were undertaken at Cotton Section, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam Pakistan during summer 2010 and repeated during summer 2011 for validating the previous results. The experiments were laid out in three replicated randomized complete block design. The seed of cotton variety “Sindh-1” was sown through drilling in the 1st week of May each year. The treatments consisted of: ...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

...cally, the metagenomics approach is similar to well-known shotgun-sequencing, though on a much bigger scale. For instance, the metagenome of a lake would include all the fish, ducks, plants, fungi, bacteria and everything else that belongs to the lake. If we apply this approach to clinical samples we can identify the community of etiological pathogens, without any knowledge on the targets in advance. However, clinical specim...

Ummara Waheed Khan, Raza Ahmed, Irum Shahzadi and Mohmmad Maroof Shah

Email | mmshah@ciit.net.pk

...ect and manipulate appropriate factor(s) for successful wheat tissue culture and regeneration that in turn
would help its improvement.

...

Kang-Seuk Choi

...e of the most promising approaches to vaccine development and are an alternative to inactivated IBD vaccines. In addition, VLP technology has many applications. This paper reviews the potential of VLPs as an alternative to IBD vaccines, along with their specific applications in the field.

...

Rongfei Lu1, 2, Zhiyang Liu1, Peng Fang1, Guangyi Chen1, Feng Sun1, Yongjian Fan1, Yijun Zhou1, Tong Zhou1*

... enhanced significantly appropriate measures. As a standard for the relative expression of target genes, the selection of reference genes is crucial. This review describes the history of the RT-qPCR technology, emphasizes the importance of reference genes and enumerates several algorithms to screen reference genes to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Additionally, several possible improvements in the selection of reference genes are discussed.

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Maurice A. Finocchiaro

...an John Heilbron. Their approach is distinctive: it views controversial topics involving the relationship between science and religion from a perspective that is secular-minded, but appreciative of religion, and yet conducted in the belief that such topics are too important to leave to religious believers. This approach also characterizes the work of other Berkeley para-clericals, such as ...

Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

... Services Center (MFSC) approach was investigated in District Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, during year 2015. For the present study, a sample of 306 respondents was selected based on Sekaran sampling technique while using descriptive research design. Well-prepared and pre-tested interview schedule was utilized for collection of data. Descriptive statistics i.e. frequency, percentages and rank order was calculated. Chi-square test was performe...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...ystem is a catalyst for appreciable rice yield in this area. However, proper application of fertilizer and expansion of existing farmland should be adopted among the rice farmers in the study area and other related environment.

...

Moorthy S. Muthuswamy

...t of a counterterrorism approach may be central to undermining the influence of religious leaders who espouse violence or undercut the value of modern education, and the ideology of radicals. Not least of all, this approach, as history suggests, has a good chance of reinvigorating modernity in affected Muslim communities.

...

Mohammed M. Islam1, 3 *, Damian F. J. Purcell2 and George Kannourakis1,3

...iew, we discuss a novel approach to identify the least transcripts of viral genomes using suppression subtractive hybridization that can be adapted to unanimously identify viruses of diverse genetic backgrounds. 

...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...VLPs), reverse genetics approach etc., in the development of diagnostics and vaccines against PPR.

...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...nd environment-friendly approach for weed management. A pot experiment to evaluate the allelopathic potential of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (L.) against Convolvulus arvensis (L.) and Cyperus rotundus (L.) was undertaken during summer 2011. The study was conducted at Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in three replicated completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of control (...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

... the technology with an appropriate approach. The results of the inefficiency model reveal that the factors like education, experience and distance from the main market, are the most influential determinants of the technical efficiency in both NonBT and BT- cotton farms. Extension of cotton production required the development of cottonseed that will be suitable for environmental conditions of Pakistan.

...

Safdar A. Wahocho, Tanveer F. Miano, Noor U.N. Memon and Niaz A. Wahocho

...am – 4 pm) was an appropriate photoperiod in relation to number of flowers as well as flower quality.

...

Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

...menoptera: Formicidae) suppress ghost ants Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) through interference competition. However, relatively less testing have been done to evaluate the competition for mutual exploitation between the two ant species in the field. Here, we investigated the interference of the fire ant S. invicta on the interactions between the ghost ant T. melanocephalum and the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudoco...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

...income. Flexible Linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand System model is used to estimate food demand patterns using the Household Integrated Economic Survey of Pakistan for the year 2011-12. Food products are categorized into fourteen groups including milk, meat, fruits, vegetables, sugar, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats, tea and coffee, backed products and other food. Economic factors such as food commodities price ...

Zaheer Ahmad Qureshi and Khuram Nawaz Sadozai

... income and expenditure approaches are employed to construct the Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient values. The major finding of this study divulge that the Gini Coefficient value through income approach of rural region of KP province is 0.35 which illustrates that there is 35% of income inequality in rural region of KP. While, the Gini Coefficient value through expenditure approach was obs...

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

...ng many pest management approaches, biological control is considered as the main strategy to address these issues including sucking pests. Different biocontrol agents are being used for the management of these sucking insect pests. Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been proved as an efficient acarine predator of sucking insect pests of different crops. This predator has also been reported from different localities of Pakistan. The main objective of ...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

... EPN in cadavers may be appropriate in Pakistan because of the non-availability of industrially produced isolates.

...

Shakeel Ahmed* and Sarwat Jahan

...resistin levels, while suppressed leptin (P<0.05) secretion in both fed and 48-hrs fasting conditions. In conclusion our study suggested that NMS has a role in regulation of adipokines secretion. Its inhibitory effect on leptin and stimulatory effect on resistin shows an important relationship between NMS and adipokines in the regulation of reproductive axis in male rhesus monkeys. Further studies are required to confirm this relationship.

...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...V induces a suppression of the immune system during the acute disease, which favours the establishment and exacerbates the progression of secondary infections. This review gives an overview of the known immunosuppressive strategies of PPRV, among the Paramyxoviruses, as well as the strategies developed by this virus to evade the immune system,...

Imed Ben Salem*, Aymen Ben Ibrahim, M’barek Chetoui and Said Nouira

...geographical areas. The approach adopted was to identify landmarks on the skulls of all specimens using the tpsDig software, and then analyzing them through the program MorphoJ. Our results show that L. griselda has the largest skull, whereas L. zebra has the smallest. L. griselda and L. rosalia have greater breadth of the braincase, length of the nasals and length of the tympanic bulla, than the other species. This is probably related to a phenotypic evolutio...

Jixue Hou1,2, Xueling Chen3, Jing Wang4, Hongwei Zhang2, Yu Xi2, Jie Xia2, Xinyu Peng2,* and Xiangwei Wu2,5*

...s well as translational approaches. In this Experiment, we established a unique murine model of femoral artery injury through a home-made wire. The mouse model of vascular injury may be used to explore the molecular mechanism of post-angioplasty restenosis with lowest costing.

...

Abdul Baset1, Qun Liu1,*, Muhammad Tariq Hanif1, 2, Baochao Liao1, Aamir Mahmood Memon1,3 and Muhammad Mohsin1

... the starting catch was approximately 100% of the maximum catch. The estimated values of MSY using CEDA with the Fox model under three error assumptions of normal, log-normal and gamma were 25 860.07 t (R2 = 0.864), 26 812.65 t (R2 = 0.836) and 26 665 t (R2 = 0.85), respectively. The MSY values with Schaefer and Pella Tomlinson models under two error assumptions normal and log-normal were 29 160.13 t (R2 =0.84) and 30 455.5 t (R2 =0.807), respectively. The val...

Bahattin Cak1, Orhan Yilmaz1, Siddik Keskin2, Tahir Bayril3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4*

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...tive phytotherapeutical approach to control antibiotic-resistant microbial strains in the food industry.

...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

... vaccination along with appropriate control measures.

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Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

...dy. Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA) was employed for data analysis using computer software STATA. Result illustrates that technical efficiency of sugarcane crop for the period under study in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa ranges from minimum 0.47 to maximum 0.98 with mean value of 0.84 percent. This mean that with same resource base average sugarcane growers can increase his yield up to 14% and most technical inefficient grower can increase his per acre yield up to 52%...

Hina Fatima, Lal Almas and Bushra Yasmin

...iciency was around 75%. Approximately 36 percent of farms allocative efficiency varies from 0.20 to 0.60. Around 60% of farms allocative efficiency ranges from 0.61 to above 0.90. The under and over-utilization of inputs such as land, seeds, fertilizers and pesticides reflect the general performance of the inputs in terms of their degree of changes in cotton-melon output to change inputs reflected by the allocative efficiency analysis. It is indispensable that...

Ibni Amin Khalil* and Raziuddin

...seed yield using biplot approach in fifteen parental genotypes following 11× 4: line × tester fashion. The resultant 44 F1 hybrids along with parental genotypes were evaluated under field condition in a replicated trial for seed yield plant-1 performance. Differences among the parental lines, testers, F1 hybrids and line × tester interaction for found significant (P<0.01) for the studied parameter. Promising genotypes for seed yield i.e. L...
Yusuf Koc1, Ecevit Eyduran1* and Omer Akbulut2
...(%), SD ratio, relative approximation error (RAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Pearson correlation between actual and predicted weaning weights were estimated for each combination. It was determined that CHAID algorithm constructed more suitable tree structures, biologically in comparison to Exhaustive CHAID and CART data mining algorithms. Consequently, it is recommended that the biological suitability of the constructed tree structure should be taken acco...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...de a useful alternative approach. Concerning with genotypic identification, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied for identification of Candida species, Cryptococcus albidus, Saccharomyces, Trichosporn, Torulopsis and Rhodotorula. Using universal primers ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 amplified ITS region. And it yielded a unique PCR size of approximately 376-930 bp. PCR amplicons were dig...
Irshad Ahmad
...pears to be a promising approach for the control of walnut borer. Collectively this strategy has resulted in significant reduction of the pest population in the target area of district Dir, Pakistan.
...
Lingtong Ye1, Chao Cao1,2, Bin Tang1,2, Tuo Yao1, Ruixuan Wang1 and Jiangyong Wang1*
...n integrative taxonomic approach that combines morphology and molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. Adult P. websteri exhibit a high degree of morphological plasticity in the palp pigmentation pattern, the shape of the anterior edge of the prostomium, the shape of the major spines on chaetiger 5, and the shape of the pygidium. The COI gene sequence demonstrated that the intraspecific distance of P. webster...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Zhong-Yuan Zhang1, Yan-Guo Han1, Wei-Wei Ni1, Ming-Xing Chu2, Yue-Hui Ma2, Jian-Ning He3, Huai-Zhi Jiang4, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Yan Zeng1, Ri-Su Na1, Gao-Fu Wang5, Hang-Xing Ren5 and Yong-Fu Huang1*
...microsatellites are not appropriate biomarkers for goat breeding.

 

...

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

...y contagious and immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The first line of defence against the virus is innate immunity whose activation is independent of the antigen and depends on the ability of the host to recognize pathogens by means of specific pattern recognition receptors. This interaction induces the production of cytokines, chemokines and interferons. Through Janus kinase/signal transducers and transcription activators pathway, interferon induces...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...ontrol program for the suppression of pyralid pest insects damaging different agricultural crops of economic importance.
...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...eated and 2 control) of approximate dimensions, 13.72 m × 10.97 m × 1.52 m (229 m3). In treated ponds, fish were fed with artificial diet (protein 42%, lipid 20% and energy 25.2 kJ g-1) for 120 days in three equal meals. On the other hand, control ponds remained without additives. During the whole study period, water quality parameters of the experimental ponds remained as salinity (15‰ -20‰), dissolved oxygen (5...
Andrea Rezic1, Ivica Boskovic2, Piera Lubinu3, Marina Piria1, Tihomir Florijancic2, Massimo Scandura3 and Nikica Sprem1*
...geometric morphometrics approach. A total of 21 landmarks described the dorsal side of the skull and lateral side of the mandible. Individual variation in skull and mandible morphology was statistically significant for the shape (p<0.01). Sexual dimorphism as main effect was highly significant for the dorsal skull shape and the mandible shape and size (p<0.01). The comparison of mandible mean shapes using discriminant function analysis and parametric tes...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...eneficial plant defense approaches used by plants. The review also briefly explains about introgression of durable resistance to generate virus resistant cultivars for economically important crops through molecular breeding techniques via utilizing advanced molecular markers involving cis and trans genetics. The review adhere recent research findings regarding disease resistance against viral diseases and concludes via shedding light upon the future prospects ...

John G. Bruno

...ates feasibility of the approach and paves the way for more sophisticated analysis that could lead to improved rickettsial serodiagnostics and aptamer-based vaccines.

...

Waqar Islam

.... Integrated management approaches involving utilization of virus resistant crops and efficient management of insect vectors can reduce this disastrous problem. However, in developing countries such strategies are rarely applied due to lack of farmer’s knowledge about plant virus diseases. Therefore, here we reviewed about this issue by highlighting that what farmers know about plant viruses, what is their perception about yield losses by virus diseases ...

Muhammad Asif Zahoor1, Zeeshan Nawaz1, Abu Baker Siddique1, Sajjad ur Rahman2 and Shahid Ali1*

...s. In this way, current approach could be contributed well towards elimination and reduction of losses due to Mycoplasma infections in commercial poultry.

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Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...rated and collaborative approaches are needed for pasture resources management with efficient and sustainable livestock production in Northern Pakistan.

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Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...ome of twoDNAcomponents approximately 2.7 kb in size, designated as DNA-A and DNA-B. Monopartite begomoviruses are also known to occur. Recently, a novel class of molecule, known as satellite DNA-? of ~1.35 kb size are also found to occur in India. Whitefly transmitted geminiviruses categorized as begomoviruses are reported since long. During the last two decades, whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses have emerged as serious pathogens of several agricultural and ...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...lant pathogenic fungi, suppressive effects on some root nematodes without adversely affecting beneficial microbes like Rhizobium and capable of promoting growth of certain crops. There are two major methods of inoculum production of Trichoderma spp. viz., solid state fermentation and liquid state fermentation. In solid fermentation, the fungus is grown on various cereal grains, agricultural wastes and byproducts. The solid state production is highly labour int...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
... crops was studied for suppression of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita and wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato in laboratory and pot culture experiment. All the isolates were isolated by serial dilution and cultured in liquid protein supplemented broth medium and culture filtrates (CF) were prepared. In in-vitro test single eggmasses of uniform size were kept in 5ml CF in 5cm diameter Petri plates. Antifungal activity was test...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
...n oviposition period of approximately 21 days. This mealybug is capable of active movement throughout its adult life. The stripped mealy bug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) was found to infest the leaves of different ornamental plants in Rajshahi and Dhaka, Bangladesh. It is a polyphagous pest damaging coffee, sweet potato, jute, groundnut, tomato, citrus, cotton, guava etc. causing enormous damage to them. The female lays about 300-400 eggs which hatch in few h...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...y (TNAU), Coimbatore to appraise them of the gravity of the situation and the need for getting effective biocontrol agent [Acerophagus papayae (Noyes and Schauff)] through ICAR-NBAII (National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects)-TNAU was emphasized as the existing biocontrol agents could not give relief. Later, when the exotic parasitoid was imported by NBAII, Bangalore, the papain industry wholeheartedly supported the training programmes by deploying ...

Lakshman Chandra Patel and Chandan Kumar Mondal

Management of causal agents of chilli leaf curl complex through bio-friendly approaches
...uron, three ecofriendly approaches i.e. garlic extract, spirit and alternate use of garlic with spirit, one predator insect Chrysoperla carnea and untreated control. The lowest population of thrips, mites and white fly was recorded with application of diafenthiuron at 15 days interval from seedling to early fruiting stage. Among the ecofriendly options, alternate use of garlic with spirit performed better than their single repeated use starting from seedling t...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...thdrawal. We understand Appropriate PA (Appropriate Precision Agriculture, APA) as Site-Specific Appropriate Precision Agriculture (SSAPA) applied to cropping system management with geoinformatics and agriinformatics as may be available of land, soil, including its nutrient content and availability of requisite water, meteorology, agrometeorology and forecasting inputs and outputs by marke...

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
...s. Where validated this approach may be a useful tool in plant protection, especially supervisory management and appropriate IPM.
 

 

...
Ayesha Zahid,Ammara Muazzam, Sidra Mustafa, Saba Irshad*,Malik Siddique Mahmood and Rehman Shahzad

 

...f lens opaqueness and inappropriate growth of fiber cells. In the present study, a novel G to C substitution (1104G>C) (pE368Q) was screened by PCR-SSCP in exon 2 of GJA8 and this tansversion altered exceedingly conserved glutamic acid to glutamine at site which was involved in coding of ASF1 like histone chaperone. Further presumption based on structural and functional analysis of mutated protein was anticipated by bioinformatics tools, which manifest mild...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...ated all the management approaches under study performed significantly superior to farmers’ practice in terms of reduction in disease severity (32.8-43.6%), yield increase (20.9% - 26.8%) and benefit-cost ratio. Integrated approach was the best approach followed by prophylactic and curative soil disinfestations. Thus, for the present micro-level situation vascular bacterial wilt mala...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...tanical (vegetable oil) approaches of management were tested against traditional practice and replicated among 10 different household at 10 villages. Results showed that grain dressing with both neem and mustard oil under botanical approaches performed significantly superior over other approaches and traditional practice in terms reduction in percent infestation (92%), increase in germinat...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Amanullah1, Zafar Islam2*,Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Umair4, Mehmood Ayaz5, Asghar Ali Khan6, Muhammad Asif2 and Ya Sakina3
... Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa, approved Dera Mung-3 as “Inqalab Mung” for general cultivation in KPK. Inqalab Mung has 28-36% high grain yield potential compared to the standard variety Niab Mung-98 and parent Niab Mung-92 along with resistance to charcoal rot, cercospora leaf spot and Yellow mosaic virus.
...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...earned skills from this approach were fertilizer application, improved agricultural technology and sowing methods. It is suggested that there is a need that FSC has to establish the linkages of the farmers with the entire line department associated with the farming. FSC should take steps to build the capacity of the farmers regarding the latest improved practices of vegetable cultivation to achieve more production.

...
Muhammad Imran Shabbir
...icted. This fundamental approach is the basis for plant and animal breeding to get desired varieties as well as performing genetic analysis including prediction of patterns of inheritance in family lines and to calculate the recurrence risk for relatives etc. Punnett square is used to describe the possible combinations of paternal and maternal alleles for a particular cross. Described here is a line-dot method using ternary genotype codes to determine genotype...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...tion is a promising new approach for the prevention and treatment of many viral diseases because of its ability to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against antigens encoded by recombinant DNA. The goal of this study was to construct Egy-H5 plasmid DNA-based vaccine against a currently circulating avian influenza virus H5N1 strain in Egypt targeting the HA gene. The HA gene of AIV Egyptian strain H5N1 was codon optimized for chicken biased codo...

Muhammad Ibrahim and Ahmad Khan*

...ld be more suitable for appropriate phenological stages and improved crop stand.

...
Ali Karabacak1, Senol Celik2, Adile Tatliyer3, Ismail Keskin1, Yakup Erdal Erturk4, Ecevit Eyduran5, Yasir Javed6 and Mohammad Masood Tariq7,*
... Error (RMSE), Relative Approximation Error (RAE), and Pearson correlation coefficient between actual and predicted values were calculated. For both Models, CHAID and CART were chosen as the best algorithms in the estimation of CCW trait, whereas only CHAID was the ideal tree-based algorithm in the estimation of BW trait. In conclusion, the determination of the best data mining algorithm on the estimation of BW and CCW traits might be utility for further resea...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

Tiansen Li1, Meiling Huang2, Zhen Wang1,Fei Guo3,Hui Zhang1,* and Chuangfu Chen1,*
...duction, as assessed in appropriate in vitro (cell culture) and animal models. Results showed the omp10 mutant was dramatically attenuated for survival in macrophages and mice than the parent strain 2308. With decrease in the spleen/body weight ratios of mice infected with omp10 mutants were noted, inhibition of phagosome-Lysosome fusion was dramaticly impaired, and profound increase of apoptosis rate after exposure of RAW264.7 to omp10...
Usman Waheed1,*, Humayoon Shafique Satti2, Muhammad Arshad3, Ahmed Farooq3, Abdul Rauf4 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer1,5
...formed by rapid devices approved by World Health Organization (WHO) and confirmed by Chemiluminescence Immunoassays (CLIA). Of total 387 respondents, 149 subjects tested positive for syphilis (38.5%), whereas 37 tested positive for HIV (9.6%). Syphilis co-infection was found in 22 of the HIV infected subjects (59.5%; odd ratio 2.53; p=0.008). Co-infection was most prevalent among HSW group (90.9%; OR 8.67; P=0.005) followed by FSW group (20%) and IDUs (14.3%)....
Sumit K. Satpathi1, Suprakash Pal2*, Rupsanatan Mandal2, Nonigopal Shit2 and Ashutosh Sarkar3
...d treatments; thus this approach is augmenting the natural control of pests.
 
Keywords: Cowpea, insect pests, biopesticides, bioefficacy, cost-benefit ratio, natural enemiesl
...
Muhammad Hannan Ahmed1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Abu Bakar M. Raza1, M. Afzal1, A. Khaliq1, Yasir Iftikhar2 and Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3
...indings are helpful for appropriate management of sucking complex in case of cotton crop.
...
Masooma Munir1,2*, Aqsa Qayyum1, Saeeda Raza1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Sahar Shible1, Sohaib Afzal3, Saiqa Bashir4
...rotein but they provide appreciable amount of minerals and phenolic compounds. Swollen basil seeds were used to prepare beverage at three supplementation levels i.e. 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%. Sensory evaluation of basil seed drink revealed that 0.3% basil seeds supplemented drink was liked most in term of taste, texture and over all acceptability whereas 0.4% basil seeds supplemented drink were least liked as compared to other treatments. It was concluded that basil ...

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

Rehmat Ullah1*, Kalim Ullah2, Inam Ullah3, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Asif Nawaz1 
...s may have far reaching approach to disseminate the improved technologies and give benefit to the farmers. 
...

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...report on RNV66, and an approved VEGF inhibitor Avastin. Overall, the findings highlight that VEGFR1(D1-D3)-Fc can also serve as a potential anti-angiogenic molecule. 

...

Trinh Thi Viet Ha1, Pham Duy Liem2 and Li Shuang1* 

...untries using empirical approaches. The findings of the study show that the pattern of rice trade between China and Vietnam is fluctuated. The trade volume between China and Vietnam is smaller, and the fluctuation of trade is larger, and there is a large space for the development of rice trade between the two countries. Through further comparison of the comparative advantages of Chinese and Vietnamese rice products showed that the comparative advantage of Chin...
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
... optimized a novel tPCR approach to detect Mycoplasma gallispeticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and nonpathogenic mycoplasmas at the same in a single PCR reaction collected from diseased chicken. Direct PCR from the clinical samples produced false negative results. Both culture and PCR were combined as culture-enhanced PCR approach. Three different DNA crude preparation methods were used and broth dilution method foun...

Sikandar Hayat, Khalid Usman* and Muhammad Tahir Amin 

.... Row adjustment and an appropriate N fertilizer application method may be a possible solution. Field trials were carried out to explore suitable row spacing and N fertilizer application method for zero tillage wheat at Agronomic Research Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (D. I. Khan), Pakistan in 2015-2016 wheat growing season. The experimental design was randomized complete block with split plot arrangement replicated thrice. F...
Xue-yang Wang1, Shang-zhi Zhang1, Ming-hui Liu2, Dong Yu1, Yan Ma1, Dong-qiong Fei1, Hai-zhong Yu1 and Jia-ping Xu1,*
...h a molecular weight of approximately 71.2 kDa. BmARM-like mRNA showed highest expression in hemolymph, significantly high expression levels in 4th instar, moth, and egg, stable high expression levels in the early embryonic development, relatively high expression levels in the 1st day and 5th day of the pupa stage, and highest expression levels in the molting stage. What’s more, BmARM-like protein could be detected...
Carolina A. Bonin1,2, Eric A. Lewallen2,3, Andre J. van Wijnen3, Marta Jussara Cremer4 and Paulo C. Simões-Lopes5*
...2000) within an area of approximately 100 km2, within the Paranaguá Bay Estuary. We employed the group follow protocol, which resulted in 260 h of direct observation. Our results revealed feeding as the most frequent activity in the estuary, totaling nearly two thirds of all records. We also identified two sites of Guiana dolphin habitat preference in our study area, where sightings remarkably totalled > 62% of observation records. These s...
Liushuai Hua1,3, Shiping Gong1,*, Xiangjing Zhong2, Jun Tao2, Yu Chen2 and Jieming Deng2 
... weight maintenance. An appropriate water depth (less than three times body height) is helpful for body weight maintenance (P< 0.01) when the ambient temperature is not cold enough for normal hibernation. These findings can provide technical guidance for safe overwintering of big-headed turtles in captivity, and will help facilitate conservation of this endangered freshwater turtle species.
...

Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Muhammad Tahir2, Abid Ali3, Manzoor Hussain3, Muhammad Waheed Anwar4, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 and Ijaz Ahmad

...sidered one of the best approaches in crop production to improve soil fertility and productivity. Like jantar and moringa are rich in plant nutrients and becoming popular in farming community as a green manure. An experiment was conducted for evaluating green maunuring of moringa and jantar along with inorganic fertilizers to enhance the yield and quality attributes of autumn maize at Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. There were t...

Imran Ali Rajput1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Imran Khatri1 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi2 

... a significant role in suppressing the pest population of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund) which is the main pest of cotton in all over the world. Nevertheless, the indigenous botanical extracts have been used effectively against various sucking pests of cotton but only few studies have been attempted to observe their action against bollworms. Therefore, the present study has been designed to observe the dual action of transgenic cotton and botanical...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...nd reliable alternative approaches for the management of this pest. As the information regarding resistant cultivars is lacking, therefore, the objective of the present study was to identify resistant sources from among the available commercial okra cultivars. Okra cultivars showed significant variations from comparative susceptibility to comparative resistance. On the basis of fruit and shoot infestation caused by H. armigera,Manchali, RK-516, OH-152 a...
Qunhua Han1,2, Meiwen Zhang1,*, Cong Guo2, Xunjun Zhou1, Bo Li1 and Yong Wang1
... from birth through approximately 3 months of age with respect to growth. Vole pups were randomized into litters of 1-2 (LD, low density), 3-5 (MD, medium density), and 6-9 (HD, high density) individuals, and the body weight, body length, tail length, and hind foot length were measured and curve-fitted by using Von Bertalanffy and Logistic equations. Instantaneous growth rates and growth acceleration of Yangtze voleat different densities were calculated. R...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Aly Khan3
...ue to comparative based approach in different occupational communities the present study is of particular importance and interest. Such studies should continue time to time to know the hazardous of potentially important pathogenic parasitic infections particularly in remote parts of the world.
...
Muhsan Ali Kalhoro1,2, Danling Tang1,*, Ye Hai Jun1, Morozov Evgeny1, Sufen Wang1 and Muhammad Aslam Buzdar
Hayat Badshah1, Farman Ullah1, Paul-André Calatayud2, Hidayat Ullah3 and Bashir Ahmad1
...tan. Biological control approach by using Aenasius bambawalei Hayat(Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) has been developed recently to control this pest. However, the efficiency of this parasitoid is variable according to the locality and the plants on which P. solenopsis is feeding. In this context, this experiment investigated under field and laboratory conditions the influence of the host plant of P. solenopsis on the parasitism success and...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...search teams on finding appropriate methods for managing and controlling it. A huge fund was given for managing and controlling RPW in several countries. In this study, the potential toxicity of oxamyl to RPW was evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, oxamyl had significant effects on the mortality of RPW. After exposure to direct spray of oxamyl, adult mortality was 62, 82 and 100% whereas larvae mortality was 72, 77 and 100%...

Niamat Ullah Khan1*, Abdul Aziz Khakwani2, Sami Ullah2, Najeeb Ullah2, Abdur Rauf3 and Inam Ullah2

...e tillage system is one approach to ensure better plant population, save irrigation water, cut cultivation costs and increases cotton yield and quality on sustainable basis. Field trial was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to study the effect of tillage systems [ridge tillage (RT) and flat tillage (FT)] and 5 nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kgN.ha-1) on cotton lint yields, quality and e...
Yakut Gevrekçi* and Çiğdem Takma
... one of the data mining approaches which generate model asses the response variable based on the predictor variables. The present study deals with evaluating relationship between egg production (EP) and some related traits by decision tree analysis with Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) algorithms. A total of 1912 EP records of layers which hatched at four different periods were collected from a c...

Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Khawar Hussain1, Zilakat Khan Malik2 and Noor Jehan1 

...d a Stochastic Frontier Approach for measuring the technical efficiency of strawberry production at farm level. For this purpose data has been collected from 382 randomly selected strawberry producers of two purposively selected villages of district Charsadda. Out of 382 producers 176 were located in Tebana Dhere and 206 in Sarkai village. It is find out that 47% of land area was under the cultivation of strawberry with average production of 2898 kilogram per ...
Nancy R. Howell
...fruitful method for and approach to Cosmic History.
...
Muhammad Abubakar,1,2,* Aamer Bin Zahur,1,3 Khalid Naeem1,3, Muhammad Azeem Khan1,3 and Subhan Qureshi
Senol Celik1,* and Orhan Yilmaz2
...gression splines (MARS) approaches to estimate the most important variables in predicting the body weight of Turkish Tazi dogs. Using various body measurements, the CART algorithm proposed that withers height (WH), abdominal width (AW), rump height (RH) and chest depth (CD) can significant effect the body weight. Quantitatively, it was identified that values of WH > 62.500 cm and RH > 67.500 cm can positively correlated with the highest body weights. On ...
Samra Imran1,* and Afifa Tanweer2
...tegrated interventional approach for the dietary management of celiac patients. Focusing on detailed nutrition education along with ensuring the availability of healthy and affordable gluten free choices, instead of merely emphasizing on compliance to gluten free diet, may ensure good nutritional status of Pakistani celiac patients.
...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz3
...ue to comparative based approach in different occupational groups the present study is of particular interest. Such studies should be continue time to time to know the hazardous of potentially important pathogenic parasitic infections particularly in remote parts of the country.
...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...ndly and cost effective approaches of nutrient management can be a possible solution for these problems. So the present study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, Groundnut Research Station Attock, Pakistan during rabi 2013-14 to check the effect of different integrated nutrients management strategies on the yield and quality of wheat. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement by using three replicat...
Muhammad Naeem1, Bushra Sadia1,2,*, Faisal Saeed Awan1and Muhammad Anjum Zia3
...ovement is an important approach for its hyper production. In this connection, wild bacterial strain Streptococcus equisimilis was mutagenized using ethidium bromide and UV radiation. The colonies (15 each) showing > 1% survival rate at 150 min of UV exposure and 12 % survival at 0.5 mg/ml of ethidium bromide for 120 min were selected. Casein hydrolytic assay identified EB3, EB4, EB6, EB7, EB9, EB11, EB13, UV2, UV4, UV6, UV7, UV9, UV11, UV12 and UV 1...

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

...s 80 % with nearly 36 unapproved varieties. Most of these varieties are Cotton leaf curl virus susceptible, poor in fiber quality and high input demanding unapproved varieties. Almost all these varieties employed Monsanto Cry1Acgene (MON 531) as it was not patented in Pakistan. A positive development was approval of Monsanto plan to introduce advanced genetically modified (GM) crop technol...

Mohammad Aslam*

...promotional efforts and appropriate policy measures on the part of the state. Moreover, wheat being a staple diet of people for centuries, switching over to rice may happen only over a long period of time.

...

Zaheer Ahmad, M. Yaqub Mujahid, M. Anwar Khan, Shaheena Yasmin, M. Asif and Maqsood Qamar*

...Council meeting and was approved as a commercial variety namely NARC-2009 for cultivation in rainfed areas of Pakistan.

...

Hassnain Shah, Hina Riaz, Nadeem Akmal , Muhammad Sharif* and Abdul Majid**

...lculated for investment appraisal of the feed mills. Assessment of the intervention based on the farmers’ perception regarding the acceptability and compatibility of the balance feed was done through survey of the participating and fellow farmers at the project sites. Paired sample ‘T’ test was used to compare the difference in milk yield. Farmers reported 0.5 to 2 liters per day increase in milk yield with the use of balance feed. The paired...

 S. Shahid Shaukat*, Mian Sayed**, Aly Khan, M. Azhar Khan* and Babar Qazi***

...e more or less equally suppressed by all the treatments in the order: Carbofuran > Tridax procumbens > Fertinemakil Plus > Withania somnifera. The yield of guar was only slightly increased but not significantly.

...

 Ghulam Shabbir*, Muhammad Aftab, Abid Mahmood** Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah* and Nasir Mahmood Cheema***

...r seed yield, SPS-5 was approved as a rapeseed variety “Chakwal Sarson” by the Punjab Seed Council in 2002 for general cultivation in the Punjab barani tract.

...

Muhammad Athar Khan1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Syed Amir Gilani3 and Ifrah Bukhari4 

...jab, Pakistan after the approval of institutional ethical review board (IERB), 250 subjects were selected for this comparative cross sectional study. Multiple stage probability technique was used for sampling. In the first stage one union council was selected from each district randomly. In the second stage, 25 subjects involved in rice cultivation from the last 10 years were selected from each union council. Similarly 25 subjects who never worked in the rice ...
Promy Virk
...ical absorption peak at approximately 2.30 keV and 3.0 keV corresponded to the surface plasmon resonance property of gold and silver nanoparticles respectively. The green gold and silver (Au/Ag) nanocomposite showed a profound antihyperglycemic effect which was significantly better than all other treated groups. The results on serum ALT, creatinine levels and blood urea also showed a comparable ameliorative effect of both the bulk Trigonella seed extrac...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Sehrish Bilal1, Madeeha Khalid1, Muhammad Tahir Nazir1 and A.R. Shakoori2

 

.../i> AChE, computational approach was employed. For this purpose a dissection of 3-D model of A. mellifera and T. castaneum AChE enzyme was studied which showed that change in amino acid sequence of primary structure of enzyme exists at the saponin binding site, resulting in weak interaction for A. mellifera as compared to T. castaneum enzyme protein. Computational studies inidicate that A. mellifera enzyme had a little bindin...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1*, Rehmat Ullah1, Asif Nawaz1 and Ejaz Ashraf2 

Saleem Abid1*, Nasir Jamal2, Muhammad Zubair Anwar3 and Saleem Zahid4 
...ential growth model was appropriate for forecasting potato area and production in Pakistan due to lowest values of the forecasting errors. The forecasted values of both area and production of potato crop depicted increasing trend. The findings of this study would help the decision makers to make better policies regarding crop production, price structure as well as consumption of potato in the country.
...

 Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Umar Farooq, Nadeem Akmal*, Shahid Munir and Bashir Hussain**

POTENTIAL FOR INVESTMENT IN INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGIES: A CASE OF LOW COST SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION STRUCTURES IN RAINFED POTHWAR, PAKISTAN
...development. To develop appropriate technologies for increasing land productivity through soil and water conservation, applied research has been carried out during 2001-07 in the rainfed Pothwar area. Low cost soil and water conservation structures were developed and demonstrated in the area. The investment appraisal based on the cost incurred and benefits realized by the farmers recorded through assessment survey revealed t...

 Muhammad Tariq*, Raja Muhammad Omer**, Muhammad Ashraf Mian*, Obaid Ur Rehman***, Amjad Tahir Virk and Kazim Abbass**

PROMOTING CERTIFIED SEED AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON YIELD IN RAINFED AREAS
...ties to the farmers. An approved wheat variety 'Chakwal-50' of rainfed areas was selected for certified seed production and distribution in rainfed District Chakwal under joint venture of a study on comparison of seed source(Certified vs. Farmer's seed) contribution towards wheat yield at six sites in the District. All the agronomic practices were the same in both -2 treatments. The number of fertile tillers m were significantly higher in certified seed source...

 Muhammad Zubair Anwar, M. Azeem Khan, Ikram Saeed, Akhtar Ali*, Shafique Zahid and Abdul Majid**

SMALL FARMERS PERCEPTIONS REGARDING IMPROVED FODDER AND FORAGE VARIETIES: RESULTS OF PARTICIPATORY ON FARM RESEARCH
...f the respondents (83%) appreciated the newly introduced plant species while about 17% have shown their interest in fruit trees.

...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad and Ijaz Ashraf** 

ROLE OF FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS IN ENHANCING SKILLS OF FARMING COMMUNITY IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
... is a capacity building approach, which provides opportunities to farmers of improving various skills through practicing various techniques by themselves. Considering therefore, the importance of this approach, the study was conducted in 2011 to examine the role of FFS in enhancing skills of farming community in the central region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The data were collected through survey method on various aspec...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-din*, Syed Haider Abbas*, Maqsood Qamar* and Muhammad Noman*

EFFECT OF SPLIT N FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON PHYSIOAGRONOMIC TRAITS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...s conducted to find out appropriate N rate and application method to enhance wheat productivity. -1 Three N rates i.e., 60, 90, and 120 kg ha and three application methods i.e. full basal N dose at planting and N application in two and three equal split doses at tiller formation and stem elongation stages. Maximum grain yield -1 -1 (5.20 t ha ) was achieved when N was applied @120 kg ha in three equal split doses at planting, tiller formation and stem elongati...

 Muhammad Tayyab Mudassar*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Muhammad Naeemullah**, Muhammad Shakeel*, Muhammad Ashfaque*, Asmat un Nisa* and Javed Khan*

ECONOMIC REARING OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (STEPHENS) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) IN INSECTARY
...nd diet cost of Rs. 40. Approximately 4000 eggs per month were obtained from the C. carnea adult culture and the cost per egg was Rs. 0.04. This study also revealed that the diet consumption of 100 C. carnea larvae was 3.617g of Sitotroga cerealella eggs and 1.793g of Phenacoccus solenopsis crawlers. Adult emergence rate was significantly higher when provided with S. cerealella eggs, which was more economical than that of P. solenopsis crawlers. For efficient ...

Tanzila Kazmi*, Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry*, Aftab Ahmed** and Shaheer Ellahi Khan**

FARMERS BELIEFS ABOUT INDIGENOUS FARMING PRACTICES AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
... and demands a complete approach to achieve destined goals. On the other hand it was also found that the lack of knowledge is a hindrance to achieve required outcome(s) from modern techniques. Thus, the public institutes need to be strengthened so that the transitional lag may be bridged and farmers may also get required production.

...

 Ayesha Tahir*

FORECASTING CITRUS EXPORTS IN PAKISTAN
...s were applied but most appropriate model for trend analysis of the present study was quadratic trend model. Forecasting was done from 2012 to 2016.The forecasted export quantities are 1643.13, 1854.03, 2077.80, 2314.46 and 2564.00 thousand tons and forecasted export values are 673.67, 782.34, 898.57, 1022.35 and 1153.68 thousand dollars. Forecasted values are very close to actual values and have positive increasing trend in Pakistan.

...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-Din*, Sikandar Khan Tanveer*, Maqsood Qamar* and Syed Haider Abbas*

EVALUATION OF ADVANCE WHEAT LINES FOR AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN RAINFED ENVIRONMENT
... to November 15 is more appropriate time and advance lines NR- 397 and NARC-09 have the genetic potential to tolerate adverse rainfed growing conditions under agro-ecological conditions of Pothwar region, Pakistan.

...

 Farman Ullah Shah*, G. Mustafa Sajid** and Sadar Uddin Siddiqui**

EVALUATION OF MULCHING MATERIALS AS INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT COMPONENT IN MAIZE CROP
... available mulches for suppressing weeds in maize crop at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad during kharif (autumn) season 2011. The experiment was laid in Randomized Complete Block Design, (RBCD) having eight treatments and four replications. The treatments were black plastic, white plastic, sugarcane straw, wheat straw, live mulch, weeds as mulch, hand weeding and weedy check. Weed data -2 -2 included weed density m , fresh and dry weigh...

 Rehmat Ullah*, Kalim Ullah** and Mohammad Zafarullah Khan*

EXTENSION SERVICES AND TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) IN DISTRICT DERA ISMAIL KHAN
...griculture extension is appreciating the problems of farmers and suggesting a suitable solution for these problems. Due to the utmost importance of agricultural extension services, its role was investigated in the major date producing areas (Dakki, Mian Wada, Mathra Abad, Jhok Ghamywali, Habib Abad, Bilot Sharif, Himat, Jhok Moazam, Matwala Shah, Chura and Jhok Malkanri) of the district Dera Ismail Khan by personal interview method from a sample of 51 responde...

 Aniqa Iram*, Javed Khan**, Nadeem Aslam**, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Habib Iqbal Javed**, Muhammad Irfan*, Awais Rasool*, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi** and Sumera Aslam* 

EFFICACY OF PLANT DERIVED OILS AND EXTRACTS AGAINST WHITEFLY, BEMISIA TABACI (GENNADIUS) ON SESAME CROP
...tion was significantly suppressed by both the botanical oils and extracts as compared to the control treatment but in general botanical oils showed significant results as compared to plant extracts. Soybean oil was quite effective in reducing whitefly population per leaf, while after second spray soybean oil and extract of Mentha spp. was more effective in the reducing whitefly population per leaf. The results indicated that plant derived oils and extracts hav...

 Munir Ahmad*, Asif Ali Mirani**, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood**, Tanveer Ahmad** and Muhammad Azhar Saeed**

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CROSS-FLOW RICE DRYERS
...ved by incorporating an appropriate heat exchanger.

...

 Nosheen Zahra*, Ghulam Sarwar* and Sher Muhammad**

COMPARISON OF GYPSUM AND POTASSIUM SILICATE FOR RECLAMATION OF SALINE SODIC SOIL
...ding to treatment plan. Appropriate time was given to achieve the reclamation of saline sodic soil and relative efficiency was assessed through laboratory analysis. After this, rice seedling (Shaheen Basmati) was transplanted in all the pots i.e., 3 plants per pot. Necessary N, P and K fertilizers were applied at the recommended rate. After crop harvest, soil samples were taken for analysis of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and...

 Syeda Aimen Hadi*, Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry*, Aftab Ahmed** and Shaheer Ellahi Khan***

PERCEPTION, APPROACHES AND PRACTICES OF LOCAL FARMING AND DEVELOPMENT: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH
...n recognizing the local approaches of farming in designing and implementation of development projects. These approaches are representative of a particular ecological, social, economical, and political system, shaped by the constraints and opportunities associated to the area. Effective and successful development projects must include the local perceptions, their approaches and practices, a...

 Muhammad Akhter*, Muhammad Azhar Ali**, Zulqarnain Haider* and Shahzad Muzammil***

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHANGES IN GRAINS OF SOME ADVANCE LINES/ VARIETIES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) AFTER PARBOILING
...la Shah Kaku, including approved fragrant (Basmati) rice variety i.e., Basmati-2000, were used to assess interactive efficacy of parboiling on these varieties/lines and practical expediency of using standardized parboiling technique for improving nutritional, milling and cooking qualities of these lines/varieties. For this purpose, white milled and parboiled rice samples of ten lines/varieties were analyzed for nutritional quality parameters such as ash, dry m...

 Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Arshad Ali**, Tariq Sultan** and Muhammad Munir Ahmed***

CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM ROOT SYSTEM OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L) GROWN UNDER SALT AFFECTED AREA OF PAKISTAN
...upport plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. The objective of this study was isolation and characterization of bacterial strains from rhizosphere, endosphere and rhizoplane of sunflower. Thirty six bacterial strains were selected out of 44 from plant root samples along with rhizospheric soil, collected from different salt affected areas of Central Punjab (Pakistan). Selected bacterial strains were characterized morphologically as well as biochemically a...

 Muhammad Asif Jamil*, Nowshad Khan*, FarhatUllah Khan* and Muhammad Zakria*

EFFECTIVENESS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION TO THE FARMING COMMUNITY OF DISTRICT BHIMBER, AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR
...n number and are easily approachable. Demonstrations, personal contacts and radio services were found most effective methods; therefore, it is recommended that these methods should be followed more effectively and used in modern shape.

...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Muhammad Nasrullah* and Noor P. Khan** 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER PRODUCTION ANALYSIS OF TOBACCO GROWERS IN DISTRICT MARDAN, PAKISTAN
...rowers. This parametric approach was encompassed to investigate the technical efficiency of growers. The primary data was gleaned during 2014-15 from sampled population of three villages namely Takkar Kali, Garo Shah and Passand Kali of Takhtbhai Tehsil, Mardan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The multi-stage sampling technique was utilized to obtain the desired sample size of 120 tobacco growers. The major findings of stochastic production frontier an...

 Umar Ijaz Ahmed*, Liu Ying**, Muhammad Khalid Bashir***,
Muhammad Amjed Iqbal*, Muhammad Rizwan*, Muhammad Mazhar
Iqbal****, Muhammad Rafi Qamar***** and Aftab Nazeer******

SPATIAL PRICE TRANSMISSION IN PAKISTAN: THE CASE OF WHEAT AND RICE MARKETS
...odel and Co-integration approach were employed. Results showed that wheat and rice market prices are integrated. Some markets have positive or negative transmission shocks on each other due to the different geographical locations and transport infrastructure. All the wheat markets are adjusted to price changes in the long run equilibrium except few markets. Unidirectional and bidirectional causality exists between wheat and rice markets. Bad and poor infrastru...

 Muneeb Zafar*, Tahir Mehmood**, Irfan Ahmad Baig**, Abdul Saboor** Mazher Abbas***, Shumaila Sadiq** and Khalid Mahmood****

ANALYTICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF NON-OPTIMAL USE OF PESTICIDES AND HEALTH HAZARDS FOR VEGETABLE PICKERS
...e of pesticides through appropriate extension services. 

...

 Ghulam Sadiq Afridi*, Abdul Saboor**, Zahoor-ul-Haq***, Sultan Ali
Tariq**** and Muhammad Ishaq*****

EXPLORING POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PAKISTAN'S COTTON EXPORT
...index and gravity model approach was employed considering country and time specific fixed effect. The RCA index revealed that cotton sub-sectors have competitive advantage in export and there is gradual gain in the competitiveness with time. The opportunity exists in the markets of low, lower-middle and uppermiddle income countries and countries those have fair trade (low tariff and nontariff barriers) for cotton export. Greater export potential lies with Mala...

 Raza Ullah*, Mariam Rehman*, Maria Anjum*, Muhammad Asif
Kamran**, Khuda Bakhsh***, Abdul Saboor****

NAVIGATING FARMING RISKS BY SIMULTANEOUS DIVERSIFICATION AND CREDIT THROUGH FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
... and multinomial probit approaches the agricultural extension educators can also improve their programs to guide the farmers in a better way and target farmers who need risk management information the most. At policy level, emphasis may be given to formal training and awareness of the farmers for diversification to compensate production risks. The existing extension network can be strengthened through its institutional linkage with metrology department and inf...

Samina Ashraf1*, Ghulam Haider2 and Maimoona Ashraf

...buse. The phenomenology approach was used to study the phenomena. A number of 05 women with disabilities who had physical disability or sensory impairment (visual and hearing) were purposively selected as the participants of the study. The age of participants was between 25 to 40 years and they had past experience of any type of abuse of violence, and were cognitively normal to respond interview. At first we identified the participants with the help of survey....
Aitezaz Ahsan1*, Muhammad Usman1, Ihsan Ullah2, Aamer Bin Zahur3 and Adnan Rasheed Malik4

Irfan Ullah, Shahid Ali*, Muhammad Fayaz and Abbas Ullah Jan 

...o the farmers which are appropriate to rearing of broiler in open shed farms for the efficient utilization of resources and enhancing productivity of broilers. 

...
Xiaopeng Tang1,3, Rong Xiang1, Sijia Chen1,3, Shufen Yang1,3, Hu Liu1,3, Rejun Fang1,3,* and Aike Li2,
... method offer effective approach to improving the quality of unconventional protein sources, such as the CSM.
...
Burcu Onuk1,*, Murat Kabak1, Bünyamin Sahin2 and Nazan Gezer İnce3

 

...ume and volume fraction approach of the stereology. In this study, 14 seagulls and 7 storks were examined and volume fractions of the nasal cavity and nasal structures were estimated. Heads of animals were scanned in computed tomography. The images were sampled randomly at a 1/5 sampling fraction. 11-16 sections for the stork and 16-20 sections for the seagull were examined. The sectional surface areas of the total nasal cavity, nasal septum, nasal space and c...
Hao Zhang,1,2,3,* Hai Tao Nie,3 Tie Wei Ma,3 Zi Yu Wang3 and Feng Wang3
... a pelleted mixed diet (approximately concentrate : roughage = 60 : 40, DM basis) for ad libitum intake and slaughtered at 41.73 ± 0.53 kg BW. The remaining lambs (n = 21) were allocated randomly on d 0 to 3 treatment intake levels (treatments were ad libitum or restricted to 70 or 40% of the ad libitum intake) within 7 slaughter groups. A slaughter group contained 1 lamb from each treatment, and lambs were slaughtered when the ad libitum treatment lamb...

Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Abdul Malik2*, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak2, Naveedullah1, Naeem Ijaz3 and Ishaq Ahmad4 

...lity is recommended. An appropriate measure may be adopted for recharge of the ground water aquifer through development of small dams in the catchments plain. 

...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khuram Sharjeel1, Raheel Babar2, Muhammad Junaid1, Qamar Iqbal3, Rabia Rasheed1 and Nosheen Fatima1 

...erformance of extension approaches and Extension Field Staff (EFS) in order to identify the weaknesses or failures behind extension system and to suggest recommendations for improvement in extension approaches and performance of EFS through census study. The total EFS population consists of 155 people and 121 respondents appeared for interview. The non response rate was 21.94%. The analysis showed that training and visit pro...
Sana Zahra
...drome (PDS) contributes approximately 4.7-7.2% of recessive hereditary deafness in Pakistani population. More than 367 mutations of SLC26A4 have been reported so far with PDS. Identification of recurrent mutations reveals widespread lineage diversity and mutational specificity of a population. This study reports p.Y556C mutation as a recurring mutation in Punjabi population of Pakistan. A detailed genetic evaluation of four unrelated but ethnically simi...
Kaori Sasaoka1, Takahiro Kataoka1, Norie Kanzaki1, Yusuke Kobashi1, Akihiro Sakoda2, Yuu Ishimori2 and Kiyonori Yamaoka1,*
...ity, and determined the appropriate dose of CDDP combined with radon inhalation for highly radiosensitive mice. CDDP was administered at 20 mg/kg weight to C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice after radon inhalation at 1000 Bq/m3 and 2000 Bq/m3 for 24 h. Radon inhalation had a slight positive effect against CDDP toxicity in C57BL/6J mice with respect to improved hair condition, whereas radon inhalation exacerbated CDDP-induced toxicity in BALB/c mice...
María Magdalena Crosby-Galván1, Bernardino Espinoza-Velasco1 and Mónica Ramirez-Mella2,*
...nants. It would also be appropriate to evaluate the intake behavior, productive performance and nutritional status of animals fed with different forms of processed residue of chihua pumpkin.
...
Senol Celik1,*, Ecevit Eyduran2, Adile Tatliyer3, Koksal Karadas4, Mehmet Kazim Kara2 and Abdul Waheed5
... was chosen as the most appropriate model for its highest R2 (0.999) and smallest RMSE (0.124). Growth related parameters (A, B, k, and d) of the Janoscheck non-linear model were estimated as 43.000, 0.905, 0.124 and 0.950, respectively. To conclude, it could be suggested that the Janoscheck non-linear model might help breeders who aim to make precise decisions on optimum slaughtering time and to ensure suitable managerial conditions in DDP goat.
Zahida Parveen1, Safdar Sidra1*, Bushra Nisar Khan2
...g and drinking consumed approximately 4.6% and 2.1% of time, respectively. 
...
Muhammad Zahid Latif1*, Rahila Nizami2, Intzar Hussain3
...n in full awareness and appreciation (1). It is an international phenomenon in which the individuals provide their time and services free of cost to an organization for the benefit of others (2). It is vital for the sustainability and smooth functioning of the nonprofit and community organizations that the participation on volunteer basis should be regular and ongoing (3
Nazish Imran 
...lth Organization (WHO), approximately 10-15% of children and adolescents worldwide suffer from mental health problems.(1) The WHO also highlights that “Lack of attention to mental health of children & adolescents may lead to mental disorders with lifelong consequences, undermines compliance with health regimens and reduces the capacity of societies to be safe and productive”.(2) ...

Nadia Mubarik1, Aqib Iqbal1*, Iqbal Munir1 and Muhammad Arif2 

...program that could be inappropriately activated during drought, was also delayed in the supplemented seedlings as highlighted by a high RWC and expression of the Lhcb2 gene. 

...

Hamza Khan1, Safdar Ali1, Ijaz Ahmad*2, Ihsanullah Khan3, Shujaat Hussain1, Bashir Ahmad Khan4 and Muhammad Suhaib5  

...ough different possible approaches. Development and promotion of local sunflower hybrids can be one of the options. Local sunflower hybrids with higher yield and wider adoptability can make Pakistan self sufficient in edible oil. Therefore a study was carried out at National Agricultural Research Centre Islamabad, to evaluate the performance of 12 locally developed sunflower Hybrids. Twelve sunflower hybrids including two checks viz., SMH 1006, SMH 0907, SMH 0...
Waqas Ali1,*, Arshad Javid1, Syed Mohsin Bhukhari1, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Hira Rafique1
...r, data recorded from inappropriate designed surveys are not suitable for statistical analysis and provide inappropriate picture regarding distribution, abundance and status of target species. Current review inspects different sampling techniques, various issues related to surveys design, application and ethical issues connected with these sampling techniques. It can be concluded from the literature survey that all sampling ...
Muhammad Umar1, Mubashar Hussain1,*, Ghulam Murtaza1, Farid Asif Shaheen2 , Fatima Zafar1
...ntegration of different approaches for the protection of their habitats, and to prevent the illegal hunting and poaching, mitigating agricultural and industrial pollution, preventing water reservoirs from heavy metal poisoning are important considerations. Ceasing anthropogenic activities along with the mass awareness programs on electronic and print media could be effective conservation strategies during the period of their stay in Pakistan.
...

Abdur Rehman1*, Wang Jian2, Noor Khan3 and Raheel Saqib

...stribution model is not appropriate used in evaluating the major crops market risk due to various degrees of market risk in various crops such as the cotton and soybean crops with higher levels of market risk, while the coarse grain rice with the medium risk level and finally the corn and wheat with lower levels of market risk. According to the results, the crops having similar characteristics belong to the same level of market risk. Therefore it is essential ...
Muhammad Zameer Kayani1,*and Tariq Mukhtar2
...d by using non-chemical approaches, and resistant cultivars can prove a promising substitute. For their fitness as nematode-suppressive crops, the reproductive and developmental rates of the nematode must be assessed on these cultivars. As there is meager information on the reproductive potential of Meloidogyne incognita on different cucumber cultivars commonly cultivated in Pakistan, therefore, the objective of the p...
Xi-wen Chen1,2, Qian Wang1,3, Miao Yin1, Zhong-hui Pu1,2, Ai-wei Guo3, Lian Li 1,3, Wen-tao Luo1,3 and Xiong-qing Wang1,*
... The RT-LAMP method was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than RT-PCR for PRRSV detection. The assay was also specific for PRRSV and did not cross react with CSFV, PCV-2, PPV or PRV. In clinical samples (n=5) RT-PCR and RT-LAMP both identified the same 2 PRRSV infected samples. Thus, the novel RT-LAMP assay described here is a rapid, simple, sensitive, specific test for PRRSV that can potentially be applied in clinical settings.
...
Selçuk Kaplan
...als. However, using MAS approaches in selection of animals can increase the accuracy of selection. From this point of view, validation of candidate gene markers for marker assisted selection is very important to increase genetic gains in breeding. Leptin is a 16 kDa protein which is highly expressed in adipose tissue. Leptin is one of the most significant candidate gene marker for MAS studies. Therefore, bubaline leptin gene exon 2, part of the intron 1 and in...
Guifen Liu1,2, Xiaomu Liu1,2, Khuram Shahzad3, Wei You1,2, Juan J. Loor3,* and Fachun Wan1,2,4,*
...ge). The dynamic impact approach (DIA) bioinformatics tool was used to uncover the most-affected biological pathways among the DEG. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software also was used to analyze upstream transcription regulators and gene networks. Bioinformatics analysis results indicated that 18 months being a key age for alterations in metabolism. The results of IPA analysis revealed that several transcription regulators related to disease, cell growth, ...
Nasreen Ishaq1, Arif Rasheed Malik2, Zameer Ahmad1, Saad Ehsan Ullah3
...tion. One of such novel approach is cheiloscopy i.e. study of lip print patterns. 
Methodology: In order to investigate the lip prints-based identification, a study was conducted in the Shaikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan Medical College, Lahore. A total of 125 female and 125 male student subjects were selected from all years of MBBS students Session 2016. 
Results: After detailed study and evaluation of lip patte...
Abdul Wajid1,*, Asma Basharat2, Muhammad Akbar Shahid3, Sidra Tul Muntaha1, Abdul Basit4, Tanveer Hussain5, Muhammad Farooq Tahir6, Muhammad Azhar7, Masroor Ellahi Babar1 and Shafqat Fatima Rehmani2
...strategies. In spite of appropriate administration of vaccination, FAdV outbreaks have been reported and caused significant losses in poultry flocks throughout Pakistan in recent years. To identify the serotype and gain a better understanding of the genetic properties of the FAdV strains responsible for recent outbreaks, the sequence analysis of hexon gene of 10 isolates associated with IBH and HPS was determined. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis b...

Rizwana Qamar1, Maria Ghias1, Fida Hussain1, Sajida Habib1, Muhammad Khuram Razzaq2*, Muhammad Aslam1 and Imran Habib3 

...fective and inexpensive approach by plant breeders to manage with drought. A wire house experiment was conducted in Oilseeds Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Faisalabad for the screening of genotypes against drought. Ten hybrids along with their 13 parental inbred lines were grown in polythene bags following factorial structured completely randomized design by three replications against three levels of water stress. Data was recorded on root leng...
Komal Mushtaq1, Shoaib Waqas2*, Hafiz Muhammad Asim3
... multidisciplinary team approach especially physiotherapy and rehabilitation. In this study, effectiveness of spinal manual therapy (maitland grade I and II mobilization) for CLBP management was assessed.
Methods: All subjects in the study were provided maitland grade I and II spinal mobilization for 20 minutes each. A similar treatment frequency was applied and consisted on three sessions per week for 2 continuous weeks. Numeric pain rating...
Masood Nizam Tabassum1*, Muhammad Ather Khan2, Saira Afzal3, Amir Gilani4, Abdul Wahab Gureja5, ShafaqTabassum6
...were from other cities. Approximately 48.96% males and 38.92% females were educated, 37.24% males and 52.79% females had monthly income 10,000 or less whereas 34.82% males and 25.04% females had monthly income between ten thousands and thirty thousands.38.75% males and 44.84% females belonged to lower class.1004 (89.64%) cases were relapsed and 116(10.36%) were new cases. 366(32.68%) cases had pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 754(67.32%) cases had extra pulmon...

Syed Muhammad Hassan Raza1*, Syed Amer Mahmood1, Veraldo Liesenberg2 and Syed Shehzad Hassan1  

...use of insecticide at inappropriate times and unsuitable locations following the crop calendar. The purpose of this research was to delineate the vulnerable zones for YSB attacks on rice crop using satellite thermal datasets. The area under investigation was 13700 km2 area out of which 8627 km2 was covered by rice plantations. Thermal datasets covered the area of 8627 km2 comprising 10663 pixels which returned 10663 spatially distributed temperature values. Si...
Maaz Ahmad1*, Mussab Ahmad2 and Tehreem Munir3
...ctural organic lesions. Approximately 15-20% of the general population in many developed countries suffers from dyspeptic symptoms at any time in a year, whereas in Pakistan, 14-22 % of general population suffers from FD. 
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of carica papaya extract (CP) in preventing functional dyspepsia in human volunteers. 
Methodology: A community based, placebo-c...
Rana Khurram Aftab1*, Farhat Ijaz2, Samia Jawed3
... offer a cost-effective approach towards lowering blood pressure.
Objectives: To determine the frequency of obesity according to body mass index and waist hip ratio and its relationship with hypertension among medical students.
Methodology: It was a descriptive cross sectional study where a total of 213 students of 1st year MBBS and BDS were involved. Their waist circumference, hip circumference, height and weig...
Munir Ahmad1, Aisha Hameed2*, Saba Khaliq3, Hamid Saeed Malik4 and Shahida Mohsin5
...ll help in selection of appropriate therapeutic regimens.
...
Naveed Rashid*1, Muhammad Aamer2, Uzma Malik3, Nimra Arif4, Muhammad Waqar Akram5 and Ayesha Irshad6
...study with quantitative approach was carried out in hemodialysis unit of Shalamar Institute of Health Sciences, Lahore for the month of July, 2017. All patients with ESRD, on maintenance hemodialysis through an AVF access for at least last 30 days, were included in the study. Each patient was given a questionnaire comprising of 21 questions during his/her routine dialysis. Knowledge of ESRD patients was categorized into poor (<50%), average (50-70%) and goo...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla

 

Syed Aun Muhammad1, Muhammad Soaib Said2, Shams Ur Rehman2, Muhammad Dawood2, Muneer Ahmed Qazi3 and Nighat Fatima2,*
...l ligand-target docking approach was used to analyze structural complexes of enzyme target with diaportheins. Auto Grid model showed the most energetically favorable binding mode of natural compounds to beta-lactamase. Docked energies for diaporthein A and B were -8.02 and -8.41 kcal/mol, respectively. These outcomes revealed that these ligands could be potential drugs to treat infectious diseases.
...

Dilshad Ahmad1*, Muhammad Irfan Chani1 and Muhammad Afzal2 

...ugh various econometric approaches in the study. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bound testing approach has been applied to analyze the long run cointegration among variables, obtaining annual time series data from 1973 to 2014. An empirical estimation of ARDL approach has indicated the evidence of long-run cointegration of model. Empirical findings of the study indicate positive (5....

Sadiqa Begum1, Murad Khan2* and Noor Pao Khan

...ue and profit and dummy approach is used for comparative analysis while multiple regression model is used to estimate the relationship between inputs and output of wheat. Per acre yield of wheat production in district Mardan was 1809.032 kgs. while in district Peshawar it was 2143.230 kgs. Total cost of wheat per acre in district Peshawar was more than that of district Mardan. The net revenue from per acre wheat production was high in district Peshawar as comp...
Safia Rehman1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1,*, Gerald B. Pier2, Iram Liaqat1 and Bushra Mazhar1
...It provides a practical approach towards the use of nanoparticles to enhance antimicrobial activity against these pathogens.
...
Adem Aksoy1, Yakup Erdal Ertürk2, Selim Erdoğan3, Ecevit Eyduran3 andMohammad Masood Tariq4,*
...e compared to classical approaches. Several potential predictors in the survey were age of enterprise, province of enterprise (Agri, Kars and Erzurum), educational level, membership status of enterprise to an association of beekeepers (member and nonmember), other activities except for beekeeping (yes and no), number of full beehives, bee race (Caucasian, Carniolan, Italian and Crossbred), and frequency of changing queen bee. MARS outperformed multiple linear ...
Kiran Aqil1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan2, Asim Aslam2, Aqeel Javeed5, Rizwan Qayyum1, Farooq Yousaf,1 Farkhanda Yasmeen1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail3 and Sajid Umar4,*
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2, Sumaira Maqsood3, Ishita Ahuja4 and Atle M. Bones4
...wn the use of synthetic approaches and develop safe biological/microbial insecticides from NPV isolates, which in future may effectively control S. litura.
...
Xiaqing Chen, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
... for its efficiency to suppress plant pathogen S. shiraiana alone or in combination with fungicide carbendazim under laboratory conditions. The results showed that S. shiraiana was not detected on mulberry leaves and branches, whereas it was only detected in mulberry fruits. T. hamatum fermentation broth and its ethyl acetate extracts caused high mycelial growth inhibition and germination inhibition of S. shiraiana, with...

Ali Sher1*, Khalid Naveed1, Gulzar Ahmad2, Ayub Khan1, Muhammad Saeed1 and Shah Masaud1 

...erstand the mechanistic approach of such improvement. 

...
Shafaq Fatima*, Sumrin Sahar and Khalid Lone
...levels of sex steroids suppressed the synthesis of cortisol presumably interfering with pituitary-inter-renal axis.
...
Iqbal Ahmad Alvi, Muhammad Asif, Rabia Tabassum, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*
...4oC was most appropriate, followed by storage at -20oC and -80oC as no drop in viral titer was witnesses in bacteriophage samples stored at 4oC for up to one year. The results of this research indicated, that a standard refrigeration is suitable and economical means of long term storage with no fall of phage activity.
...
Faxiang Wang, Yan Chen, Sai Chen, Xianghong Li, Jian Yu, Jianhui Wang and Yongle Liu*
...torage of grass carp is approximately 4-6 days.
...

Yasir Ali1*, Muhammad Aslam Khan1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Muhammad Hussain2

...ing different molecular approaches. This review provides a detailed discussion of the different aspects for controlling three rust diseases caused by P. recondita Rob. exdesm f. sp. tritici , P. striiformis West. f. sp. tritici, P. graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici and the importance of race specific and non-specific rust resistance genes in in global wheat varieties. This knowledge will help as basis for plant pathologist, plant breeders and genetics to develop n...

Raza Ullah Khan*, Ahmad Khan, Mohammad Zameer Khan, Fayyaz Hussain and Sonia Saba 

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

...dash;30 is estimated at approximately 5.30 million/tons from which domestic share could be only 1.99 million/tons. Generally, the genetically modified cotton (Bacillus thuringiensis) was acquaint in Pakistan during the first decade of this century to moderate harmful effects of lepidopterous insects; which were causing major loss to the cotton production ultimately to the economy of the country. Currently the genetic modified cotton cultivation consumed for mo...
Asad Ullah1, Umar Sadique Khattak2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Imad Khan1, Ibad Ullah Jan2, Irfan Khattak1, Raheela Taj3, Sahar Nigar4,    Naimat Ullah Khan1,Mumtaz Ali Khan5 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail6,*
...by convenience sampling approach and tested by comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test (CCIT) for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Data regarding socio-demographic status, risk factors and farming practices were gathered through a pre-form questionnaire. Results revealed that prevalence of bovine tuberculosis was 5.88%. Statistical analysis revealed significant association of age (OR= 3.267; CI = 1.686-6.331) and herd size (OR = 2.60...
Yuan Li1, Liyan Zhang2, Karhoe Loh3, Ji Feng1, Xinqing Zheng1, Puqing Song1 and Longshan Lin1,*
...hat were differentiated approximately 0.3 million years ago. These two haplotype lineages differed significantly in frequency distribution of Chinese and Malaysian populations, showing an imperfect geographical pedigree structure. Results of AMOVA also showed that the genetic differentiation was mainly among populations. According to the distribution of the haplotypes, an ancestral haplotype existed in both the Chinese population and the Malaysian population, ...

Saeed Ahmad Shah Chishti1, Mudassar Iqbal1*, Nusrat Parveen1, Kashif Nadeem1, Muhammad Iqbal1, Umbreen Shahzad2, Rana Husnain Shabbir1 and Muhammad Najeebullah1 

... of pea crop. The newly approved variety has potential to moderately resist to collar rot disease as compared with all other existing varieties. Studies on organoleptic characteristics showed that Sarsabz is less sweet in taste than Pea-2009, suitable for all types of dishes. This variety was approved by Punjab Seed Council and its seed is available for dissemination. 

...

Ijaz Iqbal1, Maqsooda Parveen1 and Zafar Mahmood2* 

...igns using the proposed approach is illustrated with an example. A list of efficient diallel cross design under resolvable balanced incomplete block design designs for 4≤v≤18 and 2≤ k ≤8 is advocate here.  

...

Asma Sohail1*, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi1, Maryum Arif2 and Fatima Najam1 

...ation could be a gentle approach. Prior to encapsulation, oil extraction was done by using five different solvents including ethyl acetate, n-hexane, methanol, diethyl ether and chloroform in which ethyl acetate yielded 53% oil. Pumpkin seed oil was encapsulated using gel entrapment i.e. extrusion method and indirect diffusion method using Ca-alginate. Pumpkin seed oil macrospheres showed 91.9 % encapsulation efficiency and 63.0 % loading capacity by direct ex...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
.... This includes the new approach of mixing Huwa-San TR50 with oxamyl which significantly increases its effectiveness against O. afrasiaticus. This approach can help not only in reducing control cost but also in reducing residual effects of acaricides on date fruits.
...

Muhammad Arshad*, Sabeeta Jan, Sundas Awan, Samra Azam, Shiguftah Khalid and Muahmmad Ayub Khan 

... sunflower hybrids were appraised for different agronomic traits to assess genetic specifications, genetic divergence, and correlation coefficient, direct and indirect effects of eight characters towards seed yield under field condition. Experiment was conducted according to RCBD design at NARC (National Agricultural Research Centre), Islamabad during year 2015. Data were recorded on Days to flower initiation, Days to flower completion and Days to maturity, 10...
Adem Aksoy1, Yakup Erdal Ertürk2, Ecevit Eyduran3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4,*
...d. The best statistical approach was selected based on goodness of fit criteria viz. determination coefficient (R2), adjusted coefficient of determination (R2ADJ), and Pearson correlation coefficient between the actual and the predicted values in the response trait handled. The greatest importance order was obtained for age at the end of grazing period (100%), followed by weight at the end of grazing period, weaning age,...

Tasleem Akhtar, Nadeem Sheikh*

Induction of acute phase in response to tacrolimus induced hepatotoxicity
...xic effect of an immunosuppressive drug (tacrolimus). Aqueous suspension of tacrolimus powder (3 mg/ml) was orally given to four experimental groups of wistar rats. Control group was provided with normal drinking water and dissections were done after 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of tacrolimus dose. Densitometric analysis revealed considerable elevated level of some positive acute phase proteins, specifically C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin. While album...

 Maleeha Manzoor1,2*, Ruijuan Ma2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabssum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1

Microalgal-bacterial consortium: a cost-effective approach of wastewater treatment in Pakistan
...nts. The biodegradation approach of involving consortium might
attain self-sustaining level and may prove technically cheaper and advance technology. It will finally help in dealing
the dual mission of producing valuable metabolites and pollutants/nutrients removal from wastes/wastewaters.
Agricultural wastes/residues generated abundantly in energy deficient countries like Pakistan, having enormous
energy potential, are not utilized...

 Ihsan Ali1#, Asim Aslam1*, Habib-ur-Rehman2, Beenish Zahid3, Ishtiaq Ahmed1

Effect of fish oil on growth performance and immune response in experimentally infected broiler chicken with avian influenza virus H9N2
...ch cause
immune suppression and immune organs damage in broilers. Supplementations of
fish oil (FO) enhance the immune status and subside inflammation. This study was
design to observe the effects of Fish oil on lymphoid organs through
histopathology, growth performance and antibody response in H9N2 challenged
broilers. A total of 80 chicks were divided in to 4 groups A, B, C & D. Group A and
B were challenged with...

Muhammad Asghar1*, Mirza Muhammad Qadeer Baig1, Sanaullalh Chaudhary1 and Muhammad Anjum Ali2 

...acro nutrients (NPK) at appropriate concentrations are handy to minimize incidence of BLS disease in rice crop. 

...

Saman Fatima* and Shazia Iram 

...hogens. Under classical approach the infected sections from the skin of kinnow was utilized to grow fungal colonies on generalized media, i.e. potato dextrose agar, from which six fungal colonies were also isolated and studied further. Under molecular approach direct DNA was isolated from the infected skin of sampled fruits by using CTAB method. The pathogens being identified through classical appr
Farhat Iqbal1, Mohammad Masood Tariq2,*, Ecevit Eyduran3, Zil-e-Huma4, Abdul Waheed5, Farhat Abbas2, Muhammad Ali2, Nadeem Rashid2, Majed Rafeeq2, Asadullah2 and Zahid Mustafa2
...native to the classical approach for estimating the body growth of Mengali sheep breed of Balochistan, Pakistan. The parameters mature weight, integration constant, maturity rate and their credible intervals of four widely-used nonlinear sigmoidal growth models were estimated through Bayesian inference. Gompertz, Logistic, Brody and Von Bertalanffy models were fitted to average monthly body weight data of (n = 412) Mengali sheep from birth to 24 months of age ...
Radek Aulicky1,*, Vaclav Stejskal1 and George Opit2
...re to DDVP strips have suppression effect for O. surinamensis but cannot fully replace long term exposure of strips or high dose DDVP aerosols for T. castaneum, C. ferrugineus, R. dominica and S. granarius.
...

Amara Amjad Hashmi1,2,*, Maqbool Hussain Sial3, Waqar Akram4 and Maaida Hussain Hashmi5,6

...014. We use the Heckman Approach to find out determinants of food insecurity. Results suggest that female headship plays a significant positive role in caloric intake, among the other variable head education, households’ member with basic education and higher education, live stock ownership, consumption of livestock produced at home, farming, consumption of food crop produced at home and foreign and domestic remittances plays a significant positive role ...
A.H. Shahzad1, A. Sattar1,*, A. Husnain1, I. Ahmad2, N. Ahmad1, D. Nak3 and Y. Nak3
... Our objectives were to appraise CIDR-EB based estrus synchronization and used CIDR-Ovsynch based resynch protocol in lactating Holstein cows at two different geographical locations. On location A, 160 postpartum cows were enrolled in standard CIDR-EB protocol. Cows were subjected to timed AI and randomly assigned into two groups: 1) control (n=70), subjected to AI on detected estrus (AIDE) from d18-d30 post TAI. Pregnancy rate was diagnosed on d30, d60...
Muhammad Shabir Shaheen1, Shahid Mehmood1, Athar Mahmud1, Jibran Hussain1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi2, Muhammad Yaqoob3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Arshad Javid4,*
...erol level and economic appraisal in term of running cost / Kg of live meat were recorded. The results revealed that all strains generally but Ross 308 particularly maintained on floor heating system (FH) exhibited significantly (P<0.05) better FCR, EEF and livability along with higher glucose and lower cholesterol level in blood with better immune response that led to higher profit margin. All these parameters were significantly (P<0.05) lowest on gas b...
Mujahid Niaz Akhtar* and Amjad Farooq
...otton crops (government approved varieties) in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Data was collected after ten days of interval during crop season from 2014 to 2016 randomly. Significant Correlations coefficients were observed which can be used for effective pest control program to predict predator prey ratio.
...

Khwaja Tariq Ziad1, Umar Hayat1, Muhammad2 and Muhammad Suleman Bacha3* 

... and qualitative method approach, eight key informants including five farmers, one local middleman, and representatives of two dairy companies were interviewed during the study, focusing the social aspects and people behaviour towards the dairy sector. Results showed a lack of coordination among small-scale farmers and associated high transaction costs. This case study suggests that small-scale farmers are illiterate and not properly trained. The way they hand...
Pingping Cang1, Mingming Zhang1, Guo Qiao1,Qirui Sun1, Dehai Xu3, Qiang Li1, Xinghua Yuan4 and Wenbin Liu2,
... day 60. CP content was appropriate, and LP was lower for gibel carp. Economic profitability analysis included analysis on gross revenue, break-even production, net present value, payback time, degree of operating leverage, and environmental costs under experimental conditions was conducted. Analysis results revealed that BFT system was more effective than the control system with water exchange in gibel carp culture, suggesting that BFT system could be success...
Zhen-li Li1,2, Hui-fang Zhou2,*, Bo-ru Zhou2, Bei Liu2, Xiao-fei Jiang2 and Jian-ya Xu2

 

...d the serum FSH levels suppressed by mifepristone (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of c-Jun, Elk-1, Egr-1, CREB, PKA, p38mapk, JNK, ERK, and PKA was significantly up-regulated in the BSZYF group compared with that in the mifepristone group (P<0.05). However, there was no statistical difference in Nur77 and CAM expression between the blank, mifepristone, and BSZYF groups. BSZYF could regulate abnormal pituitary gonadotropin secretion and GnRHR signaling...
Peng Song1,2, Wei Feng2, Haiying Shi2,Jinsheng Zhao3, Renmin Liu3 and Wei Xu2,*
...rate of the sudan I and appropriate molar ratio of HP-β-CD to dye (nC:nS=9:1) effectively improved the decolorization rate from 85.45% to 99.45% after 8 reaction.
...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Nosheen Fatima1, Raheel Babar3 and Ikramul Haq4  

Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
... EPN in cadavers may be appropriate because of the non-availability of industrially produced isolates. Therefore, in the present studies, Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor were compared for invasion and production of IJ of Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Both the nematodes caused 100% mortality of the test insects within 6 days. The mean numbers of IJ of S. feltiae invading each G. mellonella<...

Farhan, Shahid Ali* and Syed Attaullah Shah 

...ofit function was first approximated for further estimation of output supply and input demand elasticities. Results indicated that response of output supply to the price of wheat and land was positive and elastic. Output supply in response to wage rate was negative and inelastic. Output elasticity in response to fertilizer price was negative and elastic. Education has positive relation with the output supply but inelastic. Labor demand in response to output pr...

Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Syed Burhan-ud-Din2, Muhammad Fahad Khan1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Naila Ilyas1

...nts were supportive in suppressing plant infection as compared to infected control, but the most promising outcome of treatments was observed when SA and BTH were applied at the concentration of 5mM and 150mg/L respectively. Three weeks’ analysis of treated mungbean leaves with SA and BTH exhibited peak accumulation of phenols and defense related enzymatic antioxidants. Highest enzymatic activity was observed in treated plants followed by inoculation wit...
Hua-Lun Luo, Yi-Yu Zhang*, Yuan-Yu Qin and Lei Wu
...ed by direct sequencing approach, and resulted in three genotypes of AA, GA and GG. Association analysis demonstrated that the liver ChREBP mRNA expression level was significantly positive or negative effect on serum total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The g.247075G>A mutation was significantly asso...
Ayesha Chaudhary1, Fouzia Mumtaz1, Muhammad Yaseen2* and Muhammad Younis Afzal3 
 
... disturbing the farming approaches through an increase in disease spread, and careless usage of natural resources. Due to these effects, pastoral families are at high risk, hence there is a need to make farmers aware of the reasons and causes of climate change so that they may contribute to their side in actively advocating the cause. The present study was survey-based research and carried out in the Faisalabad district of Punjab, Pakistan. The data was collec...
Hande Küçükönder1, Pınar Çelebi Demirarslan1,*, Aykut Burgut2 and Mustafa Boğa3
...nterprise with a hybrid approach. In accordance with this purpose, the hybrid approach has two main objectives: i) Determination of the effective period for which the output factors [(chicken survival rate (%), egg yield (%)] are optimized at the same time and the appropriate value ranges for the input factors [temperature (oC), humidity (%) and feed per hen (g)] that provide ef...

Ayesha Khan*, Zubair Ahmad Khan, Urooba Pervaiz And Mehmood Iqbal 

...rmer friendly. The most appropriate teaching methods were group meetings (38%) and method demonstration (24%), while the most frequently used method for farmers contact was individual contact method (63%) as identified by extension agents. Non- significant association exist between diffusion of improved practices with adoption constraints and best teaching method used, while significant association exist with frequently used contact method. It is recommended t...

Tanweer Ahmed*, Kashif Saeed Khan and Mohammad Naeem 

...ugh various econometric approaches in the study. Pakistan’s agriculture growth has registered mixed trends from 1972 to 2014. Empirical evidence from developing countries suggests that public spending has a profoundly positive relationship with agricultural growth. Agriculture is the second largest sector of Pakistan’s economy, accounting for more than one-fifth of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employing almost half of the country’s workfo...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2

...the stochastic frontier approach was employed for empirical analysis and multiple stages random sampling technique used for data collection of 400 Bt and Non-Bt cotton farmers for the year of 2012-13. The results of the study have indicated Bt cotton farmers of both districts with higher technical efficiency score as more efficient than Non-Bt cotton farmer. Empirical findings specified a cropped area, seed, labor, fertilizer and irrigation were the significan...

John Ogunsola1*, Richard E. Antia2, Benjamin O. Emikpe2 and Olajumoke A. Morenikeji

...ous and rewarding. When appropriate management and health practices are put in place, wild animals in captivity can be successfully bred; thus, offering captive breeding as a veritable tool for conservation. 

...

Irfan Ullah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Muhammad Fayaz, Amjad Ali and Atta Ullah Shah 

...ices and income. Linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) model is used to estimate food demand patterns using the Household Integrated Economic Survey part of Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement for the year 2011-12. Fourteen food groups as per HIES including milk, meat, fruits, sugar, vegetables, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats, tea and coffee, backed products and other food were consider...
Christine Jeske
...gaining a tenuous moral approbation. Well-being, then, is actually produced or reduced in sites where people publically negotiate the morality of their life choices. In this article, I examine one such setting of negotiation: church testimonies of Zulu South Africans. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, I describe how testimonies—brief spontaneous personal accounts of changes in life circumstances such as employment and health—allow people to navigate...

 Ellen Y. Zhang

...p;In this paper, I will approach Zhuangzi’s notion of happiness or a well-lived life by ascribing to his concepts of forgetfulness and flow. The paper aims to show that Zhuangzi’s idea of flow, from an experience-process perspective, resembles a certain aspect of the flow defined by Csíkszentmihályi’s motivational psychology, but it is more complicated and more difficult to be conceptualized due to the employment of negative exp...
Eric Yang
...er examines a Confucian approach to well-being. Two Confucian ideas will be developed—in particular, filial piety (xiao) and ritual (li)—which arose in the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China. After a close examination of these two ideas and their relation to well-being, I show how a Confucian approach can serve as a competitor to other conceptions of well-being.

...

 Jennifer Mei Sze Ang

...ssential role in how we apprehend and respond to the world positively and meaningfully. 

...

 Adile Tatliyer1,*, Sinan Bas1 and Serdar Yagci2

 

... of factor analysis was appropriate for the studied data set at each period. At each period, factors whose eigenvalues which is the characteristic roots of a square matrix with p×p were higher than 1 were elected by applying the Varimax rotation in explanatory factor analysis. In the first period of average 11 days after birth, 2 factor scores (FS) were used as new latent predictors in order to predict live body weight in multiple line...

 Abdul Khaliq1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Akhlaq Ahmad2 and Yasir Iftikhar3

...ns and vice-versa also suppressed against N. tabacum and C. procera. Hence, developing PH3 resistance can be managed with bio-pesticides up to extant and need more work to make it applicable in field.

...

 Xu Lijie, Obaid Ullah, Liu Haixing, Ihsan Ali, Zhongshu Li* and Nan-Zhu Fang*

... antioxidant genes and suppressing the expression of NADPH oxidant genes.

...

 Shaher Bano1, Nadia Naseem2 and Sarah Ghafoor1,*

... far. Following ethical approval, a total of twelve rats were divided into two groups. Group A1 consisted of six animals taken at the age of four weeks and sacrificed at age of five weeks. Group A2 contained six animals taken at age of eight weeks and sacrificed at age of nine weeks. The post-natal submandibular and sublingual salivary glands of both the groups were processed for comparison of immunohistochemistry for TGF-α expression at week five and we...
Iram Maqsood1,2,3 and Ke Rong *1,2
...f extinction in nature. Approximately, 130-150 individuals left in wild. Habitat loss is considered as a major source of population decline of this precious species. Consequently, for the sake of A. sinensis conservation, China took steps with the top priority of habitat restoration, controlled management in captive breeding centers, as well as initiation of reintroduction into the wild. Captive breeding centers focused on livestock, controlled sex rati...

Ihsan Ullah Khan*, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan, Muhammad Ashraf, Ashiq Saleem, Sundas Awan, Samra Azam and Shamim Ul Sibtain Shah 

...ts studied did not show appreciable effect of heterosis over better-parents. Overall, the heterotic effects were more prominent on the PHT, ST, HD, 100-GW and SY (kg ha-1) as compared to other traits both relative to mid- and better-parent values. The hybrid vigor (%) in the hybrids over the standard check regarding seed yield ranged from 4.84 % in the cross CMS-77 x R-18 to 20.09 % in the cross CMS-77 x R-83(1). The discovery of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (CM...
Tianlong Cai1, Falk Huettmann2, Kisup Lee3 and Yumin Guo1,*
...abitats can accommodate approximately 3,713 wintering individuals (ca. 35% of the wintering population in Izumi).
...

Saud Khan and Inamullah* 

...r quantity in soil with appropriate tillage implement may enhance oil and grain yield of sunflower. In this regard, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of phosphorus (P) levels and tillage instruments on grain and oil yield of sunflower at Agronomy Research Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar (Pakistan) during summer 2017. Split plot arrangement of the Randomized Complete Block design was used with four replications. Tillage instrumen...
Fakhra Soomro1,*, Riffat Sultana2 and Muhammad Saeed Wagan2
...hat of adults and their appropriate stages were differentiated through combination of characters i.e. coloration, morphometry, pronotum, femur bands, wing pad position and appearance of bands.
...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi* 

...se environmentally safe approaches to overcome the loss of grain yield in rice due to this disease. Climate change has a serious effect on this disease because in current scenarios cropping pattern has been changed and the stakeholders has shifted to some other crops rather the practicing ones. Since, farming community has adopted rice crop in non-core areas of Indian Sub-continent where it was out of question before this. Climate change has a drastic effect f...
Farhat Iqbal1, Abdul Waheed2,*, Zil-e-Huma3 and Asim Faraz2
...deals with the Bayesian approach for estimating the parameters of nonlinear growth functions used for modelling the body weight of farm animals. Gompertz, Brody, Von Bertalanffy and Logistic growth models were employed on the basis of nonlinear least squares and Bayesian methods. Using the monthly body weight data of 2070 weight records of Thalli sheep from birth to 24 months of age for both sexes (male and female) and type of births(single and twin), the esti...

Fraza Ijaz1*, Umair Riaz2, Shazia Iqbal3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Muhammad Furqan Ijaz5, Hina Javed1, Muhammad Amjad Qureshi1, Zuhra Mazhar3, Ahmad Hassan Khan6, Hassan Mehmood7 and Ijaz Ahmad8 

...ination is an effective approach and should be tested in different ecologies. 

...

Muhammad Usman Ghani1*, Muti Ur Rehaman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Zubair Shabbir2, Li Bo3 and Naveed Anwar4 

...ise and rapid detection approaches with molecular diagnostic tool. The method relies on periodically thermo cycling heating and cooling of DNA in presence of certain chemical reagents. In order to detect and differentiate parapox infections from those induced by pox virus. A new parapox specific and sensitive PCR assay based on amplification of B2L gene was applied against conserved gene of Orf virus. Crusted scraps and biopsies from different portion of skin ...
Sheng Niu1, Ali-Raza Jahejo1, Fa-jie Jia1, Xin Li1, Guan-bao Ning1, Ding Zhang1, Hai-li Ma1, Wei-fang Hao2, Wen-wei Gao1, Yu-jun Zhao1, Shi-min Gao1, Jian-hui Li1, Gui-lan Li1, Fang Yan1, Rong-kun Gao1, Huan-chun Chen1,3 and Wen-xia Tian1,*
... HDPs expressions were suppressed by thiram-induced TD, and the expressions of HDPs were upregulated by rGSTA3 protein. These findings demonstrated that mRNA expressions of HDPs are highly related to thiram-induced TD, and rGSTA3 protein enhanced the immune response of chicken erythrocytes by up-regulating HDPs expression. Future studies may be aimed at elucidating the association between the expression of these peptides and the development of the TD.
...

Iftikhar Ud Din* and Qamruz Zaman 

... when we shift modeling approach from classical linear regression (CLRM) to multilevel modeling. The study also discussed an important problem in Multilevel Modeling (MLM) i.e. to find sufficient sample size for accurate estimation purposes. In MLM, apart from the general factors of sample size estimation, the test size, the effect size, SE (standard error) of the effect size and power of the test, additional factors like, magnitude of the ICC (Intra Class Cor...
Wali Khan1,*, Mudassar Iqbal2 and Israr Khan2
...school children to make appropriate treatment protocol. All the infected children were randomly divided into 2 groups (A and B). Children in group A were treated with albendazole (bendazol) 400mg/kg while children in group B were treated with albendazole (zentel) 200mg/kg orally once a time. Eggs per gram of faeces were counted in each group before and after treatment. The % efficacy of albendazole (bendazol) and albendazole (zentel) against ancylostomiasis, a...
Abid Hussain Shahzad1, Abdul Sattar1,*, Nasim Ahmad1, Ijaz Ahmad2, Deniz Nak3 and Yavuz Nak3
... group. 
...
Muhammad Shoaib Saleem* and Muhammad Faheem Akbar
...ploited as eco-friendly approach in crop pest management. We therefore, evaluated the effectiveness of nitenpyram, Clothianidin, Momentum (Mixture of Nitenpyram and Chlorfenapyr) and Buprofezin against brinjal whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.). The crop was grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates each having five treatments with control. Pre-treatment data were collected before 24 h and Post treatment data were collected a...
Ghulam Murtaza1*, Razia Sultana2, Muhammad Arshad Malik3, Sibtain Afzal4, Mubashar Hussain5, Shahid Bashir6
Pin Lyu1, Xiangxian Chen2* andQinlong Liu3*
...effect in inflammation suppression, skeletal muscle regeneration, control of skeletal muscle fibrosis and muscular tissue re-construction. The skeletal muscular structure and C-reactive protein level could reflect the recovery process after skeletal muscles injury with high sensitivity in groups with the four different rehabilitation methods. 
...
Hong Zhang1, Shu-Fen Han2, Jing Wang1, Shao-Kang Wang1, Gui-Ju Sun1 and  Cheng-Kai Zhai1, *
...PARγ) and suppressed the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) protein expression in rats’ tissues. Compound whole-grain ameliorates diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia by enhancing PPARγ and reducing SREBP-1c in rats. 
...
Bo Zhang1, Changbo Zhu1, Zihao Meng1,4, Baosuo Liu1, Lian Zhong3, Guiju Huang1, Jiaqi Su1, Sigang Fan1 and Dahui Yu1,2,*
...refore, likely to be an appropriate, rapid, reliable, and nondestructive method to estimate TCC in bivalves.
...
Songhao Zhang1, Yiwen Gong1, Jian Xu1, Mou Hu2, Peng Xu3 and Yanliang Jiang1,2,4,*
...e utilized the powerful approach of comparative transcriptome analysis via high throughput sequencing, and examined transcriptome profiles of purse red carp by comparing with Yellow River carp, of which the skin color and body shape are quite similar to wild carp. A total of 434 million reads was generated, resulted in 203,590 assembled contigs, which was used as the reference sequences. Comparing the skin and blood transcriptome files showed that 2,767 unigen...
Syeda Shazia Bokhari*, Ghashia Qayyum, Uzma Rafi and Aisha Waheed Qurashi
...sting is an ecofriendly approach theoughwhich earth worms mediate the process for improving soil fertility. The present study was undertaken for the improvement of soil fertility using microbes isolated from internal and external parts of Lumbricus terrestris Isolates were identified through different biochemical tests and morphological characterization. Bacterial strains were screened and those showing positive results for their adherence ability, auto...
Wafaa M. Hikal1,2,* and Hussein A.H. Said-Al Ahl3
...r human infection. In inappropriate conditions, it forms cyst with high levels of resistance to disinfection methods. The aim of this study was to isolate the pathogen from the dental units and hospital water network and treatment of Acanthamoeba with Trachyspermum ammi essential oil that have the ability to kill cysts. The amoebicidal activity of T. ammi oil was determined in vitro. Out of T. ammi oil showed that, hig...
Ghalia Nawal1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Saira Ashfaq3, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1    
...ularity, easy step down approach and practicability of increased productions via technological modifications. They have wide- ranging applications in diverse sectors of the food, medical, cosmetic, detergent sectors and in paper industry which establishes their irrefutable noteworthiness. 
...
Rana Waqas Arshad1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Kamran Ashraf2 and Raheela Akhtar1,*
...y decreasing the immunosuppression. These results indicated that live vector vaccine has overall positive impact in terms of immunity, histopathology of bursa of Fabricius and FCR. These results can be implemented in field for complete protection and better growth performance of broiler industry.
...

Shumaila Sadiq1,2*, Abdul Saboor2, Fouzia Jamshaid3, Abdul Qayyum Mohsin2 and Azeem Khalid

Tariq Mukhtar1,* and Muhammad Arshad Hussain2 
...ffered less damage and suppressed nematode infections at all inoculum levels and therefore, recommended for cultivation in root-knot nematode infested fields to abate yield losses and repress the nematode from further multiplication. 
...

Yasir Ali1,2*, Bashir Ahmad1, Naqeebullah Jogezai3 and Adil Hussain

...al dilution and plating approaches were exploited for bacterial isolation and the isolates were qualitatively screened for proteolytic and lipolytic activity with skim milk and Tributyrin agar (TBA plate) assay method. From the collected samples, a total of 20 bacterial isolates (PAK-01 to PAK-20) were exhibiting psychrotrophic physiology. About 8 isolates were capable of proteolysis in alkaline range of pH; and 6 bacteria exhibited lipolysis. Based upon prima...
Shujjah Haider1,*, Ayesha Maqbool1, Tariq Pervez1, Saima Parveen1, Arfan Ahmad2, Zahid Iqbal3, Javed Iqbal3, Shahid Mehmood3, Amanullah Khan4 and Sajid Umar5
...e need of more systemic approaches for the investigation ofMG distribution and prevalence in otherparts of Pakistan in order to design effective control strategies. 
...
Hui Wang1, Lin Wang1, Xuanlu Li1, Shanshan Li1, Yongqiang Zhao2, Shicheng Lv2, Xinrong Xu1, Guang Yang1 and Bingyao Chen1,*
... km2 area is approaching saturation, and more and more birds have begun to utilize the buffer zone. We conducted a line transect survey in December 2010 to estimate bird density and evaluate the importance of the buffer zone. As a result, 34 protected species among the 4975 individuals were sighted, including 127 red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) and 868 common cranes (Grus grus). The overall density of protected species, winter mig...
Nida Zia1, *, Ayesha Maqbool2, Muhammad Safdar3, Umm-I-Habiba1, Altaf Mehmood4, Muhammad Usman5, Zahid Iqbal6, Javed Iqbal6, Shahid Mehmood6, Amanullah Khan7 and Sajid Umar8
...ailed and more systemic approaches to evaluate FAdVs diffusion and characterization to design effective control strategies. 
...

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar, Muhammad Imran Hamid, Mubashar Raza, Waqas Raza*, Misbah Iqbal Qamar 

...s favoring the disease suppression. 

...
Muhammad Tariq Adnan Khan*, Tariq Mukhtar and Muhammad Saeed
...ffered less damage and suppressed nematode infection considerably and therefore, recommended for cultivation in root-knot nematode infested fields to abate yield losses and repress the nematode from further multiplication. 
...
Xiaopeng Tang1,2, Rejun Fang3,4,*, Guochang Pan1,2 and Kangning Xiong1,2,*
...d 120 min, to provide a appropriate operation time for Ussing chamber test. Then, a total of 20 Loman laying hens with similar weight (1.25±0.13 kg) were divided into 1 of 5 treatments: i) control group (0 ng/mL EGF), ii) 50 ng/mL EGF group, iii) 100 ng/mL EGF group, iv) 150 ng/mL EGF group, and v) 200 ng/mL EGF group for using chamber test. The results showed that (i) the LDH activity of isolated intestine increased (P < 0.05) sharply du...

Obaidul Islam*, Shameema Khatun and Mustasim Famous 

...view these findings, an appropriate control strategy could be designed and applied, which helps to prevent these disease conditions in study area. 

...
Nouf Alharbi*, Mai Elobeid and Promy Virk
... could be a prospective approach in the treatment of Cd intoxication.
...

Muhammad Waqas, Shahid Ali*, Syed Attaullah Shah and Ghaffar Ali 

...distributed lags (ARDL) approach was used to model long and short run elasticities. AIC, HQ and FPE proposed 3 lags, therefore model was estimated up to 3 lags. Bound test confirmed the existence of long run relationship among the variables. ARDL results indicated that long and short run elasticities of unirrigated wheat production in response to wheat price were 0.447 and - 0.116, respectively and statistically significant. Long and short run elasticities due...

 Aftab Khan1, Shahid Ali1, Murtaza1, Sufyan Ullah Khan2 and Syed Attaullah Shah1

...edit to them to use the appropriate and recommended dose of these inputs. Allocative efficiencies of tractor hours, FYM and labour were 1.16, 1.02 and 0.97, respectively, suggesting that these inputs were efficiently utilized. Facilitation of maize growers with subsidized and timely availability of inputs, provision of agriculture credit with reasonable interest rate and easy instalments and field based trainings are policy options for enhancing maize producti...

Naveed Afsar* and Muhammad Idrees 

...be trained well to more appropriately tackle the menace of climate change, extension workers should be made sure to visit the farmers in their fields on regular basis, and Government should promote information technology in order to properly disseminate the climate change knowledge. 

...
Gul Afshan1,2,*, Soumble Zulfiqar2, Sumaira Mehboob2, Muhammad Tahir Javed Khan1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,*
...d. Protein docking with appropriate ligand revealed that V342 and L349 residues were involved in the ligand binding. Interaction of HCV3a infected human sera with HCV3a E2 purified protein was carried out through Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) using HCV antihuman conjugated protein. It was confirmed that the HCV3a E2 purified protein bound with the human serum almost three times more efficiently than the positive control. For raising antibodies agai...
Salma Javed1, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Irfan Ullah2, Sadia Tabassum1,*
... type II diabetes, with approximately 8 million (6.72%) people suffering from it. The present study was carried out to assess the prevalence and the possible risk factors of type II diabetes in Hazara region Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The total area was divided into six clusters, and the data was collected randomly from different hospitals, clinics, and different localities of Hazara region.The report included 2,400 participants, amongst which, 1,000 subjec...

Muhammad Sharif1*, Sadullah1, Ghulam Rasool2, Muhammad Nasir Khan1, Zubair Rehman1, Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Khalid Hussain4 

...e results under ZT were appriciable and CT (1.28 g cm-3) showed significantly less soil bulk density as compared to both of the other treatments. The crop biomass and grain yield of sorghum were observed CT>CP>ZT accordingly, but the differences were statistically significant for grain yield only. The results indicated that conservation tillage in the form of zero tillage has potential to improve soil properties but the yields of different treatments wer...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1,*, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shakoor Ahmad2, Irshad Ahmad3, Ikramul Haq4, Kashif Prince1, Asad Ullah5, Muhammad Shoaib2, Shahid Zaman6, Amjad Islam Aqib7, Ghazunfar Rashid1, Mahboob Ali1, Imdad Ullah Khan4,Imad Khan5, Naimat Ullah4 and Muhammad Shahid8
... out better immunogenic approach. This study was conducted on total of 36 healthy animal of equal number of rabbits and goats. Each species was divided randomly into three equal (n=6) groups. Group A was supplemented vitamin E and group B was without vitamin E supplementation in both species. Animals of both groups were vaccinated with enterotoxaemia vaccine. Group C was kept as negative control in both rabbits and goats. The immune titer against C. perfrin...
Shanshan Cai1, Tianxiang Gao2, Binlun Yan3, Aiyi Zhu1 and Xiumei Zhang1,2,*
...el and highly-efficient approaches for assessment of stock enhancement.
...
Muhammad Waseem1, Ahmed Raza1, Hamera Aisha1, Muhammad Naeem Awan1, Tariq Ahmad2, Rabia Nazir2 and Tariq Mahmood2,*
...lin trade and poaching. Approximately 275 pangolins were poached at 46 different locations during 2013-2018, with the highest number of killings recorded from Chakwal District (131 pangolins at 14 sites). The pangolin dealers operating in major cities of Pakistan (Rawalpindi, Lahore and Karachi) prefer pangolin scales. A total of 239 shops and street vendors were trading many wildlife species including CITES listed species in the market illegally in addition t...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

December

Vol. 51, Iss. 6, Pages 1999-2399

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