James Ayukepi Ayukekbong1,2

E-mail | james.ayukekbong@microbio.gu.se

... revealed dengue IgG seroprevalence of 73% and malaria prevalence of 80% in some areas of the country. The diagnosis of the disease is further complicated by the fact that, dengue fever mimics malaria fever and the prevalence of dengue-malaria co-infection is high. Differential diagnosis of fever is therefore necessary to initiate the appropriate clinical care. Despite the endemicity of de...

Nayle Maria Oliveira da Silva1*, Ricardo do Carmo Zanella2

 

...ontracting HCV, and high prevalence rates have been found in hemodialysis units around the world. HCV induces chronic liver disease, which is characterized by a persistent hepatic parenchyma inflammatory process that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Viral clearance occurs in a minority of patients with viral hepatitis C, whereas chronic infection is established in 60 to 80% of all cases, 20 to 40% of which may evolve to cirrhosis and hepatocarcin...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...t to determine the sero- prevalence of Hepatitis E among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Ogbomoso. The blood sample of consented two hundred and seventy five (275) subjects were obtained and their sera were screened for antibodies to HEV using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Samples were collected over a period of 4 months (September – December, 2014). The mean age and mean CD4+ count of the subjects were 40.14±0.47 years and...

Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco1*, Gaby Dolz1, Danilo Montero-Caballero2, Juan Jose Romero-Zuniga2

...%, as well as an overall prevalence of 80.8 %. The within flock seropositivity percentages ranged between 0% and 100.0%. Flocks with the highest seropositivity were found in low altitude regions close to the coast. Risk and protective factors determined in the present study were not in accordance with this insect borne disease. The results of this study indicate that BTV is endemic in sheep herds from Costa Rica, and animals seem not show clinical signs. We re...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...2.21-2.72%). The rate of prevalence of these species was bi-phasic and higher from April to June, and October to November 2009. Interestingly, the infectivity rate of BTV was also higher during these periods indicating that high risk of infection is directly proportional to that of transmission vectors. Moreover, results demonstrate that the life stage “bumper” of the female imicola is the indicator of the infecting activity of ...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...d ungulates. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic losses to livestock farming and industry has increased global concern for the disease. Currently, 3 serotypes of FMD virus (O, A and SAT-2) and 06 lineage are circulating in the North Africa, of which serotype O is responsible for most of the outbreaks. However, the rapid spread of SAT2 and other exotic FMDV lineages in L...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud1, Muaz Abdellatif 2, 3*, Luai Shazali1

...sent study describes the prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus antibodies in sheep, goats and camels at Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples (n=400), collected during 2012–2013 from sick and clinically healthy herds, were subjected to antibodies detection using c-ELISA. Out of examined animals, 83 (62.9%) goats and 70 (33.2%) sheep were detected positive against PPRV antibodies, whereas camels appeared to be serone...

 Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Rajwali Khan, Syed Muhammad Sohail, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib and Asim Ijaz

...screen out. Overall sero-prevalence in cattle was 15.36% on SPAT, 14.39% by i-ELISA and 14.14% through PCR. Higher prevalence was recorded in abattoir shops (31.01%) followed by private farms (11%) and animal selling points (9.25%). Significant difference was recorded in different breeds i.e. achai, local non-descript and crossbred (non-descript x jersey) cattle. Higher prevalence in femal...

Jannatul Noor, Md. Ahaduzzaman, Mir Md. Afzal Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Sardar Abdur Rahim and Md. Samun Sarker

... conducted to assess the prevalence of tick in goat’s population of three different areas (Kaptai, Kattoli and Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University) of Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 60 goats were examined for tick infestation in three places using random positive sampling technique. Among the breed, Black Bengal goats were highly affected (53.33%) followed by Jamuna pari (33.33%) and cross breed (13.33%) (P=0.00). Black coat coloured...

Tasnim Farasat*, Saima Sharif, Farkhanda Manzoor, Muneeza Zafar and Shagufta Naz

...c patients to assess the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and to evaluate its relationship with potential risk factors of diabetes on their first visit to a local hospital. Among the newly diagnosed diabetic subjects 33% (n=66) were with retinopathy. Out of which 30% (n=18) were male and 70% (n=48) were female. High density lipoprotein (HDL), both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol level and serum insulin were significantly higher (p< 0.05...

Bibi Tayyaba Batool1, Aemal Tareen1, Shahjahan Shabir Ahmed1, Hira Ejaz1, Mohammad Azam Kakar1, Syed Abdul Rehman2, Mohammed Saeed1, Zafar Ahmad3, Mohammad Masood Tariq3, Mohammad Arif Awan3 and Muhammad Naeem Shahwani1*

...udy was to determine the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis in cattle, goats and sheep in some primary dwelling districts of Balochistan. Our results showed that brucellosis was found 2.2% positive from Quetta district and 0.6% positive from Pishin district and bovine (TB) was found 0.60% positive from Quetta and none from Pishin district of Balochistan.

...

Abdul Sattar Baloch1*, Abdul Rasheed1,2, Rahmatullah Rind1, Jam Kashif Sahito1, Rehana Buriro1, Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1 and Parkash Dewani1

...g tests, and overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be as 21%, 21% and 13% by RBPT, SAT and c-ELISA tests, respectively. Seroprevalence was higher in females (26%) than in males (16%) by RBPT and SAT tests, and also in camels less than 9 years of age (13.33%). Milk samples were collected to detect the antibodies against the disease, however, none of the sample was found to be positive for brucellosis. It was conc...

Rongrong Li1, Kun Li2, Xiaoqiang Wang2, Houqiang Luo2, Gang Qiu2, Hui zhang2, Yanfang Lan2 and Jiakui Li2,3*

...s to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China. A total 454 serum samples were collected from Tibetan pigs in Nyingchi in 2014 and 2015. Each sample was assayed for T. gondii antibodies by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and an indirect hemagglutination test. The results showed that seroprevalence in Tibetan pigs were 25.6% by ELISA. On gender basis, the

Hussain Ahmad1, Inamullah1, Ijaz Ali2, Tauseef Ahmad3, Muhammad Tufail4, Kabir Ahmad5 and Bibi Nazia Murtaza3,6*

...dy aimed to find out the prevalence of Brucella and active brucellosis in the human population of district Swat. Total 300 individuals (both female and male of all ages, meeting our inclusion/exclusion criteria) with informed consent were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and brucellosis was detected by Standard Plate Agglutination Test (SPAT) and Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and later on confirmed by PCR. Disease was detected in 3.66...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole, Oloke Julius Kola and Awoyelu Hilda Elukunbi

...CD4 count showed highest prevalence (27.27%) among the age ranging from 41 to 50 years with the CD4+ count of 350- 500cells/µl. The result from this study highlight that EBV IgM is prevalent among individuals infected with HIV in Nigeria and may warrant future investigations to ascertain the impact of co-infection on public health.

...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...this study proportionate prevalence of FMD in cattle was estimated and the distribution of FMD according to different factors was evaluated. Both retrospective and prospective FMD clinical cases were included considering clinical signs and drugs used for treatment during 13 January to 15 March 2015. A total of 131 cattle was investigated and 16.8% cattle cattle were recorded as FMD. The proportionate prevalence of FMD in dif...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...erological survey on the prevalence of antibodies to PPRV was carried out in sheep and goats of Jatoi and surrounding areas in Muzaffargarh districts South Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 965 serum samples were collected from sheep and goat’s farms from January to December 2015 with no history of vaccination. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was performed using PPRV antigen to determine antibody titres level. The overall pre...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

...itive ELISA. The overall prevalence was 59.9%, goats had a significantly higher sero-prevalence of 75.3% compared to 59.4% obtained from sheep, whereas camels were seronegative. The prevalence of PPR was increasing from 27.9% in 2011 to 77.3% in 2016. Seropositivity was higher in wet seasons (60.9 to 61.4%) to 56.7% in dry hot season. Species, year and location appeared to be having signif...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...s with 74.5% (47/63) prevalence, following which were Streptococcus species (17.45%, 11/63), E. coli (3.17%, 2/63), and Bacillus cereus (4.76%, 3/63). Coagulase positive Staph. aureus (41 out of 47), and hemolysin producing Staph. aureus (39 out of 47) primed among Staph. aureus isolates indicating very pathogenic nature of infection in the area. Risk factors determinants were found significantly (P<0.05) associ...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
Akbar Ali1,*, Khalil Mohamed2 and Fawzia Toulah3

 

...;40 years (14%). Overall prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG was seen in 12%, with significantly more in women with age more than 30 years as compared to those with age less than 30 years (19% vs 8%; p=0.038). The percentage of IgG seroprevalence was higher in women who ever got pregnant as compared to those who were never pregnant (13% vs 5%). The percentage was also higher in women with direct contact to soil...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...ittle is known about the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of major bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella and Pasteurella spp. in Egyptian quail farms. Such information is important for drug choice and success of treatment as well as spotting the light on emerging antimicrobial resistance that represent major concern for public health. A total one hundred swabs and 500 organ samples were collected from apparently hea...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...hree LBM with an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Of the 84 samples collected, 17 contained Salmonella. With regard to the matrices, there was no difference in Salmonella prevalence among the four matrices considered. Four different serotypes were identified with Salmonella Llandoff having the highest isolation rate in all the matrices sampled (58.8%), followed by, S. Kentucky (17.7%), S. Schwarzengrund and S. Havana had the low...
Wali Khan*, Ghazal Mumtaz, Saima Bibi and Salma Afzal
...s aimed to determine the prevalence of parasitic infection in vegetables collected from the vegetable markets in Lower and Upper Dir districts. A total of 520 vegetable samples were collected during April to October 2016. These vegetable samples were screened for parasitic contamination. The results showed that 10.7% of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with one or more than one species of parasites. Intestinal parasites Ascaris lumbricoides 26.7%, ...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1,*, Samia Afzal1, Zareen Fatima1, Sadia Zahid1, Usman Ashraf1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...e male. Overall weighted prevalence of PCR positivity was 38% (268). Of the total 268 PCR positive subjects, 0.74%, 56.71%, 15.67% were positive for serotype 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Only 72 suspected patients had concurrent infection with serotype 2 and 3. Higher incidence of RNA positivity by PCR was found in males (71%) as compared to the females (29%). The higher incidence of PCR positivity was found in age group of 16-25 rather than teenage (≤16) and o...
Tausif Ahmad1, Iahtasham Khan2, Saddaf Razzaq1, Saeed-ul-Hassan Khan1,* and Raheela Akhtar3
...nducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella abortus in cattle and buffaloes in the districts of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A total of 120 serum samples were randomly collected from buffaloes and cattle (60 per species) at Civil Veterinary Hospitals, animal markets and peri-urban livestock holdings in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Serum samples were initially screened by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). RBPT positive samples were subjected to ...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
...robial agents to control prevalence of food borne pathogens in final packaged food products as well as for food preservation/ biocontrol, this study was designed to isolate lactoferrin from milk of camel. Cation exchange resin (CM-Sephadex C-25) was used for the isolation of lactoferrin using the fast protein liquid chromatography. The lactoferrin was further characterized through sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Disc diff...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Sultan Ayaz2, Sajid Umar4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Muhammad Shafee6, Ikramullah Khan7, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Azmat Ullah Khan8Naimat Ullah Malik1 and Abdul Razzaq9
...sults yielded an overall prevalence of 11.11%, with significant difference (P<0.05) among different study areas. Prevalence was highest in district Bannu (11.66%), followed by district Lakki Marwat and Kohat with 10% in each district. Statistical analysis revealed significant difference (P<0.05) among children of different age groups with highest disease prevalence in children of les...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...were recorded. The total prevalence recorded was 3.66%and out of 498 broiler operations yielded 17 (3.4%) positive isolates and 44 golden type native chicken farms yielded 05 (11.36%) isolates of AIV H9N2 and 58 captive pheasant’s samples were negative. It was observed that frequency of H9N2 prevalence in poultry population was directly proportional to temperature, season and...
Nasar Khan1,2, Fahad Ali3,7, Sulaiman Bahadar5,*, Khalil ur Rahman3, Abdul Aziz3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Daud6, Azam Hayat5 and Mujaddad ur Rehman5
Madiha Hashmi1, Abid Hussain1, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Farida Ahmed2, Shahbaz Aslam3,Nadeem Afzal4 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
... taking into account the prevalence and severity of footpad dermatitis (FPD) in broiler chickens. The study included 300 one-day-old Ross 308 broilers. One group of broilers was reared on chopped wheat straw (the particle length of straw ≥ 10 cm). The second group was kept on newly formulated pelleted wheat straw. The duration of the trial was 42 days. Moisture content in litter materials and FPD occurrence and severity were assessed weekly. First signs of ...
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
...beings. In this project, prevalence and distribution of soil borne Brucella species in nine districts of Punjab including Lahore, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura, Sargodha, D.G. Khan, Chakwal, Sahiwal, Gujranwala and Attock were determined. By using grid based sampling strategy, soil samples (n= 1280) were collected from villages (n=256, 5 samples/village) of the nine districts. Brucella genus specific DNA (bcsp31) was detected using Real Time PCR...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...were recorded on disease prevalence, incidence, frequency percent of root rot fungi and nematodes population. Maximum disease prevalence was recorded in Tibba Sultanpur (100%) and Dunyapur (88%) whereas disease incidence calculated was 5% and 4.4%, respectively, in these areas. Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) was frequently isolated (78%) from roots as well as in soil samples (81.7%) collected from infected fields. Amo...
Usman Waheed1,*, Humayoon Shafique Satti2, Muhammad Arshad3, Ahmed Farooq3, Abdul Rauf4 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer1,5
...ext-align: justify;">The prevalence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis is rapidly increasing among high risk groups (HRGs) in Pakistan leading it away from achieving the 6th millennium development goal of halting and reversing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Syphilis increases the risk of HIV transmission by two to five times, and this co-infection is common among HRGs. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HI...
Shazia Rasheed1,* and Javed Mustaquim2
...vestigation. Octolasmids prevalence was significantly higher in female P. pelagicus (81.2%) than that of male (18.8%) while in case of P. sanguinolentus the prevalence was significantly higher in male (60.5%) rather than female (39.5%).
...
Omar S.O. Amer1,3,*, Mohamed I. Waly2,4 andSaeed A. Al-Zahrani1
...testinal parasites, with prevalence rate 6.98 %. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection during the period of study was as follows; Ascaris lumbricoides (n= 205, 1.8%), Giardia lamblia (n= 178, 1.6%), Entamoeba histolytica (n= 174, 1.57%), Trichuris trichiura (n= 118, 1.06%), Hymenolepis nana (n= 51, 0.46 %), Enterobius vermicularis (n= 28, 0.25%) and Taenia saginata ...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...p-value 0.0002). The prevalence of C allele was 13.5% in disease, 5.83% in controls and found significant with p-value 0.007. These findings suggest that c.G745C in COMT gene has a significant association and a possible role in the OCD development in Pakistani patients.
...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...> Amblyomma with the prevalence of 78.50%, 10.33%, 10.08%, 0.67% and 0.42%, respectively. On species basis, R. (Boophilus) annulatus, R. (Boophilus) microplus, Heamaphysalis aciculifer, R. appendiculatus, and R. decoloratus were noted 41.67, 18.42, 9.83, 8.25, and 6.83% respectively, whereas least prevalence was noted as 0.42% in case of A. pomposum and D. circumguttatus; 0.25% e...
Nosheen Rafiq1, Asmatullah Kakar2,*, Arshad Ghani3, Asim Iqbal2, Wali Mohammad Achakzai2, Shagufta Sadozai2, Mohammad Shafiq4 and Mohammad Alam Mengal5 
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

...ertaken to determine the prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from piglets having white score diarrhea as a result of outbreak occurred in Qinghai Tibetan Plateau in 2015. A total of 81 E.coli were isolated from 83 fecal samples. The organisms were inoculated on MacConkey agar and EMB agar and identified via biochemical tests. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect representative virulence factors or ge...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Aly Khan3
...aimed to investigate the prevalence of potentially pathogenic intestinal protozoan parasitic infection in farmers, education concerned and shepherds of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. One hundred and fifteen (11.04%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal protozoans. Forty one (35.6%) of the participant...
Muhammad Nabeel,1,* Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...efore, its incidence and prevalence was determined in seven major maize growing districts of Punjab during 2016. The maximum overall incidence of maize borer (12%) was recorded in Khanewal district followed by Multan (6%) while it was the minimum (1%) in district Okara. On the other hand, maximum prevalence of maize borer was observed in district Vehari (100%) followed by districts of Khanewal and Multan (73%) while minimum ...

Warda Fatima1 , Shahida Hasnain1 , Saqib Mahmood2

 

...ychosis with a worldwide prevalence of 1%. It is diagnosed on the basis of psychiatricsymptoms and till now no biochemical test is available for its diagnosis. It is considered one of the most costlydisease in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Its heritability content is considered to be up to 80% but still it isunknown whether it’s a pure genetic disease. It is considered a polygenic multifactorial condition where both genes and environment have roles i...

 Maleeha Manzoor1*, Madiha Manzoor2, Qurat-ul-ain Ahmed3, Sobia Ahmed4, Shazia Manzoor5

...n order to determine the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women attending Government Mian Munshi Teaching Hospital, Lahore. For this, one hundred pregnant females were selected randomly; relevant data was collected by interviewing and filling a questionnaire especially designed to record various socio-demographic characters of patients and their dietary history. Prevalence rate of anemia in the present study was found to ...
Ikramul Haq1, Aneela Zameer Durrani*1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Imtiaz Ahmad3, Amjad Khan2 and Mehboob Ali1
...or bacteria. The overall prevalence of diarrhea was 72.56% with bacteria in 65.77% of diarrheic cases. The prevalence of different bacterial species shows that E. coli was the most prevalent bacteria with 48.77% as compared to Clostridium perfringens (18.56%) and Salmonella (17.9%). It was concluded that bacteria were the major cause of foal diarrhea in Punjab, Pakistan. 
...
Zahid Farooq1, Sufi Muhammad Akram2, Muhammad Saleem Khan3,* and Muhammad Wajid4
...; N = 39) were higher in prevalence. Northern wolf snake (Lycodon striatus striatus), Sind long-nose sand snake (Lytorhynchus paradoxus)and Afghan awl-head snake(L. ridgewayi)(0.38%; N = 2) were the least abundant. Snakes were more frequent in croplands and least frequent in barren areas.
...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
...ted to determine the seroprevalence, investigating the EI outbreak 2015-16, and describing the demographic and management risk factors associated with seroprevalence of EIV. Using ELISA kit and HI as serological methods for diagnosis, we found a 24.13% (168/696) overall seroprevalence, where the seroprevalence for H3N8 was 14.51% (101/696), for H7N7 6.03...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...ssumed risk factors with prevalence. Nonparametric tests at 5% probability were applied to check significance of results. The study noted overall 33.98% (123/362) of MDR S. aureus from subclinical mastitis milk samples while 123 of 192 S. aureus isolates (64.06%) were confirmed MDR. Non-significantly higher prevalence of MDR was noted in Cholistan area (38.38%) than to that of Sulaiman Range (29.98%) on subclin...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz3
... was aimed to assess the prevalence of Taenia saginata and Hymenolepis nana (tapeworms) infections among farmers, education concerned and shepherds of Swat, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. Two hundred and twenty one (21.2%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal tapeworms. Seventy seven (7.39%) of the participants ...

Zahid Akram, Saif Ullah Ajmal, Ghulam Shabbir, Muhammad Munir and Nasir Mahmood Cheema

INHERITANCE MECHANISM OF SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT
...-1 (1.111) evidenced the prevalence of non additive gene action controlling these traits. The present results, therefore, revealed that selection for these traits in early generation may not be useful and it has to be delayed till segregating generations.
...

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

...have shown an increasing prevalence and importance of CCoV around the world. Fatal CCoV infections have been described, however, there is limited information on the molecular diversity of CCoV in many parts of the world. In this study, canine fecal samples from diverse States of Brazil were screened by PCRs for CCoV and positive samples were subjected to partial sequencing for the membrane (M), spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) and non-structural protein 3b genes. O...

 Nazir Ahmad*, Sultan Ayaz*, Sumaira Shams**, Karimullah*** and Riaz Ahmad****

PREVALENCE AND MORPHOLOGY OF HELMINTH PARASITES OF FISH FROM RIVER SWAT, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...opic techniques. Overall prevalence of the fish parasites was 58% (145/250). Among these Schizothorax plageostomus fish 93.04% (107/115), Schizothorax labiatus 61.11% (33/54), Salmo trutta fario 17.85% (05/28), Gara gotyla 0% (0/09), Rita rita 0% (0/25) and Oncorhynchus mykiss were 0% ( 0/19). The intensity of the parasite varied from 1% to 9.2%. Among them high intensity was noted in Rhabdochona schizothoracis (9.2%) and Schizothorax labiatus.

...

 S. Talat Gilani*, Shahid Hameed* and Hussain Shah* 

OCCURANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POTY VIRUSES INFECTING GARLIC IN PAKISTAN
...detect and determine the prevalence, incidence and distribution of the poty viruses causing diseases in garlic (Allium sativum) from major garlic growing areas of Pakistan. The yellow stripes, mosaic and chlorotic spot symptoms of the disease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. Altogether 690 samples were collected from 29 locations of Punjab and 40 locations of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa to determine the preval...

 Ghazala Nawaz*, Muhammad Nawaz Malik**, Muhammad Hassan
Mushtaq***, Fraz Munir Ahmad****, Ali Abdullah Shah*****, Farooq
Iqbal******, Shinawar Waseem Ali*******, Zahida Fatima******** and
Amjad Khan*********

SURVEILLANCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN LIVESTOCK IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...based estimation of true prevalence is time occurring in different livestock species and requires to develop prevention and control strategy, that hasn't been done in Pakistan. Active disease surveillance at door steps was conducted to collect blood samples from small and large ruminants of subtropical rural communities in the province of Punjab during January-March, 2015. Total 59665 sera samples from apparently healthy animals were collected and screened by ...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Muhammad Kashif Prince1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*, Mian Saeed Sarwar2, Hazrat Ali2, Tahir Usman2, Asadullah Khan2, Siffat Ullah Khan3 and Shahid Zaman5
...a (KPK) to determine the prevalence and risk factors responsible for the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in lambs and has been known to cause human infection. Three hundred and sixty fecal samples (n=360) were collected through convenient sampling from apparently healthy lambs and were examined using the modified Ziehl Neelsen acid fast staining. Prevalence was calculated along with different risk factors associated wit...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
...ere examined for malaria prevalence and intensity from January to July 2015. Indoor biting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected by standard procedures within the study duration. Meteorological data on relative humidity and temperature was obtained from Centre for Basic Space Science, Nsukka, Enugu State. Overall recorded malaria prevalence at the hospitals from January to July was 72.8%. Malaria <...
Nasir Abbas1, Muhammad Suleman1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2,*, Ijaz Ali3, Mubashir Rauf1,5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman4,*
...programme.
...
Grace Chinenye Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie, Joseph O. Okoro, Christopher Didigwu Nwani*, Ngozi Ezenwaji, Ndubisi Stanley Oluah and Fabian C. Okafor
... had the highest (76.4%) prevalence of infection; A. degneri had the least (37.5%). A total of 1 563 helminthes belonging to three species Cosmocercoides sp., Capillaria sp. and Philonema sp. were recovered. Mean intensity of Capillaria in A. achatina was 8.33 (5.00 – 12.00 [95% CI]) while Cosmocercoides sp. intensity in L. gracilis was 7.67 (6.00 – 11.00 [95% CI]). Diversity of parasite speci...
Abid Hussain1,*, Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad2, Muhammad Hussan Mushtaq2, Mamoona Chaudhry2, Muhammad Sarwar Khan2, Michael Reichel3, Tanveer Hussain4, Amjad Khan2, MuhammadNisar2 and Imtiaz Ahmad Khan5
...d out to investigate the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy buffaloes. The present study was conducted in two districts Lahore and Bhimber Azad Kashmir Pakistan. Total sample size for this survey was consisted of 1,036 lactating buffaloes. The screening of lactating buffaloes was performed with the California Mastitis Test. The overall prevalence of mastitis was recorded at 49%. Among mastitis cases the...
Ahmad Farooq1, Usman Waheed2,3, Hasan Abbas Zaheer2,3, Abdul Rauf4, Abida Arshad5, and Muhammad Arshad1,*
...udy was to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among thalassaemia major patients. The study was conducted from June – December 2016, at the Thalassaemia Centre, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad and the Pakistan Thalassaemia Centre, Pakistan Baitul Mal, Islamabad, Pakistan. Data were obtained by clinical testing of 1,440 ß thalassaemia major patients visiting for blood transfusions at regular intervals. The co...
Tariq Mukhtar,1,* Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Usman Raja1 and Humayun Javed2
...e 1.2% while the overall prevalence was 27%. As regards districts, the maximum incidence was recorded in district Bhakkar followed by Khushab. Similarly, the maximum prevalence was observed in district Bhakkar followed by Sargodha while it was the minimum in district Khushab. The incidence of the nematode was found to be variable on different wheat cultivars. The maximum incidence was recorded on cultivar Chakwal-50 followed...
Riyadh S. Aljumaah*, Mohammed A. Alshaikh, Abdulrahman Jarelnabi, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman and Mansour F. Hussein
...div>...
Naimat Ullah1,3,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Avais1, Nisar Ahmad2, Sana Ullah3, Muhammad Shuaib Khan3, Khalid Mehmood5, Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Ikramul Haq1
... designed to inspect the prevalence and its correlation with various risk factors and host biomarkers concerned with the occurrence of theileriosis in sheep. Total 600 blood samples were taken each 200 from districts Bannu, Tank and Dera Ismail Khan of southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan and screened through blood microscopy. The current study revealed an overall prevalence of ovine theileriosis as 27.5%, 13% and 19.5% in d...
Abdul Majid Ujjal2, Sharmin Akter1* and Suman Paul1 
...o ascertain the hospital prevalence of buffalo diseases and to determine the temporal distribution of important infectious diseases of buffalo like as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) at Upazila veterinary hospitals of Jaintapur, Gowainghat and Kanaighat upazilas of Sylhet district. From October, 2015 to September, 2017 a total of 1057 cases of buffalo diseases were recorded in the hospital record books. Among all diseases, the ov...

Osama Elshazly1, AbdelSatar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2, Ismaeil M. Reda2 and Hussein A. Hussein2*

...ortant to understand the prevalence, transmission, persistence and evolution of the virus, and to monitor the circulating AIV strains and emergence of new AIV subtypes in Egypt. The wide circulation of the 2.2.1.2 subclade, carrying triple mutations (120, 129∆, I151T) associated with increased binding affinity to human receptors, is an alarming finding with public health importance.
...
Muzafar Shah1,*, Mazhar Ali2, Sardar Azhar Mehmood2, Shabir Ahmad2, Khushi Muhammad3, Israr Alam1, Kausar Saeed1
...30 blood samples and low prevalence in U.C Ghalaigai with 42 positive (13.12%) out of 320 samples. Gender wise prevalence of malaria disease shows male 106 (27.53%) out of 385 whereas female 98 (16.01%) out of 612. 
...
Jehangir Khan1,*, Rasheedullah1, Bakht Tarin Khan2, Ayaz Ahmad3, Muhammad Salman4 and Khalid Khan5
...study reports an overall prevalence of HCV among 131 (14.55%), 103 (11.44%), and 94 (10.4%) by ICT, ELISA, and RT-PCR techniques in individuals belonging to 5 different age groups. The RT-PCR based results showed 53% HCV infection rate in samples from Tehsil Puran, 23% in Alpuri and 18% in Besham. The gender wise result (non-significant) showed 10% and 10.7% active HCV infection rates in males and females respectively. The RT-PCR based result observed maximum ...
Amna Kausar1,2, Sana Anwar1, Naila Siddique2, Safia Ahmed1 and Javid Iqbal Dasti1,*
...udy was to determine the prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes (AIV H9, AIV H7 and AIV H5) in non-vaccinated wild and domesticated bird species across Pakistan. During January-December 2013, in total 700 samples were collected from different species of non-vaccinated birds inhabiting diverse ecological zones of Pakistan. Altogether, 507 tissue and swab samples were screened for the presence of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain re...
Niamatullah Kakar, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad Shafee and Tauseef Asmat*
...tudy was to evaluate the prevalence of tuberculosis along with associated risk factors in Quetta Jail, Pakistan. In this cross-sectional study, 186 sputum samples were collected randomly from jail inmates. Sputum was processed for smear microscopy and culture inoculation for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Moreover, the suspected samples were further investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three samples were found ...

Ghufran ul Haq1*, Muhammad Arif2, Asad Ali2 and Mian Inayatullah3 

...nducted to determine the prevalence of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and the population of its vector, whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), and determine the transmission properties of the prevalent isolate of the virus in the major tomato growing areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). For this purpose, surveys were conducted in the hilly areas of Mohmand Agency and Malakand Agency and plains of Shabqadar, Charsadda and Peshawar during 2011, 2012 and 2013, to deter...
Jia-kui Li1,2,*, Kun Li2, Zhao-qing Han2, Hui Zhang2, Xiao-qiang Wang2, Hou-qiang Luo2, Yan-fang Lan2 and Gang Qiu1,2
... (ELISA) kit to test the prevalence of BVDV(Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus) in yaks in Hongyuan, Sichuan province, a cold climate and high altitude area of China. Totally, 516 yak serum samples were randomly got during 2012 to 2014. BVDV was found highly prevalent among the adult yaks (51.1%; 95% CI: 46.5-55.6) and calves (60.5%; 95% CI: 43.4-76.0), respectively. The prevalence of BVDV infection in 2012 to 2014 was 45.3% (95% C...
Muhammad Asim Khan1,*, Shahid Niaz Khan1, Sanaullah Khan2, Abdul Jabbar Khan3, Muhammad Adnan4, Nawab Ali5 and Ijaz Ali6
...tember, while the lowest prevalence of malaria infection was found in the months of December (7.93%) and in February (12.62%).
...
Abdul Samad1, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Olena Pokryrshko2 and Tauseef M Asmat1,*
...conducted to examine the prevalence of deadly food contaminants like Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and E. coli (O157:H7) in various types of food items consumed locally. Total of 800 most common food samples such as chicken, beef meat, raw milk, vegetables and salad samples were collected from retail market, the overall contamination of food samples with infectious agents was 48.37%. Campylobacter jejuni<...
Hasina Baloch1, Rahmatullah Rind2,*, Muhammad Rafique Rind3, Viram Kumar4, Nazia Baloch5 and Rajesh K. Oad6
...es. Significantly higher prevalence (49. 07%) of clinical mastitis was observed in buffaloes with average age of 6 to 9 years whereas those of > 9 years of age showed higher (33.33%) but non-significant prevalence of subclinical mastitis. However, significant impact of the number of parity on the prevalence of clinical mastitis was observed in animals. Higher
Ali Zaman1,*, Abdul Haleem1, Sajjad Ur Rahman2, Adnan Amin3 Asma Saeed1, Sana Ullah4 and Naimat Ullah4
...antibodies. Highest sero-prevalence of Avian Influenza (H5) was recorded in district Abbottabad 36.15% (47/130) followed by Dera Ismail Khan 33.08% (43/130), Tank 26.92% (35/130), Peshawar 21.54% (28/130) and Mansehra 16.92% (22/130). Statistical analysis confirmed a significant (P<0.05) difference of sero-prevalence between the districts. There was a significant (P<0.05) association of occurrence of the ...
Riffat Mehboob1*, Shahida Perveen2, Naseer Ahmed3
...Lahore to understand the prevalence of inflammatory lesions, benign neoplasms and their age-wise comparison.
Methodology: The study was carried out at Pathology Department, King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Data of 368 cases of BBD during a time span of 3 years (2011-2014) was obtained retrospectively. 
Results: There were 190 patients of fibroadenoma (FA), 81 of fibrocystic disease (FCD), 64 of breast abscess (...
Rana Khurram Aftab1*, Farhat Ijaz2, Samia Jawed3
...re of normal weight. The prevalence of overweight in male and females was 17(17.5%) and 22(19.0%), prevalence in obese I in male and female was 20(20.6%) and 23(19.8%), and obese II was 3(3.1%) and 11(9.5%) respectively. Frequency of obesity was found to be more in females than in males according to BMI and WHR. Hypertension was present in 12(30.8%) normal weight students, 6(15.4%) overweight, 14(35.9%) obese I and 7(...
Muhammad Younus1*, Sabah Usman2 and Samia Jawed3
...l health problem and its prevalence is increasing continuously. It is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with decreased lung functions.
Objective: This study was designed to compare the pulmonary functions in obese and non-obese subjects. Additionally, we aimed to correlate the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with pulmonary function tests (PFT’s).
Material ...
Mumtaz Akhtar, Iffat Naheed, Khadija Waheed* and Amna Khanum
...or margin was 5% and the prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage was 16.5%. Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 17. In this study, the mean age of study participants was found to be 29.89±5.89 years while the mean gestational age was 38.86±1.38 weeks. Postpartum haemorrhage was observed in 35.45% cases. Blood loss was recorded in patients with a mean of 374±134.91 mL. Statistically, a highly significant difference was observed between ...
Bo Wu1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,7, Yan Zhao1, Bin Jiang1, Chengjun Xue3, Muhammad Tariq Javed6, Fazul Nabi2, Zhaoqing Han5,* and Houqiang Luo4,*
... to investigate the sero-prevalence and immunization program optimization of serotype O of FMD through ELISA and IHA in pigs in Zhejiang. A total of 368 serum samples were collected from June to July in 2016. Out of these samples, 23 (6.79%, 95% CI 4.4-9.9) pigs were found positive for FMD antibodies with the further distribution of 9.09% (95% CI 4.6–15.7), 6.90% (95% CI 2.6–14.4), 5.49%, (95% CI 1.8-12.4) and 4.35% (95% CI 0.9-12.2) from Wenzhou, ...
Hanif Ur Rahman1, Umer Saddique1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Kamal Shah1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Farhan Anwar Khan1Fazli Rabbani2, Muhammad Asif Hussain2, Attaur-Rahman2, Irshad Ahmad3,4 and Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*
... investigate the overall prevalence of members of MM cluster in suspected cases of CCPP in small ruminants.
...
Sana Rafique1, Hina Saqib1, Khushi Muhammad2, Nazia Akbar2, Abdul Rauf3, Muzafar Shah4,*
...of 2015 to determine the prevalence of Dengue fever virus in district Mansehra, Pakistan. Patients were selected with the convenience sampling which were admitted in Al-Khidmat foundation and King Abdullah hospitals in Mansehra, Pakistan, where patients were screened for dengue virus non-structural protein using Rapid Diagnostic kit for Dengue virus (DENV) i.e. SD BIOLINE Dengue IgG/IgM. Data was obtained from patient’s record, filled forms and th...
Junaid Akhtar1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Abdul Waheed1, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed4 and Shah Jahan5,*
Haroon Rashid1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Tasleem Ghori2, Mamoona Chaudhry3, Hamad Bin Rashid2, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir1, Muhammad Hamid Chaudhary4, Muhammad Asad Ali1, Mian Muhammad Khubaib Sattar5, Javed Muhammad1 and Bhushan Jayarao6
...s conducted to study the prevalence and distribution of soil-borne B. anthracis in Punjab Province, Pakistan and to ascertain its public health significance. Using a grid-based sampling strategy, soil samples (n=1985) were collected from villages (n = 397, 5 samples/village) and examined for Bacillus anthracis, using real time PCR assays. Soil samples were found positive for plasmid DNA of Bacillus anthracis (CapB) in 3 villages (n= 3/1985...
Imran Taj1,*, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Kamran Taj1, Deedar Ahmad2, Zahoor Ahmed2, Ghulam Mohammad2, Ajaz-ul-Haq1, Farooq Shahzad1 and Sabiha Azam3
... province to explore the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens type D in small ruminants. A total of 204 fecal samples were collected from sheep and goats suffering from seasonal diarrhea. C. perfringens type D was identified through different biochemical tests and PCR. Antibiograms and lab animal trials were also carried out on local isolates of C. perfringens type D. Out of 204 analyzed samples, 89.18 % were found positive while 10.82 % ...
Asad Ullah1, Umar Sadique Khattak2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Imad Khan1, Ibad Ullah Jan2, Irfan Khattak1, Raheela Taj3, Sahar Nigar4,    Naimat Ullah Khan1,Mumtaz Ali Khan5 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail6,*
...nducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) among large ruminants of the five districts (Peshawar, Nowshera, Charsadda, Mardan and Swabi) located in the central zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. A total of 2400 large ruminants were sampled by convenience sampling approach and tested by comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test (CCIT) for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Data re...
Qudrat Ullah1,*, Huma Jamil1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Muhammad Saqib2 and Heinrich Neubauer3
... to investigate the sero-prevalence of Coxiellosis and its relationship with some important risk factors in small ruminants kept at nine government livestock farms of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 1000 blood samples (500 each from goats and sheep) were collected from animals kept at the respective livestock farms. An indirect-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA) was used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in the serum. Serological analysis revea...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1*, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Dakwang Nalong1, Rengkat Jonah1 and Olabode Mayowa

...ied out to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pigs, sheep and goats at slaughter in Jos, Plateau State Nigeria. Five hundred (500) serum samples comprising of 300 pigs, 100 each of sheep and goats were collected and analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG) using latex agglutination test (LAT). Serum samples with LAT titer >10 IU/ml were considered positive. The study showed that 176 of the 500 samples analyzed were positive f...
Neelima Gupta

 

...i> Channa punctatus (prevalence 24%, intensity 2 to 18 per fish). Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were conducted to demonstrate the surface anatomy of the worm. The worm is slender, elongated and cylindrical. The mouth is slit-like, surrounded by two lateral rows of somatic papillae, cephalic end was conical with 12 labial papillae arranged in two circles of 6 papillae each. Scanning electron microscopy on attachment structures revealed that t...

Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1*, Maryam Bisola Adebayo2, Bashiru Shafa Abubakar3, Ibrahim Abubakar Yusuf2 and Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi1  

...out to determine the seroprevalence of Human Parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM antibodies and to determine the risk factors associated with acquisition of the virus. A total of 326 blood samples were collected from consenting pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinic in Abuja, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demography and risk factors. The sera were obtained from samples were analyzed for IgG and IgM antibodies of human pa...

Mushtaq Hussain Lashari1*, Fozia Afzal1 and Umer Farooq

...was to determine the seroprevalence and hematological changes in free-range chicken (Gallus domesticus) naturally infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Blood samples of chicken (n=71), were collected from Cholistan areas of Bahawalpur (Punjab), Pakistan. Serum samples were tested for toxoplasmosis with a commercial latex agglutination kit (Antec Diagnostic products, UK). The overall prevalence was 26.76%. The signific...
Shagufta Naz*, Saima Sharif, Hafsa Badar, Syeda Fareeha Tauheed
...was directed to find the prevalence of Macular corneal dystrophy in the families of Lahore. The techniques used for the diagnosis of MCD were visual Acuity test by Snellen chart, phoropter, slit lamp biomicroscopy, topography, keratometer and pachymetry. In this study, 50 patients of MCD were identified among which 40 were males and 10 were females, including 9 cases with family history. Main complaint was drop in visual acuity and loss of vision in all patien...
Muhammad Zahid1, Aneela ZameerDurrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1, KhushiMuhammad1,Muhammad Usman1,*, Muhammad Husnain1 and Nadeem Kamal2

 

... through RT-PCR. Overall prevalence of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) in indigenous breeds of bovine was 63.33%, lower, than exotic breeds 64.66% which were found to be more prone to disease. In the case of buffalo breeds, prevalence was more in Nili Ravi buffalo, i.e. 36.6% than Kundi breed, i.e. 33.3%. Prevalence of disease was found maximum in humid and plain area of Lahore,...

Hafiz Muhammad Umer Qaisar1, Tanveer Ahmad2, Muhammad Rizwan3*, Muhammad Saqib1

Antimicrobial efficacy of combination of lincomycin and spiramycin (Lispiracin™) as systemic dry cow therapy for controlling bovine mastitis
...etermined through
prevalence of mastitis (sub-clinical and clinical) before and after parturition and
bacteriological cure rate. Quarter and animal wise prevalence of both clinical and
sub-clinical mastitis after systemic dry cow therapy with lispiracin™ group (G1) was
lower than control group (G2). This was evaluated through Surf Field Mastitis Test,
Somatic cell count, isolation, id...

 Anber Naqvi1*#, Abdul Qadir1, Adeel Mahmood2, Mehvish Mumtaz3, Iqra Aslam1, Gan Zhang4

Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in maternal blood serum from selected districts of Punjab, Pakistan
...lected
the higher prevalence of lower chlorinated PCBs in urban population descending
towards rural population. The mean TEQ concentration of eight dioxins like PCBs
was recorded as 0.03 ng/g l.w. Analysis of Σ34PCBs and socio-demographic
parameters reflected significant results for milk intake. The study findings
suggested a need for regulating the continuous intentional or unintentional
releases of PCB into the...
Ajmal Khan* and Rehan Ullah
...lyzed to investigate the prevalence of malaria and its specific aetiologic agents in suspected patients reported to various laboratories of Agency Head Quarter Hospital Khar, Bajaur Agency. In this study, a total number of 9720 suspected individuals were examined; among which 1273 (13.1%) were found to be positive for malaria infection with different Plasmodium species in their blood smears. Male population accounts for higher p...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Memoona Chaudhary2, Riaz Hussain3, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Madiha Khan6, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Mehtab Ahmad7, Muhammad Sajid Hasni2Imran Qaiser8, Ghazanfar Rashid1, Ikramul Haq1 and Ikramullah Khan8
...esults showed an overall prevalence of 47.14% for subclinical mastitis. Statistical analysis revealed non-significant (P>0.05) difference between Cholistan desert and Suleiman mountain range (48.18% and 46.09%, respectively). S. aureus was isolated from 53.03% of the milk samples, with significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence in Cholistan desert (66.10%) as compared to Suleiman range (57.98%...

Muhammad Rameez Khan1, Muhammad Imtiaz2, Farhatullah3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Sajid Ali1* 

...ck of information on the prevalence across Pakistan. Surveillance for powdery mildew status assessment was conducted across Pakistan during three wheat crop seasons i.e., 2015-2016 to 2017-2018. A total of 437 fields (from 63 districts) were surveyed in 2016, 480 fields (from 69 districts) in 2017 and 294 fields (from 34 districts) in 2018, revealing a high prevalence of powdery mildew in the northern Himalayan parts of Paki...
Farheen Shaikh*, Saima Naz, Nadir Ali Birmani
...orded in each month. The prevalence of chewing lice species of Coturnix coturnix was recorded as 44.47% Cuclotogaster cinereus (Nitzsh, 1866) belongs to family Philopteridae 32.64% Menacanthus abdominalis (Piaget, 1880) and 22.87% Menacanthus cornutus belongs to family Menoponidae. The results revealed high infestation found in birds of rural localities. The present study will help to understand host-parasite interaction in study ar...
Tamoor Azeem1,*, M. Yasin Tipu1, Asim Aslam1, Sajjad Ahmed2, Salman Ahmed Abid1, Abdullah Iqbal3, Naeem Akhtar4, Muhammad Saleem4, Aamerzish Mushtaq4 and Sajid Umar4

Omer Baris Ince* 

...n in order to reduce the prevalence of the disease. In this study, blood samples were collected from clinically healthy sheep and bovine in the surrounding region of the southeast of Konya province that were classified as non-vaccinated, single-vaccinated, multiple vaccinated, aged 0-1 and 1-3 and male and female starting from the third month following the vaccination. In the study aimed to show the disease-related status of the selected region, to investigate...

Rafiullah1*, Abdur Rahman2, Khalid Khan1, Anwar Ali1, Arifullah Khan2, Abdul Sajid3 and Naimatullah Khan3 

...te Peshawar. The overall prevalence for Theileriosis was 27.75% through Real-time PCR, followed by Indirect ELISA (24.62%) and Microscopy (11.37%). Transect wise high prevalence for Theileria parva was observed in Lakki Marwat with 33.5% for Real-time PCR, significantly different at P<0.05 from Peshawar. Cattle showed 100% more positive results as compared to Buffalo. All the techniques showed highest

 Abdul Maalik1, Shahzad Ali1,*, Anam Iftikhar1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Haroon Ahmad2 and Iahtasham Khan1

...esigned to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of subclinical mastitis along with antibiotic resistance of one of the causative agent of bovine mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus. Ninety milk samples were collected from cows and buffaloes kept at different localities in district Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan. The possible risk factors inquired from farmers were animal type, breeds, urbanicity, age (years), teat washing, bedding area, lactating sta...

 Muhammad Arshad Hussain1 and Tariq Mukhtar2,*

...ted to record incidence, prevalence, and severity of root-knot nematode species associated with okra in the major vegetable growing districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The overall incidence of 39%, prevalence of 85% and severity of 4.1 in terms of the galling index was recorded throughout the province. Differences in the incidence of root-knot nematodes were recorded from all the districts ranging from 11% to 70%. ...

 Sohaib Afzaal1, Usman Hameed2, Nasir Ahmad3,*, Naeem Rashid3 and Muhammad Saleem Haider1

...re-dominant group (41.1% prevalence) among LAB strains in the isolated food samples. Some opportunistic pathogens were also isolated from these media. Among the tested strains maximum amount of lactic acid (26.457 mg/mL) was produced by the lactobacilliafter 48 h growth in skim milk broth, while the least (12.131 mg/mL) was produced by pediococci. These LAB strains are being studied for their probiotic properties and good quality indigenous starter cultures fr...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1, Batim Turdam1, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Waziri Ibrahim Anjili2 and Mayowa Olabode2 

...ay 2018 to determine the prevalence and risk factors for endoparasitic infections in donkeys at Ganawuri district market, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal and blood samples were collected from 300 donkeys and analyzed using a standard laboratory procedure. Coprological examination conducted using flotation and sedimentation techniques showed that 276 (92.0%) were positive for gastrointestinal nematodes. A greater proportion (70.7%) of the nematodes ...
Muhammad Zain Saleem1,*, Raheela Akhtar1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Adeel Manzoor1, Bilal Ahmed Shah3, Rais Ahmed4 and Muhammad Yasin5
...y. RBT confirmed the seroprevalences of 19.32% ± 0.289 and 12.29% ± 0.0105 brucellosis in sheep and goats, respectively and real-time PCR confirmed the B. abortus in 74 samples (62.71% ± 0.044) out of 118 seropositive samples in goats while 63 samples (69.23% ± 0.048) out of 91 seropositive samples of sheep. The presence of B. abortus in small ruminants could be due to mixed farming of small and large ruminants, sharin...
Sumreen Hayat1,6, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique2, Bilal Aslam1, Habibullah Nadeem2, Asma Ashraf3, Muhammad Saqalein1, Mohsin Khurshid4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Saima Muzammil1,*
...isolates with higher prevalence of ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae among the children with urinary tract infections. Based on our findings, it is recommended that the ESBL production should be routinely monitored especially among the K. pneumoniae strains for the effective management and control of such MDR pathogens.
...

Abdul Kabir1, Laiba Uroog2*, Naushad Ahmad3, Fawad Ahmad3, Muhammad Saqib3, Noor Badshah4 and Taj Ali Khan3 

...nducted to find the Etio-prevalence of bacterial species causing subclinical mastitis in a cohort of buffaloes at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. 120 quarter samples were collected from suspected buffaloes in selected areas of Peshawar, Charsadda, Mohmand Agency, and Dara Adam Khel. Initially, California Mastitis Test was performed for screening of positive samples. Afterward, the bacterial profile was confirmed through biochemical testing. The quarter wise
Abid Hussain1,2, Farida Ahmed3, Shyamali C. Dharmage4, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam5 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
...ucted to investigate the prevalence of food and aero-allergen sensitization patterns. This retrospective study was designed to study allergy patients attending Allergy Centre, National Institute of Health, Islamabad. All enrolled patients were screened for set of allergens using skin prick test (SPT). Based on results of SPT, out of total 50550 allergen sensitized patients, 89.28% had aero-allergen sensitization while remaining 10.72% had food sensitization. S...
Asghar Khan1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Arfan Yousaf2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Mamoona Chaudhry1, Mumtaz Ali Khan3, Habibunnabi4 and Amjad Khan5
...country with the highest prevalence of Sub-clinical mastitis. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and assess the potential risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis in lactating buffaloes in Pothohar region of Pakistan. A questionnaire based cross-sectional based survey was conducted in 30 commercial and subsistent farms in Pothohar region of Rawalpindi district, Punjab. Where randomly 196 lactating bu...
Rabia Khalid1, Saleema Bashir Shams1, Bibi Nazia Murtaza1,*, Gaitee Joshua1, Saira Mushtaq1, Hassan Al-Talhi2 and Abdulaziz Al-Amri2
...mong the bank employees, prevalence of obesity was 67.53% and in general population it was 57.1%. The mean values of body mass index (BMI) for bank employees and control population was 24.10± 0.5 kg/m2 and 20.43±1.0 kg/m2, respectively. Analysis of the components of metabolic syndrome demonstrate an abnormal level of low density lipoproteins (LDL) 24.4% and 17.5%, total cholesterol 15% and 7.8%, triglycerides 17.35% and 8.8%...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosad, Fatema Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali Abdel Maged, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...sectors in Egypt, with a prevalence rate 4.4% by the year 2015/2016. However, the LPAI H9N2 showed a wide range distribution with high geo-prevalence rate in 2015/2016 (96.3%) as positive cases were recorded in 26 governorates., the positive samples were distributed in 783 farms with the highest prevalence rate (76.5%), Also, the most of positive cases were detected in chicken as the highe...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosaad, Fatma Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan  

... from 1026 for H9N2 with prevalence rate 4.4%. However, the LPAI H9N2 showed a wide range distribution with high geo-prevalence rate in 2015/2016 (96.3%) as positive samples were recorded from 26 governorates. Totally, the positive samples were distributed in 783 farms with the highest prevalence rate (76.5%), then 167 live bird markets (LBM) (16.5%) and 76 households (7%), respectively. A...
Farah Bilal*, Abdulmohsen Alhejaily, Shahida Husnain
...tudy was to evaluate the prevalence of common nucleotide changes (E545K/E542K and H1047R/H1047L) occur in PIK3CA gene in non smoker patients of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Somatic mutational analysis was done by QMC-PCR following direct sequencing with sangers’ method. Only one sample detected p.E545K mutation at c.1633G>A. Another most common mutation was observed in PIK3CA exon 20 which leads to change A>G at codon 1047. Thi...

Ali Mahmoud Zanaty, Naglaa Mohammed Hagag, Neveen Rabie, Mahmoud Saied, Karim Selim, Saad A. Mousa, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Abdel-Sattar Arafa and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...notyping primers, with a prevalence rate of 16.2%. NDV outbreaks were recorded in 16 governorates, from total of18 investigated governorates and the recorded geo-prevalence of 89 %. Twenty-five samples were selected for further sequencing for the partial fusion protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 20 samples are genotyped as very virulent NDVclass II of genotype VIIb, 4 samples were of high identity (94%-100%) with N...

Wesam Mady*, Nahed Yehia, Mohammed Hassan Elhussieny, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Moataz Mohamed El Sayed, Neveen Rabie Bakry, Asmaa Shaaban, Abdel Satar Arafa, Afaf Abdel Baset Mahmoud and Wafaa Mohammed Hassan 

...even governorates with a prevalence rate of 0.93% and the positive samples were mainly located in Upper Egypt. The sequence of partial HA gene was performed for 10 positive samples and they were genetically characterized as HPAIV H5N8 belongs to clade 2.3.4.4b. Except three isolates in 2018 belongs to clade 2.3.4.4A, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that our sequenced viruses were clustered together in group B Russian like reassortant H5N8 viruses of clade 2...

Waqas Raza*, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar and Muhammad Imran Hamid 

...s. During 2016 and 2017, prevalence of disease in all the surveyed districts ranging between 34.6-24.4% and 39.3-28.6% respectively with district Okara recording the maximum (39.3%) and district Jhang the minimum incidence (24.4%) for both the years. Similarly, disease severity ranging from 19.3-16.1% and 21.1-17.4% during the year 2016 and 2017 was recorded with Okara recording the maximum (21.1%) and Sahiwal the lowest blight severity (16.1%). The results cl...
Aly Khan1,*, Khalil A. Khanzada1 and S. Shahid Shaukat2
Shujjah Haider1,*, Ayesha Maqbool1, Tariq Pervez1, Saima Parveen1, Arfan Ahmad2, Zahid Iqbal3, Javed Iqbal3, Shahid Mehmood3, Amanullah Khan4 and Sajid Umar5
...y (RPA). The overall seroprevalence of MG detected through iELISA and RPA was 29.88 % and 20.67% respectively. Moreover, age-wise study revealed high prevalence of MG in 24-31 weeks old layers (44.17%) as compared to 55-63 weeks old layer flock (14.49%). The study of seasonal effect revealed highest MG prevalence in December (44%) while lowest in October (20%). Furthermore, higher
Qudrat Ullah1,8,*, Huma Jamil1, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Shakeeb Ullah1, Tariq Jamil2, Iahtasham Khan3, Shahbaz Bashir4, Qudratullah5, Inamullah Wazir6M. Abdus Sallam1 and Muhammad Zubair7
...iELISA). The overall seroprevalence was found to be 28.90 and 27.86% by RBPT and iELISA, respectively. Previous history of animal reproductive disorders was found to be significantly associated (P=0.0056) with seropositivity of the infection. Age, sex, parity, lactation and pregnancy status of the animal were not found significantly associated. Routine herd screening, consumtion of pasteurized milk and public awareness programmes would be helpful for co...
 

Aftab Shaukat1,*, Khalid Medmood3, Irfan Shaukat2, Tauseef ur Rehman3, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem1,5, Ashar Mehfooz1, Muhammad Ijaz Saleem1, Zia-ud-Din Sindhu1, Shahid Ali Rajput4, Mubashar Hassan1,4, Saqib Umar1, Muhammad Ali Jamil1, Rao Zahid Abbas1 and Anas Sarwar Qureshi1

 

...iv>In the current study, prevalence related associated risk factors and hematological changes (due to bovine anaplasmosis) were studied in Sahiwal cattle and crossbred cattle of the district Faisalabad of Punjab province, Pakistan. Therapeutic efficiency of Oxytetracycline-Imidocarb dipropionate combination was compared with Enrofloxacin-Imidocarb dipropionate against Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale). For this study, the blood samples of three ...

Obaidul Islam*, Shameema Khatun and Mustasim Famous 

...onducted to estimate the prevalence of clinical conditions in dogs admitted at Central Veterinary Hospital (CVH), SAQ Teaching Veterinary Hospital (CVASU), Chittagong, and District Veterinary Hospital (DVH), Sylhet during the period from 22 September to 18 October 2018 at CVH, 20 October to 18 November 2018 at CVASU and 26 February to 21 March 2019 at DVH. The prevalence was analyzed on the basis of location, age, breed and ...
Salma Javed1, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Irfan Ullah2, Sadia Tabassum1,*
...arried out to assess the prevalence and the possible risk factors of type II diabetes in Hazara region Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The total area was divided into six clusters, and the data was collected randomly from different hospitals, clinics, and different localities of Hazara region.The report included 2,400 participants, amongst which, 1,000 subjects were suffering from type II diabetes, including 432 males (43.2%) and 568 females (56.8%). Wher...
Abdul Waheed1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Junaid Akhtar4, Muhammad Saeed5, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed6 and Shah Jahan7,*
Huma Sattar1, Sehrish Firyal1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Habib-Ur -Rehman2, Muhammad Sajid Hasni3 and Amjad Islam Aqib4*
...tle industry is the high prevalence of mammary gland infection. Despite significant technological developments in animal husbandry, udder infection is still widespread; particularly in large herds that causes high production losses to the dairy industry of Pakistan. Identification of molecular marker sequences that are directly related to immunity against mastitis might be helpful for animal selection trait and prevention of this disease. The aim of the p...
Rais Ahmed1,2,*, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor1,2, Iftikhar Hussain1, Muhammad Saqib3, Muhammad Hammad Hussain4, Amjad Islam Aqib5, Haleema Sadia6, Javed Muhammad7, Asma Irshad8, Kashif Prince5, Muhammad Zain Saleem9 and Abdul Whab Manzoor10
...ndition score (BCS) with prevalence of antibodies against MAP. Seropositivity against MAP was significantly (P<0.05) detected. Male and female animals were equally susceptible to the disease (OR: 0.908, 95% CI= 0.6111-1.350). Age groups were not found associated with chances of being seropositive. Seropositivity was significantly (P<0.05) higher in animals under 300kg body weight. Chances of being seropositive were found more in animals belonging to BCS ...
Ambreen Leghari1,2, Asghar Ali Kamboh2,*, Shakeel Ahmed Lakho1, Faiz Muhammad Khand1, Kanwar Kumar Malhi2,3, Iqra Bano Chandio4, Seema Baloch5 and Jan Mohammad Shah4
...>An investigation on the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in randomly selected cattle (n= 160) was carried out in Hyderabad and Tando Allahyar districts. The animals were first screened through single intradermal tuberculin test (SITT) and both positive and negative reactors of SITT were further investigated through rapid test. Attempts were also made to isolate the Mycobacterium bovis organism from the milk and nasal secretions of cattle using t...
Muhammad Siddique1, Muhammad Shafique2,*,Abdul Mateen3, Naveed Shahzad4, Bilal Aslam2, Nasir Ahmad1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar2
...dy demonstrated the high prevalence of HCV in our locality with the most prevalent HCV genotype 3a.
...
Hanif Ullah1, Muhammad Inayat Ullah Khan2, Suleman3, Sawar Khan1,Salma Javed4, Abdul Qadeer1, Mohsin Nawaz1, Sardar Azhar Mehmood4
...igned to investigate the prevalence of malaria infection in District Lower Dir Pakistan. A total of 1750 blood samples were collected from seven tehsils of District Lower Dir (January to December 2013). The data were analysed tehsils wise, month wise, gender wise, age wise and species wise. Thick and thin smear were prepared and examined under microscope. The data was statistically analysed in Microsoft excel. Out of 1750, 214 (12.2%) blood samples were found ...
Tanweer Kumar1, Sahib Zada2,3,Muhammad Irfan4,*, Huma Batool5 and Wasim Sajjad2,6
...nvestigate an up-to-date prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection among a mix population of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study highlighted the relationship between HBV, demographic, clinical parameters and the risk factors in patients with HBV. A total of 4,758 blood samples from the mixed population were collected including 2382 male 2376 females. All the samples were subjected to hepatitis B surface antigen Immuno-chromatographic test ...

Bamigboye Olutoyin Omolara1, Fapohunda Funmilayo Omotoyosi1, Oladipo Elijah Kolawole1,2, Oni Mattthew Olujenyo1, Ajibade Oluwatosin Akinola1, Kaka Mary Oluwatosin1* 

...dy aims to determine the prevalence of serological markers of HBV based on serological markers among infected individuals with HIV. Ninety-three sera samples of HIV positive individuals were collected by Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) Teaching Hospital- HIV/AIDS Supporting and Counselling Unit, Ogbomoso. The collected samples were analyzed for enumeration of CD4+ cells and presence of HBV. The selected three HBV serological markers were HBs...

Farheen Shafique1, Shaukat Ali2,*, Saiqa Andleeb1, Abdul Rauf1,3, Syed Ayaz Kazmi1,3, Sadia Idrees4, Faisal Farooq1,3, Faiq Nawaz Khan3,4, Muhammad Saad-ul-Hassan1,3, Raja Awais Mumtaz1,3, Saba Khalid1, Zaheem Ashraf1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2 and Fazal-ur-Rehman5

... viral hepatitis B and C prevalence. A total of 303 (including 164 males and 139 females) individuals, aged between 1 and 12 years were studied. All the understudy participants were interviewed through questionnaire method. After taking written consent from each participant or guardian, 5 ml of blood was collected from each participant and brought to the working laboratory for HBV and HCV screening through ICT kit method. All ICT positive samples were further ...
Abdul Kabir¹, Amjad Hussian Mirani¹, Jam Kashif1, Shumaila Manzoor2, Abdullah Iqbal3*, Ihsan Ullah Khan4 and Muhammad Abubakar2
... executed to explore the prevalence of PPR in different production systems of sheep and goat in district Nowshera, KPK. A total of 246 serum samples were randomly collected from three age groups (<1 year, 1-2 year and >2 years) of sheep and goats. Competitive ELISA was performed to evaluate sero-prevalence of PPR in goats and sheep. The swab and tissue samples were collected from the surrounding areas from suspected sh...
Farzana Rashid1, Rabia Masood1 and Mariam Faiz2*
...tion. Among 240 strains, prevalence of MBL in K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, E. coli and Acinetobacter Species was 26%, 52%, 27% and 5% respectively. Prevalence of blaNDM-1 gene was 51% identified in 14 strains of P. aeruginosa, 2 strains of A. Baumanni, 29 strains of E. coli and 18 strains of K. pneumoniae. In conclusion, high prevalence of blaNDM-1 in our strains is a serious concern. A c...
Mubashra Salim1, Omeira Ibrahim1, Hugo Vilhena2,3,4, Carla Maia5, André Pereira5, Maria Shahzeen1, Shabana Kalsoom1, Asim K. Mahmood6 and Furhan Iqbal1*
Ahsan Numan1,4, Khadija Irfan Khawaja2, Abdul Basit Qureshi3Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf4, Imtiaz Rabbani4, Hafsa Zaneb5 and Habib Rehman4*
...med at investigating the prevalence and associated risk factors of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) in previously diagnosed Type-2 diabetic subjects in Lahore, Pakistan during April, 2013 to June, 2013. The DSP was diagnosed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument Score. Blood was collected during the examination for the determination of various serum biochemical determinants. Prevalence of DSP was found...

Kenneth Nnamdi Anueyiagu*, James Jingmang Kopmut, Chrysantus Achi Lagi and Kelly Nkem Okoh 

... association between the prevalence of MRSA in livestock and students. This could lead to cross infection of MRSA from livestock to man and vice versa, hence of public health significance. 

...

Saima Sharif*, Farkhanda Manzoor, Tasnim Farasat, Shaugfta Naz and Raheela Tabasum 

Ihsanullah Kakr1, Sarwar Khan2, Khalid Khan3* and Sajjad Ahmed

...anosomiasis based on the prevalence of Trypanosomiasis, mortality rate, abortion and perceptions of the respondents were recorded. The camel dies due to Trypanosomiasis in direct visible losses and invisible losses include reduced fertility, meat loss, low quality of hide, loss of draught power and traction force and change in herd. While, indirect losses include additional costs of drugs, veterinarian fee, preventive medicine and quarantine. Moreover, the pre...
Gong Ga1,2 and SuoLang Sizhu2,*
...n is lacking on the prevalence of HEV infection in swine in Tibet of China, where raw pork and mixed farming of different species of domestic animals are consumed traditionally. In this study, 173 serum samples of Tibetan swine were tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies by the ELISA. HEV RNA were measured in feces (n=173), serum (n=173) and tissue ((including liver, spleen, kidney and intestine, n=21) by nested RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. HEV antig...
Naseeb Ullah1, Assad Ur Rehman1, Aamir Khan1, Rabia Noushin2Shahid Naiz Khan1, Syed Ishtiaq Anjum1, Sajida Afzal1, Asma Naseem1Kenza Javed1, Ujala Rauf1 and Kalim Ullah1*
...was to estimate the sero-prevalence of FMD in livestock in district Lakki Marwat, southern part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Pakistan. 376 blood samples were randomly collected from livestock (large and small ruminants) from December 2017 to April 2018 to examine the prevalence of FMD. The current study indicated that overall FMD in Livestock was 14.31% with 16.37% in small ruminants and 12% in large ruminants. A significant d...

Humayun Saleem1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Zia-Ur-Rehman1 and Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique

... study was to record the prevalence of shot hole disease on Islamabad’s Federal Capital Territory markets. The frequency and severity of shot hole disease was estimated from market random samples, and later the index was measured. The results showed that in all markets with varying degrees of disease incidence, frequency and disease index the prevalence of shot hole disease was 100 per cent. It was concluded that the m...
Hina Habib Syed1, Muzafar Shah2*, Shahid Sherzada3 and Masroor Elahi Babar1
...ears (0.86%). Month wise prevalence was found highest in the month of July (39.48%) i.e. summer season and lowest in the month of February (2.25%) i.e. winter month. Patients tested for malaria parasite belonged to the following seven (7) Tehsils wherein the rate of positive infected cases in descending order was: Barikot > Kabal > Babuzai > Matta > Khwazakhela > Charbagh > Bahrain. It is concluded from this study that P. vivax is the ...
Samia Afzal*,Sadia Zahid, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Idrees

Asad Ullah1*, Umar Sadique2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2 and Farhan Anwar Khan

...d out to investigate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB); detection of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection in lactating indigenous cattle/buffaloes raised on different commercial dairy farms and exposing the hazards linked with milk-born tuberculosis infection in the area where unpasteurized milk is normally used in the central zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. A total of 1225 cattle and 1175 buffaloes of more than one year were studied f...

Cornelius Arome Omatola*, Samson Daniel Iyeh, Shedrach James Abuh, Charles Kehinde Mofolorunsho, Martin-Luther Oseni Okolo and Phoebe Queen Akoh 

...s study investigated the prevalence of five major STIs (HIV, HBV, HCV, HSV-2 and syphilis) in asymptomatic women in Anyigba. Sera samples from a cross-section of 250 consenting pregnant women on antenatal visits to five health facilities were screened for HIV, HBV, HCV and HSV-2 using commercially available immunochromatographic based kits and for syphilis using non-treponemal and treponemal antibody test. Socio-demographic and obstetric parameters were obtain...
Sana Khan1, Raheela Taj1, Noor Rehman2, Asad Ullah3, Imad Khan3 and Sadeeq ur Rahman3,*
...s aimed to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum β-lactamases producing C. freundii clinical isolates. A total of 2950 clinical samples were collected from both hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients of Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH), Peshawar, and processed by for isolation of C. freundii followed by phenotypic detection of β-lactamases and antimicrobial susceptibility pro...
Mahvish Rajput1, Abdullah G. Arijo1, Muhammad Bachal Bhutto1Rehana Shahnawaz Buriro2, Javaid Ali Gadahi1, Muhammad Naeem3 and Zubair Ahmed Laghari1*
...nducted to determine the prevalence of rumen fluke (Paramphistome spp.) infection in sheep slaughtered at the abattoir of Hyderabad, Pakistan and their molecular characterization with analysis of their evolutionary relationship. A total of 200 rumens from slaughtered sheep were examined and out of 200 sheep, a total of 75 (37.5%) were positive for rumen fluke infection. The results indicate that sheep were infected with the morphologically identical species in...

Md. Zubael Islam, Rukhsana Amin Runa and Md. Mahmudul Alam* 

...ied out to determine the prevalence of foot diseases in cattle and also to explore the risk factors having a promoting role in developing foot affections in three unions (Potazia, Jalalpur, and Kaijuri) of Shahjadpur Upazila. Foot affections were physically investigated and examined from May to October 2019 and a total of 257 surgical affections were recorded, among them 46 cattle were diagnosed as different foot diseases. Among different surgical affections, ...
Mian Adnan Kakakhel1, Faryal Gohar1, Zahid Anwar2, Raza Ullah1, Muhammad Attaullah3, Shahbaz Ahmad4, Aamir Khan5, Kalimullah5*
...es, determination of seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pet dogs. To evaluate the main associated risk factors related with T. gondii exposure to this region. A total of a hundred number of blood samples (72 males and 28 females) were collected from Peshawar, Pakistan. The serum samples were analyzed for IgG and IgM by using enzyme-linked&n...

Iram Fatima1*, Imran Pasha1, Ambreen Saddozai2, Shahid Nadeem3, Amer Mumtaz4 and Saqib Jabbar4 

...le collection. Mean prevalence of E. coli 61.7% was indicated by Spread plate method. Prevalence of Total plate count checked and pathogenic count was calculated in CFU/g and CFU/ml, mean CFU for E. coli and TPC was (3.39×104 to 3.15×105). Total 47.9% samples of spices were found adulterated for eight different adulterants tested. Sugar samples were free...
Majeeda Rasheed1*, Tanveer Akhtar1, Nadia Mukhtar2, Muhammad Furqan Shahid2, Muhammad Imran3, Saima Yaqub2
...signed to assess the seroprevalence of PPRV and to evaluate potential risk factors involved in the transmission of PPR disease in four distinct locations of GB province. We reported occurrence and risk factor analysis of PPR in small ruminants (n=1000) originating from different places in district Gilgit using Hem agglutination Inhibition (HI) test followed by risk analysis through Open-Epi software. Serum samples including goats n=500 and sheep n=500 were col...

Zia-Ur-Rehman1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Humayun Saleem1 and Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique1 

... was designed to see the prevalence, incidence and severity of peach rot disease in the markets of Federal Territories of Islamabad to estimate the intensity of the disease by calculating the disease index. The prevalence of disease was 100% in all markets of Khanna Pul, Burma Chowk, Taramri, NIH Market, Chatha Bakhtawar, I-8, I-10/2, I-10 (Markaz), Sabzi Mandi, I-9. Maximum Mean Disease Index 77.78% was found in the market ...

Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Zia-Ur-Rehman1 and Humayun Saleem

... was designed to see the prevalence, incidence and severity of black scurf disease in the markets of Federal Territories of Islamabad to estimate the intensity of the disease by calculating the disease index. Maximum disease index was observed in Abpara and F-10 markets i.e. 21.11% with varying disease incidence and severity percentage. However, the presence of black scurf disease in the market shows that in Pakistan the consumers do not consider it as a threa...

A.N. Ashfaque1, F. Shahina1 and S. Dawar2

 

Diversity of nematode fauna associated with cotton fields of high temperature areas of Sindh, Pakistan
...on on the basis of their prevalence. In order to estimate nematode species diversity, richness and evenness, the data has been submitted for calculating the diversity parameters such as Dominance (D), Simpson’s diversity index (1-D), Shannon diversity index (H’), Evenness (e), Brillouin Diversity Index (HB), Menhinik Diversity , Margalef's richness index, Equitability (J) and Fisher's alpha. All estimated parameters of diversity has interrelation a...

M. Rufai1† , A. A.Wahab2 , Q. O. Adeshina1 , J. C. Umehokoh1 and O. O.Ologunro1

Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria
...zone recorded the lowest prevalence 87.50% while the soil samples from Western senatorial zone revealed 91.43% presence of the EPNs. The highest frequency of occurrence of EPNs94.29% was recorded in the soil samples from Eastern senatorial zone. Nematode distribution and frequency was found to be related to soil pH (pH<4.5 to pH>7.2) and soil moisture. This is the first report of these nematodes from Osun State, Nigeria.

...
Sitara Nawaz1, Shamaila Irum1, Haroon Ahmed2, Shazia Shamas1, Sadia Roshan1, Muhammad Ather Rafi4, Irfan Ullah5*, Gulnaz Parveen3*
...tudy was to identify the prevalence of sandflies in selected regions of Panjab and their relationship with hospital-reported cases of Leishmaniasis. Clinical information of 124 patients was recorded. Observable factors of prevalence include age group, gender, financial status, clinical symptoms, and travel history. The sandflies also collected and identified. Out of 350 sandflies two genera Phlebotomus and Sergento...

 Muhammad Shahzad1, Arif Iqbal Umar1, Syed Hamad Shirazi1, Muhammad Tariq Pervez2*, Zakir Khan1, Waqas Yousaf1

HCDP: HEPATITIS C DATA BANK OF PAKISTAN
...vailable to find the HCV prevalence and distribution in Pakistan. We proposed a Hepatitis C virus database for Pakistani community, Hepatitis C Data Bank of Pakistan (HCDP). HCDP will be the first database that will holds HCV sequences obtained from Pakistani strains and HCV research publication by Pakistani researchers. We proposed a Hepatitis C Data Bank of Pakistan (HCDP) with an online interface. In addition to provision of annotated HC...

Markus I. Francis1*, Paul I. Ankeli2, Clara N. Kwanashie1, Jibril Adamu1, Lushaikyaa Allam1, Mashood A. Raji3, Godwin O. Egwu4, Flavio Sacchini5 and Massimo Scacchia5

Detection of Mycoplasma bovis from Cattle Presented for Slaughter in Adamawa and Taraba States, Northeastern Nigeria
...hat will reveal the true prevalence and distribution of M. bovis infection in cattle population in Nigeria are recommended.

...
Muhammad Khan1, Tehmina Ameer Khan1, Aziz Ud Din2, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Irfan Ullah3,*, Kalim Ullah4, Sadia Tabassum1,*
...t cause. It exhibits the prevalence of 1/500 globally. Eighteen samples from four families of maternally inherited HCM were collected, based on their clinical records. Three mitochondrial encoded genes 16S-rRNA (MT-RNR2), tRNAIle (MT-TI) and tRNALeu (MT-TL1) were targeted for analysis of mutation. Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal swab using Phenol: Chloroform: protocol. The target genes were amplified via polymerase chain reac...
Sumaira1, Syed Mohsin Bukhari1, Maqsood Iram2, Arshad Javid1Ali Hussain1, Waqas Ali1, Khalil Ur Rehman3, Shahla Andleeb3, Irfan Baboo4 and Nimra Khalid1
Zumama Khalid1, Muhammad Abrar Yousaf2, Abeedha Tu-Allah Khan1Farah Rauf Shakoori2, Muhammad Munir3 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori1*
... about its transmission, prevalence and causes but also to spread its awareness in the maximum possible ways. Although the complete disease-causing mechanisms of COVID-19 remain to be fully elucidated, active research is being conducted continuously in the field to gather as much information about every aspect of this disease as possible. Also, a clear difference is prevalent in different regions of the world about the rate of deaths and survivals. Therefore, ...
Aamir Khan1, Rabia Noushin2, Mohammad Attaullah3, Shahid Naiz Khan1, Rafiqe Hussain4, Farman Ullah Dawar1, Faiz Ur Rehman1, Muhammad Ijaz1 and Kalim Ullah1*
...onducted to find out the prevalence of babesiosis among domestic cattle of Southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Blood samples (1500) were collected from clinically suspected cattle in span of one year. All blood samples were examined through microscope. Overall incidence of babesiosis was 54.80%.B. bovesshowed high prevalence (35.46%) than B. bigemina (19.33%). Females were more prone as compared to male cattle ...

Muhammad Shakeel1*, Mudussar Nawaz1, Zahid Naseer1, Muhammad Fiaz1, Asghar Khan1, Muhammad Imran Khan1, Awais Ur Rehman1, Ahmad Yar Qamar2 and Ali Raza3

Caprine and Ovine Serological Evidence of Brucellosis in Five Districts of Punjab, Pakistan
...nt study reports the seroprevalence of brucellosis in different sheep and goat breeds in five districts of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 1239 serum samples were collected from male (n=73) and female (n=1166) different sheep (n = 865; Pak-Karakal, Thalli, Lohi, Kajli and non-descript type) and goat (n = 374; Teddy, Beetal and non-descript type) breeds of variable age groups (0 months to 4years). All the serum samples were analyzed using Rose Bengal Plate Test (R...

Abdiaziz Idiris Mohamud1, Yonis Abukar Mohamed2, Osman Sheikh Ali Jama3, Pravin Mishra4* and Mohamed Idiris Mohamed5 

Prevalence and Major Pathogens Associated with Clinical and Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Benadir Region of Somalia
...r 2019 to figure out the prevalence of both clinical and subclinical mastitis in lactating camels in the Benadir Region of Somalia and also to recognize the associated microorganisms as causal agents of mastitis. The prevalence of this study was measured by using California mastitis test (CMT). Milk samples were collected from the Deyniile District, Benadir Region of Somalia. The overall prevalence

Md. Aminul Islam1*, A.N.M. Aminoor Rahman2, Mohammad Shah Alam3 and Md. Taimur Islam4

Gastrointestinal Nematodiasis in Quail in Bangladesh
... attempt to find out the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodiasis in quail in Bangladesh. A total of 200 fecal samples were collected from quail farms from various regions of Bangladesh. The fecal samples analyzed by direct smear methods and nematodes identified by the presence of characteristic eggs in the feces. Five types of nematode eggs found on different farms. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodiasis...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Obinna Oragwa Arthur2, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1, Sarah Joseph1, Geoffrey Chibueze1, Joshua Adetunji1, Joseph Ameh Okwori3, David Ochola Amanyi4, Otobo I. Ujah5 and Onyemocho Audu6

Seroprevalence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection among Slaughtered Ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria
...e aimed to determine the prevalence of antibodies against RVFV in slaughtered ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 100 livestock (cattle and goats) at selected slaughter locations in Jos Metropolis. Questionnaires were administered to obtain information on animal species, sex, and localities of origin. The blood samples were screened for RVFV antibodies using competitive Enzyme Linked-immunosorbent Assays (C-ELISA) to det...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Dorcas Yilger Gotom1, Noble Allison Chiehiura1, Julius Ocheme Okojokwu1, David Ochola Amanyi2, John Otumala Egbere1, Joshua Adetunji1, Otobo Innocent Ujah3 and Onyemocho Audu4

The Seroprevalence of Zika Virus Infection among HIV Positive and HIV Negative Pregnant Women in Jos, Nigeria
...imed to describe the seroprevalence of ZIKVI and associated factors in Jos, North Central Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was performed at Plateau State Specialist Hospital in Jos, North Central Nigeria from August to December 2020. We enrolled a total of 90 (45 HIV positive and 45 HIV negative) pregnant women aged ≥18 and ≤50 years attending antenatal clinic. Ethical approval was obtained and approved by the Health Research Ethics Committee of the hosp...
Sher Bahadar Khan1, Mumtaz Ali Khan2,*, Hameed Ullah Khan3, Sher Ali Khan4, Shah Fahad5, Faheem Ahmad Khan6, Irshad Ahmad7, Nighat Nawaz8, Sidra Bibi9 and Muhammad Muneeb10
...resistant genes. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni was 14% being higher in Peshawar division (21%) followed by Bannu division (16%), Malakand division (13%) and Hazara division (8%). Over all highest antibiotic resistance was found against AMX (93%) followed by LIN (88%), AMP (86%), TET (82%), SXT (75), CHL (68%), CLR (65%), STR (50%), GEN (44%), OFX (27%), CIP (25%), LFX (13%) and AZM (11%) while the least resistance was found against GAT (8%)...
Atef  Mohamed El-Sagheer
Status of Phytonematodes in a Main Commercial Banana Production of Upper Egypt
...ns were surveyed for the prevalence of phytonematodes in Assiut governorate at middle of Upper Egypt. The encountered phytonematodes were identified during the survey belong to sixteen genera comprising sixteen genera belonging to nine families viz., Criconemella, Criconemoides, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Heterodera, Hoplolaimus, Longidorus, Meloidogyne, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Radopholus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, Tylenchus and Xip...

 Majid Shahi Bajestani1, Esmat Mahdikhani Moghadam2*, Reza Aghnoum3 and Hamid Rohani2

Study of Plant Parasitic Nematodes and Description of New Record (Rotylenchus alius) Associated with Barley (Hordium vulgare L.) in Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeast Iran
...collected to examine the prevalence of Plant parasitic nematodes. In morphological and morphometrical identification 18 species were recorded belonging to nine genera. Among these species, Rotylenchus alius was found as a new record from Iran and Basiria gracilis, Boleodorus thylactus, Ditylenchus apus and Meloidogyne arenaria were reported as new host record from barley fields of Iran. Meloidogyne arenaria, was selected for detailed investigation at molecular...
Neelam Pery1*, Fatima Ijaz1, Nayab Batool Rizvi1, Munawar Ali Munawar1 and Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq2*
... autoimmune disease with prevalence all over the world. Several therapeutics with different modes of action are available to deal with the disease but have failed to produce universal response leaving a large proportion of patients untreated. This is due to complex pathogenesis comprising a network of signaling pathways. By controlling one pathway, the pathogenesis continues through complementary pathways. Janus kinase and bruton’s tyrosine kinase regula...
Faryal Saad1,3, Zia Ur Rahman2, Aamir Khan3, Rabia Noushin4, Irfan Ullah5, Farman Ullah Dawar3,Shahid Naiz Khan3, Rafiqe Hussain6, Kenza Javed2Abid ur Rehman7, Amna Fayaz3, Zohra Saifullah3 and Kalim Ullah3*
...as set to assess the seroprevalence and molecular detection of CMV infection among pregnant women of districts Lakki Marwat and Bannu of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A total of 188 blood samples were randomly collected from pregnant women of both districts and were examined through Enzyme-Linked Immunosorrbent Assay (ELISA) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for CMV. Out of total 88 samples, 73.40% were positive for CMV through ELISA and 57.44% were positive for CMV t...
Mushtaq Ahamd Khan1, Ziaul Islam2, *, Amin Ullah Jan3, Kamran Khan2 and Abdullah Shah3
...onducted to estimate seroprevalence and potential risk factors in acquiring T. gondii infection by child-bearing age women in Dir Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted and data regarding risk factors were recorded through questionnaire. A total of 405 women of child bearing age were serologically tested for T. gondii antibodies through immuno-chromatographic technique using strips (CTK, USA) and Indirect Enzyme Link...
Mudussar Nawaz1, Iahtasham Khan2, Muhammad Shakeell*, Arfan Yousaf1, Zahid Naseer1, Munibullah1, Ali Zohaib3, Riaz Hussain4 and Qudrat Ullah5
...k aimed to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in buffaloes and goats of Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan. A total of 341 milk samples from buffaloes (n=180) and goats (n=161) were screened by (Milk Ring Test) MRT and milk i-ELISA for anti-Brucella antibodies. Higher prevalence was found in buffaloes (5.6% and 16.1%) than in goat (4.97% and 1.9%) both through MRT and i-ELISA respectively. Commercial productio...

Masoud Hassani1* and Omid Madadgar2,3

Serological Evidence of Bluetongue in Iran: A Meta-Analysis Study
...aimed to present the seroprevalence on BT in farm animals of Iran based-on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis study was conducted in national and international databases to find articles which evaluated bluetongue seroprevalence by antibody-captured ELISA test in livestock in Iran by searching terms including bluetongue, sheep, ovine, goat, caprine, cow, cattle, bovine, buffalo, camel, Iran and

Sidra Shehzadi, Sher Bahadar Khan*, Umar Sadique and Saqib Nawaz

Isolation and Molecular Identification of Clostridium perfringens Type D in Goats in District Peshawar
... D  and the overall prevalence of enterotoxaemia in goats in district Peshawar was 25%. The prevalence of enterotoxaemia was 24%, 44%, 20% and 12% in zone I, II, III and IV respectively.  Zone II showed the highest prevalence rate of 44%. However, the colony morphology, microscopy, biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction of C. perfringens  type D showed that PCR is a...
Saima Yaqub1, Tahir Yaqub1*, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir2, Asif Nadeem3Aziz-Ul-Rahman1, Muhammad Furqan Shahid1, Zarfishan Tahir4 and Nadia Mukhtar4
...ds current status of HIV prevalence and genomic characteristics of circulating strains is crucial to devise and implement necessary interventions to control disease in developing countries like Pakistan. A total of 201 plasma samples were collected from IDUs. Samples were first screened using HIV-1 Ag/Ab Combo test and then antigen positive samples were amplified for HIV-1 pol gene (1084 bp) and analyzed. Initial screening showed a total of 49 HIV samples posi...

Said Sajjad Ali Shah1*, Muhammad Ilyas Khan1, Aziz Ullah1, Hayat Ullah2 and Faisal Ahmad2

Coprological Examination of Small and Large Ruminants in Central Zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
...ject was to find out the prevalence of internal parasites in small and large ruminants in central zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. For this purpose, a total of 1700 fecal samples were received from central districts and processed for coprological examination. Out of 1700 samples, 947 samples (55.7%) were positive for intestinal parasites. Specie wise prevalence of GI parasites was recorded as 51.5% in cows, 58.3% in buffalo, 73.9...
Arnab Tanveer, Shabana Naz*, Azhar Rafique and Asma Ashraf
...as conducted to find the prevalence of endo-parasites in Pavo cristatus and the comparative efficacy of Albandazole and Levamisole against the endo parasites at three different locations viz. Jallo Wildlife Park Lahore, Wildlife Park Murree and Wildlife Park Bahawalnagar. Freshly dropped fecal sample were collected once before treatment with anthelminthic drug and twice after treatment and brought to laboratory for qualitative and quantitative analysis....
Muhammad Shoaib1, Imran Rashid1*, Haroon Akbar1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi3, Muhammad Asif3, Mumtaz Ali Khan4, Shakeel Mahmood5 and Farhan Anwar Khan6
... study was to assess the prevalence of ixodid ticks and associated animals’ related risk factors. A total of 434 tick infested cattle from three districts were examined conveniently. The genus Rhipicephalus was the most prevalent (68.4%) followed by Hyalomma (19.6%) and mixed tick infestation (12%) in all study districts, respectively. The difference in prevalence of tick infestation was non-significant a...
Jia Shi
...: justify;"> index). The prevalence was estimated based on the Random Effect size model in Revman software (version 3.5). The main result of this study showed that, in the 14 studies that PEG interferon was prescribed for patients with Hbe Ag negative chronic hepatitis B, the pooled incidence of treatment responders in comparison to non-responders was significantly lower (OR = 0.78, CI (0.7-0.87), p <0.0001). High heterogeneity was observed in this analysis...
Amjad Ali, Kafeel Ahmad*and Shaista Rahat
...sistance (MAR) index and prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamases among clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa collected from tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar, Pakistan.A total of 187 P. aeruginosa isolates were collected. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using nineteen different antibiotics and multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index was determined. Prevalence...
Hina Habib Syed1, Muzafar Shah2*, Shahid Sherzada3 and Masroor Elahi Babar1
...ears (0.86%). Month wise prevalence was found highest in the month of July (39.48%) i.e. summer season and lowest in the month of February (2.25%) i.e. winter month. Patients tested for malaria parasite belonged to the following seven (7) Tehsils wherein the rate of positive infected cases in descending order was: Barikot > Kabal > Babuzai > Matta > Khwazakhela > Charbagh > Bahrain. It is concluded from this study that P. vivax is the ...
Nosheen Basharat1, Usman Waheed2,3*, Muhammad Arshad1, Noor e Saba4, Iram Masood1, Akhlaaq Wazeer1, Ahmad Farooq1, Sadaf Moneeba1Abdul Rauf5 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer2,3

 

...ective percentage of TTV prevalence in HCV, HBV and healthy blood donors by ELISA and PCR were 22%, 38%, and 25%, respectively. To conclude, TTV is found with other transfusion transmitted infections, hence, preventive measures should be taken for better health of general population as blood donors represent healthy pool of society. TTV prevalence knowledge in Pakistan will help to develop strategy to control virus transmiss...
Eman Khalifa1*, Riad Khalil2 and Haitham Elaadli3
...h aimed to determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis from buffaloes’ mastitic milk by isolation on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ medium), Ziehl-Neelsen staining; identification by different biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at 500bp diagnostic for M. bovis, as well as (2) to determine the therapeutic efficacy of the various antimicrobials (9 types) on the isolated M. bovis by using different antimicrobial sen...
Roland Eric Yessinou1*, Alain Richi Kamga Waladjo2, Nestor Noudeke1, Ignace Dramou3, Justin Adinsi1, Victorien Tamègnon Dougnon4, Elsie Yélognisê Sangnidjo5, Razack Osse5, Alfred Dansou6 and Souaïbou Farougou1
...cted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category Analysis was done using the metaprop command in STATA version 15 and MetaXL software. A total of 18.111 individual samples from 11 countries, described in 34 articles were studied. Analysis of twenty-six studies indicated that the pooled prevalence was 19.0% [95% CI (15.0-23.0 %), I2 = 97.93%]. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studie...
BamideleAkinsanya1, Isaac O Ayanda2,*, Benson Onwusa1 and Joseph K Saliu1
... There was 72% infection prevalence. The result also revealed that both BTEX and PAHs were accumulated in the body of the parasite. Two components of BTEX, (1,2-dichlorobenzene and 1,3-dichlorobenzene) and five PAH congeners-Acenaphthylene, Phenanthrene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene were not detected in the parasite. Total BTEX and PAH concentrations in the parasite was 47.45±7.68 and 135.12±2.547, respecti...
Muhammad Moosa Abro1*, Nadir Ali Birmani2 and Muhammad Bachal Bhutto3
...g in buccal capsule. The prevalence of subgenus was higher in Mastacembelus armatus (33.33%) than Oreochromis niloticus (7.69%). There is difference of mean intensity (3.66 and 4) and density (1.2 and 0.306) of Sprirocamallanus in both fishes. This subgenus is recorded for first time in Mastacembelus armatus and Oreochromis niloticus from the lower Indus river in Sindh province of Pakistan.
...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Jennifer Ifeoma Okpara1, James Mogoret Dabol1, Joshua Adetunji1, David Adeniyi2, David O. Amanyi3, Otobo I. Ujah4, Veronica David1, Patience Omaiye5 and Onyemocho Audu6

...y aimed to determine the prevalence of HDV infection in HBV/HIV and HBV-mono infected patients in Jos, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted on ninety (45 HBV/HBV and 45 HBV-mono) infected patients with chronic hepatitis B attending the hepatitis clinics of the two tertiary hospitals (Plateau State Teaching Hospital and HIV treatment center, at Jos University Teaching Hospital), Jos Metropolis from September to December 2018. The anti-HDV antibodie...

Saad A. Moussa1, Ahmed F. Afify1*, Suzan Salah2 and Ayman Hamed3

...dered an alarmingly high prevalence that requires further statistically designed epidemiological studies, phylogenetic analysis revealed minimum evolution rate and stability of BCoV genome.

...

Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Badol Ashraf and Md. Mahmudul Alam*

...d seasons influenced the prevalence of surgical affections. Heavy rainfall and high humidity have made this region a vulnerable place for the prevalence of surgical affections in calves. This study has correlated between different variables and the prevalence of surgical affections in Mymensingh district. Variables like sex, breed and season have found to be influenced the abundance of sur...

Mehwish Saleem1*, Maria Tahir1, Maryam Ilyas2 and Aqsa Malik2

...om 21-40 years have high prevalence of hypocalcaemia (n=11) 57%. Hypocalcaemia in cancer patients is commonly encountered, in hospitalized patients due to side effect of chemotherapy or other drugs. 

...
Arsalan Rasheed1, Tahir Usman2,*, Sadaf Niaz1, Irfan Khattak2, Saira Gul2, Nawab Ali1,Naimat Ullah Khan2, Hazrat Ali2, and Mian Saeed Sarwar2
...piratory Syndrome 2. The prevalence rate is high during winter and spring. Genomes of coronaviruses have large enveloped +RNA. First human corona viruses, causing respiratory diseases, were identified in 1960s, but they were not considered highly pathogenic to humans until severe respiratory syndrome broke out in China during 2003. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, and novel Corona Virus Disease (nCOVID-19) or Severe Acute Re...
Abdul Muhaimin Wahab1, Basit Zeshan2,*, Naveed Ahmed2, Muhammad Afzal2 and Muhammad Naveed2
...nducted to determine the prevalence of C. jejuni, risk factors associated with the occurrence, identification control and preventive measure to reduce the prevalence in broiler chicken farms in Kelantan state located at east coast region of peninsula Malaysia. Eighty cloacal swab samples were collected from 4 different broiler chicken farms in district Tumpat, Machang and Bachok. The samples were processed for identif...
Naimat Ullah Khan1*, Muhammad Hassan Saleem2, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Shafee3, Ayesha Hassan2, Mumtaz Ali Khan2 and Nadeem Rashid3
...en aimed to find out its prevalence and chemotherapy of cryptosporidiosis in goats in three selected districts of southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. A total of 1440 fecal samples were collected from goats, 120 samples per month from each of 3 districts for twelve months. Identification of oocysts was done through conventional acid fast ZN staining. Prevalence in District Bannu was 48/480 (10%) followed by District ...
Saqib Nawaz1, Sher Bahadar Khan1*, Umar Sadique1, Muhammad Israr2
Mumtaz Ali Khan3, Hameed Ullah Khan4, Muhammad Irshad5, Ihsan Ali1 and Haq Aman Ullah1
...e results revealed 6-34% prevalence of C. perfringens type D in different regions. Similarly, significantly (P˂0.001) higher prevalence was observed in lambs (54%) as compared to sheep (23%). For gross and histopathological lesions a total of 50 animals were necropsied infected with C. perfringens type D. A total of 43 (86%) sheep were recorded having hemorrh...

Attaullah Jan1*, Saleem Khan2, Iftikhar Alam1, Farzeen Khan3 and Muhammad Farooq4*

Iqra Muzammil1, Muhammad Ijaz Saleem1, Amjad Islam Aqib2,*, Ambreen Ashar3Syed Ashar Mahfooz1, Sajjad ur Rahman4, Muhammad Shoaib4, Muhammad Aamir Naseer1, Imran Khan Sohrani1, Javeed Ahmad1, Razaullah Saqi1, Fizzah Laeeq Lodhi1 and
Qaisar Tanveer5
... designed to investigate prevalence of pathogenic strains of S. aureus, assessment of risk factors, and in-vitro antibiogram of non-biofilm producing S. aureus (nbpSA) and biofilm positive S. aureus (bpSA)from mastitic goats. The purposive sampling technique was applied to collect n=200 milk samples from different regions of goat populated areas of district Faisalabad-Pakistan. Using surf field mastitis test, collected milk samples ...
Sajid Ali1, Muhammad Avais1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Kamran Ashraf2, Saira Jabeen1, Sajid Hameed3, Muhammad Awais1, Jawaria Ali Khan1 and Imtiaz Ahmad4 
...udy was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of lameness at commercial dairy herds in Punjab, Pakistan. The sample size was 2,555 cows from 15 dairy herds assessed using a 5-point locomotion rating scale. A cow with a locomotion score of 3 or higher was considered to be lame. Lame cows were investigated for hoof and claw disorders based on clinical assessment. The prevalence of lameness at the herd-level r...
Sana Ilyas1, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool1,*, Muhammad Javed Arshed2, Muhammad Usman Qamar1 and Bilal Aslam1
...aimed to investigate the prevalence and genomic characterization of ESBL producing E. coli from poultry, environment and poultry farm workers in Islamabad and Rawalpindi Pakistan.A total of 250 poultry samples, 92 poultry environmental samples, and 50 poultry farm worker’s urine samples were screened for ESBL producing E. coli using ChromeIDTM ESBL agar. Biochemical confirmation of the isolates was carried out by API 20E. The ant...
Rahma Mohamed, Sara Nader, Dalia Hamza and Maha A. Sabry*
...demiological data on the prevalence of this fungus in donkeys. The current research was conducted to investigate the possible role of the Egyptian donkeys in the epidemiology of such pathogen. Bacteriological analysis of nasal swabs of 52 diseased and healthy donkeys at different localities in Egypt revealed that the overall occurrence of Cryptococcus spp. was 11.5%. The highest proportion was in El-Fayoum Governorate (25). Phenotypic identification of ...

Mohammed Bashar Danlami1*, Basiru Aliyu1, Abbas Bazata Yusuf1, Bashar Gulumbe Haruna1 and Asmau Nono Mahe1

... This study examines the prevalence of abnormal and unsatisfactory Pap smear among women attending Federal Medical Center Birnin Kebbi. The study was a retrospective review of all Conventional Papanicolaou smear registry data of women who underwent a cytological examination at the cytology unit of the FMC Birnin Kebbi spanning a period of 10 years (2009-2019). The study used a hospital-based archive that covers the entire Kebbi State without any well-defined p...
Samina Tahir Kiani1, Abdul Rauf1, Syed Ayaz Kazmi1,*, Nuzhat Shafi1, Madiha Khalid2, Naeem Latif1, Samina Gul2, Saghir Yousaf3 and Muhammad Arshad4
...esent work describes the prevalence of above-mentioned diseases in underprivileged orphans of District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Blood samples of a total of 300 children (150 males and 150 females), 4-17 years of age were screened for anti-HCV antibody, HBsAg and anti-MTB antibodies using ICT kits. Sputum microscopy for MTB was done in MTB antibody positive samples. The samples positive in initial screening were confirmed by enzyme linked immunosorbent ass...

Maha I. El Zaafarany1, WafaaM. Badawy2, Eman M. El Salakh3

...udy was to determine the prevalence of HPV in breast cancer.Fifty four fresh frozen breast cancers samples were analyzed. Samples were tested for HPV by PCR, and products were sequenced. Findings were correlated with clinical and pathological characteristics.The HPV DNA prevalence in the breast cancer samples was 28 % (15/54). Sequence analysis in a subgroup of cases indicates the prevalence

Serag eldeen Sultana, M.W Abdel azeemb, Nahla Mohamed Eldamranyc

... tests revealed that the prevalence of AIV antibodies was 12.6% (18/143). The seropositive samples represented 5/143 and 15/108 for ELISA and HI, respectively. The detection of both H5 and H9 antibodies in (4) samples indicated that co-infection may occur, while (10) samples were only containing H9 antibodies and (1) sample was H5 positive by HI test. The AIV positive samples were detected in (9) species belongs to (5) orders and (7) families. The Anseriformes...

Aya El-Turkey1, A. K. El-Attar1, A. E. Aboulata1, B. Othman2 and K. A. El-dougdoug2

...nsmitted virus. HSV-2 is prevalence in European countries and also in Egyptian-closed societies like Upper Egypt. Egyptian isolate of HSV-2 was isolated and Glycoprotein D (HSV-2gD) subunit was amplified using specific PCR primers.PCR product was molecularly cloned in t E.coli cells using PCR2.1/TOPO/ TA cloning vector. HSV-2gD fragment was liberated from 1 μg recombinant plasmid by using the restriction endonuclease EcoRI. HSV-2gD was successfully sub-clon...

Rafia Ahsan1, Saif Ullah1, Ijaz Yaseen1, Faisal Sohail Fateh1, Muhammad Fayyaz1, Shahzad Asad1, Atif Jamal1, Muhammad Sufyan2 and Muhammad Zakria1*

... In Punjab, high disease prevalence was observed in Gujranwala (55%), Hafizabad (36%), Sialkot (29%) and Narowal (27%). No disease was observed in Wazirabad, Zafar Wal and Gujrat. The disease incidence in Gujranwala, Sialkot and Narowal was 35%, 50% and 21% respectively, and severity ranged from 0-80%, 0-70% and 0-70% respectively. In KP 3 rice growing areas were surveyed. In Mansehra the disease incidence (37%) and severity (0-70%) was lower compared to Swat ...

Abdou Nagy1, Fatma Abdallah1, Kareem Sweed2, Ahmed Salama3, Mohamed Omar4

...udy aimed to perform seroprevalence of aMPV for non-vaccinated chicken and duck
flocks from six provinces of Egypt (Ash Sharqiyah, Ismailia, Qalyubia, Menufia, Sohaq and North-
Sinai) and determine its economic effect.
Methods: Serum samples were collected from non-aMPV vaccinated apparently healthy 40 chicken
(23 broilers and 17 layers) and 8 duck (6 Pekin and 2 Muscovy) flocks and then, tested with
...
Saira Gul1,2, Sohail Ahmed2*, Tahir Usman1*, Khalid Khan3, Sultan Ayaz1, Saleha Gul4 and Nawab Ali5
...p;study investigated the prevalence of A. marginale in cattle on different commercial farms in subtropical conditions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). A total of 120 cattle from different farms were randomly sampled and tested for the presence of A. marginale between May to August 2016. The study revealed that 15.0%, 20.8% and 29.1% of sampled animals were found positive for A. marginale using microscopic examination, i...
Othman N. O. Mansour 1, Naglaa Hagag 2, Momtaz A. Shahein 1, Sayed S. Hassan 1 Ahmed
A. EL-Sanousi 3 and Mohamed A. Shalaby3
...im to know the extent of prevalence of new Exotic diseases like MERS among
imported camels from some endemic countries in Africa, and to check our local breeds of camels in
different governorates of Egypt for presence of MERS-CoV among them.
Methods: During the period of March 2016 to December 2017, 1500 nasal swabs were collected from
imported camels in Birqash veterinary quarantine, 195 nasal swab and Serum sam...

Ljupco Angelovski*, Zagorka Popova, Katerina Blagoevska, Sandra Mojsova, Marija Ratkova Manovska, Mirko Prodanov, Dean Jankuloski, Pavle Sekulovski

...ds confirmed the overall prevalence of C. jejuni of 39.2%. In the second part of the study 108 confirmed isolates of C. jejuni were analyzed for the presence of resistance genes (CmeB, Blaoxa-61, tet(O), aph-3-1 and aadE). The analysis in the third part of the study was concentrated on the antimicrobial resistance of the C. jejuni isolates towards three important antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline). The PCR method us...
Muhammad Noman Koondhar1, Asghar Ali Kamboh1,*, Muhammad Ammar Khan2, Riaz Ahmed Leghari3 and Parkash Dewani4
...gher (p< 0.05) prevalence rate in minced beef (28%) and lymph nodes (24%) as compared to the muscles (12%). The highest antimicrobial resistance was recorded against the antibiotics of penicillin group (88.5 to 93.7%), followed by the aminoglycosides (68.4 to 85.5%), tetracycline (73.9 to 78.6%), and quinolones (59.6 to 63.1%). While lowest resistance level was observed against the antibiotics of cephalosporin group (32.1 to 52.6%). Among 13 isolates...
Houqiang Luo1*, Yanfang Lan2, Ping Gan3, Wenjun Zhou4, Meng Wang1
Bing Hu5, Zhuning Zhang5, Yu Bai1* and Kun Li6*
...We have investigated the prevalence of R. sanguineus and E. canis infection in pet dogs in Wenzhou, China. Serum samples were obtained from animal hospitals were examined for antibodies by commercial rapid in-clinic ELISA kits. Ticks were collected from dogs and molecular detection methods were used to identify the tick species and CME by amplification of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I and disulfide oxidoreductase gene, respectively. The result...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 53, Iss. 5, Pages 1603-2000

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