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Maureen McKeague1, Maria C. DeRosa2*

...ity remains a challenge, leading to the recent emergence of elegant new approaches and tools for SELEX. In this commentary, we discuss recent advancements in the selection of aptamers.

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Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...ggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immune dysfunction. Studies of the innate immune responses to HP-PRRSV infection are crucial to gaining insight into HP-PRRSV-induced pathogenesis and for the development of novel protective vaccines. In this review, we discuss the innate immune responses against HP...

Ethan G. Quillen

...has grown in popularity, leading to both positive and negative results. On one end, this has engendered a polyvocal and polyfocal discourse, garnering perspectives from a number of different methodological and theoretical approaches so as to develop a truly inter- and multi-disciplinary understanding about what we mean when we discuss Atheism. On the other, this myriad of voices has equally led to an ever-broadening discordancy, an equivocal discourse that mak...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...ised individuals usually leading to liver cirrhosis. Individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus have a greater risk to the virus due to their impaired immunity. The study was carried out to determine the sero- prevalence of Hepatitis E among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Ogbomoso. The blood sample of consented two hundred and seventy five (275) subjects were obtained and their sera were screened for antibodies to HEV using Enzyme...

Muhammad Zubair, Sajid Mahmood Sajid

...gonadotropin release and leading to up-regulation of ovulation. It has useful effects on the reproduction of female in terms of reduction in puberty and ovulation induction. The beneficial effects are manifested in male in terms of improvement of semen.

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Ummara Waheed Khan, Raza Ahmed, Irum Shahzadi and Mohmmad Maroof Shah

Email | mmshah@ciit.net.pk

...reeding has been on leading edge. The discovery of molecular genetics and biotechnological techniques, such as genome mapping, tissue culture, genetic transformation and in vitro regeneration offered new dimensions of research to improve important crop species including wheat. The tissue culture by itself has increased the crop improvement potential to develop new cultivars with desirable traits through somaclonal and gametoclonal sele...

Muhammad Arif Zafar1*, Arfan Yousaf1, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1, Faisal Ayub Kiayani1, Matee ul Islam2 and Muhammad Farooq Iqbal1 

...hat traumatic hernia may lead to septic shock and modified two-layer hand-sewn anastomosis technique may be recommended in calves with no postoperative complications and there is a good chance for long-term survival.

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Shahid Ali1, Habib Akbar2, Mohammad Tariq Jan2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3 and Abdul Bari4

...ence, visible crop stand leading to yield and yield components. Significant differences were observed among cane portions and setts placement methods for all the traits except emergence %. Planting sources exhibited significant differences for emergence percentage. The interaction of cane portions and setts placement methods were significant except for emergence percentage. Millable canes showed significant interaction for planting sources and setts placement ...

Moorthy S. Muthuswamy

...ign: justify;">Religious leaders have become influential in many Muslim communities. This is despite these leaders having had less influence about 50 years ago, due to the encroaching of modernity backed by science. Science not only contests religious leaders’ worldview, but it also offers a credible alternative. However, beginning in the 1970s, thanks to Saudi Arabia’s backing...

 Zafar Khan, Asad Sultan, Rajwali Khan, Sarzamin Khan, Imranullah and Kamran Farid

 
... higher concentration of lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn) as compared to thigh and breast muscle. The level of Pb in liver and Cd and Cr in liver, thigh and breast in district I , the level of Pb in liver and level of Cr in liver, thigh and breast in district II and level of Cd and Cd in liver, Cr in liver, thigh and breast in district III were found higher than the permissible limits. The poultry meat produced in...

 Mukhtiar Ahmed, Jana Pickova, Taufiq Ahmad, Muhammad Liaquat, Abid Farid, Muhammad Jahangir

...among food constituents, leading to both desirable and undesirable products. Food lipids are the foods components that are most susceptible to oxidation, therefore oxidation reactions are one of the major sources of deterioration that occurs during manufacturing, storage, distribution and final preparation of foods. Lipid oxidation products are omnipresent in foods, although much variation exists in their kind and levels present. Although levels of these compo...

 Ian von Hegner

...from the citizens to the leaders of government, who are selected through free elections. This article argues, that if the concept of democracy is generalized to be universally applicable, then the concept of hypothetical gods’ right to rule results in dictatorship. Whereas the concepts of dictator and tyrant originally had a more positive meaning, those meanings have changed. However, the concept of the gods in the philosophical debate has avoided a simi...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

...tables cultivation which leads to change the traditional mobile pastoral system. This study was carried out in Naran valley in 2015, to understand the agriculture land use changes during the past three decades and its impacts on traditional mobile pastoral system. For this purpose, participatory discussions, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to identify and record land use changes during past three decades. Detai...

Laila M. Fadda1, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed1, Iman H. Hasan1, Hanaa M. Ali2,3*, Nawal M. Al-Rasheed1,4, Musaed Al-Fayez5, Aly M. Ahmed5, Nada Almutlaq1, Nehal Qasem1 and Reem Khalaf1

... glutathione (GSH) which lead to liver dysfunction and hence hepatotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the best antidote for APAP but may induce a variety of side effects. This study was designed to compare the potential impact of NAC with that of Thymoquinone (THQ), and/or Curcumin (CUR) either alone or in combination on liver injury induced by inflammation, oxidative stress in response to APAP toxicity in rats. Serum aminotransferases (ALT and AST), alkaline...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

...elease or action of GnRH leads to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) characterized by low FSH, LH and testosterone (T) and absent or impaired sexual development at puberty. Amongst others, mutations in GPR54 and GnRH receptor (GNRHR) are possible causes of HH. This study aimed at identification of mutations in GPR54 and GNRHR genes and their correlation with HH in Pakistani boys. Thirty one boys with delayed puberty and thirty one normal age matched controls w...

Muhammad Sohail1,*, Muhammad Naeem Khan1, Naureen Aziz Qureshi2 and Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry3

... µg L-1) levels of lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) alone and in combinations (Pb + Cr + Cu) for 15 days under laboratory conditions. Gill cells of mussels were used to determine the DNA damage by comet assay. The tail DNA (%), comet tail length and olive tail moment (OTM) were the parameters selected to detect DNA damage. Low doses (120 µg L-1) of each metal induced significantly higher levels of DNA strands breaks as compared to medium do...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

... of this behaviour could lead the global strategy for the control and eradicaton of PPR, initiated by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on 2015.

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Marryam Bakhtawar1, Qamar Saeed1* and Naeem Iqbal2

...oney. These findings can lead to the discovery of new artificial diets for the C. undecimpunctata for the mass release in fields in order to biologically control a number of pests for an eco-friendly pest control system.

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John G. Bruno

...aration in food samples, leading to a greater ability to detect these serotypes if coupled with genetic identification techniques such as PCR or gene probe hybridization.

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Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...tance is emerging, hence leading to serious health issues. Among 24 strains isolated from Shaukat Banaspati Ghee industry (Grw) and Shezan foods (pvt) Ltd, Lahore, Pakistan food industry, 10 highly antibiotic resistant strains were subjected to morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization. 16SrRNA sequencing was performed to identify three highly resistant strains at species level. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic plant extract...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

...Hadya and Breda i.e. the leading research venues of International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Syria. The experimental material comprised of forty synthetic derived wheat lines along with eight check cultivars was planted in alpha lattice design with three replications. Genotypes exhibited significant (p≤0.01) variations for all the studied traits excluding biomass. Genotype by environment interactions (GEI) were significant f...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...uggested to get a useful lead structure for development of novel antibiotics to combat resistant pathogens.

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Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...ound 52.5% (63/120) with leading subclinical (41.67%, 50/120) form of mastitis on overall milk collected data. Pathogen type was crowned by Staph. aureus with 74.5% (47/63) prevalence, following which were Streptococcus species (17.45%, 11/63), E. coli (3.17%, 2/63), and Bacillus cereus (4.76%, 3/63). Coagulase positive Staph. aureus (41 out of 47), and hemolysin producing Staph. aureus (39 out of 47) primed among S...

 Abdul Wajid Khalil and Zafar Iqbal

...l was not detected while lead was found in permissible limits in both the aerial parts and roots of B. procumbens. The aspartic acid (31.25±0.08g/100g), Glutamic acid (25.27±0.06 g/100g), Alanine (12.74±0.12g/100g) was found in higher concentration in aerial parts than roots while some essential amino acid, Tryptophan (6.23±0.06g/100g), Arginine (3.49±0.08 g/100g), Phenylalanine (1.77±0.08 g/100g) were recorded higher ...

M. Abdus Salam1, M. Moynul Haque2, Md. Obaidul Islam3, M. Nasir Uddin4 and Md. Nazmul Haque3*

... these two genotypes may lead to development of new genotype that will give higher yield consistent with higher fiber quality.

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John G. Bruno

...ated analysis that could lead to improved rickettsial serodiagnostics and aptamer-based vaccines.

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Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
... of chemical fertilizer, leading towards the sustainable agriculture.
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Abdus-Subhan1, Qudratullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2, Muhammad Jamil Khan1, Ammanullah2, Matiullah Khan3
...fy;">Heavy textured soil leads to insufficiency of water in arid region. To investigate the effect of soil pulverization (P) and sowing methods (S) on Water Use Efficiency (WUE), wheat yield and economics, a field experiment was carried out at Arid Zone Research Center, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwah Province, Pakistan, during rabi season of 2014-15 and 2015-16. The experiment was laid in randomized complete block (RCB) design with split plot arrangemen...

D.K. Hazra, Megha Pant, S.K. Raza and P. K. Patanjali

 

Formulation technology: key parameters for food safety with respect to agrochemicals use in crop protection
...esired bioefficacy which lead to accumulation of pesticide residues in food commodities along with environmental pollution. Conventional formulations, because of their characteristics i.e. dustiness and use of volatile organic solvents in their preparation maximize several problems like health haz-ards and environmental pollution etc. With the increasing awareness of toxic effects of conventional formulations, there is a significant trend towards switching ove...
Hazrat Ali1,*, Wajid Ali1, Karim Ullah1, Fazle Akbar1, Sher Ahrar1, Irfan Ullah1, Irum Ahmad1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Ikram Ilahi2 and Muhammad Anwar Sajad3 
...ystems with heavy metals leads to accumulation of these elements in aquatic biota including fish. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish is of public health concern because fish are an important part of human diet. The present study was conducted to investigate the bioaccumulation of two heavy metals, Cu and Zn, in muscles of two economically important fish species, an herbivorous fish Schizothorax plagiostomus and a predatory fish Mastacembelus arm...

Aftab Wajid1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Awais2, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman3*, M. Aown Sammar Raza2, Usman Bashir2, Muhammad Naveed Arshad1, Sana Ullah4, Muhammad Irfan5 and Umair Gull1
 

... (3.48 g) and ultimately lead to higher seed cotton yield (2.42 t ha-1) as compared to other N rates (50, 100, 150 kg ha-1). Significant differences were also observed in cultivars, CIM-496 produced higher seed cotton yield than other under arid climate of Multan in Cotton-Wheat Cropping system. Empirical model was developed on the basis of field observations to compute the seed cotton yield beyond the application of 200 kg N ha-1. It is predicted that seed co...
A. Hamid1,*, M. Ilyas2 and S. Kalsoom3
...fy;">Hypercholestrolemia leading to cardiovascular diseases are very common problem in Pakistan and in most cases it is caused due to insufficient intake of dietary fiber.A study was conducted to evaluate the role of dietary fiber and ß-glucan from major food grains used locally on plasma cholesterol level of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Insoluble dietary fiber (lignin and cellulose) was extracted from wheat and maize, while ß glucan ...
Mehran Kausar1,2, Naveed Ashraf3, Farzana Hayat4, Asraf Hussain Hashmi1, Saima Siddiqi1,* and Mariam Anees2
... resorption consequently leading to short stature, increased bone density, recurrent fractures, stubby hands and feet with dystrophic nails, unossified fontanels, and an obtuse mandibular. The present study was conducted to determine the underlying genetic cause of Pycnodysostosis in a family from Azad Kashmir, Pakistan presenting with symptoms of multiple recurrent fractures, short stature, increased bone density and stubby hands. We performed direct sequenci...
Usman Waheed1,*, Humayoon Shafique Satti2, Muhammad Arshad3, Ahmed Farooq3, Abdul Rauf4 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer1,5
...roups (HRGs) in Pakistan leading it away from achieving the 6th millennium development goal of halting and reversing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Syphilis increases the risk of HIV transmission by two to five times, and this co-infection is common among HRGs. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis among selected HRGs. During a period from September 2015 to February 2016, community-based sampling was done from 13...
Ibrahim A. Alhidary1,*, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Moez A. Ayadi1,3 and Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2
...TMRs containing 30% NDF, leads to obtain a safer and suitable rumen characteristics, microbial fermentation and growth performance.
...

Fawad Ali1*, Hidayat Ullah2, Ikhtiar Khan1

...nization (WHO) which may lead to a detrimental effect on soil quality, leading to food contamination. The extractable concentration of metals viz Pb, Cr, Cd and Zn through ammonium bicarbonate diethylenetriaminpenta acetic acid (AB-DTPA) showed significant differences between the two studied localities. Linear regression analysis indicates that concentration of the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn) in vegetables are significa...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

... cytokine and chemokines leading to establishment of an antiviral state of the host. In this review, we discuss the recent understanding in host responses to avian viral infection and their impact in health and disease. 

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Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...sculature in humans, may lead to various pathological conditions including tumor development. The most important factor implicated in the angiogenic processes is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and its family of ligands and receptors (VEGFRs). Survival, proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells which give rise to the vascular network, is mediated through VEGF/VEGFR activation of the signal transduction pathways. Thus blocking...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

...ere pathopoiesia but not lead to die and 16 (19.75%) of the isolates were non virulent. This study reported the occurrence of pathogenic E. coli isolated from Tibetan piglets with white score diarrhea which highlights the threat of pathogenic E.coli in free ranging Tibetan piglets, as the local herdsmen can directly suffer a great economic loss.
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Malak Atiq Ullah Khan* and Fida Mohammad 

...-1) and thus appeared as leading genotype for yield and production traits. Similarly, G-79 had higher grain yield in all test environments except E-03 i.e. E-01 (4537 kg ha-1); E-02 (4840 kg ha-1); E-04 (5035 kg ha-1); E-05 (4976 kg ha-1); E-06 (4797 kg ha-1); E-07 (5024 kg ha-1); E-08 (4767 kg ha-1); E-09 (4886 kg ha-1) signifying it as high yielding and widely adaptable genotype. However, G-08 with higher grain yield in E-01 (5272 kg ha-1) and E-07 (4840 kg ...
Nancy R. Howell
...In what ways does Peters lead us to deeper thinking about the nature of God? Surely, reflection on these two questions will show that Peters has generated a fruitful method for and approach to Cosmic History.
...

Syed Asif Imran Shah1*, Shah Jehan Khan2, Kalim Ullah1 and Obaid Ullah Sayal

Uzma Zahid 

...and its three subscales (leadership, achievement, educational) and their relationship with life-satisfaction in final year medical school students of both genders. This cross-sectional study was carried out in final year students of a medical college in Rawalpindi, Pakistan using 24 items revised English Version of Career Aspiration Scale (CAS) and 5 items Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). This study was conducted on total 88 final year medical school stude...

Rahila Nizami1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Intzar Hussain3 and Khalid Rashid

...y of scenarios including leading wards, camps, campaigns, open houses, seminars and symposiums as well as day-to-day bases dealing with clinical directors and managers. This research was conducted to study the leadership styles among the medical professionals. For this purpose, a cross sectional and non-probability convenient sampling was conducted involving 59 medical professionals of Azra Naheed Medical College, Lahore. Th...

Sadaf Ghulam Rasul1*, Uzma Yaqub2, Maida Manzoor1 and Hafsa Mubasshar

...ase gene expression that leads to aromatase and estrogen production. Danazol is a synthetic androgen whereas Letrozole is aromatase inhibitor. This study was conducted to compare the mean decrease in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score with Danazol versus Letrozole for the pain management of endometriosis in females. A total of 140 females fulfilling inclusion criteria were registered and an non-probability purposive technique of sampling was used. Diagnost...

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid 

...fall in hemoglobin level leading to anemia and adverse pregnancy outcome especially in young girls. Anemia is a major public health problem. Around 58.27 million women worldwide are anemic during pregnancy 95% of whom live in countries that are developing. To know the frequency of anemia, and obstetric outcome in terms of preterm delivery, low birth weight and rate of caesarean section in young Primigravida. It was a cross sectional study, conducted in the dep...

 Rahila Nazli, Tehmina Sohail, Bushra Nawab and Zahra Yaqeen*

...that G. sepium provide a lead towards the exploration of new antimicrobial agent.

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Muhammad Athar Khan1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Syed Amir Gilani3 and Ifrah Bukhari4 

...ns in human body and may lead to myocarditis, renal failure, respiratory distress and hypotension. This disease is an emerging infectious problem in many developing countries like Pakistan. A total of 250 subjects were selected from five different rice growing districts of Punjab, Pakistan after the approval of institutional ethical review board (IERB), 250 subjects were selected for this comparative cross sectional study. Multiple stage probability technique ...
Saba Rafique1,2,*, Khalid Naeem1, Naila Siddique1, Muhammad Athar Abbas1, Aamer Ali Shah2, Akbar Ali1, Abdul Rahim1 and Farooq Rashid1
...ecombination which could lead to genetic drift. The emergent strain of IBV in this study points out the need to include such variants in killed-vaccine form in the vaccination program of the affected region.
...
Nazish Shaukat1, Muhammad Javed1,Faiza Ambreen2* and Fariha Latif1
...s (ROS) which ultimately leads to tissue damage and oxidation of biomolecules. Aquatic organisms possess antioxidant system to cope with the oxidative stress. This research was conducted to see the effect of lead on peroxidase activity (antioxidant enzyme) in the gills and liver of Labeo rohita. Experiment was conducted in the laboratory by exposing four groups of Labeo rohita to different doses of PbCl2 <...

Imtiaz Hussain*, Hassnain Shah, M. Azeem Khan, Waqar Akhtar**, Abdul Majid*** and M. Yaqub Mujahid*

Corresponding author:izhussain@yahoo.com

PRODUCTIVITY IN RICE-WHEAT CROP ROTATION OF PUNJAB: AN APPLICATION OF TYPICAL FARM METHODOLOGY
...ease and insect invasion leading to yield losses. Berseem is the only crop that breaks this rotation. Farmers are aware of the beneficial effects of this crop rotation and believed that this riceberseem rotation control weeds in the next wheat crop along with yield -1 -1 improvement of both rice (upto 5.4 md acre ) and wheat (4.4 md acre ). However there is need to assess the economic impact and evaluation of berseem in rice-wheat cropping system and evaluatio...

 Muhammad Tariq*, Raja Muhammad Omer**, Muhammad Ashraf Mian*, Obaid Ur Rehman***, Amjad Tahir Virk and Kazim Abbass**

PROMOTING CERTIFIED SEED AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON YIELD IN RAINFED AREAS
...lesser vegetative growth leading to poor crop yield. Hence, it is the need of the time to enhance provision of certified seed of improved varieties to the farmers. An approved wheat variety 'Chakwal-50' of rainfed areas was selected for certified seed production and distribution in rainfed District Chakwal under joint venture of a study on comparison of seed source(Certified vs. Farmer's seed) contribution towards wheat yield at six sites in the District. All ...

 Naheed Zahra*, Muhammad Zubair Anwar*, Sonila Hassan** and Irfan Mehmood**

INSTITUTIONAL CREDIT ARRANGEMENT AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON AGRICULTURAL INCOME IN THE SELECTED VILLAGES OF RAWALPINDI DISTRICT
...tivity that will further lead to increase their agricultural income. It is neccessary that government should practice the credit policy to protect the interest of small and medium farmers by providing them loans on easy terms and to facilitate them against any natural hazards and disaster.

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 Shahida Khalid*and Shahida Nasreen Khokhar*

INTERACTION OF HERBICIDES AND BIO-INOCULANTS WITH AGRICULTURAL CROPS AND WEEDS

 Usman Shakoor*, Abdul Saboor*, Irfan Baig*, Anila Afzal** and Abdul Rahman***

CLIMATE VARIABILITY IMPACTS ON RICE CROP PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...aximum temperature would lead to reduction in rice production while increase in mean minimum temperature would be advantageous towards rice production. Variation in mean minimum temperature brought about seven percent increase in rice productivity as shown by Variance Decomposition. Mean precipitation and mean temperature would increase rice production but simulations scenarios for 2030 confirmed that much increase in rainfall and mean temperature in long run ...

 Umar Ijaz Ahmed*, Liu Ying**, Muhammad Khalid Bashir***,
Muhammad Amjed Iqbal*, Muhammad Rizwan*, Muhammad Mazhar
Iqbal****, Muhammad Rafi Qamar***** and Aftab Nazeer******

SPATIAL PRICE TRANSMISSION IN PAKISTAN: THE CASE OF WHEAT AND RICE MARKETS
...ese market imperfections lead to food insecurity in the country. Government should formulate better policies and develop infrastructure towards better and efficient market function. The results of this study will help the policy makers to formulate a better policy to enhance marketing function to overcome food insecurity situation.

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Sher Muhammad , Ijaz Ashraf*, Amir Khatam**, and Naima
Nawaz*** 

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FARMERS AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN ACTIVITIES OF MODEL FARM SERVICES CENTERS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
...ber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) to lead farming communities towards sustainable agriculture by putting emphasis on the delivery of demand-based services through their active involvement. This improved situation regarding availability of agricultural inputs and good decision making may result in active participation by farmers in farm related activities. The present paper focuses on farmers' participation in various activities of MFSCs as influenced by their socio-econom...
Waqar Islam*
...use huge economic losses leading towards the famine. To cope with this situation, understanding plant disease triangle and disease epidemic forecasting is very important. So here we have briefly introduced plant disease epidemiology through highlighting its various types by giving important examples. We further have explained the plant disease triangle and disease forecasting systems via inclusion of various models being utilized worldwide.  
...

Jesse M. Smith

...f conservative Christian leadership in the United States over time through a case study of Mormonism. Using data drawn from their semi-annual General Conference and other church-produced documents from 1903 to the present, I examine how Mormon leaders have responded, through discourse, to secular forces over the course of more than a century. I accomplish this by employing the techniques of ethnographic content analysis cons...

Irfan Ullah, Shahid Ali*, Muhammad Fayaz and Abbas Ullah Jan 

...creased which ultimately leads to decrease inefficiency of resources allocation. In allocative inefficiency effect model, estimates of education and experience were negative and statistically significant which implies that educated and experienced broiler farmers efficiently allocated resources on their farms. Therefore, the policy makers needs to provide education and training facilities to the farmers which are appropriate to rearing of broiler in open shed...
Chuanpeng Zhou1, Heizhao Lin2,*, Zhong Huang2, Jun Wang1, Yun Wang1 and Wei Yu2
.... ovatus which could lead to nutritional stress, and increasing glucose metabolic burden in this species. 

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Nazish Imran 
...en & adolescents may lead to mental disorders with lifelong consequences, undermines compliance with health regimens and reduces the capacity of societies to be safe and productive”.(2) More than half of all mental disorders have an onset in childhood and adolescence with suicide being the third leading cause of death among adolescents.(1), (3
Ambreen Asghar, Tasleem Akhtar, Nadeem Sheikh*
...fat diet consumption can lead to an alarming ratio of metabolic disturbance and obesity. Despite the genetic regulation of metabolic responses, a close relationship between high energy food-intake and increased body-weight has been reported to support several pathologies in the metabolic and immune system. Present work was designed to evaluate the variations in serum protein level induced by fat rich diet. For this purpose, two groups of Wister rats were fed w...

Muhammad Suhaib1*, Ijaz Ahmad2, Masooma Munir3, Badar-Uz-Zaman1, Bushra Atta4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

...f the plant and even may lead to death in severe cases. The results of this study conferred that there were genotypic variation found in two genotypes regarding salinity tolerance. SARC-4 was found to tolerate more salt stress as compared to Parwaz-94 and performed better at both salinity levels then Parwaz-94. Salicylic acid induced improvement is significant regardless of stress environment or normal growth conditions. While regarding salicylic acid induced ...

Saleem Ashraf1*, Ashiq Hussain Sangi1Zakaria Yousaf Hassan3 and Muhammad Luqman2

...ecline. As the Punjab is leading contributor in terms of cotton production, this decline will impact economy and livelihoods significantly. Therefore, study urge the need of cotton policy and holistic actions by government to subsidize inputs availability and conserve water and land. 

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Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam1, Iram Gull1, Zaigham Abbas2,* and Muhammad Amin Athar1
...receptor on cell surface leads to activation of interferon stimulated genes which mediate its anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties. Similarly, Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα-1) helps to fight against different infections such as cancer and hepatitis with its immune modulating properties as well as through its direct action on target cells. The recombinant expression of some proteins in E. coli produces inclusion bodies which are misfolded prote...
Mohammed Al Bratty1, Hassan A. Alhazmi1, Somaya Jadoh Ogdi1, Jana Ahmad Otaif1, Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab2, Mohammad Firoz Alam3 andSadique Akhtar Javed1,*
...issues. Importantly, the lead (Pb) content was found to be of serious concern in the tested chicken samples, as it was measured to be higher than its maximum permissible limit (0.1 mg/kg) in poultry meat set by WHO and European Union. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of the tested metals through the consumption of the Baladi chicken were found to be lower than their respective reference oral doses (RfD) set by USEPA. The non-carcinogenic health risks to the ...

Usman Shakoor1, Ali Nasir2, Mudassar Rashid1, Muhammad Iftikhar-ul-Husnain1, Nabila Khurshid1 and Zuhair Husnain

... farmers increase income leading to higher income tax revenue. 

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Ye Gong, Nehafta Bibi and Haitao Wang*
... breeding activities and lead to a reduced breeding success in Mandarin duck and other coexisting bird species, which should be taken into account when providing nest boxes to protect the local population.
...
Tayfun Karataş
...he short-term starvation leads to significant changes on serum metabolites, antioxidant enyzme activities and endogenous reserves of rainbow trout.
...
Sadaf Noveen1*, Shaista Habib Ullah2, Babar Alam3
...l defects of oral cavity lead to articulation errors. Children with articulation deficit had distorted speech with multiple oral motor anomalies. 
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Muhammad Shaheer1*, Asad Aslam Khan2, Nasir Ahmed3, Tehseen Mahmood Mahju4, Ummarah Rasheed5
...ular edema is one of the leading causes of visual loss in diabetic patients. However, the impact of medicinal treatment on the occurrence of macular edema remained elusive.
Objectives: This study was designed to determine the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients of diabetic macular edema.
Methods: An interventional study was conducted on patients that underwent pre-injection and one-month post-injection OCT for R...
Rana Khurram Aftab1*, Farhat Ijaz2, Samia Jawed3
...ate that increase in BMI leads to increase in hypertension.
...
Muhammad Nusrullah*1, Muhammad Younus2 and Yasir Nasir3
...ly reversible and it can lead to respiratory failure.
Objective: To determine the correlation between arterial and venous blood gases in patients presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Department of Chest Medicine, Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. After meeting the inclusion criteria, 100 patients were enrolled. Informed consent was taken and...
Muhammad Younus1*, Sabah Usman2 and Samia Jawed3
...nuously. It is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with decreased lung functions.
Objective: This study was designed to compare the pulmonary functions in obese and non-obese subjects. Additionally, we aimed to correlate the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with pulmonary function tests (PFT’s).
Material and Methods: This cross sectional comparative study...
Bo Wu1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,7, Yan Zhao1, Bin Jiang1, Chengjun Xue3, Muhammad Tariq Javed6, Fazul Nabi2, Zhaoqing Han5,* and Houqiang Luo4,*
...ases of pigs which often lead to a hazardous epidemic and causes serious economic losses to the pig industry. Currently, the epidemiological situation of FMD is uncertain in many regions of China and many outbreaks are not reported. This study was undertaken to investigate the sero-prevalence and immunization program optimization of serotype O of FMD through ELISA and IHA in pigs in Zhejiang. A total of 368 serum samples were collected from June to July in 201...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...o sheep and goats, which lead to high economic impact in developing countries including India. The causative agent, Orf virus (ORFV) belong to the genus Parapoxvirus (PPV) of the family poxviridae produces a typical papillomatous, cauliflower like external growth around mouth regions and rarely the lesions are found in other parts of the body and internal organs. Another characteristic feature of ORFV including other PPVs is the ability to re-infect the same h...

Fiaz Ahmad1, Mumtaz Hussain2, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

...biotic stress especially lead and water stress. Therefore, present study was conducted with the aim to investigate the response of two mungbean varieties to three different Pb2+ concentrations under two water stress conditions. Different morpho-physiological and yield traits were studied. Both varieties showed gradual reduction in morphological traits at increasing concentration of lead and water stress. Moreover, morphologi...
Muhammad Khan1,*, Amara Maryam2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1 and Yongming Li3,*
...I may become a potential lead compound for treatment of lung adenocarcinoma.
...

Safina Naz1, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1, Saeed Akhtar2, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3* and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...mulation of heavy metals leads to the production of contaminated food which exerts serious health risks to the humans. In the present study, edible portions of five vegetables viz., okra, tomato, spinach, carrot and cauliflower, grown with canal, tubewell and sewage irrigation water, were assessed for their proximate (moisture, ash, protein and fiber) and heavy metal (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe and Cr) contents. Significant differences were found for proximate composi...
Iqbal Ahmad Alvi, Muhammad Asif, Rabia Tabassum, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

Zulqarnain and Zafar Iqbal* 

...al infectious strategies leading to the complete death of plant. None of the strategies in controlling the wilt have shown fruitful results. Dual culture assay was employed is this study to identify the fungal species with their potent antifungal activity against the Fusarium wilt of tomato. Six distinct fungal species including Penicillium sp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma harzianum, Alternaria solani and Pythium aphanidermatum showed gr...
Moorthy S. Muthuswamy
...nce. What role religious leaders play in causing this phenomenon is not well understood. To address this issue, I outline a novel theoretical framework for conceptualizing Salafi radicalism in terms of an underlying theme and its enablers. This proposal further divides radicalization processes into primary and secondary ones; the former are identified with the onset of radicalization in a community, and the latter develop in communities with longstanding expos...
Song Jiang1,2, Fa-lin Zhou1, Qi-bin Yang1, Jian-hua Huang1, Li-shi Yang1 and Shi-gui Jiang1*
...temperature stress could lead to oxygen metabolism disorder in the hepatopancreas of P. monodon, which might induce antioxidant enzyme responses. Our findings suggest that SOD and GSH might play different roles in the response of the shrimp to low and high temperature, whereas NO might play an important role in the induction of many signaling pathways in response to thermal stress. Additional ATP was also produced after cold and heat stress, suggesting ...
Shagufta Naz*, Saima Sharif, Hafsa Badar, Syeda Fareeha Tauheed
...teral loss of vision and leads to corneal transplantation. A cross-sectional, analytical study was carried out from August, 2015 to May, 2016 on and MCD patients were diagnosed by visiting different hospitals like, General Hospital, Al-Ehsan welfare Hospital, Mughal eye and Mayo Hospital with the help of ophthalmologist. The main purpose of such type of research was directed to find the prevalence of Macular corneal dystrophy in the families of Lahore. The tec...
Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi2*, Zillay Mariam1, Nadeem Sheikh1,2*
...ndustrial effluent which leads to hematological and serological changes in biological systems so there is a need of proper waste treatment prior to its disposal.
...

Hareem Mohsin, Azka Asif*, Warda Fatima, Sarooj Nadeem, Anjum Nasim Sabri

Assessment of biocalcification by the water absorption test using microorganism from oil contaminated site
... and carbonate ions that leads to the precipitation of the calcium carbonate. The water absorption test was performed to check the presence of a protective layer that provides resistance to water penetration and corrosion to cement. The samples treated with calcium and urea for one hour were found better as shown by less absorption of water compared with the untreated samples. Application of Bacillus pasteurii on the cement or the cement based materials has t...

Muhammad Babar Khawar, Nadeem Sheikh*

Effect of paper industry leachate on various serological indices and serum proteins of wistar rats
... that leachate induction leads to significant positive variations in level of serum aspartate aminotransferases (AST) (P<0.0001), cholesterol (P<0.0001) and High density lipoproteins (HDL) (P<0.0001) while a significant negative change in triglycerides (P=0.0002) and creatinine (P=0.0370) level in both experimental groups. Alanine aminotransferases (ALT) level showed a significant increment in Group 1 and a decrement in Group 2 compared to control gro...

Shaukat Ali1,*, Sundas Nasreen1, Sobia Safeer1, Saiqa Andleeb1, Mubashir Ejaz1, Saira Bano2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3

Medicinal plants as therapeutic agents for cancer treatment
...any
of anticancer lead bioactive molecules such as vinca alkaloid, vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin, and taxanes
have been characterized from different medicinal plants and are used as therapeutic agents in worldwide. Technical
strategies based on the natural yield of drug innovation, ethnomedicines and traditional pharmacology is reemerging
to caring good base as striking discovery train. The current declined in the number of...

 Waqas Ali, Arshad Javid, Ali Hussain, Syed Mohsin Bukhari

Public attitude towards amphibian and reptiles in district Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan
...eptiles and this mindset lead to unnecessary killing of species. Among all the
herpetiles, snakes are most disliked taxa and killed by the locales. Conservation
education and awareness campaigns are recommended to avoid unnecessary
killing of the amphibians and reptiles of the study area.

...

Faheem Ali1*, Muhammad Naeem Arbab1, Abdul Basit2, Muhammad Kashif Khan1, Gulzar Ahmad1 and Muhammad Amir

...ed by the same number of leading VARs in order to ensure unity power factor, thus avoiding penalties on agricultural industry. Switched Capacitors and Voltage Regulators are used to cope with such a situation. Regulators results in higher line currents thus resulting in excessive losses in addition to voltage sag problems. On the other hand, static capacitors can tackle the reactive VARs, but in steps only. Thus, a real time solution is required for sensing, c...
A.M. Abdul Azeem, A.N. El Shahat* and Ashraf M. Mounir
...ochemical alterations of lead induced testicular and hepato-toxicity in rats. From the results, it was obtained that gamma irradiation induced significant increase in the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of pomegranate peels powder. Concurrent treatments of lead-injected rats with GPE induced significant reduction in serum activities of liver enzymes, level of hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation and plas...

Saman Fatima* and Shazia Iram 

...ous skin disorders which leads to the rejection of fruit in international market. This study was designed in order to identify the pathogens that ruin the peal of Citrus reticulata Blanco (kinnow) in order to improve its quality. About twenty six sampled fruits of Citrus reticulata having damaged skin were obtained from the orchards of Sargodha. The samples were classified into groups on the basis of physical appearance of lesions on peal and the disease sever...
Shagufta Nighat1, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem1,*, Syed Israr Shah1, Amber Khalid1, Tariq Mahmood2, Ayesha Aihetasham3 and Muhammad Asif4
...coal mining, automobile, lead-acid batteries, and building material.Toxic metals are bio-accumulated by insectivorous bats due to their foraging habits and high trophic level. There is a growing interest on the conservation of bats throughout the world as they play an important role in controlling insect population. We measured cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in bat tissues through atomic abs...
Xiao-Ying Ren1, Di Zhang2 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
..., humidity and diet) may lead to the difference of geometric morphometry of skulls characteristics in Eothenomys.
...

Amara Amjad Hashmi1,2,*, Maqbool Hussain Sial3, Waqar Akram4 and Maaida Hussain Hashmi5,6

...05-14). This study takes lead from earlier studies, in a sense; it covers two food price hike periods (2007 and 2011). So, it is important to understand, how food insecurity status and nutrition are affected by these shocks during this period. Thus, we use nationally representative data called as Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) from 2005-2014. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics collects this data in five rounds; 2005-06, 2007-08, 2010-11, 2011-12, an...

Muhamad Jawad*, Shahid Riaz Malik, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar, Muhammad Asadullah, Israr Hussain and Rabia Khalid 

... change, manual cropping leads toward great loss. Mechanization of the crop is very important tool to increase its profitability. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity among 36 lentil genotypes for mechanized harvesting. Analysis of variance for qualitative and quantitative traits showed significant variability among the genotypes. Correlation analysis indicates negative correlation of yield with lowest pod height and ...
Zhen-li Li1,2, Hui-fang Zhou2,*, Bo-ru Zhou2, Bei Liu2, Xiao-fei Jiang2 and Jian-ya Xu2

 

...iscontinuation, possibly leading to luteal phase defect (LPD) and infertility. Recent studies revealed that mifepristone not only affects the ovary and uterus, but also the pituitary, resulting in LPD. Bu Shen Zhu Yun formula (BSZYF) was developed by Professor Guicheng Xia, a “great master in TCM.” It effectively cures LPD, while its effect on the pituitary is unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of BSZYF on gonadotropins and gona...
Mehwish Akram1,2,* and Naeem Rashid1
...ssium channels which may lead to a better understanding of human Kir channels related to pathological conditions and diseases.
...

Farhan, Shahid Ali* and Syed Attaullah Shah 

...n. This in response will lead to more supply, employment and profit. Wheat growers need to be facilitated with subsidized prices of fertilizer to encourage its application that will raise output and profit of wheat growers. Trainings of wheat growers for optimal application of inputs for wheat crop be arranged at regular intervals by concerned departments for efficient utilization of resources and increased output. 

...
Khalid Khan1, Saima Liaqat2*, Somaiya Rasheed1 and Ihsanullah Kakar3
...animals’ hospitals lead to hamper livestock efficiency than the potential. Therefore, it is urged that government should make veterinary services available to the farmers at their door steps to improve their income, livelihood and standard of life. Moreover, this can be one of a feasible solution to the problems of poverty, malnourishment and starvation in backward and undeveloped areas like Lasbela.
...
Madeeha Khalid and Amtul Jamil Sami*
... region of the GH-1 gene leads to altered transcriptional regulation causing various developmental defects in humans. In this report, we have analyzed a short sequence of ~200-240 bp spanning the proximal promoter and exon 1 (proximal portion) of the GH-1 gene to analyze the SNPs and allele frequencies of respective SNPs. Genomic DNA from blood was extracted, and the selected region was amplified using PCR. Sequencing of the amplified product was performed usi...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

 Huma Naz1,*, Sajid Abdullah2, Khalid Abbas2 and Muhammad Anjum Zia3

...

 Toxic effect of lead (Pb)+chromium (Cr) mixture on superoxide dismutase (SOD) from kidney of Labeo rohita exposed to sub-lethal concentration for 14 days was evaluated. After purification, specific activity of enzyme was 1750.13 and 1272.72 U mg-1 in kidney of metal exposed and control fish, respectively. The enzyme from metal exposed kidney was 2.68 fold purified with 58.73 % age recovery. Results of characterization showed that SOD...

Saleha Gul1,2, Muhammad Khisroon2, Ajmal Khan2, Attaullah1, Saira Gul3 and Gul Nabi Khan1,4,*
...ction of DNA adducts and leading to lung cancer. However, the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on other tissues are largely unknown. We explored the genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke on peripheral lymphocytes of active and passive smokers. Blood samples were isolated from 100 males’ including 25 active-, 25 passive- and 50 non-smokers. Alkaline comet assay was done and classes were defined on the basis of comet tail length. Significant differences wer...
Fazal Abbas1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Zunaira Akhtar1, Khalid Mehmood2, Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder3 and Umair Iqbal4
...p>...

 Tazeen Jamil, Saba Ijaz, Rabia Arif*, Faiza Akram and Muhammad Saleem

...ertion in coding regions leads to altered gene expression. We examined the diversity of retroelements in four consecutive generations of different strains of Sordaria fimicola. The parental strains werecollected from two contrasting environments of Evolution Canyon i.e. harsh South facing slope and neutral North facing slope. Retroelements profiles were generated in order to detect retrotransposons. Strains from South facing slope exhibited more ...

 Mahroze Fatima1*, Muhammad Afzal2 and Syed Zakir Hussain Shah3

...lipid peroxidation which lead to increased PUFA contents in L. rohita. However, high doses of vitamin E showed the pro-oxidative effect which promoted lipid peroxidation.

...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...ing on such vaccines may lead to the emergence of new variants and, consequently, the emergence of a different evolutionary pattern of NDV in Egypt. Therefore, it is necessary to test if genotype II-based vaccines apply unique selective pressures on NDV glycoproteins and their role in changing the NDV evolution in Egypt. 

...
Abid Hussain1,2, Farida Ahmed3, Shyamali C. Dharmage4, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam5 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
... different allergens may lead to chronic clinical conditions like asthma and allergic rhinitis. Present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of food and aero-allergen sensitization patterns. This retrospective study was designed to study allergy patients attending Allergy Centre, National Institute of Health, Islamabad. All enrolled patients were screened for set of allergens using skin prick test (SPT). Based on results of SPT, out of total 50550...

Zahin Anjum1*, Farhat Shehzad1, Amina Rahat1, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Saleem Khan3 

...cinogenic to humans. The lead content was found high in fish with the mean value of 3.18mg/kg and the lowest values were observed in chicken with mean value of 1.38mg/kg. The chrysene, naphthalene, flourenthene and Dibenz(a,h) anthracene concentrations were also found high in fish and mutton. The observed values were greater than permissible limits determined by Codex Alimentaurius and World Health Organization. High concentration of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons ...
Ghulam Murtaza1*, Razia Sultana2, Muhammad Arshad Malik3, Sibtain Afzal4, Mubashar Hussain5, Shahid Bashir6
...ne smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable diseases and premature death worldwide. Nicotine is a highly addictive substance, which exerts influence over different reward pathways of the brain. In Pakistan, nicotine use is very high and its consumption is expected to increase further in future. This article focuses on the increase of nicotine consumption in Pakistan and how people can get rid of smoking habit using the latest method such as transcra...
Asghar Khan1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Arfan Yousaf2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Mamoona Chaudhry1, Mumtaz Ali Khan3, Habibunnabi4 and Amjad Khan5
...mastitis considered as a leading hindrance in the development of dairy industry in Pakistan. Pakistan is the top listed country with the highest prevalence of Sub-clinical mastitis. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and assess the potential risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis in lactating buffaloes in Pothohar region of Pakistan. A questionnaire based cross-sectional based survey was conducted in 30 commercial and subsistent farm...

Essossinam Ali* 

...ce it. Being risk averse leads farmers to reduce the fertilizer and DTS use and allocate more labor in non-farm activities. The more the distance to the nearest input market is, the less the fertilizer is used. However, increasing the amount of agricultural credit would increase fertilizer and DTS use. The study concludes that any implementation of new policies to address climatic risks and food insecurity in the study areas should take into account farm house...
Rabia Khalid1, Saleema Bashir Shams1, Bibi Nazia Murtaza1,*, Gaitee Joshua1, Saira Mushtaq1, Hassan Al-Talhi2 and Abdulaziz Al-Amri2
...etabolic syndrome (MetS) leads to millions of preventable cases and deaths worldwide.Present study reveals the components of metabolic syndrome among the bank employees in Lahore area of Pakistan. Total 530 male individuals were recruited in the study. Associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with the tendencies of metabolic syndrome were evaluated. The experimental and laboratory values for BMI, total cholesterol (TC), total triglycerides (TG...
Farah Bilal*, Abdulmohsen Alhejaily, Shahida Husnain
...PIK3CA exon 20 which leads to change A>G at codon 1047. This transition converts amino acid histidine to arginine. Our study concluded p.H1047R most frequent while p.E545K rarely found mutations in PIK3CA gene in NSCLC population. Present study can be proved as road map in setting PIK3CA mutations as potential therapeutics target for NSCLC in non-smokers. 
...

Sadaf Rahim and Mudassar Iqbal* 

...tructural elucidation of lead compounds is recommended for the development of local agro-chemical product as environmental friendly biodegradable organic insecticides. 

...
Aqsa Javaid and Nageen Hussain*
...failure of tolerance can lead to mutations in this gene. The main objective of this project was to analyze the possible mutation especially in FOXP3 gene exon 1 that may clarify the reason of reduction of T regulatory cells (Tregs) due to HIV/AIDS. A total of 25 HIV patients were chosen from the Institute of Public Health on the basis of confirm HIV infection and 25 healthy controls as well. First genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood and ...
Zil-e-Huma1, 2, Abdul Malik Tareen3, Kaleem Ullah3, Tauseef M Asmat4,Abdul Samad4Asim Iqbal2, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa3*,Irshad Ahmad5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman6
...v>Diarrhea is one of the leading public health problems in under developed countries. In Pakistan, diarrheal cases are treated empirically and, rarely, specific investigations are made. This study was designed to identify the prevalent strains of Escherichia coli among children of less than five years of age in Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. A total of 200 samples were collected from children suffering with diarrhea. E. coli was isolated using st...
Zijuan Li1,2, Rong Ma2, Muhammad Khan3*, Chenchen Liu2, Xiaolin Cui2 and Yongming Li1,2*
... could be developed into lead for osteosarcoma treatment as a single agent or in combination with CDDP.
...
Huma Sattar1, Sehrish Firyal1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Habib-Ur -Rehman2, Muhammad Sajid Hasni3 and Amjad Islam Aqib4*
...ino acid is changed that leads to significant change in the folding of 3D protein structure of clinical sample, while in subclinical samples, showing the same variation in overall 3D protein structure analysis of TNF-α gene. The association between polymorphism identified within the TNF-α gene with mastitis reported in this study revealed that SNPs has potential to serve as a molecular marker for screening of mastitis resistant and su...

Nosheen1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2* and Khalid Abbas1 

...sess the acute affect of lead (Pb+2) on peroxidase (POD) activity in tissues viz. liver, gills, kidney, muscle, heart and brain of fish Catla catla exposed for 4-day. After each sampling (24-hr interval) fish were dissected and required organs were obtained. Results showed that the POD activity was augmented in all selected organs of Pb+2 exposed fish in relation to control. The POD activity in organs of fish followed the order: brain>liver>gills>kidn...

Abdul Razzaq1*, Muhammad Islam2, Zahra Islam3, Zahida Fatima1, Munib Hussain4 and Farmanullah5,6 

...impairs productivity and leads to high economic losses. In most part of the world, drug resistance against anthelmintic is now very common. In this context, various alternative control programs including herbal use against these worms is also an important option. To explore the problem, three available synthetic anthelmintic (Oxfendazole alone, oxfendazole-Levamisole combination and Ivermectin) were administered to natural major nematodes (Haemonchus, Trichuri...

Ankur Abrol, Madhumeet Singh, Akshay Sharma* and Pravesh Kumar 

...treated promptly, it can lead to deterioration of liver and kidney functions resulting in toxaemia followed by dam as well as fetal mortality. So, the most important aspect in successful management of uterine torsion lies in the correct and efficient diagnosis which can mainly be achieved by anamnesis, vaginal and rectal examination. However, prognosis of uterine torsion is mainly dependent on the degree and duration of condition and can be categorised into 3 ...
Hafiz Muhammad Arsalan1, Maria Altaf1, Zeemal Seemab Amin1, Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan2, Anum Shahzadi1, Hina Mudasser1, Iqra Maqsood1, Nazia Gulshan1, Saira Naseem3
...ve injury to tissues and lead to cartilage degradation in RA patients.
...
Fizza Anwar1, Muddassar Zafar1*, Zahid Anwar1, Raja Tahir Mehmood2
...e/threonine phosphatases leading to hindrance in bacterial growth. In addition, phylogenetic tree was also constructed using 18s rRNA gene of A. niger and gene clusters of secondary metabolites were determined through bioinformatics tools. 
...
Hafiza Sadaf Zahra1, Asia Iqbal2, Sayyeda Hira Hassan1, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1*, Muhammad Khan1*, Muhammad Irfan3, Chaman Ara1, Shaukat Ali4
...d closing, respectively; leading to transcriptional activation and inactivation of genes. Histone acetylation has been frequently detected in oncogenes while histone deacetylation in TSG. Collective data from various studies demonstrate that DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation of TSG lead to inactivation of TSG and activation of oncogenes. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence based relationship be...
Fariha Latif1*, Muhammad Javed2, Hammad Ahmad Khan2 and Khalil-Ur-Rehman3

Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1*, Javed Iqbal Qazi2, Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry2, Muhammad Irfan3, Muhammad Khan1, Shaukat Ali4 and Saima Shahzad Mirza5 

...nese (Mn), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in fish scales. A study was conducted on total 216 fish specimens, comprised of 3 fish species (Catla catla (thaila), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Cirrhinus mrigala (mori)) from river Ravi during two flow seasons at four sampling locations including upstream Lahore Siphon = A, Shahdera = B, Sunder=C and downstream Balloki headworks = D. All the metal contents in fish scales were highly significantly differ...
Hu Liu1,2, Qifang Yu1,2, Xiaopeng Tang1,2, Chengkun Fang1,2, Sijia Chen1,2 and Rejun Fang1,2,*
...l diets, adding selenium lead to increase serum GSH-Px and decrease MDA; 3) there was significant difference on egg selenium content after feeding different sources and levels of Se (P < 0.05). Compared with basal diets, adding 0.3 or 0.5 ppm SY can improve egg selenium content 89.5%, 139.2% respectively; adding 0.3 or 0.5 ppm SS in diets can improve egg selenium content 78.3%, 93.2% respectively. In conclusions, adding selenium increase laying hen antioxid...
Bibi Nazia Murtaza1, Mazhar Saeed Chaudry2, Shamaila Inayat Nadeem1, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem3 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori4,*
...e or interleukin to EGFR leads to Ras induced RAF-MAPK cascade activation. PTEN protein is involved in the negative regulation of PI3K pathway. Mutations in upstream kinases, growth factor receptors or intrinsic members of cascades can lead to induce or promote cancers. Number of somatic mutations in several genes, majority of which are involved in chromatin modification and transcriptional regulation, have been reported in ...

Ghulam Murtaza1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Fakhar Mujeeb2, Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1 and Ayesha Zafar1  

... saline irrigation water leads to the buildup of salts in root zone, resulting in decreased yield and deterioration in soil resource. Continues use of organic manures, help in the reduction of salt concentration in the root zone. Organic matter was used to mitigate the negative effects of saline water irrigation using sorghum as test crop during summer, 2018. In this experiment water of 3 different types was applied coupled with addition of organic matter at 2...

Muhammad Asim1*, Asghari Bano2, Sikander Khan Tanveer3 and Muhammad Umair Aslam

...roduction paradigm could lead to sustained improvement in wheat grain yield. 

...

Muhammad Rehan3, Asim Aslam3, Javeria Umber4, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan3, Waqar Azeem3, Hassan Aftab5, Ahsan Anjum3, Muhammad Abid6, Abdul Hameed Khan3, Hafiz Hasnain Ayoub5, Altaf Hussain2 and Muhammad Farooq Khalid1* 

...eostasis. These findings lead to more studies on the non-classical effects of vitamin D especially on immune responses. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulated transcription depends on co-modulators, which act in a cell specific manner. Also, increasing the resistance to currently used antibiotics requires cost effective alternatives while vitamin D can serve as inexpensive therapeutic agent in prophylaxis as well as treatment of several infections. This review sum...

Shahzad Khan1*, Inayatullah Jan1 and Syed Fahad Shah2 

...s and investment efforts lead to long term duration for the tenants which usually make interest of the landlord to offer the land on fixed tenancy contracts. Thus, tenants are unable to provide proper investments efforts to their plots. In order to fulfill the gap in sustainable agricultural practices, proper training and policy implication is needed. Thus, policy makers in agricultural institutions must provide proper attention to the agricultural challenges ...

Kalpana Polisetty1* and Kiran Kumar Paidipati2 

...s years but it holds the leading position in wheat production still in the country. 

...
Nahed H. Ghoneim, Maha A. Sabry, Zeinab S. Ahmed and Esraa A. Elshafiee*
...onotic bacterium and the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. To investigate the occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of this pathogen, a total of 360 chicken cloacal swabs and 15 water samples were gathered from different localities in Giza and Cairo Governorates. An additional 50 stool specimens were collected from individuals in contact with the examined chickens. Eleven Campylobacter isolates were recovered through bacteriological ex...

Malak Atiq Ullah Khan1*, Fida Mohammad2, Fahim Ullah Khan3, Sheraz Ahmad2, Mian Ahmad Raza1 and Tariq Kamal

...anbaz), G-52 and G-79 as leading wheat genotypes based on grain yield. Spearman’s rank correlation revealed significant positive correlations of AMMI stability value (ASV) with CV, σi2 with Wi, and Wi with CV indicating that these parameters could invariably be used for identifying stable wheat genotypes depending upon the nature of the experiment, breeding material, and the complexity of data. Different stability models identified G-79 as high yie...
Sana Aslam1, Wayne Thomas Shier2 and Imran Sajid1*
...econdary metabolites can lead to the discovery of new and useful drug candidates.
...

Kenneth Nnamdi Anueyiagu*, James Jingmang Kopmut, Chrysantus Achi Lagi and Kelly Nkem Okoh 

...and students. This could lead to cross infection of MRSA from livestock to man and vice versa, hence of public health significance. 

...

Amit Sharma1* and Pankaj Sood2 

...amage to the spermatozoa leading to reduced motility, viability, impaired transport and fertility. Caprine sperms are extremely sensitive to cryopreservation compared to other species which is mainly attributed to the compositional variation of the sperm plasma membrane. Different factors affect affects the semen cryopreservation viz. species, breed, semen collection technique, collection season, extender composition, type of cryoprotectant used, cooling rate...

Arjumand Nizami1, Muhammad Zulfiqar2*, Jawad Ali1, Naushad Khan2 and Imran Sheikh

...chnologies and practices leading to water productivity enhancement to address increasing irrigation water demand and declining water resources. One of such technology known as laser land leveling was introduced in Pakistan in 1980s. More recent introduction is of another water efficient technique known as The Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) technology evolved by International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). AWD intervention in conjunction with laser land le...

Muhammad Zeeshan Nazar*, Ayyan Umer, Zahid Mahmood Sarwar, Faiz Ullah Faiz and Sikandar Hussain 

...emolymph liquid impelled leading to mortality. Provide the required temperature and humidity with appropriate hygienic condition to B. mori are advised to produce healthy silk. 

...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Anam Sarwar2, Muhammad Junaid1, Mirza B. Baig3, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel4 and R. Kirby Barrick

...the most conspicuous and leading threat to the global agricultural system, particularly for developing countries. Pre-service and in-service training becomes extremely important for Extension Field Staff (EFS) to develop skills and abilities to assist them in identifying and addressing the impacts and challenges of climate change. This study was designed to utilize the Borich Needs Assessment Model for assessing the existing competencies and the training needs...
Samia Afzal*,Sadia Zahid, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Idrees
...ut. This observation may lead  towards the confusion that the outbreak is either of Dengue or Chikunguna virus. In conclusion, confirmatory molecular characterization of the viral genome remains controversial and further studies are needed in this respect.
...

Umar Hayat1, Khalid Khan2, Saima Liaqat3 and Guo Xiangyu4* 

...ficiently. Therefore, it leads to inefficient choices which subsequently affect the production. This study evaluated determinants of rice production in the district Nasirabad, Balochistan by employing Neo-Classical and Cobb-Douglas production functions. The findings of the study show that education, fertilizers, rent, training and total area under the rice crop (wetland), labor, capital, availability of input, and rice prices are the key components that leave ...

Muhammad Usman Saleem, Nadeem Iqbal, Shawaiz Iqbal*, Usama Bin Khalid, Adila Iram, Muhammad Akhter, Tahir Latif and Tahir Hussain Awan 

... in structural breakdown leads to a compacted layer (the plough plate) that acts as a barrier to the infiltration of water and causes temporary waterlogging, which confines the penetration of roots and growth of a subsequent wheat crop after the harvesting of rice crop. DSR technology helps by eliminating the need for continuous ponding of water and thus lessens water use for rice production, resulting in saving of 15-20% of water over TPR. DSR is also a less ...

Ghulam Akbar1*, Muhammad Anjum Zia1, Ali Ahmad2, Neha Arooj1 and Shahneela Nusrat

...ascular diseases are the leading cause of death along the world about 30% of all deaths occur due to cardiovascular diseases. Among fibrinolytic enzymes streptokinase (SK) is commonly used in the world to cure heart diseases because its low cost and efficacy. It’s a microbial origin enzyme produced especially by Streptococcus bacterial spp. Therefore, it is antigenic in nature due to microbial source which restricts its use. However, it is necessary to t...
Sana Khan1, Raheela Taj1, Noor Rehman2, Asad Ullah3, Imad Khan3 and Sadeeq ur Rahman3,*
...of nosocomial infections leading to diarrhea, urinary tract infection and meningitis, is increasingly becoming multidrug resistant. The current study was aimed to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum β-lactamases producing C. freundii clinical isolates. A total of 2950 clinical samples were collected from both hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients of Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH), Peshawar...
Murtala Muhammad, Ting Zhang, Siyu Gong, Jing Bai, Jiansong Ju, Baohua Zhao* and Dong Liu*
...ges in vital organs that lead to mortality of the infected A. sinensis with a cumulative mortality of 40% to 100%. S.iniae HNM-1 ability to evade the innate immune system was determined by whole blood killing, exposure to hydrogen peroxide, and biofilm assays. This study represents the first Report of S. iniae infection of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).
...
Dil Afroza Khanom1, Amirun Nesa1, Muhammad Abu Sayed Jewel1, Muhammad Ayenuddin Haque1, Alok Kumar Paul1, Sonia Iqbal2, Usman Atique2,3*, Lubna Alam4
...taminated water body may lead to heavy metals toxicity leading to mental retardation, kidney tissue damages, cancerous cell growth, and even death in case of chronic exposure. 
 
Afzal Nimra1, Zulfiqar Ali1*, Safdar Sidra 2, Rida Ahmad1
...arcinogenic trace metals lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) were evaluated in the Orthopaedic Operation Theater (OOT), Orthopaedic Wards (OW) and Orthopaedic Emergency Rooms (OER) of six hospitals, in Lahore, Pakistan. Overall, the average levels of Cd, As and Ni (31, 20, and 37 ng/m3) were lower indoors as compared to outdoors (39, 21, and 51 ng/m3) except Pb. The high indoor levels of Pb (113 ng/m3) as comp...

Ghani Akbar 

...d food security that may lead to better livelihood in Malakand division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). 

...

Ghani Akbar*, Muhammad Asif, Zafar Islam and Shahid Hameed 

...decision support and may lead to increased water productivity. 

...

Md. Al-Amin Tan1, Mst. Antora Akter1, Md. Sabuj Rahman1, Marzia Rahman2 and Md. Mahmudul Alam1* 

...al site preparation that leads to postoperative complications. Although preoperative skin preparation is a standard surgical practice to prevent SSI, the choice of skin disinfectants and methods of skin preparation is still aberrant in veterinary practice. The study was, thus, conducted to standardize pre-surgical skin preparation with various formulations of Chlorhexidine gluconate, Chlorxylenol, and Povidone-iodine (PI) in goat. Seven surgical fields were pr...

Korkmaz Bellitürk1, Zubair Aslam2, Ali Ahmad2* and Sami ur Rehman2

...e. tin, cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and chromium parameters were evaluated. The experimental design was Complete Randomized Design (CRD). The data obtained was investigated at 1% probability and Least Significant Difference (LSD) test was used to segregate the significant means. The outcomes showed that percentages of EC, C:N ratio, heavy metals and organic matter decreased in vermicompost as compared to raw material while the proportion of pH, Ca, Mg, Fe, ...

Anurag Sharma*, Naresh Kumar, Geetanjali Singh and Anika Sharma 

...al to serve as a natural lead compound for the development of new nutraceuticals and galactagogue for animal health. 

...

Mujahid Khan1*, Mohammad Tufail2, Muhammad Fahad1, Hazi Muhammad Azmathullah3, Muhammad Sagheer Aslam1, Fayaz Ahmad Khan4, Asif Khan5 

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BRIDGE PIER SCOUR PATTERN
...uring effects ultimately leading to severe pier damages. In
this research study, experimental investigation is carried out to find the scouring patterns in terms of scour depth
and its extent in lateral direction for circular and square pier models. For this purpose a number of experiments
were conducted in the physical modeling laboratory of River Engineering and drainage control, USM, Malaysia.
The study shows that the pier scour ...

Daulat Khan1*, Khizar Azam2, Noor Muhammad Khan1, Muhammad Israr1, Naeem Ejaz3 

ASSESSMENT OF WASTEWATER FOR DISPOSAL IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEQS CRITERIA AND ITS REUSE FOR IRRIGATION WITH DILUTION

Muhammad Aamir1*, Riaz Muhammad1, Naseer Ahmed1, Muhammad Sadiq2, Muhammad Waqas3, Izhar1 

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LEAD FREE SOLDER ALLOY FOR GREEN ELECTRONICS UNDER HIGH STRAIN RATE AND THERMAL AGING

Aqeel Nawaz1, Muhammad Ali Kamran1 

PARAMETRIC SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF CONVEX STAR PORT PROPELLANT GRAIN FOR SOLID ROCKET MOTOR
...reasing angular fraction leading to reduced tail-off. Thus neutrality and reduced tail-off cannot
be achieved simultaneously and trade-off has to be made. However, higher value of characteristic exhaust velocity
(C*) will reduce tail-off. 

...

Anwar Ullah*, Sabir Islam*, Sikandar Bilal Khattak*, Safi Ur Rahman**, Shahid Maqsood*, Misbah Ullah*, Rehman Akhtar*, Rashid Nawaz* 

MAINTENANCE SYSTEM FOR HEAVY EARTH MOVING EQUIPMENT
...d maintenance procedures leads to reducing the machine effective life cycle. To avoid catastrophic
losses in production and, market share, a maintenance model for such equipment is developed. Heavy equipment
availability is mandatory on site. Their movement is critical and usually limited. The data collected includes both
manufacturer and operator requirement. Usually such equipment is treated as normal machine irrespective of the
r...

Numan Habib, Naseer Ahmed, Riaz Muhammad, Himayat Ullah, Muftooh Ur Rehman, Kareem Akhtar 

ANALYSIS OF CHIP PRODUCED IN FREE MACHINING OF TI-6AL-7ZR-3NB-4MO-0.9ND AND TI-5AL-7ZR-7NB-0.7ND ALLOYS
...e tool life and sometime leads to fracture during conventional turning (CT). In recent days new two alloys are developed named Ti-6Al-7Zr-3Nb-4Mo-0.9Nd and Ti-5Al-7Zr-7Nb-0.7Nd with better performance in machining. These two developed alloys contain 0.9% and 0.7% neodymium by weight, respectively. It produces discontinuous chips during metal cutting, which make possible the automatic machining. It also reduces machining time and increase productivity. Ultrason...

Azra1*, Muhammad Afzal2 and Dilawar Khan1

Factors Influencing Inflation and Economic Growth in Pakistan: An Econometric Analysis
...th in GDP is expected to lead to a reduction in inflation. To combat inflation, unwarranted growth of money supply is checked and the exchange is stabilized. It is less likely that imports are reduced to lessen inflation due to economy needs. It appears difficult that GOP succeeds in curtailing the BD because of the widespread corruption and money-laundering. Human resource development coupled with investment and value-added by both agriculture and industry co...

 Farid Ullah Khan*, Atal Khattak*

DEVELOPMENT OF A POWER MANAGEMENT CIRCUIT FOR MICROENERGY HARVESTERS
...
bead, axial leaded), and a DC voltage regulators (TPS62100DRC-BRR). The layout of the circuit is patterned on
a printed circuit board (PCB) using PCB fabrication technology. To the circuit three different types of sources (DC
power source, rectified AC voltage and a solar energy harvester) are connected and the output regulated voltage
provided by the PMC is measured and analyzed. At different input voltage leve...

 Akhtar Nawaz*, Sahar Noor*, Iftikhar Hussain*, Afzal Khan*, Shahid Rashid**, Rehman Akhtar*

METHODOLOGY FOR POSITIONING MULTIPLE DECOUPLING POINTS IN HYBRID MANUFACTURING SUPPLY CHAIN SYSTEM
...t. To respond to a given lead time, manufacturing firms need to
adjust their supply chain networks and design an effective interface for decoupling points in the supply chain based
on the cost to be incurred. In this paper, a modified cost model is proposed for a hybrid supply chain networks of
a manufacturing firm which is applied for determining positions for decoupling points in the entire manufacturing
supply...

 Numan Habib1, Naseer Ahmed1, Riaz Muhammad1*, Himayat Ullah2, Muftooh Ur Rehman1, Kareem Akhtar3

ANALYSIS OF CHIP PRODUCED IN FREE MACHINING OF TI-6AL-7ZR-3NB- 4MO-0.9ND AND TI-5AL-7ZR-7NB-0.7ND ALLOYS
...e tool life and sometime leads to fracture during conventional turning (CT). In recent days new
two alloys are developed named Ti-6Al-7Zr-3Nb-4Mo-0.9Nd and Ti-5Al-7Zr-7Nb-0.7Nd with better performance
in machining. These two developed alloys contain 0.9% and 0.7% neodymium by weight, respectively. It produces
discontinuous chips during metal cutting, which make possible the automatic machining. It also reduces machining

Tabassum Yasmin*, Muhammad Sadiq*

IMPACT OF LANTHANUM DOPING ON SAC305 LEAD FREE SOLDERS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS
...rns over the toxicity of lead- bearing electronics are forcing electronic industry to use leadfree solders. Among various lead-free candidate material, Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) appeared as a strong candidate. However, due to the coarse microstructure and formation of hard and brittle In...

 Syed Asif Ali Shah*, Iftikhar Hussain*

PERFORMANCE OF THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR OF PAKISTAN AND ITS COMPETITIVENESS CAUSE AND REMEDY
... has been analyzed, that leads to suggest optimizing the Pakistani manufacturing sectors approach.

...
Khizar AzamŮ­, Abdul ShakoorŮ­, Riaz Akbar ShahŮ­, Afzal KhanŮ­, Shaukat Ali ShahŮ­,
Muhammad Shahid KhalilŮ­Ů­
COMPARISON OF FATIGUE RELATED ROAD TRAFFIC CRASHES ON THE NATIONAL HIGHWAYS AND MOTORWAYS IN PAKISTAN
...er Fatigue is one of the leading causes of Road Traffic Crashes (RTC) in Pakistan . An attempt has been made in this research to compare the proportion of driver fatigue related RTC on the Motorways and National Highways of Pakistan. Data were collected from the National Highways and Motorway Police (NHMP). Data for 2003 to 2012 of all RTC on Motorways and 2003-2011 on the National Highways (N-5) were examined extensively by applying Australian Transportation ...

Sajid Ullah Butt, Aamer Ahmed Baqai, Syeda Naela Fatima, Hasan Aftab Saeed

MATERIAL HANDLING COST CONSIDERATION IN PROCESS PLAN SELECTION FOR RECONFIGURABLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM
...matical model. This will lead to a more accurate design of process plan particularly in terms of MHE related to each machine required to produce a part. The inclusion of MHE cost gives an idea about the impact of these equipment on overall cost of manufacturing. The presented model will help in the decision-making process of allocating part to machines & also allocating MHE to each machine considered in the process plan.
...

 Riaz Sayed1, Khizar Azam1, Waqar Shah1, Inayat Babar1, Hamidullah1, and Sahar Noor1

A REVIEW OF DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF FATIGUE
...drowsiness is one of the leading causes of accidents throughout the world. The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) estimates that every year driver fatigue causes close to 100,000 crashes in the United States. These accidents results in1,544 fatalities, 71,000 injuries, and $12.5 billion in monetary losses in the US alone. Around the world, thousands of lives are lost each day due to road accidents. The National Road Safety S...

 Iftikhar Ahmad1, Sahar Noor1

CHARACTERIZATION OF CERAMICS WALL TILES USING LOCAL TALC AS A FLUXING AGENT
...ion was needed which can lead to the utilization of abundant talc resources in Pakistan. Considering this fact, here, several different compositions are arranged and analyzed. The variation within these compositions bases on gradual increase in talc percentage which drastically boosted fired strength, stabilized thermal shrinkage, thermal expansion to an optimum level and controlled the excessive water absorption. All these properties varia...

Farah Mahmood1, Mohammad Inayatullah Babar1, Syed Waqar Shah1, Hamid Ullah1, Riaz Akbar Syed1

GPS ASSISTED HANDOFF IN OVERLAPPING IPv6 WLAN WITH MULTIPLE CoA
...sues due to mobility can lead to serious delays. In this paper we present a unique approach for handoff when mobile node moves into a foreign network. We have utilized GPS (Global Positioning System) for gathering location information and multiple care of addresses handoff assistance.
...

 Usman Ali Naeem*, Hashim Nisar*, Habib-ur-Rehman** and Naeem Ejaz*

DEVELOPMENT OF FLOOD DISCHARGE MODELS USING GIS
...d better decision making leading to fructifying outcome. Physical hydrologic models for drainage areas are significant utensils to hold water assets management and foresee diverse hydrologic contacts and risks. Indus River is considered as salvation of Pakistan and it is also the largest river of the country. The approximate length of the river is 3180 kilometers and its drainage area exceeds 1165000 km2. Having in view the worth of Indus R...

Parakriti Gupta1, Kapil Goyal2 and Mini Pritam Singh3*

Hepatitis E Virus and Zoonosis
...cute liver failure which leads to high mortality among pregnant women. Recently, chronic infections due HEV genotypes 3 and 4 have also been documented in immunosuppressed and transplant patients where prolonged virus shedding has been documented. The conventional diagnosis is established by detection of HEV antigen or anti-HEV IgM in acute sera. However, the detection of HEV RNA is important to establish the diagnosis in immunosuppressed patients. In transpla...

Hina Imtiaz1*, Salma Khalid2, Kashaf Riaz1, Muhammad Arshad Ullah3 and Zubair Rehman

Ghulam Murtaza1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Ashraf Malik2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1 and Sher Muhammad3 

... saline water irrigation leads to salt accumulation in the vicinity of roots which results in reduced yield along with soil deterioration. Organic matter application can prove helpful in keeping the salt level low in root rhizosphere. To check the efficacy of organic matter in mitigating the harmful impacts of salty water irrigation on soil characteristics, this trail was conducted. The irrigation water of 3 different types (canal water and saline water of ele...

Kamran Ghasemi1*, Mostafa Emadi2, Asghar Bagheri3 and Mehdi Mohammadi1

Casing Material and Thickness Effects on the Yield and Nutrient Concentration of Agaricus bisporus
...m production potentially leading to the variation in yields and nutritional characteristics of mushroom. Four casing layers comprising commercial casing soil (CCS), spent compost (SC), coco peat (CP) and vermicompost in three thicknesses (2, 4 and 6 cm) were evaluated in this study for production of Agaricus bisporus. The CCS treatment had the most mushroom yield (27.03 Kg m-2) whereas CP casing layer showed the minimum yield (4.43 Kg m-2). ...
Shagufta Parveen1*, Kousar Perveen1, Muhammad Afzal1, Syed Amir Gilani2, Muhammad Musadaq3
...practices in infancy can lead to malnutrition that may have long-lasting impacts on health of the child. The objective of this study was to find out association of malnutrition in infants with the age at which weaning was started. This is an observational, cross-sectional study which was conducted in the Pediatric Medicine Department of DHQ Hospital, Chakwal, Pakistan from January 2020 to February 2020. All infants that presented to the hospital from January 2...

Muhammad Riaz Gondal1,2*, Aqib Riaz4, Sultan Ahmad Rizvi2, Bushra Zulfiqar2, Waqas Naseem2, Humara Umar3, Ahmad Hussain1 and Mazher Iqbal

...Hence, the investigation lead to the conclusion that Glyphosate and Paraquat were fully effective to control weeds and enhance Fodder yield. 

...
Feng-Mei Yang1, Rui Li2, Xiu-Xue Hu3, Yong Liang4, Bo Gao3* and Wei Chen3*
...rolonged UVB irradiation lead to NHSFs senescence.
...
Duo Jing Qiu1,2,3, Xin Yu1,2,3, Mao Jun Zhong1,2,3 and Long Jin1,2,3*
...fe-history traits, which leads to variation in temperature, food availability and duration of breeding season in amphibians. Here, we examined differences in somatic condition and testis mass of male Duttaphrynus melanostictus distributed in two altitudes (120 m and 1673 m above sea level) in Hunan and Yunnan Province, southwest China. We found that D. melanostictus displayed significant differences in body mass and relative testis mass between l...

Rao Wali Muhammad1, Hafiz Muhammad Wasif Ali2*, Amir Hamza1, Muhammad Qadir Ahmad2, Abdul Qayyum2, Waqas Malik2 and Etrat Noor2

Estimation of Different Genetic Parameters in Various Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Genotypes under Field Condition
...studied parameters could lead to genetic improvement of the material and these traits could also be helpful for potential improvement of yield in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius).

...

Md. Sahidur Rahman

Origin and Spillover of Coronaviruses: Prospects of One Health Action
...n-wildlife barrier which leads to the spillover process. In these circumstances, a One Health approach is crucial to implement multisectoral collaborative action among physicians, veterinarians, wildlife experts, epidemiologists, environmental scientists, and microbiologists to curb the COVID-19. One health encourages joint disease surveillance by establishing laboratory networks and regulating proper biosafety, biosecurity, and risk communication to facilitat...
Taqiur Rahman1, Tabassum Yaseen1*, Ali Mujtaba Shah2, Samiullah3, Ghulam Jelani3, Gul Nawaz1,Qudratullah Kalwar2
...study is to identify the leading medicinal plants used by local communities for the treatment of animals and document the threatened herbal knowledge from the elder formers (R1, R2 and R4) this study labels the ethno veterinary practices in different villages of District Shangla, where the documentation process is carried out through semi-structured questionnaires in 2017 (R1) where about seventy plant species belonging to different families of spermatophytes ...

Faiqah Ramzan1,2,*, Irfan Zia Qureshi2 and Muhammad Haris Ramzan3

...of 1ηg and 1µg lead to significant reduction in quantity of elongated spermatids and daily sperm production (p<0.05; p<0.001), step 7 spermatids (p<0.05; p<0.001), type A spermatogonia (p<0.05; p<0.01), pachytene spermatocytes (p<0.01; p<0.001) and preleptotene spermatocytes (p<0.05) whereas no significant decrease was observed with a dose of 10ρg. The present findings reveal that during non-pubertal stage; continuous a...
Muhammad Ramzan, Unsar Naeem-Ullah*, Mudssar Ali and Hasan Riaz
...ed in current paper will lead to proper management practices during peak reproductive period of insect to avoid pest outbreak. 

Mumtazur Rahman1, Farhan Anwar Khan1,*,Umar Sadique1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Faisal Ahmad1,2, Hayatullah Khan1,3, Muhammad Saeed1, Faiz Ur Rehman1, Ibrar Hussain1, M. Faraz Khan1, M. Izhar ul Haque1 and Hanif-ur-Rehman1,3

...ly using and resultantly leading to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) including mycoplasmas, which are causing serious infections in ruminants. Since the growth curve of our local strain and its susceptibility to commonly using antimicrobials is unknown. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the growth curve and susceptibility of Mccp against commercially available quinolones in Pakistan by broth microdilution method. Quinolones including moxifloxacin, levo...

Md. Gulam Rabbany Rassel1, Kazi Afsana Homayra Orchy1, Md. Moshiur Rahman Khan1, Marzia Rahman2 and Md. Mahmudul Alam1*

Hematological and Serum Biochemical Indices in Calves with Navel Ill
... to healthy calves. Some leading enzymes such as ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, CK were elevated in affected calves than their healthy counterparts. Creatinine, BUN, LDL, HDL, cholesterol and triglyceride were also elevated remarkably. Mild alterations of electrolytes such as Na+, K+, Cl- and Ca+2 were also observed. The results demonstrated that navel ill may compromise vital organs which should be promptly treated once diagnosed. To prevent infection, navel area should...
Syed Zakir Hussain Shah1*, Muhammad Afzal2, Mahroze Fatima3Syed Makhdoom Hussain4 and Tanveer Ahmed5
... digestibility which may lead to improved growth performance and less pollution in the water bodies.
...

Amjed Ali1, Rafi Qamar1*, Muhammad Ehsan Safdar1, Salman Saleem2, Sami Ullah3, Muhammad Arshad Javed4 and Syed Wasim Hasan5

Development and Growth: Influence of Sowing Dates on Performance of Cotton Cultivars
...ing crop planting is the leading hindrance in its production. Therefore, this one-year field experiment was performed to assess the result of varying cultivars and sowing dates on developmental and allometric traits of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under the agro-ecological conditions at Sargodha, Punjab, during Kharif season, 2015. The study consisted of i) three cultivars viz. Bt. FH-142, Bt. MNH-886 and FDH-170 and ii) three sowing dates viz. 21st April, 5...

Imran Ahmad Rana*, Muhammad Ali Yab and Ch. Abdul Rehman

Quality Engineering Tools Implementation a Comparison of Indian and Pakistani Business Organizations
...tion. The study may help leaders, engineers, professionals working at Indian-Pakistan based organizations to know significant organizational behaviors associated with successful quality engineering management tools implementations as well as how to motivate employees on waste reduction and productivity enhancement projects. This may facilitate training managers to better target advance quality programs for the countries by going through analysis of selected as...

Salim Raza1*, Khan Gul Jadoon2, Sajjad Hussain1, Zahid ur Rehman1, Saira Sherin1 and Noor Muhammad1

Mitigation Plan for Identified Problems Faced by the Marble Industry in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Zarqa Khalid1*, Muhammad Asad ur Rehman Naseer1, Raza Ullah1 and Shahzad Khan2

Measuring the Global Trade Competitiveness of Pakistan’s Cotton Crop
...for the world’s 10 leading cotton exporters using revealed comparative advantage indices and relative competitive advantage indices such as Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA), Relative Import Advantage (RMA), Relative Export Advantage (RXA) and Relative Trade Advantage (RTA). The data were taken from the International Trade Center (ITC) UN-COMTRADE Statistics of cotton export and import from 2009-18. The...
Ayesha Alam1,* and Labeeb Ali2
... be considered as it may lead to widespread of COVID 19 in coming decade. Thus, a qualitative risk assessment and disinfection of water supplies based on reported infection rates suggested that viruses in treated and untreated sewage effluents may pose the most risk. This risk assessment and a limited epidemiological evidence suggest that TSE is not harmful for the public places but it cannot be neglected, therefore proper guidelines and policies are re...
Ashara Sajid1, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Saeed Rauf 2, Zahoor Hussain3, Salman Ahmad1 and Yasir Iftikhar1,*
...ng disease is one of the leading causes of the citrus decline in many parts of the world, including Pakistan. Adequate information about disease incidence is essential for the eradication and controlling measures of disease. In this context, a survey regarding the incidence of citrus green disease (CGD) was recorded in two cultivars Kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and Mosambi (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), among s...
Abdul Hafeez1*, Akhtar Nawaz Khan2 and Zahid Ullah3
... Furthermore, the phases leading to useful decision-making often follows pre- and post-processing in a subjective manner, which is tedious, time-consuming and erroneous. An important and an unrealized need of these systems is the real-time answer from the acquired data, which is often multi-dimensional and at remarkably high-resolution. The inherit noise in the data is another major bottleneck for real-time processing. This entails expediting the decision-maki...
Shahid Hussain Abro1*, Mohammed N. Alghamdi2, Muhammad Sohail Hanif3, Hazim Moria2 andHamza Suharwardi1
 
 
...g phenomena performed at lead bath-quenching in which austenitic development morphology investigated. The CHQ steel analyzed in the context of Advanced Optical Microscope of Olympus GX51, SEM and Thin-film X-ray Diffracto-meter, with high-intensity mode have been deployed in order to examine the kinetics behavior of austenitic development at CHQ steel. On several quenching experiments the austenite formed at different temperatures and time 10s, 15s, 30s, and 6...
Amjad Ali, Kafeel Ahmad*and Shaista Rahat
...unistic pathogen and the leading cause of nosocomial infection worldwide. This bacterium produces enzymes known as extended spectrum β-lactamases which render broad spectrum cephalosporins and penicillins inactive. This study reports antibiotic susceptibility pattern, multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index and prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamases among clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa collected from tertiary care hospitals of Pes...
Eman Khalifa1*, Riad Khalil2 and Haitham Elaadli3
...measures will eventually lead to a positive impact on public health.
...
Raheel Saqib1*, Muhammad Luqman2, Saleem Ashraf3, Tahir Munir Butt4, Abdur Rehman5, Imtiaz Hussain6 and Muhammad Umer Mehmood2
 
 
...directly, family farming leads to the food security situation and uplifts people’s living quality. All the rural farm families residing in district Mansehra served as the population for the study. In order to have a representation of the entire population, female respondents from the study area were drawn randomly. A total sample size of the study was 110 respondents (rural female engaged in different farming activities). Data were collected through pre-...
Waseem Khalid1, Ali Ikram1*, Muhammad Rehan2, Farukh Adeem Afzal1, Saadia Ambreen1, Marryam Ahmad3, Afifa Aziz1 and Anam Sadiq1
...ovative functional foods leading to a healthy food chain. It is concluded that the presence of bioactive compounds is fully justified by melon seed, including anti-inflammatory agents, hypoglycemic agent, antimicrobial, anti-genic and antioxidant potential.
...
Yongyun Zhang1, 2, Xinyang Fan1, Fangting Zhou1, Weizhen Li3, Yina Ouyang1,4 and Yongwang Miao1*
...ylation sites, which may lead to differences in the physicochemical properties of αS1-CN between buffalo and Bos genus.
...

 Muhammad Ajmal1, Saima Mustafa1, Fizza Ibrahim Bajwa1, Cheng Zhou2, Guangdong Wen2, Soe Lwin Myint2, Syed Irfan Raza3, Ihtasham Bukhari4, Mubashir Hassan5, Muhammad Faisal6 and Furhan Iqbal1*

...sine causing frame shift leading to premature termiation of the protein after 23 amino acid residues (p.P144LfsX23), resulting in a truncated HR protein with 166 amino acid residues. The mutation followed Mendalian pattern of inheritance as all the patients are homozygous for the mutation while parents were heterozygous and unaffected siblings from both families were either heterozygous for the reported mutations or they lacked this mutation.
...
Umair Riaz1*, Shazia Iqbal2, Muhammad Irfan Sohail2, Tayyaba Samreen2, Muhammad Ashraf1, Fatima Akmal2, Ayesha Siddiqui3, Ijaz Ahmad4, Muhammad Naveed5, Naveed Iqbal Khan5 and Rao Masood Akhter6
...pectively. Following the leading role of China with 1.48% share in MAPs exports, India is second largest exporter of MAPS with 8.75% share in Asian trade of MAPs. Various biomass and leftover produced with these plants production, as the MAPs cultivation withstands a huge economic potential, but it has several limitations to adaptation as arable crops i.e. lower prices, non-availability of transit markets, underdeveloped cultivation technology, poor availabili...

Saad A. Moussa1, Ahmed F. Afify1*, Suzan Salah2 and Ayman Hamed3

...enteric infections which leads to serious complication which may be fatal in young calves up to 3 months of age. A total of 20 fecal samples were collected in the winter season of 2018 and 2019, all samples were serologically screening by antigen-capture ELISA, then molecular confirmation by RT-PCR targeted to nucleocapsid protein gene (N-gene) was carried out followed by phylogenetic analysis. Positive samples were isolated on Vero cell culture and identified...
Dara Jaff1,2* and Michael C. Jarvis
..., but this character can lead to lodging in years with above average rainfall. Barley cultivars and landraces bred adapted to these conditions have thinner straw than higher-yielding cultivars adapted to more favourable growing conditions and may lodge in a different way. Using straw dimensions and material properties derived from Kurdish landraces of barley, a finite element model of lodging straw under wind and gravity loading was constructed. Bending moment...
Canan Vejselova Sezer*
...ed countries. Two of the leading causes of the death of cancer are lung and breast cancers among males and females, respectively. A variety of drugs are in use for cancer treatment but their recruiting properties are limited because of the developing resistance and/or finiteness of bioavailability. Current research is aimed at synthesis of a new effective agent of a different type, silymarin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and investigation of its effectivene...

Fazal Wahid1, Arif Ullah Shah1, Muhammad Rahim2*, Fazal Dad1, Nadir Khan1, Saqib Ullah1, Yasir Ali1 and Sayed Ashfaq Ali Shah3

Sara Sultan Alomran1, Muhammad Nasir Khan Khattak1,2, Amir Ali Khan1,2*, Sallam Hasan Abdallah2, Abeer Maher Fayyad1 and Khalid Bajou1,2
...adipocyte formation will lead to a greater understanding of obesity and subsequent treatment. In the current study, we assessed the effects of miR-22-3p, a non-coding RNA, on adipocyte differentiation from telomerase-transformed Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (iMSC3). The transfection of iMSC3 with miR-22-3p suppressed adipocyte differentiation as evident by reduction in lipid content and number of lipid droplets. While AKT3 is reported to be a target of miR-22-3p,...

Aioub Sofizadeh1, Ehsan Allah Kalteh2, Shahin Saeedi3, Mulood Mohammadi Bavani4*

...nd was recognized as the leading cause of scorpion sting in the region. O. farzanpayi and M. caucasicus are new to the scorpion’s species of this province. M. eupeus is the most prevalent species in Golestan Province and is one of the dangerous the scorpion in the region. 

 
Novelty Statement | For the first time, we determined the distribution of scorpion species in Golestan province, also O. ...

Jabeen Farheen1,2*, Simeen Mansoor1 and Maria Abid1

...o; proto-oncogenes which leads to carcinogenicity. The current findings aimed to evaluate the genotoxic impact of widely used azo FCAs on the cell cycle by using onion as a model plant. The study was designed in a complete randomized design where the grown onion roots were exposed to 0%, 0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1% concentration of FCA for 120 hours for macroscopic and 36 h for microscopic evaluation. The onion root tips morpho-physiology was severely affected...

Umar Farooq1, Muhammad Akmal1, Qadeer Ahmad2, Zahid Akram2, Adnan Arshad3, Huma Qamar4*, Hafeez Ullah5, Muhammad Zubair4 and Muhammad Rizwan Khurshid4

...are iron deficient which leads to various health issues. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of iron-enriched organic amendments such as biochar, compost and poultry manure in soil for Fe-biofortification of Mung bean (Vigna radiata). Application of Iron-enriched poultry manure at the rate of 8 mgkg-1 of dry soil weight gave higher Fe concentration (3.32 mgkg-1) in grains. The lowest concentration of Fe found in control treatment (2.15 mgkg-1). ...

Mahwish Munawar1, Xu Shiwei1, Yu Wen1 and Muhammad Luqman2*

...curity. Little shock can lead them to food insecurity. Results show that an increase or decrease in income or fluctuation in an economy severely affects food consumption, even at the grass-root level. For upgrading the livelihood patterns and food security situation, a stable economy is an essential factor. Policymakers should modify food security plans according to the ever-changing needs of the population. The national poverty and food insecurity management ...

Saba Aleem1*, Iram Sharif2, Mehvish Tahir3, Muhammad Najeebullah3, Ali Nawaz1, Muhammad Imran Khan1, Amina Batool1 and Waheed Arshad1 

...tectants in CF-Early may lead to reactive oxygen species scavenging to protect cell membranes.

...

Muhammad Ahsan1*, Aneela Ramzan1, Muhammad Nafees1, Adnan Younis2, Muhammad Amin1, Gulzar Akhtar3, Khansa Saleem1 and Azka Sabeeh1

...etal discoloration which leads to productive market acceptability and highest vase life was recorded in T2 (sugar). It is worth to note that lowest market acceptability of flower was observed when sugar is combined with other solution especially IAA. It means sugar reduces its effectiveness when combined with growth regulators. From this experiment, it can be concluded that sugar (T2) provide ideal medium for enhancing the post-harvest attributes of Rosa hybri...

Muhammad Qaddafi Khan Wali, Arif Alam* and Ikram Shah

... online of control could lead to food insecurity. Also, there was a positive and significant association between food security and household income. An increase in income resulted in improved food security as this justifies the need to focus on educating people on food security, community-based intervention for development, and creating employment opportunities that generate income enough to meet food security requirements along with providing better social an...

Ayaz Ahmed* and Muhammad Zulfiqar

...he skills, knowledge and leadership abilities of the JFM participants (human asset) as compared to non-participants but JFM did not contributed to resolve the health and educational problems of the participants. Regarding the physical asset indicators, data results of two groups showed no significant variation. It was concluded that overall livelihood assets condition of JFM participants was better as compared to non-participants. This study therefore suggeste...
Sana Ilyas1, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool1,*, Muhammad Javed Arshed2, Muhammad Usman Qamar1 and Bilal Aslam1
...at is alarming and could lead to serious threats to both livestock and public health.
...

 Ramadan, F. Abbas1;H.M.Salem1; M.H. Belal2, and A. M. M. Abd-Alla3*

...
laboratory colony, leads to the detection and isolation of this virus from
Egypt. Injection of filtrate induced SGH symptom in 60% injected flies.
The salivary gland symptom was similar to the previously reported
symptoms of the MdSGHV. Examination of the SGH suspension with
Electron microscopy revealed the presence of rod-shape virus particles
with 500-700 nm in len...

Mai A. Kilany1; Hanaa H.A. Gomaa1; Yousry E. Abo El-magd2 and Nermin Raafat2.

...nic HCV infection mostly leads to hepatic cirrhosis before developing HCC. HCV infection induces overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes leading to their proliferation and triggers HCC. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a nuclear-encoded antioxidant enzyme that neutralizes free radicals. Val16Ala single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is one of the most widely investigated SNPs in the MnSOD gene,...

Amal Mahmoud1&2 and Medhat H. Hashem3

...us (HBV) genotype C is a leading risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Eight HBV isolates from Sohag governorate, Egypt were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), resulted in 1110 nt correspond to partial sequence of polymerase (pol) and envelop (env) genesTwo HBV isolates were associated with HCC (Sohag1 and 7). Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence and the amino acid of the pol or env genes revealed that 7 out of the 8 isolates w...

Enas K. Abo-Elmagd,Kouka S. Abd El-Wahab,Azza H. El- Salakawy

...us infection (RV) is the leading cause of severe acute diarrhea among young children worldwide. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of RV infection is crucial for appropriate patient management and infection control. The aim of our study was to compare the diagnostic performance of Lateral flow immuno-chromatography assay (LFICA) as a rapid test for detection of RV antigen in stool specimens collected from Egyptian infants and young children with ELISA, and nested re...

Samah A. Mokbel, Ahmed K. El-Attar

..., while the higher doses leaded to strongly reducing the survived
hibiscus explants with increasing the inability to re-shoot.
...
Abd El-Hamid, M.I1, Seham, A.El-Zeedy1, El-Sanousi, A.A2, Reda, I.M2, Nehal, S. Saleh1, Abbas, A.M1
...e start codon which give lead to single Amino Acid Substitution from CAG (Glutamine(Gln/Q)) which is considered as a polar Amino Acid to AAG (Lysine(Lys/K)) which is a basic Amino Acid, then the sequenced product of the local isolate was cloned Into PET 151 D topo plasmid with an N-terminal tag containing the V5 epitope and a 6xHis tag and transformed into Top 10 Ecoli cells just to maintain the stability and propagation of the cloned gene then the cloned plas...

Abd El-Hamid, M.I1; Seham, A. ElZeedy1; El-Sanousi A.A2, Reda, I.M2, Nehal, S. Saleh1., Abbas, A.M1

...e start codon which give lead to single Amino Acid Substitution from CAG (Glutamine(Gln/Q)) which is considered as a polar Amino Acid to AAG (Lysine(Lys/K)) which is a basic Amino Acid which is very characteristic for the local isolate than the rest of isolate and strains.

...

Aly M. Abdel-Salam

... was very common and may lead to severe problems in virus diagnosis. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to characterize biologically, serologically, and molecularly one Crinivirus viz. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) and one Ipomovirus viz. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) from infected cucurbits. Further, the study is concerned with illustrating the adverse effect of mixed infection with these viruses on diagnosis and breeding for vi...
Arslan Mahmood Ahmad1, Muhammad Ameen Jamal1, Abdul Sattar1,  Aamir Ghafoor2, Aqeel Javeed3 and Amjad Riaz1*
... effect to this unit may lead to major abnormalities in future development. Artificial activation of oocyte is a one of key step in cloning. Strontium chloride (SrCl2), a calcium oscillation inducing salt, is commonly used for the artificial activation mouse oocytes; however, limited reports are available to evaluate its negative impact. The objective of this study was to optimize the concentration of SrCl2 for artificial activation of mo...

Mohsen M. Elsharkawy1, Salem H. Homayed1, Mohamed M. Elsawy2 and Amr A. Khedr1

...e against CMV infection, leading to a restriction of
pathogen propagation and disease development.
...

Shimaa M. Gad1, Ahmed A. Kheder1, Mohamed A. Awad 2

...rcial ornamental plants, leads to serious economic losses all over the world. During
2017-2018, gazania showing phyllody, yellowing, proliferation, virescence and little leaf symptoms
was observed Giza, Egypt.
Objective: The current work aims the detection and molecular identification of phytoplasma infecting
Gazania in Egypt.
Methods: Phytoplasma disease was detected and isolated from naturally infec...

Aliya Munir1, Sajid Abdullah1*, Huma Naz2*, Khalid Abbas1, Tanveer Ahmed3 and Zahid Farooq2

...over the world. This may leads to existence of pesticides and their metabolites in freshwater bodies. Pesticides can trigger stress in organisms by increasing the number of reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress biomarkers like antioxidants enzymes have been successfully used in ecotoxicology field for evaluating the stress response of organisms exposed to pollutants. Therefore, this work was designed to evaluate the peroxidase (POx) level in kiney, gills a...

Ljupco Angelovski*, Zagorka Popova, Katerina Blagoevska, Sandra Mojsova, Marija Ratkova Manovska, Mirko Prodanov, Dean Jankuloski, Pavle Sekulovski

...em>C. jejuni is the leading cause for food borne enteritis. Another point of attention is the change in the antimicrobial resistance of this microorganism towards some critical antimicrobials used in the human and veterinary medicine. In this study samples were taken from three points in the broiler meat production (farm, slaughter line and cold storage of the meat before shipping to the market). A total of 283 samples (cloacal swabs, caeca and carcass sw...

Nadeem Anwar1, Muhammad Luqman2*, Shaoib Nasir3, Moazzam Sabir1, Hafiz Bashir Ahmad4 and Saleem Ashraf5

...nd by resolving one, may lead to the resolution of other accompanying factors. 

...

Ibadullah Jan1*, Iqbal Munir2, Inamullah Khan3, Syed Muhammad Suhail4 and Aqib Iqbal2

..., however, needs further lead optimization through computational predictions, and using suitable animal models to address its pharmacokinetic behaviour and to improve its therapeutic efficacy and potency by enhancing its binding affinity against multiple target proteins. It must also be screened for long-term toxicological and side effects to further investigate its safety profile.

...

Md. Sahidur Rahman1*, Tishita Ape1, Md. Islam1 and Sharmin Chowdhury2

...azard to food safety and leads to the development of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the perspective of dairy farmers regarding antibiotic use as well as its residual and resistance effect. We collected data from 101 dairy farmers in Chattogram, Bangladesh. The results revealed that ceftriaxone, gentamicin, streptopenicillin, amoxicillin, and sulfur drugs were the most frequently used antibiotics in the st...
Aamer Abbas1, Jabbar Khan1*, Mir Abid Hassan2, Asif Qayyum3 and Hamed Shafiq4
...en. Moreover, metals can lead to decreased or no production of prostaglandin, seminal fluid and endocrinology of reproductive process and thus results in male infertility. It was also here attempted to characterize the drastic effects of heavy metals on male infertility, the hormone analysis and genetic determination of SRY gene as some of infertile human had smaller sized testis. Blood and semen samples were collected from clinically diagnosed 130 olig...

Muzamil Farooque Jamali1, Fayaz Ali Jamali1, Tanveer Fatima Miano1, Zulfiqar Ali Abbasi2, Sohail Ahmed Otho3, Khalid Hussain Talpur4, Niaz Ahmed Wahocho1 and Muhammad Iqbal Jakhro5*

...iological processes that lead to reduction in crop yield and quality. The current investigation was performed at Horticulture Garden where two marigold cultivars (V1 = African orange and V2= Dwarf double mix) were subjected to salinity stress condition (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 dS m-1). The results exhibited that salt stress revealed adverse effect on all the parameters of both of the varieties of marigold. The plants irrigated with canal water (control) having EC of ...

Sajid Abdullah1*, Huma Naz2*, Zunera Abbas1, Uzma Nazir1, Mehrunisa Basharat1, Tanveer Ahmed3, Adnan Ahmad Qazi2

...the genotoxic effects of lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) on nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of Wallago attu were assessed by micronucleus assay. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (1/3rd, 1/4th, 1/5thand 1/7th of LC50) of Pb, Cr and Cd, separately, for three weeks. Blood sample of fish was collected to see the micronuclei (MN) and deshape nuclei (DN) in peripheral erythrocytes of fish after one-week interval. Fish W. attu ...
Aqsa Shahid1, Saima Muzammil1, Farhan Rasheed2,Bilal Aslam1, Muhammad Akhtar Ali3, Syed Zohaib Haider4, Masroor Ellahi Babar4, Muhammad Saeed1, Umair Waqas1 and Mohsin Khurshid1,*
...linical concern that can lead to therapeutic failures in near future.
...
Muhammad Mansha1*, Sidra Yaqub1, Asma Abdul Latif2, Muhammad Wasim3 and Peter C. Thomson4
...all;">Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in women. The objective of the present study was to evaluate diagnostic utility of HER2/neu test and the association of premature termination of pregnancy with breast cancer. Two hundred breast cancer patients from INMOL hospital, Lahore (Pakistan) were interviewed on reproductive factors. HER2/neu levels were determined by ELISA fro...
Zheng Yan1,2,*, Shuang Liu2, Ai-Qing Liu2 and Hai-Yan Wang2
...he main exogenous factor leading to skin aging. The prevention and repair of UV induced skin aging has become a significant research focus over recent years. To investigate the protective effects of the oral administration of elastin peptide on photoaged skin, BALB/C Nude mice were exposed to UVA+UVB for 16 weeks to establish the photoaging model. The concentrations of elastin peptide given to the low, medium, and high dose groups were 1.5, 5.0 and 10 mg/anima...
Muhammad Farhan Qadir1, Xin-Yu Han1, Meng-li Qiao1, Qian-qian Cheng1
Raza Ali Mangi1, Ali Raza Jahejo1, Afrasyab Khan1, Yu-hai Bi1,2 and Wen-xia Tian1*
...t cells at cell surface, leading to cell death in human and animals through apoptosis. Current study was designed to investigate the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes in the H9N2 infected chicken erythrocytes. qRT-PCR and Western blot techniques were performed to determine the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes including Bax, Bcl-2 BAG-1, BAG-3 and STAT3 in H9N2 infected erythrocytes of chickens for incubation time intervals of 0, 2, 6 and...

Ruqia Bibi1, Najam-un-Nisa1, Sania Komal1, Hafiza Nimra Ghani Qureshi1, Maryam Safdar1, Hafiza Hina Jameel1, Saman Gul1, Sania Saeed1 and Inam Ullah1,2*

...tion and illegal hunting leading to habitat degradation, so there is a dire need to protect avifauna diversity for the proper functioning and stability of an ecosystem.

...

Sanjeela Sabahat1*, Juliya Abbasi2, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Saima Mumtaz1, Taj Naseeb Khan1, Sudheer Tariq1 and Muhammad Imran1

...eover, the rainfall also lead to the leaching down of the essential micronutrients in strawberry farms. In this study we have tested the foliar application of four micronutrients, iron, zinc, copper and boron, at different concentrations under tunnel conditions on strawberry cv. Chandler at Horticultural Research Institute (HRI), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with thre...

Noha M. El-Shabrawy1, Atef M. Kamel2, Aza S. Goda1, Gehad R. Donia1, Ahmed M. Salah-Eldein2* 

...ine the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) in their muscle, liver, kidney and feather. Also, 16 water samples were collected to assess the level of heavy metals pollution in the study area. The result revealed that the kidney is the most tissue burdens the highest concentration of heaviest metals among the examined tissues. Egyptian barn swallow and house sparrow have a great tendency to accumulate heavy metals ...
Nacira Djabali1*, Souad Dougat2, Wahida Haddadi2 and Lamis Fadhli2
...t structural differences leading to various behaviors in terms of their metabolism and their toxic effects. This work aims to study the impact of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) on the gonadotropic axis and semen biology in the rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus. Thirty adult male rabbits were divided into three groups (n = 10): a control group and 2 groups treated with EGME. The solvent was applied at two increasing doses: 50 ppm and 150 ppm for fiv...
Ardi Prasetio1*, Christina Maria Sri Lestari2, Sutaryo Sutaryo2, Manar Fayiz Mousa Atoum3,4Muhammad Zahoor5, Asma Nisar6 and Muhannad Illayan Massadeh7
...holesterol meat that can lead to several cardiovascular diseases. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758), known as low cholesterol meat, can be alternatively chosen for daily consumption. Soybean meal (SBM), as the primary protein source in rabbit ration, has some disadvantages. Protein value in Black Soldier Fly Larvae -BSFL (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758) is equal to SBM and better in the amino acid profile. However, the chitin conta...

Faryal Malik, Mudassar Nawaz Khan* and Israr-ud-Din

...ng and germination times lead to flooding stress. Wheat varieties namely Atta Habib, Siran and Ghanemat-e-IBGE were grown in glass house and studied for their flooding stress response and ability to recover after flooding stress removal at morphological and antioxidant enzymes (catalase; CAT, superoxide dismutase; SOD, and peroxidase; POD) levels. Wheat varieties were grown for 15 days, flooded for 6 days and then recovered for 8 days after removal of flooding...

Li Wei, Wei-wei Shao and Zhi-hua Lin*

...ed from pesticides could lead to a decline in wildlife populations and cause disruption of wildlife behavior, life history, and reproduction. Here, we have investigated the toxic effects of four pesticides, namely, chlorantraniliprole, penoxsulam, pymetrozine, and haloxyfop-P-methyl, on the survival and growth of the larvae of two anuran species, Fejervarya limnocharis and Microhyla fissipes. Our results showed that survival rates under most pesticide treatmen...

Mustafa Ozan Atasoy

...n the livestock industry leading to substantial economic loss in the worldwide economy. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the manipulation of viral genomes, thereby gaining a better understanding of the molecular insights of viral diseases. These have spurred the development of safer and efficient vector vaccines, which convey immunogenic genes of interest obtained from vitally important diseases. Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has long been consid...

Hongqun Li1,*, Liganag Xing1, Xiaoli Liu2, Yonglan Pu3, Yuqing Yang3 and Yongyao Fu1

...biological hazards which leads to great economic losses and ecological damage in the invaded range. Here the geographical distribution of potential pine wilt disease was analyzed by using the Maxent model in the current and future conditions. Our results indicated that Maxent model provided satisfactory result with the AUC value of 0.871 and 0.841 for the model training and testing, respectively. The most significant factors were maximum temperature of hottest...

Kubilay Ucar1, Görkem Oruk2 and Sait Engindeniz1*

Syukriah Syukriah1, Ulinnuha Nur Faizah2, Hendry T.S. Saragih3*, Rizki Fitrawan Yuneldi4, Soenarwan Hery Poerwanto5, Raden Roro Upiek Ngesti Wibawaning Astuti5, Stephan Immenschuh6 

...ria during pregnancy can lead to various pathological conditions for pregnant women and fetuses such as fever, abortion, low birth weight, and fetal death. In this study, we examined differences in oxidative stress-mediated effects in pregnant and offspring mice in Plasmodium berghei infection. A Complete randomized design was used in this study, in which 25 mice were divided into five groups. Group 1 as a control group, consisted of non-pregnant and Plasmodiu...
Zane Vincevica-Gaile1, Karina Stankevica1, Maris Klavins1, Roy Hendroko Setyobudi2, Damat Damat3*, Praptiningsih Gawawati Adinurani4, Lili Zalizar5, Muhammad Zul Mazwan6, Juris Burlakovs7
Didiek Hadjar Goenadi8,9, Rista Anggriani3 and Aamir Sohail10
 
 
...al sustainability goals, leading to reducing or abandoning the use of fossil resources and paying attention to waste utilization as secondary raw material. This paper aims to discuss general features of peat-free soil amendments as well as provide efforts into the use of secondary raw materials such as biomass ashes for the elaboration of peat-free soil-improving products. As a case example, may serve a description of the peat-free product made by rotary drum ...

Muhammad Abdullah1, Sana Zahoor1*, Akhtar Ali2 and Masroor Ellahi Babar3

...tor α polymorphism leads to inflammation and provoke asthma which lead to morbidity and mortality in the population. The objective of the study was to look into single nucleotide polymorphism in upstream region of -238TNF-α and -308 by ARMS PCR technique in asthmatic and control group. It was a prospective study constituting 17 clinical diagnosed asthmatic patients (Diseased) and 19 non-asthmatic patients (Contro...

Maid Zaman1*, Imtiaz Ali Khan1, Amjad Usman1 and Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi2

...3% species which are the leading pests causing damages to agriculture, forestry, and housing/structures. Diverse ecological conditions of Pakistan made it favorable for termites which are found across the country but its diversity, genera strength, percent host and habitat attacked for district Swabi, Buner and Haripur is unreported. After collection (either on spot or through NIFA-Termaps) and identification, all districts had equal species number (05) but di...

Hams M.A. Mohamed1, Mona A. El-Zamkan2* 

...tion all over the world, leading to huge health loss. A total of 100 raw milk samples collected from small scale producers, farmers and markets at Qena city, Egypt, were examined for the presence of Streptococcus species. The preliminary identification was confirmed by using VITEK®2 system which revealed the presence of four isolates of S. thoraltensis. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the obtained isolates was detected phenotypically and genotypically,...

Kanakuntla Sandhyarani*, Dhoppalapudi Madhuri, Yadala Ravikumar 

...eed causes renal failure leads to gout. The managemental practices involves high brooding temperature thereby reducing the water intake and hence increasing chances of development of gout. In addition, products used on a routine basis and result into toxicity includes antibiotics, anticoccidials, manufactured chemicals, and pesticides can also induce gout in poultry. Clinical signs include decreased feed and water intake, lethargy, ruffled feathers, weight los...

Sharjeel Saif1, Asghar Ali Kamboh1*, Ghulam Mustafa Solangi2, Rehana Burriro3, Hasina Baloch1, Atta Muhammad Memon2  

...s very poor that usually lead to culling of infected animals. In Pakistan, unfortunately no data is available on the occurrence of mycoplasma mastitis in farm animals. Therefore, current field investigation was conducted first time in centre-west Balochistan to get the preliminary data on mycoplasma mastitis. Milk samples (n = 579) were collected from three districts viz., Jaffar abad, Sohbat pur and Naseer abad from mastitis suspected buffaloes. The samples w...

Nora Faten Afifah Mohamad1, Hassan Haji Mohd Daud1, Ruhil Hayati Hamdan2, Sharifah Raina Manaf3, Ain Auzureen Mat Zin2, Nik Nur Fazlina Nik Mohd Fauzi2

...indicating that it would lead to a better source of diet for humans.
 
Keywords | African catfish, Asian catfish, Hybrid catfish, Fatty acids profile, DHA
...
Hanan A. Abo-State*, Mosaad M. El-Monairy, Yasser A. Hamouda, Hussein M.A. Hassan
...dy composition which may lead to improve fish production.
 
Keywords | Pumpkin seed oil, Nile tilapia, Performance, feed utilization, Body composition.
...

Aymen Mabrouk*

...tion of blood indices by lead (Pb) has never been studied. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the possible beneficial effect of TQ against Pb-induced hematological changes. Adult male Wistar rats were treated with Pb (2000 ppm of Pb acetate in drinking water) and/or TQ (5 mg/kg/day, per os) for five weeks. Results obtained clearly showed that Pb intoxication significantly decreased the mean red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and plat...

Muhammad Idrees1, Bashir Ahmad2, Muhammad Waqas1, Syed Muhammad Mukarram Shah3 and Saad Ahmad Khan4

...ors could be a promising lead compound and be effective in treating sensitive as well as multi drug resistant tuberculosis.

...

Laiba Ajmal1, Sidra Ajmal2, Maleeha Ajmal3, Gul Nawaz3, Rabail Hassan Toor4, Hooria Younas1, Tassaduq Hussain Sheikh5 and Raazia Tasadduq1*

... the fetus, subsequently leading to miscarriages. The functioning of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system at the maternal fetus interface plays a pivotal role in acceptance of the fetus. Alterations in the modulated activity of HLA system influence the fetal tolerance. Therefore, this review will provide an insight on how the working of HLA at the maternal fetal interface contributes towards recurrent pregnancy losses (RPL). Antigen hiding is a phenomenon that...

Muhammad Ali Raza1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Kamran Ashraf2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali3, Kumayl Hassan Akhtar4 and Nazia Rubab5

...n of pharmaceuticals has lead to substantial use of pharmaceutical products that include antibiotics and steroidal hormones. The day by day increase in human population across the globe is leading to the increased need of food production. Due to the excessive use of common antibiotics i.e. penicillin and oxytetracycline, the antibiotic (ABs) residues remain in livestock products like milk of buffalo and cow. It

Shuhuan Li1*, Yongheng Bo2, Youzhi Li3 and Xiuzhen Yang2

...per use of atropine will lead to atropine residues in meat. When people eat animal meat from these sources, it will pose a potential threat to human health. Thus, in production practice, atropine residues in meat are usually determined quantitatively. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a simple but potent method was used to quantify atropine residues in beef. The results indicated that the method could measure atropine residues accur...

Amreen Zahra1, Mushtaq A. Saleem1*, Hasnain Javed2 and Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan3

...ausative of AIDS, mainly leads to reduced immunity provoking increased vulnerability to opportunistic infections such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here, we present co-occurrence of HCV and HIV in male IDUs from four major cities of Central Punjab, Pakistan. Initial screening for HIV and HCV was performed using ELISA and real-time PCR. A high HCV and HIV co-infection was revealed in Lahore (80.77%) followed by Faisalabad (81.93%), Sargodha (76%) and in Nankana (...

Phassakon Nuntapanich1*, Hathaichanok Nuntapanich2 and Woraman Maicharoen3

...nism for driving society leading to organics farming production in the TKR. 

...

Tariq Mahmood1*, Shakeela Ismail1, Faraz Akrim2, Muhammad Farooq1, Nadeem Munawar1 and Muhammad Raza Khan1

... comprises of livestock, leading to human-wolf conflict. Field surveys were made on monthly basis from July 2018 to December 2019 for data collection. The distribution of the species was determined by surveying the potential habitats and recording its direct and indirect field signs (such as scats, pug marks, prey remains, hairs), while diet composition was investigated by using noninvasive technique of scat analysis. Results showed grey wolf being distributed...
Mudassar Jehan1, Masroor Ahmed Bajwa2, Mohammad Masood Tariq2, Asim Faraz3*, Abdul Samaad2, Jameel Ahmad1 and Yousaf Hassan Barozai2
...eed characterization and lead to breed improvement program.

...

Asaad A. Fares1*, Mohamed M. Ghanem2, Yasein M. Abd El-Raof2, Hossam M. El-Attar2, Ameer A. Megahed2, Heba M. El-Khaiat2

... 2). Feeding DCAD ration lead to decreased urine pH and urine creatinine, but increase Ca urine execration in the DCAD group. However, the DCAD group showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in Ca, Mg, P, K, Cl, and Na concentration pre and post calving, compared to non DCAD group. Before parturition, feeding on DCAD ration caused a significant increase in urea and creatinine, but decreased bicarbonate compared to non DCAD group. While after parturition urea,...

Muneeza Zafar1,2,3, Fazli Rabbi Awan2,*, Munazza Raza Mirza3,*, Sumaira Nishat2,4, Sajid Ali Rajput5 and Imran Riaz Malik1,*

...nt mutations in APOB may lead to change in protein stereochemistry, which may result in premature coronary artery disease, familial hypobetalipoproteinemia, hypocholesterolemia, mono-genic dyslipisimias and other atherogenic events in CVD. Here we evaluated the impact of all missense and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of APOB retrieved from dbSNP using 17 different computational tools and further evaluated the structural impact of these conv...

Noor Muhammad Khan1,2, Tariq Mahmood Khalil1,3*, Rashid Rehan2 and Iftikhar Zeb4

... kg-1, similarly for the lead (Pb) average uptake was 4.55 and 4.55mg kg-1, while for nickel (Ni) the average uptake was, 2.80 and 2.76 mg kg-1 in ex-situ and in-situ plantation respectively. Whereas for A.d. the HM uptake was 3.22, 2.27, and 1.49 mg kg-1for Cu, Pb, and Ni, respectively in ex-situ plantation. The uptake of Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) was insignificant due to their low concentration in wastewater. The T.l had the average removal efficiency f...

Heba Abdo Basha1, Walaa Slouma Hamouda Abd El Naby2*, Samya Erian Ibrahim3, Abeer Fikry Elnahas2 

...ymous SNPs were recorded leading to four amino acid substitution in exon 1 and 2 amino acids substitution in exon 2. In low body weight, only one non-synonymous mutation was recorded at exon 2. The 3’UTR-IGF-2 sequence showed 14 SNPs in high body weight and three SNPs in low body weight. The carcass weight percentage didn’t change significantly for high or low body weight. While carcass cuts percentage increased in high body weight birds compared t...
Faiza Saleem1, Aly Khan2*, Rafia Rehana Ghazi3, Nasira Khatoon1, Samina Waheed1, Mian Sayed Khan4
... be very harmful and may lead to further decline in the population of host fish.

...

Yahia A. Amin1*, Alaa Eldin Z. Mahmoud2, Mohamed Sabry Aref3, Abd El-Latif Shaker Seddek4, Waleed Younis5 

... dairy industry since it leads to prolonged days open and prolonged intercalving intervals, resulting in involuntary culling. The current study aimed to detect the most sensitive antibiotic to different types of microorganisms responsible for endometritis and its effect on the days open and pregnancy rate. The current study was carried out on 100 Holstein Frisian cows that were not pregnant for 90-120 days after calving. The cows were classified into two group...

Abdullah Channo1*, Asmatullah Kaka1, Qudratullah Kalwar2, Imdadullah Jamali3, Ghulam Jelani2, Muhammad Bakhsh4, Ghulam Nabi Dahri5 and Jai Parkash Goil6

...nction of the ovarywhich leads to alteration in follicular development, ovulation, reduced reproductive performance, unsuccessful ovulation, increased interval between parturition and conception, low conception rate, decrease in calving rate, increase in number of inseminations at each conception and finally culling. The incidence of COD is ranges from 5-30%, due to the improper managemental system, and the prevalence of COD is 10-13% which is associated with ...

Veronica Ngozi Emenuga1, Clara Idara Eleazar2*, Seto Tunrayo Aladenika1  

...s in animal ranches that lead to the infection of the udder and this eventually transcends to contamination of milk. Cutaneous mycoses are mostly fungal infection of the stratum corneum. The objective of the current study was to examine the cattle and cattle beddings for fungal organisms in correlation with that found in milk. Scrapings of fungal lesions from 302 cattle were examined alongside with samples of milk and sawdust beddings. Culture, identific...

Amina Batool1*, Saba Aleem1, Ali Nawaz1, Muhammad Imran Khan1, Waheed Arshad1, Muhammad Aslam2, Shiraz Ali3 and Muhammad Zeeshan3

...tion in seeding rate can lead to higher production cost but will also result in decline of crop yield and quality. Hence, the present experiment was designed to establish the optimal seeding density of three different wheat genotypes (Fatehjang-2016, Dharabi-11 and 16FJ17) of the Barani Areas to attain maximum economic yield. The research experiment was managed in split amidst the cropping season of Rabi 2019-20; one at the laboratory by growing three diverse ...

Mudssar Ali1*, Muhammad Awais Ahmad1, Asif Sajjad2 and Shafqat Saeed1

...ney bee (A. dorsata) can lead to higher seed production. Moreover, the effectiveness of Amegilla sp. should also be evaluated for other oil seed crops in Punjab, Pakistan.
...

Eman A. Al-Shahari1,2, Eman R. ElBealy3, Abdelhalim A. Alkhazendar4 and Abeer A. Alm-Eldeen4*

... biological process that leads to deterioration in the liver structures and functions due to oxidative stress and the reduction in the oxidative damage’s tolerance. Quercetin, a flavonoid has the ability to face the oxidative injury through its antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible role of quercetin in modulating liver’s function and structure in aged male rats. Forty eight male albino rats (3 a...

Ali Wahdan1*, Mahmoud Ezzat1, Fatma Youssef2, Manal Munier2, Elsayyad M. Ahmed3, Marwa Abo Hashem1  

...ity to biofilm formation leading to zoonotic risk and nosocomial infections. So, this study focused on tracking the ica locus in different hosts and other virulence factors with genetic analysis of recovered isolates. A total of 350 random samples were collected from animals and hospital acquired infected patients. The recovered isolates were identified biochemically by vitek2 compact, confirmed by PCR and tested for sensitivity against varieties of antimicr...

Shomaila Sikandar1*, Imran Afzal1 and Sadaf Sarfraz2

...ng transportation, which leads to the huge economic losses. Presently about 300 types of mycotoxins have been identified, while, aflatoxins, fuminisons, ochratoxins, trichothecenes and zearalenone are the major mycotoxins infecting food and feed crops. Consumption of food contaminated with these mycotoxins can cause severe toxicity in human and animals. Members of these fungal genera Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., and Aspergillus spp., are major mycotoxins p...
Irfan Shahzad Sheikh1, Syed Haseeb Shah1, Niamatullah Kakar2*, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Muhammad Essa Kakar3 and Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1
... and AST that ultimately lead to promote the growth and can be used safely at sub-therapeutic levels in food and/or water of broiler chicken. The result further determined that the longer use (6 weeks) of AGPs had no harmful effect on blood, liver and kidney in broiler chicken and can be used after withdrawal period.

...

Sidrah Ashfaq1, Muhammad Nadeem1*, Muhammad Yamin1, Talha Afzal1, Muhammad Waqar Akram1, Rabia Anam1 and Ali Mehboob2

...ountry’s resources leading indicator. World’s energy focus is shifting towards alternate renewable, cheap and environment-friendly resources that can provide long-term sustainability for survival. Due to the fossil fuels depletion and their ever-growing cost, the need to shift focus towards renewable energy resources has increased a lot. To overcome the above-said problems, there is a need to look for a feasible and robust solution for thermal appl...

Hafiz Qaisar Yasin1*, Dora Marinova2 and Muhammad Naveed Tahir3

...ion water charging rates lead to its inefficient use by farmers. Under the rapidly increasing water scarcity and climate change issues, it is inevitable to assess the actual economic value of canal irrigation water in Punjab. This study applied the Residual Valuation Method to assess the real economic value of canal irrigation water of four major crops (wheat, rice, cotton and sugarcane) in Punjab. The study found that the average economic values of wheat, ric...

Sehrish Akram1, Abida Butt1* and Shakil Ahmad Khan2

...l grade) and heavy metal lead (Pb) against 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instars of silkworm. For treatment, leaf-dipping method was used and toxicity calculated after 48h exposure to the treatment. Both chemicals showed high toxicity against all instars of silkworm. However, results indicated that imidacloprid was more toxic for silkworm larvae compared to lead. The acute toxicity of imidacloprid formulation (IMF), imidacloprid tec...

Bnar Shahab Hamad1, Bushra Hussain Shnawa1*, Rafal Abdulrazaq Alrawi2 

...esponses to CE and maybe lead to the design of novel treatments.

Keywords | Cystic echinococcosis, BALB/c, Liver, Immunohistochemistry, Apoptosis 

...

K. H. El-Kholy1*, Enayat Hassan Abo El-Azayem2, Safaa Ataya Barakat2, Mona Gamel Mohamed3, Sara H. M. Hassab1 

...h dose “G4”, lead to significant (P≤0.05) reduction in bacteria count of E. coli and clostridium spp. and increased total bacterial count in caecal content. The caecal NH3 concentration significantly (P≤0.05) decreased when the dietary AV level increased. Haematological, plasma biochemical and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx and CAT) were significantly elevated (P≤0.05) by the highest dietary AV inclusion (G4). The addition of AV significant...

Arif Mehmood1*, Muhammad Asam Riaz1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Waqas Raza2, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1

...fy;">Hotspot information leads to precision in the application of control strategies. Mosquitoes inhabit diverse types of habitats depending upon host preference, biotic and abiotic characteristics of the habitats. This study mainly targeted the collection, identification, and sorting of mosquitoes habitat-wise in the Attock district of Pothwar region. Collection of specimens was done from specified habitats during 2014-16. A total of fourteen species belongin...

Rezqita Putri Pitaloka1, Kartiawati Alipin1, Mas Rizky A.A Syamsunarno2, Gemilang Lara Utama3, Ramdan Panigoro2, Ratu Safitri1* 

...dative stress, which can lead to cell death. Iron chelating agents such as deferoxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox have been used to treat iron overload, but their uses are inconvenient caused by their side effects. Therefore, the invention of an alternative chelating agent with a more efficient effect, convenient uses, and affordable is essential, which can be done with natural plants. Sappan wood (Caesalpinia sappan L.) contains active compounds, such as ...

Saba Rehman1, Faisal Salih Hayat1, Sadia Norin2, Abdul Aziz1, Siddiq Ur Rahman1* and Noor ul Haq1*

...in mutations in VOCs may lead to escape the approved vaccinations. Here the VOC mutations i.e., OMICRON VARIANT have been discussed in detail, and the therapeutic strategies to enhance the host immune responses have been proposed. Additionally, a computational approach is proposed to design the drug and vaccine for the variant. The protein structure for the OMICRON variant has been predicted through bioinformatics tools and several databases have been used to ...

Rao Mansor Ali Khan* and Syed Amer Mahmood 

...sio-climatic factor that leads toward precision agriculture.

...

Mohamed M. Bahr1, Mohamed S. Amer1*, Khaled Abo-EL-Sooud2, Shaimaa M. Kamel3, Marwa A. Fouly4, Ahmed N. Abdallah5, Ashraf A. Shamaa1, Omar S. El-Tookhy1 

...A, and miRNA) which may lead to alteration of the gene expression, proliferation, and differentiation of the recipient cells. Methodology: 24 male New Zealand albino rabbits were used in this study, divided randomly into 4 groups (6 rabbits per group), induction of corneal ulcers centrally in groups (I, II) and peripherally in (III, IV). Treated groups are (I, III) using topical lyophilized canine Mesenchymal Stem Cells derived EVs & control groups are (I...

Barbosa Carla1*, Gregori Fabio2, Thomazelli Luciano1, Oliveira Amanda1, Araújo Jansen1, Ometto Tatiana1, Marcatti Roberta3, Nardi Marcelo3, Paludo Danielle4, Utecht Nathalia1 and Edison Durigon1

...ctious diseases, once it leads to changes on migration patterns and dispersal of birds, as resting and feeding points become scarcer resulting in agglomeration of different species. One pathogen of greatest importance that may be dispersed by birds are the coronaviruses (CoVs). Despite its relevance and complexity, studies on the detection and genetic characterization of these viruses are scarce, especially in South American wild birds. Thus, this paper aims t...

Shaista Naz1*, Muhammad Arif2 and Akhtar Ali3

...reased participation can lead towards not only their own empowerment but also towards the development of the sector. Review of the empirical research across the developing world in the said subject not only shed light on the lessons learnt but also can identify the gaps left out. For this, a systematic review has been conducted to highlight the immense role of women in livestock and its determinants in the developing countries. To achieve these objectives, a t...

Soshe Ahmed1*, Mst. Ishrat Zerin Moni1, Maksuda Begum2, Md. Jafar Eqbal3, Md. Shahidul Islam4, Mst. Samira Tanjim1, Mst. Rokeya Sultana1 

...ed and water deprivation leads to lower feed intake, body weight gains, poor feed conversions, and lesser livability of broilers. Therefore, early access to feed and water after hatching is recommended to achieve better production performance of broilers.

Keywords | Feed and water deprivation; Broiler, Production, Performance; Immune response 

...

Mohsin Shad1, Muhammad Usman2 and Qurratulann Afza Gardner1*

...produce abnormal protein leading to deficiencies in the complex III (coenzyme Q), resulting in defective oxidative phosphorylation and consequently effects other metabolic pathways. In the present article, we comprehensively compare the biodiversity of cyt b in bc1 and b6f complexes using in silico structural analysis tools, emphasizing that despite vast knowledge available in this field, still there are so much to explore about cyt b.

...

Sofiane Tamendjari1,2*, Farida Bouzebda Afri1,2, Lina Chaib1, Hebib Aggad3, Zoubir Bouzebda1,2 

...esistant to antibiotics, leading to therapeutic failures. It is in this context that our study aims to have an idea on the degree of hygiene of meats produced and consumed in the wilaya of Souk Ahras with respect to these strains, and to evaluate their degrees of resistance to certain antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine
A total of 90 samples of sheep, chicken and turkey meat were collected and analyzed. Modified Baird-Parker medium was use...

Laveena Shekhawat, Sheethal S* 

...led to start immediately leading to recurrence of the parasitic hepatic cyst. Conclusion: Treatment is a combination of surgery and post-op anti-parasitic drugs. Delay in initiating albendazole therapy can lead to recurrence of the cysts in the same sites.

Keywords | Cystic ecchinococcosis, Ecchinococcus granulosus, Hepatic cyst, Parasitic cyst of liver, Liver parasite 

...

S.H.M. Faruk Siddiki1*, Md. Golam Morshed2, Md Robiul Karim1, Lutfun Naher1, Md. Sodrul Islam3

...arious diseases that can lead to economic losses for the farmers. This study was conducted to determine the clinical prevalence of diseases in cattle attended at the Upazilla (sub-district) Veterinary Hospital, Mirzapur, in the Tangail district during the period between January 2017 and December 2018. A total of 22,418 clinical cases of cattle were diagnosed using general, physical, clinical, and microscopic examinations, as well as other conventional laborato...

Syed Shah Mohioudin Gillani1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Adeel Anwar1*, Syed Ijaz Ul Haq2, Muhammad Awais3, Mujahid Iqbal4, Javed Iqbal5, Hina Ahmed Malik3, Syed Muhammad Zaigham Abbas Naqvi6, Raza Ullah7 and Muhammad Abdullah Khan1

...of plants and ultimately leads to crop yield estimation. The present experiment evaluated the capacity of high-resolution satellite imagery to estimate wheat chlorophyll content coupled with ground-based information for accurately monitoring crop chlorophyll status under rainfed conditions. Images with zero clouds from LANDSAT 8 and ground data collection were carried out in a simultaneous time frame. Vegetation indices (VI) comprised of normalized difference ...

Muhammad Umair1,2, Muhammad Naeem1, Asad Jamil3 and Muhammad Younas2,4*

...erature and low rainfall lead to accumulation of salt on the soil surface. Moreover, the low organic matter status of soils further worsens the soil conditions. All these factors have severely reduced soil productivity. There is need for some sustainable management practices for rehabilitation of degraded soils in arid zones. Application of organic matter under these conditions can restore the soil productivity. So, use of biochar for soil restoration under th...

Sajid Mehmood Shahzad

...maritime vulnerabilities lead to decreased commerce and taxes. Here we look at Pakistan’s maritime industry and see how it stacks up to those of its land and maritime neighbors, i.e., India, Iran, and maritime neighbor Oman. 
 
Novelty Statement | This study is novel as it examines the present situation of marine commerce with maritime neighbors of Pakistan to assess if the persistent reducti...

W. Khan, N. U. Nisa, A. Khan and S. M. H. M. Naqvi

...infection. Present study leads to understand that sanitary measures should be effectively adopted and health education should be given as a compulsory subject.

...

Athhar Manabi Diansyah1, Muhammad Yusuf2*, Abdul Latief Toleng2, Muhammad Ihsan Andi Dagong2, Tulus Maulana3, Hasrin4, Abdullah Baharun5 

...any regions is currently leading to the development of local bulls and Indonesia is no exception, especially in South Sulawesi Province. One of local bulls in which developed for approximately last ten years is Bali-polled bull. Thus, the selection of polled bulls is crucial, mainly in modern livestock management. The aims of this study to identify sperms post-thawing quality and proteomic plasma semen as fertility performance in Bali-polled bull. The utilizat...

Dalia Zaafar1*, Heba M.A Khalil2, Soha Hassanin3, Mohamed R. Mousa4, Mona G. Khalil1 

...nd: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity worldwide, and it is linked to a variety of genetic and hormonal factors. Patients frequently experience cancer metastasis, relapse, and therapeutic failure despite the use of advanced therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. As a result, many scientists are currently looking for newly repositioned drugs that can either inhibit cancer proliferation or promote cancer cell apoptosis. Methods: Thi...

Abdirahman Barre*, Karanja D Njuguna, Bebora Lilly Caroline and George Chege Gitao

...more organs with lesions leading to condemnation at meat inspection. The common gross lesions encountered were fibrin depositions 3 (1.8%), enlargement of lung 2 (1.2%), pericarditis 38 (23.7%), and hepatomegaly with nodular liver lesions 79 (49.3%), enteritis 5 (3.1%), haemorrhages and congestion of visceral organs (lung and kidney) 6 (3.7%). Histopathology of sero-reactors revealed; cellular infiltration in lymph node 9 (5.6%), hypoplasia of lymphocytes 6 (3...
 
 MONIS HUSSAIN SHAH1*, RIAZ UR REHMAN2, RIAZ ALI SHAH1, RIZWAN RAFIQUE3, MUHAMMAD USMAN4, SAJIDA BIBI5 AND SADIA YASEEN
...ced in substrates 6-Benzyleadenine, Silicic acid and Silver nitrate (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm) with sucrose (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25g), respectively. The cut flower response was observed by observing the time (days) for sustaining the freshness of cut flowers. Net fresh weight (g) after 15 days according to the formula and Dry weight of the flower (Flower head + flower stem) were taken on placing flowers at 50

Chenchen Liu1,2, Tong Wang1, Muhammad Khan3*, Xiaolin Cui2 and Yongming Li1,2*

...ould be developed into a lead for effective treatment of ovarian cancer.

...

Yang Hu, Jingxin Ding, Beilei Xu, Xiangming Sun, Guoyu Li, Hui Song, Zheng Zong and Wenlan Li*

...are the active compounds leading to the estrogen-like activity of TGs in vivo. In conclusion, this study is expected to provide a theoretical reference for subsequent in-depth studies on the estrogen-like pharmacodynamic material basis of TGs.

...
Heavy metals (HMs) are harmful and lethal at negligible levels and non-biodegradable in the typical ecosystem and constitutes animal, human and environmental hazards. They are divided into toxic metals like Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, etc. and essential elements like copper, zinc, manganese, iron, nickel and chromium. Additionally, could be categorized into two groups based on the natural and anthropogenic sources releasing origins. Population and industrial expansion led to food contamination with HMs. Poisonous metals can be transferred from irrigation water to agricultural soils, agricultural operations, air pollution, animal feed, and packaging materials. Toxic metals are non-biodegradable, non-thermos degradable, and exceedingly stable in the ecosystem; as a result, they quickly build in various foods. Metal pollution of many foods, including agricultural commodities, and animal protein sources such as fish, milk, meat, and eggs, poses a hazard to food safety and security. Toxic metal pollution of irrigation water, agricultural soils, plants, and animals result in their integration into the food chain, posing a health hazard to humans. Most metals are harmful to animals and humans and accumulate in several organs like the skeleton, hepatic tissue, spleen, and renal tissues. Metals have a deleterious impact on the production of plants and animals. As a result, several remediation strategies have become necessary to limit the hazardous HMs pathway into the food chain and the human body. Metal nanoparticles are employed in beneficial applications, although they are associated with specific hazards.
 
Keywords | Food contamination, Heavy metals, Nanoparticles, Pollution sources, Remedy, Soil contamination

Muhammad Afzal Naeem1*, Muhammad Hassaan Khan2, Tahmina Nazish3, Uzma Bashir4 and Midrarullah5

...hirsutum L. is among the leading cash crop, grown at 4.7 million acreage area in Punjab province annually. The rotational cultivation of cotton and wheat crops constitutes the major cropping pattern in Pakistan. Current study was undertaken to investigate the allelopathic effect of the post-harvest remnants of cotton crop on the germination and growth parameters of successor wheat crop. Experiment was laid down in complete randomized design. The seeds (n=10) o...

Behari Lal Meghwar1*, Attaullah Khan1, Imran Ali Lakhiar1, Asif Ali Mirani2, Muhammad Siddique Daper1 and Muhammad Waseem Kalroo

...e has many drawbacks and leads to poor quality. A study was planned to find an alternative chili drying method for the study area. To achieve the desired goal, we considered two different drying methods, solar tunnel (T1) and solar cum gas (T2), and compared the rate of reducing the moisture over time with T3 method. The T1 and T2 methods are substitutes for the T3 drying method. Therefore, a small-scale natural convection solar tunnel dryer and solar cum gas-...

Yun Zhang*

...mpsia (PE) is one of the leading complications of pregnancy that contributes to the increasing morbidity and mortality. However, the effects of exosomes secretion and expression of ET-1 and Ang-II on PE progression has not been fully investigated. The PE (n=100) and normal (n=100) women with singleton pregnancy and in the second or third trimester of pregnancy were included in the present study. The healthy group included healthy women (n=100) aged 28 to 40. T...

Muhammad Asim Bhutta1,2*, Amna Bibi2, Nadia Hussain Ahmad2, Sadia Kanwal2, Zarmeena Amjad1, Hafeez ur Rehman3, Umar Farooq3, Muhammad Nouman Khalid4 and Syeda Fiza Nayab5

...otosystem II complex and leads to less photosynthetic productivity. A light-independent photosynthetic activity restricts the consumption of electrons produced in the early photoreactions, which appears to be the principal cause of photoinhibition by visible light. There is a chance that excessive photosynthetic electron transport could lead to an overabundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Reactive oxygen species such a...
Balquees Kanwal1*, Syeda Saba Shah1, Syed Waqas Hassan2 and Farzana Shaheen3
...a toxin (Stx), which can lead to diarrhea, haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and other lethal complications. Consumption of STEC contaminated food has been associated with food related illnesses outbreak. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of O157:H7 strain of STEC by detection of Stx-1 and Stx-2 genes in 160 chicken meat samples, which are randomly collected from different regions of Northern Punjab, Pakistan. Isolation of pat...

Atena Azarniush1, Majid Moghbeli2*, Farshid Kafilzadeh1, Mohammad Kargar1 and Hooshang Jamali1

...considered as the second leading cause of death in the world. The decreased platelet count is one of the major problems that patients face through the treatment, which makes them prone to bleeding. PRP injection therapy is a therapeutic method in use to relieve this condition. It may lead to infections due to the injection, as well as platelet resistance. Therefore, an attempt was made to find an alternative treatment, and t...

Muhammad Awais Ahmad1, Mudssar Ali1*, Asif Sajjad2 and Shafqat Saeed1

...t native pollinators can lead to higher seed yield of T. alexandrinum and other seed crops in South Punjab, Pakistan.

...

Muhammad Zeeshan Siddiqui1, Mujahid Ali2*, Shoaib ur Rehman3, Shahid Iqbal4, Malik Abdur Rehman5, Hafiz M. Tayyab Khan4, Muhammad Ali6, Muhammad Azher Nawaz4 and Saqib Ayyub1

...on. High sodium contents lead to sodicity. Finally, selected genotypes displayed significantly dissimilar responses toward the concentration of sodium ions according to their genetic potential. Various agronomic traits and physiological traits along with seedlings’ ionic content of sodium, phosphorous, potassium, and sodium in leaves revealed that ‘Round ball’ has better NaCl tolerance ability compared with other genotypes used in this study....

Ahmad Shahzaib1*, Tabish Raza2 and Aisha Areej2

...m, and the lungs are the leading site of the infection. The virus spreads primarily by respiratory droplets generated by coughing, sneezing, spitting, talking, singing, or breathing of infected people. COVID-19 infection has been linked to an intense cytokine storm (CS) and the immune-inflammatory mechanism that exacerbates disease symptoms and complications. Up to 20% of the infected people need hospitalization on account of the severity of the infection, whi...

Muhammad Usman Shafi1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1*, Tiyyabah Khan2, Waheed Anwar2, Adnan Akhter2 and Muhammad Zubair3

...t (PPE) during operation leads to health problems of human, increase resistance against pests with negative effects on the environment. The purpose of this survey was to check the knowledge about pesticide uses, risks and storage among farmers in Lahore division of Punjab, Pakistan. And, to get knowledge from farmers regarding local knowledge system (LKS) and Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Most of respondents 97% (out of total 250) were male and 28% were be...

Navjot Hothi 

...utumn and winter months, leading to callousness amongst farmers about getting their livestock vaccinated. Trends suggest that this disease could resurface in the summer of 2023 and could also spread across the nation, with the fear of becoming endemic. The virus can survive for months in dark enclosures. The main culprit behind the spread of the disease is indirect transmission via vector movement, which peaks during the summer and monsoon months. Direct trans...

Meltem Kızıl1*, Ali RiĹźvanlı2, Murat Abay3, Tarık Ĺžafak4, Mehmet Akif Kılınç5, Öznur Yılmaz6, Burak Fatih Yüksel1 and Ä°brahim Ĺžeker1

...ry group, but it did not lead to any other significant changes. The irisin levels of the calves in the vaginal delivery group were compared to those in the other groups, and their levels were found to decrease on the 15th day, and IGF-1 levels were higher on the 15th day. As a result, it was revealed that there were significant changes in the levels of these molecules in the umbilical cord and blood serum of cows and calves depending on the mode of delivery.
Umara Amir ud Din1, Waqas Ahmed Khan1*, Khurrum Shahzad1,2, Basharat Ali3, Misbah Hussain1,4 and Fazli Rabbi Awan4
...dney disease (DKD), is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. A major cause of DKD is high blood pressure (hypertension) which remains uncontrolled chronically. Renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is a major regulator of the blood pressure, electrolytes and fluid homeostasis. RAAS plays a key role in modulating the sodium metabolism, vasoconstriction, vascular tone and renal hemodynamics. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is...

Rameez Raja Kaleri1,2*, Hubdar Ali Kaleri1, Raza Ali Mangi3, Deepesh Kumar Bhuptan4, Sana Noor5, Zainab Lanjar6, Hubdar Ali Kolachi7 Abdul Wahid Solangi1 and Sheva Dari1

...er selection. This could lead to better productivity, profitability, and other desirable outcomes for these breeds. By implementing these strategies, breeders may be able to selectively breed animals with desirable traits and manage their herds more efficiently, leading to overall improvements in the breed’s economic performance.

...

Saba Yasin, Kausar Imran, Komal Mukhtar, Muhammad Amir Iqbal and Nabila Roohi*

...associated chemicals may lead to severe hepatic and renal damages.

...

Ahmad Noor and Malik Muhammad Shafi*

...akeholders and political leadership to an attractive option of climate change adaptation for groundwater resources preservation at district Karak.

...

Yaman Saad Fadhil

...concentration in samples leads to a reduction in the growth rate of the bacterial population, and it continued till the last day of storage at 4oC. The sensory study revealed that odour alterations in samples that contain propolis extract were much better in treated samples compared with the control treatment. This study concludes that propolis water extract has potential application as a food ingredient in poultry meat.

...
Umer Farooq1,2, Nimra Murtaza2, Abubakar Siddique1, Bilal Saleem1, Obaid Ur Rehman1, Nageen Zahra1, Muhammad Uzair1, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1,3* and Muhammad Ramzan Khan1*
...and function, as well as lead to genetic disease. We performed genome wide reference-based sequence alignment and functional annotation to identify deleterious non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) in cattle breeds of Pakistan. For this purpose, genomic data of four different purpose cattle breeds including Bhagnari, Cholistani, Sahiwal and Red Sindhi was analyzed. Comparison with taurine reference genome ARS-UCD.1.2.99 discovered 29,032,662 genomic variations of which...

Selvaraj Thanga Malathi¹, Venkatraman Anuradha1*, Mohamed Yacoob Syed Ali2, Muhameed Sajjad Sarwar3, Nagarajan Yogananth2

... of thyroid hormone will leads to metabolic stress that in turn breakdown the basic metabolic processes that eventually ends in disturbing the marine ecosystem. The current research work deals with observed alteration in the thyroid metabolism (causes hypothyroidism) and morphological (histology) changes occurred in fish species (selected organism– Channa punctatus and Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to sublethal concentration of Lithium [30%] for a chron...

Alisher Safarov1*, Nasreen Nasreen4, Firuza Akramova5, Shukhrat Djabbarov1, Adolat Mirzaeva5, Javokhir Esonboev5, Djalaliddin Azimov5, Mourad Ben Said2,3 

...s diseases in livestock, leading to detrimental effects such as skin damage, weight loss, anemia, reduced meat and milk production, and even mortality. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the species composition and prevalence of ectoparasites in domestic (dogs and cats) and wild predatory mammals (jackals, wolves, foxes, and reed cats) in Uzbekistan through regular parasite collections. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive surveillance was conducted to cal...

Vui Van Nguyen1, Samorn Ponchunchoovong2, Sajeera Kupittayanant3, Pakanit Kupittayanant2* 

...ded by oxidative stress, leading researchers to investigate the impact of incorporating essential oils derived from Ocimum gratissimum leaves in order to prolong the viability of chilled dog sperm. The sperm’s characteristics were assessed using an automated sperm analyzer and a confocal microscope to analyze motility and membrane properties, respectively. Additionally, malondialdehyde production was measured to evaluate lipid peroxidation capacity. The ...
Tehreem Fatima1, Jabbar Khan1,*, Hamid Shafiq2, Dost Muhammad3, Muhammad Rafi1 and Shoaib ur Rehman1
...mal stress was the agent leading to over-expression of Hsp70 especially in longevity individuals but in longevity individuals. Whether this increased expression had any impact on longevity is still not clear that needs to be deciphered.
...

Deny Juniwati1, Hadri Latif2*, Trioso Purnawarman2, Zhang Shuqi3

 

...ird nest (EBN), with the leading destination being the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The provision of nitrite levels is less than 30 ppm for raw cleaned EBN, so the EBN is washed to reduce it. The industry generally washes EBN with reverse osmosis (RO) water, but this method does not significantly reduce nitrite levels. Therefore, an alternative method is needed. This study aimed to analyze the effect of washing using RO water combined with ultrasoni...

Mohamed Mahrous Amer1*, Hanaa Sayed Fedawy2, Hoda Mohamed Mekky2, Khaled Mohamed Elbayoumi2, Ahmed Ali El-Shemy3, Mohamed Abd El-Rahman Bosila2

...e presence of the lesion leading to increased condemnations and carcass downgrading. Clinically cellulitis is a deep infection of broiler chicken skin caused by many bacterial species, mainly Escherichia coli (E. coli) and/ or Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), causing severe economic losses in poultry. This study was done on 14-day old broiler Ross 308 chickens subcutaneous (s.c) injected with E. coli and/ or S. aureus to induce cellulitis. Clinical signs, mo...

Abeedha Tu-Allah Khan and Abdul Rauf Shakoori*

...ividual cells, which can lead to a more precise pathological understanding of the neuroinflammatory process.

...

Bing Yan1, Meng Meng Zhang2, Xi Chen2, Yongming Li2*, Muhammad Khan3* and Tonghui Ma1*

...ogeneous tumor formation leading to therapeutic resistance. Therefore, targeting CSCs and their associated signaling pathways is crucial for effective treatment of GBM. In this study, we showed that alantolactone (ALT) hold the capacity to suppress stem-cell-like phenotype (SCLP) of glioblastoma cells. ALT inhibited the growth, reduced mammosphere formation and down-regulated the expression of CSCs markers such as CD133, OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG in U87 and U251 g...

Hafiz Muhammad Arsalan1, Amina Arif1 and Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan2*

...nt (AOX) defense systems lead to oxidative stress (OS). Our study aimed at biochemical profiling of CML patients in response to imatinib or nilotinib therapeutic drugs. Fresh venous blood sample (10 mL) of 170 CML diagnosed patients and 10 healthy individuals was collected in heparin vial from oncology department, Mayo hospital and Jinnah hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Biochemical profiling of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glut...

Kiran Afshan1*, Sobia Baseer1, Shanza Kiran1, Ghulam Narjis2 and Sabika Firasat1

...ion during pregnancy can lead to abortions and other congenital defects. The present study aimed to find the seroprevalence of T. gondii among suspected women who visited local hospitals in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. Sera of 425 suspected women were screened by latex agglutination test (LAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to measure the IgG and IgM antibodies level. Univariate analysis and odds ratios were calculated to det...

Mohammad Bani Ismail

...l cardiac remodeling can lead to heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy. Zizyphus jujuba var spinosa seeds contain SPN, a C-glycoside flavonoid used in traditional medicine. A growing body of evidence indicates they have pharmacological potential against a wide range of diseases. Spinosin (SPN), however, has not been examined in relation to doxorubicin (Dox) induced cardiac injuries. To find out if SPN can reverse Dox-induced cardiomyopathies, we conducted this...

Asif Sadam1*, Rahmat Ullah Khan2, Karim Gabol2*, Muhammad Awais3,4, Mohammad Ismail1, Sajid Mahmood1, Muhammad Aslam4 and Hamidullah5

... the causal factors that lead to hunting and illegal trade of waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus in a remote villages of district Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Data were collected by adopting a mix scientific approach including Participants’ observations, interviews and structured questionnaire. Our results showed that the local villagers of the remote area of district Mardan were the active observers of trapping, over hunting and trading of waterhe...

Jemi Diporianto1,4, Denny Widaya Lukman2*, Yusuf Ridwan3 

...al products, potentially leading to an increased risk of disease spread between regions. Trichinellosis is one of the diseases transmitted through animal-based food products. Currently, the utilization of wild boar meat has increased for feed and food purposes, making it challenging to control the movement of wild boar meat for trade. Wild boars are more likely to transmit Trichinella spp. than domestic pigs due to the lack of animal health monitoring in wildl...

Salma Jameel Askar 

...e toxicity of Meloxicam, leading us to deduce that Meloxicam induces hepatotoxicity and creates abnormalities in hematological and biochemical markers. 

...

MAH NOOR KHAN, NABILA ROOHI, BILAL JAVED & MUHAMMAD AMIR IQBAL*

... T4 and elevated TSH may lead to hypothyroidism in the workers exposed to these environments.

...

SYED SHAHID IMRAN BUKHARI*, ZULFIQAR ALI & RIDA AHMAD

...and household activities leading
to health problems.
...

Nusrat Habiullah1*, Shah Nawaz Kumbar1, Fahmida Parveen Samo1, Shamusuddin Bughio2, Asghar Ali Kamboh3, Burirah Rehman Talpur1 

...vestigate the effects of lead toxicity on Japanese quail and its alleviation with dietary selenium. Thirty healthy Japanese quails at the age of about 3 to 4 weeks were divided into six groups viz., A (control group), B (selenium 1.0 mg/L), C (lead acetate 200 mg/L), D (lead acetate 400 mg/L ), E (lead acetate 200 + selenium 1.0 mg/L) and F (

Jyotsana Shakkarpude1*, Aditya Mishra2, Deepika D. Caesar2, R.K. Sharma3, Anand Kumar Jain2, Sanju Mandal2, Rajesh Kumar Vandre4, Danveer S. Yadav5, Bhavna Ahirwar6 and C.P. Solanki6

...buffaloes which directly leads negative energy balance (NEBAL) and increases oxidative stress in animals. Betaine is a growth promoting nutritional additive used in livestock. Betaine contains three methyl groups and thus acts as a methyl donor for metabolic reactions. Betaine acts as molecular chaperone, as it repairs heat shock proteins. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of dietary betaine on heat and metabolic stress during lactation in ...
Saad Ibrahim Al-Sultan1, Mariam H.E. Khedr2, Ahmed S. Abdelaziz3, Mostafa M. Abdelhafeez4, Tamer Mohamed Gad5, Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr6,7*, Sherief Abdel-Raheem1,8 and Hesham A. Khalifa3
...ds. Toxic metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) are of no-known physiological importance. The objectives of the present study were to quantitatively estimate the residual levels of Pb, Cd, As, and Hg in camel meat and edible offal including round, liver, kidney, and tongue in samples collected from Zagazig slaughterhouse, Egypt and Al-Ahsa slaughterhouse, Saudi Arabia. Dietary intakes and potential health risks associated with ...
Nighat Nisar*, Hasina Maham Qadri, Asad Afridi, Muhammad Sami Khan, Muhammad Abdullah Khan
... and significant factors leading to students’ level of satisfaction towards services provided by cafeterias in public sector medical institute of Karachi, Pakistan. A cross sectional study design was adopted with a sample size of 318 round of to 400 and by using qouta sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data regarding cafeteria use, food consumption, frequency, waiting time, cost, ambience, attitude of cafeteria staff, and cle...

Rini Widyastuti1*, Rangga Setiawan1, Nurcholidah Solihati1, Siti Darodjah1, Kundrat Hidajat1, Mochamad Ali Mauludin2, Alkaustariyah Lubis3, Mas Rizky Anggun Adipurna Syamsunarno4, Sigit Prastowo5, Takdir Saili6, Arief Boediono7

...the first estrous cycle, leading to an early first delivery age of approximately 12 months. Farmers in Simpay Tampomas Farmers Group generally had adequate knowledge of reproductive physiology but little experience in managing dairy farming goats, leading to suboptimal reproductive performance. 
 
Keywords | Dairy goat, Reproductive management, Breeding practice, Reproductive performance

Tevina Edwin, Arfa’i*, Olivio Dickresna

...tion to raise livestock, leading to a decline in the number of farmers and livestock population. The role of the government is needed to overcome the problems by distributing knowledge about good husbandry systems, providing capital to increase the scale of breeders’ businesses, providing good facilities and infrastructure for breeding in the Luak Sub-district. Farmers must focus more on their livestock business and increasing livestock productivity.

Kristina MorkĹ«nienÄ—*, RĹ«ta InsodaitÄ—, Laimutis KuÄŤinskas, Renata BiĹľienÄ— 

...nce of the Mblk1 protein leading to higher brain functions in bees. In this study, we aimed to test the contribution of three Mblk-1 gene polymorphisms to the resistance to V. destructor mites. This case–control study involved 117 DNA samples that were genotyped for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS Statistics 20 and PLINK software. SNP at positio...

Yanmei Wang1,2, Haoyun Li1, Lijuan Han1 and Wenkui Wang1*

...vascular remodeling, and lead to PH. This study aims to provide theoretical basis for finding new therapeutic targets for broiler PH.

...

Faiza Naeem1, Muhammad Farooq Sabar1, Muhammad Usman Ghani2,*, Qurat Ul Ain1 and Qurat-ul-Ain Zafar1

...nfluential node and edge leads toward the development of the disease. This ranking allows identification of the influential protein for the targeted drug discovery and therapies. An extensive study of published articles was conducted to enlist asthma-associated genes reported significant (P-value < 0.05) in the Pakistani population. Pathway Connector (http://bioinformatics.cing.ac.cy/PathwayConnector) was used to analyze the pathways associated with genes a...

Hafsa Saeed, Soumble Zulfiqar, Abeedha Tu-Allah Khan and Abdul Rauf Shakoori*

...avy metals such as zinc, lead and cadmium, at high concentrations, are toxic to microorganisms. A chromosomally encoded znt operon plays an important role in multi-metal resistance in some members of Enterobacteriaceae. However, its role has not yet been explored in K. pneumoniae. This study focused on molecular characterization of ZntR, a transcriptional regulator of znt operon. The minimum inhibitory concentration of zinc, lead
Muhammad Javed Iqbal1, Farah Rauf Shakoori1*, Bushra Muneer2 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori3
...A, AKT1, MTOR and PTEN), lead this pathway to function abnormally to trigger breast cancer. The mutations in these genes were explored in female patients with breast cancer. The demographic studies showed that all the patients were married, housewives with an average age of 47 years. The invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinoma were detected in 85% and 15% of cases of all breast cancer patients. These tumors were classified into G1, G2 and G3 grades with...
Iko-Ojo Charity Ikwe Agada, James Agbo Ameh, Olatunde H. Olabode and Martha Echioda-Ogbole*
...this highlights CPV as a leading cause of canine gastroenteritis despite routine vaccinations in the study area. Further studies to evaluate field circulating CPV strains and the potency of available vaccines in Nigeria is hereby recommended.
...
Moustafa A. Zaghloul1*, Mohamed F. Azooz1, Saleh E. Ali1*, Heba M. Soliman1, Maha M. Sayed1, Mohamed H. Kafafy2 and Alaa R. Morsy1
...dairy sector, which will lead to universal blueprints for multiepitope lumpy skin disease vaccine designs. A total of 40 skin nodule samples were collected from clinically affected cattle to detect LSDV using PCR targeting GPCR, RPO30, P32 and EEV glycoprotein genes. The amplified products of samples detected in the skin nodules of cattle were sequenced, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed using crustal omega software. Out of 40 analyzed samples, 25 samp...

Roheela Yasmeen1,3* , Faheem Hafeez1 , Umme Ammara1 , Rubab Younas1 , Sibtain Ahmad2 , Zulfiqar Ali3, Zaheer Ahmad Nasir4 

Yousifl ,3 , Ausama A. and Al-Naeem , Abdelmohsen A.

...etically. This situation leads to the inability to monitor the molecular epidemiology of the virus in the environment. It also reduces our capability to evaluate vaccine-based control strategies. OPV continues to persist in nature and re-emerge. We were able to isolate a CMLV from an outbreak in the Eastern Provence of KSA in 2009. The infection produced mild clinical signs in adults and camel calves. We were able to confirm that the isolate was indeed CMLV us...
Ashraf M. Metwally*, Ausama A. Yousif*k , Iman B. Walaa A.   Attia M. Samy * , and Ismail M. Reda *
 
...of the aa mutations have lead to a change in some of the exposed regions of the viral protein. Our findings explain the continued presence of vvIBDV in intensively vaccinated flocks.

...

Luthfiralda Sjahfirdi1*, Lisa Nurfalah1, Deanvi Fahira Wisnuputri1, Entang Iskandar2

... pair harmony that could lead to copulation. Although copulation was not clearly observed, the presence of unseen behavior (15%) when lorises were in sleeping cages maybe a time when copulation occurred. The highest E1C concentration was 1181.18 pg/g for K2 and 919.93 pg/g for K5. The lowest E1C was 5.75 pg/g for K2 and 29.95 pg/g for K5. The highest PdG was 19995.81 pg/g for K2 and 18168.68 pg/g for K5. The lowest PdG was 20.85 pg/g for K2 and 504.97 pg/g for...
Zeynep Karapinar1* and Mehmet Özkan Timurkan2
... gastroenteritis and can lead to death in young animals. The virus is a non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA virus; located in the genus of Carnivore protoparvovirus 1. Feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and Canine Parvovirus (CPV-2), which causes the disease, are genetically closely related and show a high genomic similarity. Groups are formed according to the genomic differences of parvoviruses, especially in the VP2 gene. There are 3 groups as G1, G2, G3 in FP...
Geeta Moolchandani1, Jaiperkash Moolchandani2*, Nasima Iqbal3
Syed Mohsin Turab4, Muhammad Kashif5 and Lubna Farooq6
...re are some factors that leads to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, like maternal age ≥ 35 years, social factors, family history of seizures or neurologic disease, infertility treatment, previous neonatal death, severe preeclampsia, multiple gestation, intrauterine growth restriction, trauma, breech presentation and antepartum hemorrhage. The aim of current study was to identify the associated risk factors which can lead t...

Afrasyab Khan1,3, Ali Raza Jahejo1,3, Meng-li Qiao1,3, Xin-yu Han1,3, Raza Ali Mangi1,3, Ding Zhang1,3, Yu-hai Bi2, George F Gao1,3* and Wen-xia Tian1,3*

...ased. These results will lead to increased insights on M. synoviae infection resistance mechanisms and the role of NF-κB signaling pathway and other immune system genes in the control of the host immune response.

...

Rehana Shahida1, Shagufta Naz1*, Tasnim Farasat1, Saima Sharif1, Shah Jahan2 and Farkhanda Manzoor1

...amage initiated and that lead to damage of vascular endothelium in diabetes.

...

Yaseen1, Asad Ullah2*, Imad Khan2, Maryam Begum3, Sumbal Bibi3, Umber3, Namra3, Abbas Khan4, Shumaila Gul5 and Raheela Taj6

...sed into the environment lead to induced toxicity in a large number of non-target organisms. Some of these are non-biodegradable and are persistently present in environment leading to environmental pollution. These chemicals eventually reach aquatic bodies and cause various histopathological, hematological, bio-chemical and enzymatic alterations in the bodies of aquatic organisms, especially fish, le...

Waseem Abbas1, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro1*, Hasina Baloch1,  Muhammad Abubakar3, Muhammad Saleem Kalhoro1, Neluma Wali2, Mazhar Hussain Mangi1, Azhar Ali Laghari4, Shahid Hussain Abro1, Rani Wagan1 and Mehkar Hussain5

...s compared to Gilgit and leads to significant economic losses. This is the first study demonstrating the prevalence of an important pathogen in yak, zo and cow of Pakistan.

...

Huda S.J1*, Nasr T.M1, Mohanad A. Al-Bayati2

...Nanohemosome. As well as leading to improved cell health and increased RBC production.
 
Keywords | Hemorrhagic anemia, Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, Nanohemosomes, nano-medicine, Toxicity, Rabbit
...

Moazama Batool1*, Saima Naz2*, Sheeza Bano1, Sadia Nazir3, Ghulam Abbas4, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha5, Maria Lateef2 and Fatima Yasmin2

...y combination comprising lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and cadmium (Cd) was assessed on two freshwater fish species, Catla catla and Labeo rohita, employing probit analysis. Over a period of 90 days, mortality served as the primary toxicity criterion. The experiments were conducted under consistent conditions of pH (7), temperature (28.00.00°C), and water hardness (198.00 mgL-1), with three replicates for each dosage in the tests. Significant variations were not...

Kashif Abdaal, Aneeza Batool, Muhammad Tariq Navid*, Saeed Ahmed, Asma Saleem Qazi, Waseem Safdar, Haidar Ali, Mobeen Ur Rashid, Somia Rafaqat 

...rtant for a vaccine that leads to its success in preventing infectious diseases. It is crucial to address these challenges to make safer vaccines for effective infectious disease control and prevention to save humanity. Addressing challenges in vaccination coverage and gaps is crucial for global health. Vaccines have played a crucial role in global health preventing diseases and saving lives as evident from the rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines in respon...
ZAFAR IQBAL KHAN1*, KAFEEL AHMAD1, KHALID NAWAZ2, MUHAMMAD NADEEM3, ASMA ASHFAQ1,
BABAR MUNIR1, HAFSA MEMOONA3, MADIHA SANA3, FARZANA SHAHEEN1, NAUNAIN MEHMOOD4, HIRA MUQADAS4, MAHPARA SHEZADI5, IJAZ RASOOL NOORKA6, HUMAYUN BASHIR1,
MUDASRA MUNIR1, ILKER UGULU7 & YUNUS DOGAN7
...such as manganese, zinc, lead and nickel in the environment are currently increasing, mainly due to human activities. Zinc is essential element for several biochemical processes in plants. Any of these metals, at high concentrations in soil, can cause severe damage to physiological and biochemical activities of plants. Scarcity of fresh water in agricultural area enforced farmers to use industrial effluent and domestic wastewater for irrigation purpose. Ramzan...

ASADULLAH KHAN1, MUHAMMAD AYAZ KHAN1, ALIA NAZ1, ABDULLAH KHAN1 & NAUREEN AURANGZEB1

KOUSAR PERVEEN1*, MUHAMMAD AFZAL1, SANA SEHAR1 & SYED AMIR GILANI2

...care personnel plays the leading role. However, scant attention has been paid to understand the phenomena of compassionate care in developing countries. Therefore, current study aims to conduct an in-depth qualitative phenomenological investigation from a healthcare sector of a developing country i.e., Pakistan. For this purpose, current study conducts semi-structured interviews of registered nurses of a public sector hospital. This study selects nurses as uni...
NOREEN RAZA1*, TASNEEM A. SAQIB2, SYED NAEEMUL HASSAN NAQVI3, MUHAMMAD ZAHEER
KHAN2 & MAZHAR HIJAZI3

MUHAMMAD NAEEM RAZA1, KALSOOM SUGHRA1* & NADIA ZEESHAN1

...se of liver disease that leads toward liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This study designed to diagnose the prevalence of HCV genotypes circulating in Gujrat, Punjab. Blood samples of 3540 suspected patient were collected from July 2017 to January 2019 and analyzed for HCV infection by using qualitative PCR, confirmed cases were subjected to molecular genotyping on Real Time PCR (Applied Biosystems, Step One software). Results show 2750 out of 3540...

Putri Okta Shafura1, Mardiati Zain2*, Elihasridas2, Bima Bagaskara1, Ummi Amanah1, Laras Sukma Sucitra1, Bella Veliana Utami1, Roni Pazla2, Erpomen2, Ezi Masdia Putri3, Rusmana Wijaya Setia Ningrat2, Riris Delima Purba3, Ruslan Abdul Gopar3, Putut Suryo Negoro3

... production. The results lead to the conclusion that ammoniated citronella rations supplemented with 0.5% S. cerevisiae + 0.3% sulfur have the potential as ruminant feed because they can increase nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics and decrease methane gas production.
 
Keywords | Digestibility, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sulfur, Ammoniated citronella waste
...

Nabaa Fadhil Abbas*, Raffal A. Omar

...entanil with gel did not lead to full wound closure. Remifentanil with epinephrine resulted in the complete healing of burn wounds. The examination revealed that the outermost layer of the skin, known as the epidermis, appeared normal in thickness and structure, indicating the restoration of turnover and regeneration of epidermal cells to normal levels. The study concluded that tramadol and remifentanil with epinephrine impede burn wound healing in rabbits, hi...
Muhammad Atif Raza1, Muhammad Tariq Javed2, Muhammad Fiaz1*, Muhammad Shakeel3, Muhammad Shahbaz Ul Haq2, Amna Kanwal2, Syeda Maryam Hussain1 and Muhammad Zubair Siddiqi4
...ive use of antibiotic is leading to the induction of antimicrobial resistance in microorganism. Main aim of this study was to find out substitute of antibiotic against Fowl Typhoid in broiler in terms of immunological, serum biochemistry and lipid profile parameters. Broiler chicks (Age = 1 d and n = 90) were kept under uniform management conditions. Chicks were divided randomly into six groups on day ten of their age with 15 replicates in each; control negati...
Abdul Asim Farooq1,2*, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Hamid Akbar1
Muhammad Ashraf3, Saima Inayat4, Muhammad Usman Saleem5
Saeed Murtaza2, Maqbool Hussain Shah2 and Muhammad Arshad Javid5
...how delayed healing that leads to intensified morbidity. Bone marrow aspirate (BMA) has been suggested as an efficient biological adjuvant for healing long bone fractures. BMA comprises bone mesenchymal stem cells. This study aims to assess the potential of autologous BMA on metacarpal and metatarsal fracture of Beetal goats presented at the surgery clinic of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore, Pakistan. Beetal goats were selected (n=20), ...

Ping Sheng Ye1, Lin Li2, Yu Long Wu3 and Yuan Shu Zhang1*

...nd IGF-1, and eventually lead to the decreased milk yield.

...
Muhammad Ather Nadeem1, Bilal Ahmad Khan*1, Sadia Afzal2, Ahsan Aziz1,
Rizwan Maqbool3, Muhammad Mohsin Amin1, Amir Aziz4, Amjed Ali1, Muhammad
Adnan1, Durrishahwar5
...it > stem. This study leads to conclusion that 8% or higher concentration of C.
tinctorius leaf aqueous extract may be exploited to biologically suppress the E. cruss-galli.
...

Haroon Khan1*, M. Mubassir Khan1, Bakhitar Gul1, M. Fawad1 and Imtiaz Khan1

...ots, Asteraceae took the lead with 6 species. Among the weed species, 27 were annual and the rest 12 were perennial. Annuals were reported from all three sites, while perennials were found in the non-field area i.e. irrigation canals, field ridges, orchards, and undisturbed waste areas. Data regarding absolute and relative density, frequency and relative frequency and importance valve were recorded by the quadrate method. Cynodon dactylon had the highest relat...
Farrukh Avais1, Anser Ali1, Hamza Javed2, Muhammad Saleem3, Tehreem Tahir4,
Muhammad Rafiq5,*
...lour. Hyper-pigmentation leads to various skin disorders like melasma, sunspots, age
spots and freckles. Moreover, abnormal skin pigmentation is a serious aesthetic concern
which leads to psychosocial problems. Thus to achieve melanin inhibition, inhibition of
tyrosinase might be an effective approach. To this end we prepared methanolic (MeOH)
extracts from leaves and roots of ...

Afrah Adil Hassan1*, Hawraa F. H. Alowaid1, Majdy Faisal Majeed2 

...d by the accumulation of lead in multiple tissues and its interactions with bio-elements, essential for various biological functions. This study aimed to investigate the combined protective effects of Chrysin (Chy) and Ginkgo biloba (Gnk) against the bioaccumulative toxicity of Pb+2 on histological liver profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities in male adult rats. Adult male Wistar rats (250±10 g) were divided into four groups: group I (n = 6) served ...

Eman Ali Hussein1*, Majdy Faisal Majeed2

...rglycemia in rats, which leads to diabetic nephropathy. The goal of this investigation was to see if Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) flavonoid extract could protect the kidneys from the effects of (SZ). The goal of the current study was to determine if the ethanolic extract of (TFG) exhibited antioxidant activity against nephropathy resulting from the effects of diabetes due to (SZ). Animals in groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were employed as experimental groups, wherea...

Nabeel Akhtar1, Owais Iqbal1,2*, Imtiaz Ahmed Nizamani1, Rehana Naz Syed1 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi1

...lial growth of R. solani leading to 100% growth inhibition. Additionally, three fungicides, namely Systhane, Shincar, and Topsin M, were highly effective at all concentrations and caused 100% growth inhibition of M. phaseolina, followed by Antracol (87.22%) at 800 ppm. The Nativo, Evito and Moncut were moderately effective at 1000 ppm, causing more than 78% mycelial growth inhibition of M. phaseolina. Moreover, the ten fungicidal treatments were considerably e...

Fitrimawati*, James Hellyward

... This research shows the leading commodities are competitiveness and priority to be developed in West Sumatera, especially such as the beef cattle, goats and also buffalo, laying hens, broilers, local chickens and ducks. The data obtained were analyzed using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. This research produces the leading commodities competitively and becomes the priority to be developed in West Sumatera, su...

Amir Afzal1*, Sairah Syed1, Hafiz Husnain Nawaz2, Ruqeah Mustafa1, Marjan Aziz1, Madeeha Khan1, Azra Khan3, Uzma Javed1, Attiq Ur Rehman4, Rubab Altaf 5 and Qamar Shakil6

...ses production expenses, leading to billions of dollars in economic damages globally every year. Understanding the lifecycle of pathogens is vital in formulating effective management strategies for plant diseases. Pst has a complex life cycle that entails both sexual and asexual reproduction, facilitating the rapid evolution of new strains. The evolution of new races is primarily driven by the selection pressure imposed by the deployment of resistance genes in...
Zafar Hussain , Muhammad Zubair , Wasif Nouman , Irfan Ashraf , Maryam , Rahmatullah Qureshi, Muhammad Farrakh Nawaz and Khalil Ahmed Ansari
Ashraf Khan1, Muhammad Waseem Khan2,3, Imrana Niaz Sultan2, Abdul Manan Kakar4, Saad Ullah5 and Afrasiab Khan Tareen2*
...etals including arsenic, lead, iron, sodium, cobalt and chromium were below the recommended standard values of World Health Organization (WHO). Mercury and aluminum contents were comparatively higher in buffalo milk (2.02±0.49 ppm and 0.51±0.32 ppm) than in cow milk (1.91±0.48 ppm and 0.46±0.34 ppm). The contents of antimony were higher in cow milk. The presence of metal contents in milk was greatly influenced by environmental facto...

Hadi Awad Hassooni1, Safaa Sabbar Atiyah2*, Alaa Saleh Jassim1 

...onitoring, which in turn leads to improving the overall productivity of animals. This research aims to study the linkage among the genetic marker DIK20 and several physiological and productive features in Holstein cattles, which includes milk production, mastitis, and percentages of fat, lactose, and protein. The research was conducted in one milk production season, starting from October 2022 to April 2023, using 60 Holstein cows aged between 4-6 years. The re...

Yasameen Waleed Al-Abedi1, Murtadha Kadhim Hasan2*, Alaa Abdalhadi Halboti3, Ali Abdulhussein Saleh Alsaeedi3, Rafed Abbas Kadhum1

...the grander pathway that leads to exploring the essence of epigenetic modifications and their role in gene regulation. The precise gene regulation has a potential to provide better understanding of the intricate process as well as the wide spectrum of biological processes. Also, it can offer novel therapeutic interventions. Epigenetic modifications are one of the most perspective field in regulating gene – with CRISPR-Cas as the instrument for the target...

Basheer Ahmad, Nowsherwan Zarif, Saif Ullah Khan, Salman Ahmad and Anwar Ali*

...w, reaching 208 million, leading to increased pressure on food production and forest resources. To tackle this problem, there is a pressing need for effective food structures that not only improve efficiency and financial outcomes but also bring about positive ecological impacts and gain social acceptance. Traditional land management practices like agri forestry offer a promising solution in Pakistan. To plant trees on private lands, agroforestry enables pure ...
Afra Siab1, Saif Ullah Khan1, Anwar Ali1, Nowsherwan Zarif1, Basheer Ahmad1, Salman Ahmad1
...d how to plant, that can lead to more production. The study also recommends to solve the sale problems, that is wood based industries be established in the rural area to make the efficient use of wood grown on farmlands....
Muhammad Farooq1*, Lal Badshah2 and Sanam Zarif1
... with 6 species were the leading families. Mimosaceae (5 spp.) Caryophyllaceae (4 spp.) were the next dominant families. The other families had either 3 or less than 3 species. Biological spectrum of flora indicated that therophytes (34 spp., 36.5%), followed by nanophanerophytes (16 spp., 17 %) were the dominant. Similarly, hemicryptophytes (14 spp., 15%), chamaephytes (11 spp., 11.8%), microphanerophytes (10 spp., 10.7%) and geophytes (8 spp., 9%) were the o...
Islam Ullah Shah, Anwar Ali, Ayaz Khan and Sultan Muhammad
...n all four stands as the leading dominant specie. Average Density of all stands was calculated as 342.88 trees/ha with basal area 55.34144 m2/ha. The average volume of all stands was calculated as 132.324m3/ha. The distribution of Pinus gerardiana is satisfactory in almost all the stands however the distribution of associated species are poor. Due to poor distribution and gaps in small size middle and in large classes, Juniperus...
Ghayyas Ahmad, Anwar Ali, Miskeen Ali and Irfan Akhtar
... timber. However, it may lead to reduction in growth rate of the tree. Populus euramericana cv-1-214 is a hybrid poplar that has been planted on a large scale in Pakistan for the production of low to medium quality timber. This long term study, covering almost the complete rotation length of the Hybrid poplar, was conducted to find out the effects of three different intensities of pruning i.e. pruning upto ½ height, pruning upto ⅓ height and ...
Bashir Ahmed Wani1, Shakeel Haider Zaidi2, Hakim Shah3 and Muhammad Muslim4
... and used by a number of leading manufacturing units of Greco-Arabic, Homeopathic medicines as well as allied food processing and cosmetic industries.

Keywords: Marketing potential, Herbal drugs, Medicinal plants.

...
Muhamamd Arif Chaudhary and Ejaz Ahmed
...ak in cross sections are leading to the conclusion that there have been the possibility of some fungal attack resulting in blockage of conducting tissues, causing heart wood rot followed by termite attack and elimination of Rahizobial nodulation. Therefore, it is suggested to carry out an intensive field survey; study the biology, physiology and ecology of the suspected fungi and Rhizobial nodulation pattern.

...
Shams-ur-Rehman, Altaf Hussain and Riaz A. Khattak
...ral developing countries leading to little or no progress in this direction Involving local communities in reforestation and selection of suitable species in combating salinity seem to be one of the economically viable approaches to reduce poverty as several million ha. area has been severely hit by this menace in many countries of South Asia. The paper describes the screening/selection of species following use of some soil amendments to successfully establish...
Muhammad Tahir Laeeq
... for wood in the country lead to the introduction of exotic poplars in late fifties. The first introductions were from Italy followed by clones from U.S.A., Yugoslavia, Turkey, Netherlands. Australia, etc. Research work conducted over a period of 15 years indicated the suitability of some clones like Populus euramericana CV-I-214, and Populus deltoides clones 63/51, 18/62, 90/60, 69/55 for large scale planting in different parts of the country....
Kh. Rizwan Shehzad, Z. H. Malik and Rizwana Aleem Qureshi
...s were named after the 3 leading dominants. The following five communities were recognized: (I) Melia-Lantana-Stellaria, (II) Morus-Dodonaea Melilotus, (III) Dodonaea-Grewia-Melia, (IV) Stellaria-Zizyphus-Dodonaea, (V) Oxalis-Pinus-Olea Communities. Index of diversity and its components decreased from low altitude to high altitude, but in Oxalis-Pinus-Olea community it was high. Soils were generally loamy, sandy loamy ...
A. U. Khan, S. Siddique and F. Naz
...l pattern. The amount of lead absorbed by the trees along the road is greater than those growing in the garden but the effect is more pronounced on some than others. The tree Ficus species are better adapted to survive dehydration stress compared to other species which are more susceptible and are therefore more prone to pollution injuries. The chemical and physical forms of the pollutants, effects of exposure dosage on the plants, alongwith plant physiology ...
Zakaullah
...exudation and eventually leading to the death of entire plant. The dead wood was found attacked by the borers (insects)....
M. Khan and M. Kleine
...ation period which would lead to an increased productivity of these forests. ...
R. F. Fisher and Zahid Javid
...eratures and irrigation lead to nitrification rates (7.14 mg NO3--N kg-1 soil 24 days-1). In addition, water logging leads to denitrification rates as high or higher than the nitrification rates. Consequently irrigation practices that promote anaerobic conditions through water logging, run the very great risk of removing from the site the nitrogen added through shisham croppi...
S. M. Chughtai, Jehandar Shah, Syed Zahir Shah and Sardar Hussain Shah
...m spontaneum was the leading dominant; on relatively drier sites, Astragalus graveolens took the lead over; and in more wet habitats, Salvia-Polypogon community dominated the scene. The stable land was dominated by Cynodon-Imperata community representing a relatively a advanced stage of succession....
M. Ihsanur Rahman Khan
...omadic tribal people who lead a pastoral life and their chief occupation then was rearing of livestock. It also provided fuelwood, charcoal and some timber....
Abeedullah Jan
...teachings of their great leader, Chairman Mao such as:...
Anwar Ahmad Khan and Altaf Ahmad
...edge of medicinal plants lead to its logical conclusion, that is, gradual evolution of science of Taxonomy. In the present age because of synthetic products some of the medicinal plants have lost their old value but still a considerable number of drugs mentioned in the formularies are manufactured from plants. A casual look on the national formulary booklet confirms this statement.
Pakistan is importing crude extract of drug plants from developed countries...
Dr. K. M. Salim and Gul Shahid
... ft.) near the main road leading to Nowshera. The Cherat hills are barren, mountaineous and rocky with few level plains. Cherat is a cantonment town built by the British Army authorities in 1865. The forests around the cantonment were declared as Forest Reserve in that year and protected from felling, grazing and other disturbances. There are other villages in the area, which are connected to one another by narrow and difficult paths, and by modera...

Muhammad Ali Raza1*, Wali Ullah Falahi2, Aneela Zameer Durrani3, Bilques Bano4, Muhammad Muddasir Ali3, Nazia Rubab4, Syed Tasadak Mehdi4, Muhammad Wasim Iqbal5, Kumayl Hassan Akhtar6, Aqeel Raza7, Muawuz Ijaz3, Ujala Fatima Shan3, Muhammad Aftab3

...tion across the globe is leading to the increased need to produce food. The high value of livestock products and their increasing demand creates a niche for the consumption of a variety of livestock products, which contribute to the food security (Lindahl et al. 2019). Due to the excessive use of common antibiotics (penicillin and oxytetracycline), the antibiotic residues remain in livestock products like meat (beef, mutton and chicken), it

Ahmad Shandookh Hameed1, Ali Abd Kadhum2 and Murtada Wafi Beden1

...ary infection that could lead to an over whelming infections which very difficult to counteract during the course of the infection. The primary aim of the study at evaluating the most common secondary pathogens ,their antibiotic resistant profile and mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 patients. A total of 41 patients with ventilator associated pneumonia of whom 23 were confirmed positive. for SARS-CoV-2 (infectious group) and 18 were tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 (...

Muazzam Hashmi1, Braima Pascal Komba1, Muhammad Waqas Alam Chattha2*, Almazea Fatima1, Muhammad Farooq Hyder3

...cilities like good roads leading to the farms and storage facilities are made available to the florists for suitable marketing.

...

Riam Yousfe Muttair 

...y also creates the doors leading us to the mechanism of the development of cancer cells as well as the immune system that can kill the cancer cells. Checkpoint inhibitors, the main pillars of the immunotherapy, are explored in a detailed manner taking into account some of the most important checkpoint pathways and their clinical implications. Next-generation checkpoint inhibitor is the same thing as opening new ways in which the success of cancer immunotherapy...

Saddam Hussain1, Muhammad Asrar2*, Usama Saleem2, Dilbar Hussain3, Muhammad Sohail Qadir3, Muhammad Saleem3, Rashid Ali2, Zeeshan Javed2 and Mubshar Saleem4

...susceptible to termites, leading to an acute shortage of animal feed. In this review, we tried to reveal all about the damages of termites in agriculture of Pakistan. 

...

Tanveer Hussain1, Abdul Wajid1, Jabbar Khan2, Asif Nadeem1, Misbah Hussain1, Qurat ul-Ain1 and Masroor Babar1*

...e rapid changes may also lead to the changes in the functions of immune system.

...

Rumisha Raza1*, Ali Raza Awan1, Muhammad Wasim1, Shagufta Saeed1, Muhammad Tayyab1, Aftab Ahmed Anjum2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1 and Sehrish Firyal1*

...limatic conditions which leads to diverse range of avian species. Among avifauna of Pakistan, Birds of prey or raptors are well-known because of their beauty and speed of flight. Falcons, hawks, kites, eagles, and vulture are common birds of prey. They are geographically widespread and common among the vertebrates. Being predatory birds, they are found on the top of food chain. Unfortunately, birds of prey are facing serious threats such as loss of habitat, po...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 3, pp. 1001-1500

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