Sandeep Satapathy and Rupam Ghosh

... triggers virus specific immune response.

...

Ye Liu2, Yulong Cong2, Yiming Shao1*

...ation roles in improving immune responses of vaccines. Herein, we review recent developments of HIV Tat as immunoregulator using for optimizing the efficacy of vaccines. By highlighting preclinical/clinical applications of Tat and its working mechanisms, this review exhibits the superior potential of Tat as immunoregulator on optimizing immune responses mediated by vaccines. These examples of selected studies will provide re...

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...e infection, disease and immune responses caused by a specific pathogen in the absence of interfering maternal antibodies, other maternal immune regulators, and intestinal and environmental microbes. Due to the similarities between pigs and humans in terms of genetics, physiology, intestinal anatomy, and immune system, pig is particularly a suitable animal species for the modeling of human...

Qin Zhao1,2, Yani Sun1,2, Gaiping Zhang1,3, Frederik Widen4, En-Min Zhou1,2,*

zhouem@nwsuaf.edu.cn

...f the protective humoral immune response. Six antigenic domains in the capsid protein have been identified. The fragmented proteins in these domains are analyzed for their application in serological diagnosis of HEV.

...

Weili Kong1, Guangpeng Ma2 and Jinhua Liu1*

...feat the cellular innate immune responses. Here, we discuss those different effects of CTT truncation or elongation of NS1 protein in different genetic backgrounds of influenza experimentations. Conclusively, it can be stated that CTT confers a positive role during the infection of influenza A viruses. However, this regulation is contributed by multiple factors and has variable impact on the pathobiology of influenza A viruses.

...

Suresh V Kuchipudi* and Kin-Chow Chang

 

...ns of skeletal muscle to immune response and virus pathogenesis are increasingly recognized. Recent evidence strongly indicated that skeletal muscle cells fully support productive replication of influenza A virus (IAV) and could play an important role in disease outcome. We are of the opinion that skeletal muscle could be a key innate immune tissue/organ in the pathogenesis of influenza and other systemic viral infections wh...

Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

...wed that the host innate immune responses to infection play important role in the pathologenesis of NDV, and correlate with the severity of the clinical disease. Virulent strains of different genotypes induce distinct pathological manifestations in chicken organs, especially in lymphoid tissues. Genotype VIId of NDV, which is currently endemic in many countries of Asian and Middle East, replicates at a significantly higher level, induces more potent innate ant...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...g cascades of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immune dysfunction. Studies of the innate immune responses to HP-PRRSV infection are crucial to gaining insight into...

Huaichang Sun

...ns which compromises the immune protection of conventional vaccines. RNA interference (RNAi) has becoming a feasible strategy against various virus infections. Recently, a significant advance in RNAi technology is the use of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) to fight virus infections. However, different strategies are needed to prevent virus variation or mutation escape. This review is intended to present the current situation of antiviral roles of amiRNAs, again...

Shumaila Manzoor1, Afshan Ahmed1 and Muhammad Abubakar2*

... ELISA and SNT. The peak immune response measured by SNT was 2.8log10 whereas ELISA detected serum antibody titer up to 2.4 log10. Findings showed that highest titers were seen in animals of age > 2 years i.e. 1.70 log10 (for serotype Asia 1), 1.99 log10 (for serotype A) and 1.53 log10 (for serotype O) in ELISA while in SNT, antibody titers were found to be 1.86 log10 (for...

Muhammad Arif Zafar1, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1*, Aayesha Riaz1, Asim Shamim2, Muhammad Farooq Iqbal1 and Arfan Yousaf

E-mail | murtazhassan@yahoo.com

...enous vaccine along with immune-modulators and to compare its efficacy with autogenous vaccine alone and partial excision of the lesions. To this end, nine animals were selected clinical and sporadic papillomas different body parts. These animals were divided into three groups; Group A animals were operated for partial excision of the lesions, Group B were inoculated with autogenous vaccine alone and Group C were treated with inoculation of autogenous vac...

Jonas Johansson Wensman1*a, Karl-Johan Leuchowius2,3 a, Jiting Yan1, Anna-Lena Berg4, Liv Bode5, Hanns Ludwig5, Sandor Belak6, Ulf Landegren2, Ola Soderberg2, Mikael Berg6

...ence despite a prominent immune response are not known. Here we have used in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA), a selective tool for studying virus-host protein-protein interactions. BDV P (phosphoprotein) and N (nucleoprotein) have previously been reported to interact with several host proteins, thereby interfering with various signaling pathways. In this study, we focused on some of these interactions (BDV P-HMGB1, BDV N/P-Cdc2). First, we used rat...

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...nemia, plasmacytosis and immune complex disease. Due to lack of success in eradicating Aleutian disease (AD) by stamping out, a new strategy for disease control with focus on evaluation of disease progression has been proposed. For estimation of antibodies in serum and dried blood samples collected from mink, a VP2 ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) system was recently evaluated. However, such estimations of disease progression a...

Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

...isms underlying the host immune response to the infectious agents is necessary. Identification of the genes, and their variants, involved in innate immune responses is essential for the understanding of this inflammatory disease and to identify potential genetic markers for resistance to mastitis. This article presents a systematic integration of complex biological interactions of 226 mammary gland genes to uncover underlyin...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...ces a suppression of the immune system during the acute disease, which favours the establishment and exacerbates the progression of secondary infections. This review gives an overview of the known immunosuppressive strategies of PPRV, among the Paramyxoviruses, as well as the strategies developed by this virus to evade the immune system, focusing on the newly identified factors involved. In the last years substantial progres...

Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud1,2, Fathy A. Abdel-Ghaffar2, Azza El-Amir2, Gamal Badr3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy1*

...tify;">Spleen is a major immune organ that plays an important role during malaria infection. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that affects many body organs including spleen. However, the effect of Plasmodium chabaudi infection on the spleen of the murine lupus model BWF1with the comparison between live and gamma irradiated parasite was not studied before. A total of 30 female BWF1 mice were randoml...

Ahmed Samy, Wesam Mady, Naglaa M. Haggag, Samah H. Mohamed, Ebtissam N. AlShamy, M.K. Hassan

...vely affecting the avian immune response facilitating the secondary infection. Many reports take into account the genotypic and pathogenic characterization of H9N2 in avian species. However little is known about the impact of different strains on the innate immune response. In the present study, using quantitative real-time PCR, cytokines gene expression were examined in response to infection with two strains of Egyptian H9N...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole, Oloke Julius Kola and Awoyelu Hilda Elukunbi

...ncidence of EBV in Human immune-deficient virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Two hundred and seventy eight HIV-infected individuals were screened for EBV antibodies over a period of four months (August to November, 2014). The sera of individuals were subjected to serological assay for IgM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean age of subjects was 39.5±0.48 years and the mean CD4+ was 384.27 ±17.77 cells/&...

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

Akbar Ali1,*, Khalil Mohamed2 and Fawzia Toulah3

 

...ants, pregnant women and immune compromised patients. Abortion is one of the most serious outcomes in pregnant women. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 162 women of child bearing age were included from Rafha city of Saudi Arabia. Demographic data was recorded. Specific Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM were detected in serum by ELISA method. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected using PCR. Most women were in the 20-29 years age group (48%), foll...
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...esses of cell growth and immune system. Thus, results from our current study indicate that DEG analysis of RNA-seq data help us better understand the precise mechanisms of PEDV in pig PBMC. 
...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
...s (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with characteristic organ involvement and autoantibodies production. The pathogenicity and etiology of the disease has yet to be elucidated. It is presently accepted that environmental factors trigger the disease in genetically sensitive individuals. Gluten, a protein fraction commonly found in wheat grains, associated with food related disorders and a number of autoimmune diseases. We...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...oth humoral and cellular immune responses against antigens encoded by recombinant DNA. The goal of this study was to construct Egy-H5 plasmid DNA-based vaccine against a currently circulating avian influenza virus H5N1 strain in Egypt targeting the HA gene. The HA gene of AIV Egyptian strain H5N1 was codon optimized for chicken biased codon and sub-cloned into pCAGGS mammalian expression vector under the control of chicken β-actin promoter. The construct ...
Naila Chand1,*, Shabana Naz2, Hamza Maris1, Rifat Ullhah Khan1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi1

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...en recognition by innate immune receptors and establish first line of defense against viral infections. When specific cellular receptors recognize a virus they trigger the translation of inflammatory cytokine and chemokines leading to establishment of an antiviral state of the host. In this review, we discuss the recent understanding in host responses to avian viral infection and their impact in health and disease. 

...
Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Atif Prince3, Naimat Ullah Khan1 and Mumtaz Ali Khan1
... both active and passive immune system if given before 75 days of parturition.
...
Zia-ur-Rehaman1, Naila Chand1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Rifat Ullah Khan2,*
...ent temperature (HAT) on immune response and oxidative status of four broiler strains. Day old broiler chicks (n=242) of four different commercial strains (Ross, Hubbard, Cobb and Arber Acer) were placed in brooding room in first two weeks and then chicks were divided into two groups: TN and HAT zones. Chicks in TN group were housed at constant room temperature, while chicks in HAT zone were kept at high ambient temperature. Chicks in each group were furt...
Yanjie Guo1, Weini Wu1, Hongmei Wang2, Xiao Guo2 and Yongping Xu2,*
...egration of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. The nerves that branch from the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) are a major source of sympathetic nerves, which dominate the immune response of the female reproductive system. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an important Th1 cytokine and plays an important role in pregnancy. To explore whether or not Th1 cytokines influence the physiological state of the female reproductive...
Youbao Zhong1, Xianlai Zhang1, Xiaofen Hu1 and Yong Li1, 2,*
... small intestine mucosal immune barrier, and the distribution characteristics of the mast cells demonstrated great significance for the hedgehog’s immune system.
...
Ambreen Asghar, Tasleem Akhtar, Nadeem Sheikh*
...ies in the metabolic and immune system. Present work was designed to evaluate the variations in serum protein level induced by fat rich diet. For this purpose, two groups of Wister rats were fed with diets carrying difference in percentage of fats. Protein profiling of treated groups indicated a marked increase in serum protein (related to iron metabolism and immune response) level compared to low fat-fed rats. Additionally,...
Jun-Ying Liu, He-He Liu*, Jie Kou, Yang-Mei Zhao, Ji-Wen Wang, Liang Li and Xiao-Hui Du
...amined after a model for immune stress was implemented through LPS injection in Peking ducks. The results from this assay suggested that LPS injection significantly increased the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in bursa of Fabricius (P<0.05), along with an increase in the concentrations of immunoglobulin-G (IgG) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) in the serum of ducks at 1 day and 7 days after LPS injection (P<0.05). Ho...
Lotta Wahldén1, 3, Ulf Emanuelson1, Torsten Møller2 and Jonas Johansson Wensman1*
...t no studies to evaluate immune response after vaccination have been performed. The objective of this study was to gain more knowledge about immune response following vaccination of the African wild dog, in order to improve husbandry in zoos and help wildlife conservation. In total, 146 serum samples from 47 individuals were analyzed. Serum neutralization test was used to determine presence of CDV antibodies, and an ind...
Jiji Li*, Tianyang Zu, Xiangli Dong, Xiao Yang, Wei Liu and Changwen Wu
...secreted as a part of an immune reponse. However, while the role of chemokines has been described extensively in mammals, little is known regarding such immune responses in fish species. The current study reports on the gene expression and molecular characteristics of three members of the CC family of chemokines: 1) dual chemokine ligand CCL17; 2) homeostatic chemokines ligand CCL21; and 3) CCL24 in response to bacterial cha...
Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam1, Iram Gull1, Zaigham Abbas2,* and Muhammad Amin Athar1
...r and hepatitis with its immune modulating properties as well as through its direct action on target cells. The recombinant expression of some proteins in E. coli produces inclusion bodies which are misfolded proteins. The objective of this study was soluble expression of IFNα2-Tα1fusion protein in E. coli using pET-SUMO vector and determination of its biological activity. SUMO-IFNα2-Tα1 was successfully expressed in solub...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
...strains and evaluate its immune responses in rabbits, goats and sheep. C. perfringens were isolated from enterotoxaemia suspected sheep and goats from the endemic areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan during 2016. The isolates were initially identified through colony characters, Gram staining and biochemical tests. The identified isolates were quantified on blood agar and confirmed through PCR. Toxins were extracted, quantified, formalized and ...
Fangxiao Dong1,2, Xuan Luo1,2, Delu Yuan1,2, Aixin Liang1,2* and Liguo Yang1,2*
...of animals, however, the immune response is still unsatisfactory, especially in large animals. The present study aimed to investigate whether tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) could be applied as signal peptide for enhancing the effect of somatostatin DNA vaccine. A novel recombinant plasmid pEGS/2SS-tPA encoding two copies of somatostatin genes fused to tPA signal sequence was succesfully constructed and identified in MCF-7 cells. Subsequently,...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...s are attributed to host immune evasion, short-term immunity both in natural infection post-vaccination in target species and repeated host susceptibility. However, these genes are variable among ORFV isolates/strains as they are not located in central part of genome and some of them are either virus specific namely Viral interferon resistant (VIR) and GM-CSF/IL2 inhibition factor (GIF) genes and or host specific namely vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF...
Jingen Xu1, Yang Liu2, Erhui Jin1, Youfang Gu1, Qin Zhang3 and Shenghe Li1,*
...ation for exploration of immune functions and genetic control of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets. Also, several differentially expressed immune-related genes may be candidate genes for disease resistance breeding in pigs.
...

Ghulam Abbas1, Khalid Pervez Akhtar1, Muhammad Ahsan2, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Fiaz Ahmad1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

...o be disease free (field immune). However, combined data showed that 43 genotypes were highly resistant with 1.18 to 10 PDI while 29 were resistant with 10.24 to 24.85 PDI. Mung Kabuli (positive control) showed susceptible response with PDI value of 60 %. Thus 43 highly resistant genotypes proved to be a good source of resistance to YMD despite high disease pressure and can, therefore, be used directly as varieties to manage the disease after evaluation for ac...
Arifa Mehreen1, Iram Liaqat2,Muhammad Arshad3, Muzzamil Waheed4 and Najma Arshad1,*
... bacterial virulence and immune evasion mechanisms provide novel opportunities to adopt preventive measures and design therapeutics against most prevailing resistant and virulent strains. With this background, this study was designed to characterize Staphylococcus aureus, the most common pathogen,using conventional microbiological and molecular methods. The agar disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility. Virulence-associat...

Jafar Aqeel Naqi1, Abdul Mateen1, Dilawar Hussain2,*, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Sajjad Hussain1 and Abuzar Tabasum1 

...n growth performance and immune response in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A total of 150 juvenile’s tilapia were taken randomly and divided into five experimental units (10 fishes per unit) with three replicates. Fish was hand feeded containing five different levels of garlic (T1, control) 2.5 (T2), 5.0 (T3), 7.5 (T4), and 10g/500g (T5) in powdered form. Fish were fed at 6% of body wei...
Tünay Kontaş Aşkar1,*, Şinasi Aşkar1, Olga Büyükleblebici2 and Murat Güzel3
...sis was performed by the immune fluorescence antibody test with antibody titter ≥1:128 and lymph node smear examination. In blood samples of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis, levels of malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, nitric oxide, myeloperoxidase, adenosine deaminase and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1β) were determined and compared with the healthy controls. Significantly high levels of plasma malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, myelop...

 Ihsan Ali1#, Asim Aslam1*, Habib-ur-Rehman2, Beenish Zahid3, Ishtiaq Ahmed1

Effect of fish oil on growth performance and immune response in experimentally infected broiler chicken with avian influenza virus H9N2
...ultry which cause
immune suppression and immune organs damage in broilers. Supplementations of
fish oil (FO) enhance the immune status and subside inflammation. This study was
design to observe the effects of Fish oil on lymphoid organs through
histopathology, growth performance and antibody response in H9N2 challenged
broilers. A total of 80 chicks were ...
Muhammad Shabir Shaheen1, Shahid Mehmood1, Athar Mahmud1, Jibran Hussain1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi2, Muhammad Yaqoob3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Arshad Javid4,*
...vel in blood with better immune response that led to higher profit margin. All these parameters were significantly (P<0.05) lowest on gas brooder in comparison of brooding systems.
...
Jian Wang1,*, Zhi Liu2, Sheng Xu2, Mei-Fen Hu2, Xiao-Rui Liu1 and Wen-Jie Cai1
...iety of inflammatory and immune response. To investigate the effect of hemodialysis on the expression of CXCL8 in serum and its mRNA in neutrophils of the patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). It was used to dynamically observe of Hemodialysis on the concentration of the CXCL8 in serum and the levels of CXCL8 mRNA in neutrophils were respectively measured by ELISA and PCR. The house keeping gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as...

Omer Baris Ince* 

...given information on the immune ratio of the animals. As a result, prevalence was observed to be 6.6% for breeding enterprises, 13.3% in bovine animals and 1% in ovine animals individually. Prevalence was found 13.3% throughout Konya. Generic immune ratio in bovine animals was found 58.8% for serotype O and 61.1% for serotype A; and in sheep, 51% for serotype O and 55% for serotype A. Difference was detected to be significan...
Sakhra Mahmood1, M. Younus1, A. Aslam1, A.A. Anjum2, S. Umar3, Aamerzish Mushtaq3 and M.L. Sohail4,*
...tal leukocyte count) and immune response were recorded and analyzed by duncan test for 6 weeks. Results showed significant reduction in the deleterious effects of AFB1 in each of the tested parameters during the course of the study. During 5th week, all the tested parameters had non-significant differences with the control group and were brought back to normal due to detoxification action of SC in experimental quails. This study reports the success ...
Fan Yi1,2, Xiaobin Yang1, Shigen Ye1, Hua Li1 and Ruijun Li1,*
...% HCT feeding had higher immune protection against Edwarsiella tarda infection; and the relative protection ratios were 60% and 50%, respectively. It was also obtained that interval feeding experiments also significantly boost non-specific immunological function of P. olivaceus compared with continues feeding experiments, HCT application in P. olivaceus farming potentially enhances P. olivaceus resistance against E. tarda inf...
Sheng Niu1, Ali-Raza Jahejo1, Fa-jie Jia1, Xin Li1, Guan-bao Ning1, Ding Zhang1, Hai-li Ma1, Wei-fang Hao2, Wen-wei Gao1, Yu-jun Zhao1, Shi-min Gao1, Jian-hui Li1, Gui-lan Li1, Fang Yan1, Rong-kun Gao1, Huan-chun Chen1,3 and Wen-xia Tian1,*
...TA3 protein enhanced the immune response of chicken erythrocytes by up-regulating HDPs expression. Future studies may be aimed at elucidating the association between the expression of these peptides and the development of the TD.
...
Yan-Guo Han1,2, Jun-Hua Ye1, Qin-Tao Zhao1, Yong-Jie Huang2, Kai Li2, Yong-Fu Huang2 and Li Xu1,*
...vaccines induced humoral immune response, however, antibody response in T1 group were significantly stronger than that in T2 and C groups. Serum GH levels in T1 group was significantly higher than those in T2 and C groups, and serum PRL levels in T1 group was significantly higher than that in control group. Body weight of offsping rats in T1 group were significantly higher than that in control group at weeks 2 and 4 after birth, and body weight of offsping in ...
Rana Waqas Arshad1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Kamran Ashraf2 and Raheela Akhtar1,*
...in birds vaccinated with immune complex or intermediate plus vaccines. Consistently, histopathological lesions of IBD were less evident in live vector vaccine group in comparison to other groups. In addition live vector vaccine improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by keeping the bird healthy and by decreasing the immunosuppression. These results indicated that live vector vaccine has overall positive impact in terms of immunity, histopathology of bursa of ...

Shaikh Abdul Lateef, Zhou Lin, Wu Jian, Junjie Qian, Jonathan Hartanto Tan and Zheng Shusen*
 

... infectivity mechanisms, immune escape strategies, disease epidemiology and preventive measures associated with HBV. The current antiviral therapeutics are not providing adequate protection against HBV. It is mandatory to characterize and devise novel antiviral therapies to control the spread of hepatitis  

...
Gul Afshan1,2,*, Soumble Zulfiqar2, Sumaira Mehboob2, Muhammad Tahir Javed Khan1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,*
...es more than that of pre immune control sera (0.049). It is concluded from the current study that purified HCV3a envelope glycoprotein E2 has significant antigenic activity and can potentially be used as recombinant vaccines against HCV infection.
...
Huma Sattar1, Sehrish Firyal1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Habib-Ur -Rehman2, Muhammad Sajid Hasni3 and Amjad Islam Aqib4*
...TNF-α) gene on immune function and its role in mastitis susceptibility in Pakistani Sahiwal cows. In this study, a total of 150 Sahiwal cows were selected suffering from clinical (n=50), subclinical (n=50) mastitis along with non-mastitic (n=50) cows from different dairy farms of Punjab. TNF-α gene was amplified with specific primer and sequenced to get the full-length sequence of this gene. A total of nine changes including transition (...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1,*, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shakoor Ahmad2, Irshad Ahmad3, Ikramul Haq4, Kashif Prince1, Asad Ullah5, Muhammad Shoaib2, Shahid Zaman6, Amjad Islam Aqib7, Ghazunfar Rashid1, Mahboob Ali1, Imdad Ullah Khan4,Imad Khan5, Naimat Ullah4 and Muhammad Shahid8
...h rabbits and goats. The immune titer against C. perfringens type D was evaluated on 0, 7, 14, 28th and 60th day of vaccination with indirect haemagglutination test (IHA). The results showed significantly higher (P< 0.05) immune titer in vitamin E supplemented animals groups against C. perfringens type D epsilon toxin.
...
Hafiz Muhammad Arsalan1, Maria Altaf1, Zeemal Seemab Amin1, Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan2, Anum Shahzadi1, Hina Mudasser1, Iqra Maqsood1, Nazia Gulshan1, Saira Naseem3
...known, through formation immune complexes engross establishment harmonize. To determine the correlation between Anti-Oxidants and Biochemical status in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients. 60 clinically diagnosed Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients and 50 healthy persons were included in this study. 5 ml Blood was drawn and serum was separated. Anti-Oxidant Biomarkers, Serum micronutrients, serum Electrolyte balance was measured through spectrophotometric procedure. ...
Qamar Zeb1*, Silvia I. Rondon2, Hayat Badshah,1 and Arsalan Khan1

Muhammad Rehan3, Asim Aslam3, Javeria Umber4, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan3, Waqar Azeem3, Hassan Aftab5, Ahsan Anjum3, Muhammad Abid6, Abdul Hameed Khan3, Hafiz Hasnain Ayoub5, Altaf Hussain2 and Muhammad Farooq Khalid1* 

...s of innate and adaptive immune responses by modulating activity of monocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages and activation of T and B lymphocytes. Vitamin D modulates cytokine response and anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) production which boost innate immune response. Hypovitaminosis D is a significant risk factor for infectious and non-infectious diseases however its exact mechanism is still unknown, but low levels of vitamin...
Peng Ren1, Xian-Qing Liu1, Chao-Wu Yang2,3, Hua-Rui Du2,3, Xiao-Song Jiang2,3 and Yi-Ping Liu1*
...y. As a universal innate immune gene, Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) can activate the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway and regulate downstream gene expression. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding regions (CDS) of the MyD88 gene have also been reported to be associated with inter-subject differences in responses to Salmonella Pullorum infection in chickens. However, whether the ...
Irfan Shahzad Sheikh, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa, Nadeem Rashid, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa, Mohammad Masood Tariq*, Majed Rafeeq, Abdul Samad, Tauseef M Asmat and Asad Ullah
...examine the influence of immune modulators on the immune competence of broiler chickens. In three experiments (n=240 chicks in each), the immune modulators vitamin C (500 mg/l), vitamin E (200 mg/l), dietary nucleotides (100 mg/l) and DNA (100 mg/l) extracted from chicken liver were separately offered on days 1-21, 1-42 and 22-42 in experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Under standard broi...
Jing Zhang1,2, Xin Wang2, Yun Zhao2, Yongcheng Jin2, Yongfeng Zhou2, Junmei Wang2, Yurong Fu2, Rui Wang2, Ruihua Li2, Hengtong Fang2 and Hao Yu2,*
... dysfunction and mucosal immune disorders, the effect of zearalenone (ZEA) on intestinal mucosal function remains controversial. We aimed to explore the effects of short-term ZEA exposure on the mucosal barrier function in the colon. We found that the morphology of colonic mucosa in mice was normal after ZEA was administered by gavage for one week, the mRNA expression levels of mucosal Mucin-1, Mucin-2, regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (Reg3γ),...
Murtala Muhammad, Ting Zhang, Siyu Gong, Jing Bai, Jiansong Ju, Baohua Zhao* and Dong Liu*
...lity to evade the innate immune system was determined by whole blood killing, exposure to hydrogen peroxide, and biofilm assays. This study represents the first Report of S. iniae infection of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).
...
Khayyam1*, Muhammad Zahid1, Naiz Ali2 and Qadeem Khan3
...s resulted after the autoimmune thyroid disease. Out of total eighty two autoimmune thyroid patients 50 were Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients (HT) (30 female, mean age=34±1.43 years, 20 males mean age =38.35±1.17 years) and control group included 35 individuals (20 females mean age=31.65±1.77years, 15 males mean age=37.93±2.561 years). The 32 Grave’s disease (GD) patients (24 females m...

Sahib Khan1, Muhammad Naeem2, Tawab Khan3, Nasir Ahmad4* 

4LSB BASED DATA HIDING IN COMPLEX REGION OF DIGITAL IMAGES AND ITS EFFECTS ON EDGES AND HISTOGRAM
...ich prove this technique immune to histogram difference steganalysis. The
quality of the edges is preserved and a PNSR of greater than 74dB has been observed for different cover images
for the true edge based 4LSB steganography. The quality of stego images, edges can been observed qualitatively
and it be seen clearly that no significant changes are introduced due to hiding information in edges using the true
edge based steganography...

 Faizullah Mahar1, Syed Saad Azhar Ali1, Abid Karim1

DESIGN OF FIXED ORDER ROBUST CONTROLLER USING H∞ -NORM AND EVOLUTIONARY TECHNIQUES: COMPARISONS AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
...netic algorithm and immune algorithm) for the designing of a low, fixed order robust controller. To check the effectiveness of the proposed approach, resulting controller parameters are evaluated for performance analysis via extensive simulations. Simulation results and performance comparisons demonstrate the efficiency of proposed approaches.
...
Ming-Yan Shi2, Xu-Liang Yan1, Ping-Ping Han1, Yu-Jie Tang1 and Hui-Xia Li1*
...d the development of the immune system in 315 potential target genes, while 39 target genes were associated with adipogenesis and metabolism, immune responses, and stem cell differentiation. Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database showed that these differentially-expressed miRNAs were involved in several pathways and were target genes that could regulate SMSC differentiation into adipocytes. Ou...
Fei Wang1, Xianlai Zhang1, Youbao Zhong2, Xiaoen Tang3, Xiaofen Hu1
ShanShan Yang1, Shengwei Zhong1, Zuohong Zhou1, Jin Liu1, Xu Yuan1 
and Yong Li1*
...uroendocrine and mucosal immune system as an information molecule due to the high expression of VIP. It will provide the basis for clarifying the biological function of VIP in pigeons.
...
Shikun Ge1, 2, Yanli Yang3, Brindha Chelliappan4, 5, Antonysamy Michael5, Fagang Zhong1 and Xiaoying Zhang1, 2, 3, 4*
...additives to improve the immune status of animals and as passive therapy for veterinary diseases, and the egg yolk has proved to be a promising source of antibodies. However, the extraction methods and storage stability of IgY antibodies from egg yolk for feed supplements remain major problems in mass production. Based on Based on IgY antibody titer, IgY thermostability, IgY acid and alkali resistance, resistance to trypsin and pepsin, four different IgY purif...
Huma Abbas1, Muhammad Azhar Iqbal2, Muhammad Kamran3, Muhammad Umar Shahbaz3*, Haseeb Ullah Kamber1, Nazir Javed1, Muhammad Junaid1, Hira Abbas4 and Muhammad Ehetisham ul Haq3
Evaluation of Advanced Mung Bean Germplasm against Cercospora Leaf Spot and its In-vitro Management by Different Fungicides
... line/ variety was found immune and only one line (16051) was resistant against this disease. Five different fungicides Cymoxanil 8% + Mancozeb 64% (Curzate), Copper Hydroxide (Champion), Thiophanate-Methyl (Topsin-M), Pyraclostrobin + Metiram (Cabriotop), and Mifenoconazole (Score) were evaluated at 10, 50, 100, and 200 ppm concentration against C. canescens using poisoned food technique. Score at 100 ppm was found most effective (93.03%) against the disease ...
Muhammad Tahir Khan1, Shahid Mehmood2*, Athar Mahmud2Khalid Javed3 and Jibran Hussain2

 

... blood biochemistry, and immune antibody response. A total of 1200 newly hatched quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly allocated to five treatment groups. Each treatment group contained 40 birds and experiments were replicated six times using a completely randomized design (CRD). The experimental diets consisted of increasing levels of compost (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10%), but were otherwise iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Data were anal...
Neelam Pery1*, Fatima Ijaz1, Nayab Batool Rizvi1, Munawar Ali Munawar1 and Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq2*
...toid arthritis is an autoimmune disease with prevalence all over the world. Several therapeutics with different modes of action are available to deal with the disease but have failed to produce universal response leaving a large proportion of patients untreated. This is due to complex pathogenesis comprising a network of signaling pathways. By controlling one pathway, the pathogenesis continues through complementary pathways. Janus kinase and bruton’s ty...
Muhammad Saeed Shah1, Fazal Nasir2, Sana Ul Haq1 and Muhammad Tahir Khan2*
...on Pro";">The human immune system is a highly sophisticated system of biological structures that defends the human body against harmful antigens. In this paper, the concept of biological immune system, idiotypic network theory and clonal selection theory are applied in multi-robot cooperation. Idiotypic network theory governs the stimulation and suppression of an antibody in response to an antigen. Clonal selection theo...

Yuan Xing, Congming Tan, Yan Luo and Wenjun Liu* 

...timated. Used to measure immune and inflammatory mediators, qRT-PCR technique. Quercetin significantly (P<0.001) reduced IgE levels in the asthma mice serum. Inflammatory cells in the mice BALF are significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner through quercetin. Quercetin (P<0.05) significantly reduced the level of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4 and IL-5 cytokines and increased the level of IFN-π in allergic asthma mice caused by OVA. In contrast, t...
Mohsin Ali1, Nargis Haider Kakar2, Rida Dawood3,4, Qurat-ul-ain Fatima5, Zunera Tanveer2, Shoaib Ahmad Malik6, Tauseef Muhammad Asmat1, Asadullah1, Muhammad Masood Tariq Kiani1 and Mohammad Zahid Mustafa1*
... at risk of having other immune diseases including thyroid abnormalities. The current study, undertaken in collaboration with Shaikh Khalifa-Bin-Zayed Hospital Quetta, investigates the relation of thyroid abnormalities in 224 DM (both type 1 and type 2) patients. The parameters of age, duration of diabetes and type of treatment were measured. Venous blood was taken to investigate the thyroid profiles. Out of 224 patients examined, 67.85% showed the normal thyr...

Muhammad Umair Hassan1, Muhammad Aamer1, Muhammad Nawaz2, Abdul Rehman3, Talha Aslam3, Ubaid Afzal4, Bilal Ahmad Shahzad3, Muhammad Ahsin Ayub5, Faryal Ahmed1, Ma Qiaoying1, Su Qitao1 and Huang Guoqin1*

Agronomic Bio-Fortification of Wheat to Combat Zinc Deficiency in Developing Countries
...ient (IQ) levels, weaker immune system, and impaired physical and mental development. Wheat crop play a chief role in daily food requirement and calories need in developing countries, however, inherently wheat has lower Zn contents. Moreover, soil Zn deficiency further increasing the problem of low Zn contents in wheat grain. Thus, the finest way to combat the Zn deficiency is to produce the grains of wheat having desirable Zn contents at farmer’s field....
Sohail Akbar1*, Muhammad Shafiq2, Muhammad Yaqoob2, Muhammad Farooq Iqbal2, Kashif Ishaq2, Muhammad Kamran2, Shazia Shamas3, Arbab Sikander4 and Muhammad Hashim5
 
 
...oduction, metabolism and immune status of animal. Semen quality of exotic cattle is also affect by heat stress. Similarly, fertility decreases during highly warm months due to heat stress. In managemental perspective, cooling systems (Fans and mist) along with shades and grazing at night are involved in environmental modification. Due to heat stress, intake of dry matter decreases but requirement of energy increases along with the bypass protein. So there is n...

Saad A. Moussa1, Ahmed F. Afify1*, Suzan Salah2 and Ayman Hamed3

...nd identified by TEM and immune-peroxidase technique. Betacoronavirus 1 was detected by ELISA in 6 out of 20 fecal samples (30%), PCR detected 4 out of 6 ELISA positive samples at specific M.W. band of 236 bp by electrophoresis, and one sample was sequenced and submitted on Genbank with acc.no. MW173144, further phylogenetic sequence analysis revealed high percentage of identity with reference strains from different countries. Phylogenetic tree cleared that cu...
Muhammad Farhan Qadir1, Xin-Yu Han1, Meng-li Qiao1, Ying Wang1, Ding Zhang1, Yu-hai Bi1,2, Ali Raza Jahejo1,Qian-qian Cheng1 and Wen-xia Tian1,*
...pate in inflammation and immune responses. However, expression levels of prostaglandins-related genes in H9N2 infected chicken’s erythrocytes have not been studied yet. So, the present study was designed to investigate the PG-related genes in erythrocytes of H9N2 infected chickens. In current study, qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to identify the expression levels of PG-related genes (COX-2, GSTA3, PTGDS, PTGES, PTGER3 and PTGER4) in ery...
Xuhai Wang1,2, Xin Li1, Fangyuan Yuan1, Chaocheng Li1, Bin Jia1* and Song Jiang1*
...IL2RB activated stronger immune response in the resistant sheep, compared with the non-resistant sheep, and participating in the T cell immune response.
...

Muhamamd Rizwan1*, Muhammad Arshad2, Muhammad Kashif3, Aneela Zameer Durrani4, Asghar Abbas5, Tanveer Ahmad6, Muhammad Nadeem7 , Kinza Khan8

...c (Bacteria and Archaea) immune system that provides protection against viral infection. When bacteria recognize viral DNA inside it, bacteria incorporate small fragment of viral DNA into its genome at specific site termed as CRISPR locus. Insertion of viral DNA at CRISPR locus allows to remember, diagnose and clear the viral infection by the mechanism of sequence specific Adaptive Immunity. CRISPR Cas system is sustainable to combate with the mutation develop...
Amreen Zahra1, Mushtaq A. Saleem1*, Hasnain Javed2, Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan3, Muhammad Naveed1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori4
...targets the body’s immune system, including the CD4 cells, which help the immune system fight off infections. Gag-Pol are the principal viral elements in HIV-1, which cause disease initiation and progression. Here we present a comprehensive study, where both the in vitro and in-silico analyses were performed on HIV-1 from isolates of the Punjab area of Pakistan. The main objective in the curren...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Irfan Shahzad Sheikh1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Khalid Mehmood1, Rana Muhammad Bilal2 and Tauseef Asmat1
...ogy, serum biochemistry, immune response (ND and SRBC), intestinal histo-morphology, bacterial enumeration and cecal volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were measured. There were significant improvements in weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and average daily gain (ADG) in the treatment groups supplemented with extract (P<0.05) compared to control. Similarly, intestinal histo-morphic parameters and ileal bacterial count were significantly different betwe...

El-Habbaa, A.S.

...ing agar gel
immune-diffusion test (AGIDT) and indirect-Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and
molecular detection of viral DNA using PCR. Positive results were showed in 36 of
samples (28/30 of sheep samples and 8/10 of goat samples)upon isolation on ECE by the
3rd passage and 22 of samples (17/28 of sheep isolates and 5/8 of goat isolates) using
AGIDT and indirect-IFA. PCR detection showed positive resu...

Walaa ,S. Shabanaa;Bakr, A. Abdallaa; Eman, M. ELShalamia; I.M. Redab; M. A. Shalabyb

...div>vaccines improve the immune response against FMD and RVF, giving high titer of antibodies
against both diseases, and long duration of immunity in combined FMD/RVF vaccines.
...

Hiam M. Fakhry and Assem A.A.

...effect of zeolite on the immune response of oil adjuvanted trivalent Foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccine in sheep. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zeolite (Zeolith UF) as an adjuvant using inactivated trivalent foot and mouth disease virus, to induce protection against foot and mouth disease. This study was conducted in three sheep groups ; the first group was vaccinated intramuscularly (I/M) with trivalent foot and mouth disease z...

Afaf. A. Khedr*, Ekram Salama*, A. A. Samy**, Abdella, Y.A.*** and Suzan. K. Tolba***

...nchitis virus (IBV). The immune response for the antigenic component of both vaccines show high titre of antibodies, but Montanide ISA-70 adjuvanted vaccine was superior as shown in mean antibody titers against Avibacterium paragallinarum serovar A, B and C and infectious bronchitis. In addition, Montanide ISA-70 is lesser in viscosity that makes it easily injected, so, it is better to use for control of infectious coryza and infectious bronchitis diseases in ...

1Mona A. El-Manzalawy, 2Abeer A. Boseila , 3Hanan M. El Zahed

...ncluding Alum gel as the immune response detected by serum neutralization test (SNT). This vaccinated group of sheep was the highest while the group of sheep vaccinated with RVF vaccine adjuvanted with Alum gel only show the least antibody titer. The group of sheep, which was vaccinated with RVF, inactivated PMO without gel vaccine show intermediate level of antibodies. Moreover, the values of ED50 of the developed vaccines as well as the Alum vaccine alone we...

Sherif .M. Ibrahim*, Abd El-Razek. B. Abd El-Razek*. Hanan. M. El-Zahed Amal. A. Fatouh* and Ayatollah. I. Ibrahim*

...using the specific hyper-immune sera for each virus by virus neutrization test (VNT). As the Neutrization index (NI) for PPV and FPV isolates were 2 and 2.75 when neutrized by FPV hyperimmune sera (HIS) while it was 2.5 and 2 when neutrized by PPV (HIS). DNA was extracted from the produced pock lesions and polymerase chain reaction amplifying 578bp fragment of P4b gene and 1800 pb of fpv140 for FPV and PPV isolates and vacci...

Abd El-Hamid, M.I1; Seham, A. ElZeedy1; El-Sanousi A.A2, Reda, I.M2, Nehal, S. Saleh1., Abbas, A.M1

...ence of a virus-specific immune response in the horse. The current study focus on outbreak recorded in El Zahraa Stud for Arabian horses during 2014 and recorded officially for the first time by OIE in Egypt by the notification presented by Chairman, General Organization for Veterinary Services (GOVS), Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, the samples collected from the stud were either aborted fetal tissues or nasal swaps from apparently healthy anima...

Sahar A. Youssef1; Manal A. El-Shazly1,2; Azza G.Farag1,3; Eman A. Khattab1,2

... dot and tissue blotting immune-binding assay using authentic and induced antiserum for PNRSV.RT-PCR with specific PNRSV primer was used to confirm the obtained results. No amplified product was obtained from healthy control. The partial RNA3 movement protein product from PNRSV infected rose directly cloned using the TA cloning system. Nucleotide sequencing revealed the clones to be portion of PNRSV genome. These results indicate that the virus in rose is an i...

Hanan M. El-Zahed, Hanaa A. Mostafa, Nermeen M. El Sayed and Lamiaa M. Omar

...A Ab titers and the best immune response pattern to AI vaccine detected by HI test at this period.

...

Nashwa M. Helmy1, Ahmed S. Ahmed2, and Zeinab3 Y. Mohamed

...AT) using specific hyper immune serum against LSDV. Further identifications were carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and clinco-pathological investigation. Results: The results showed that 11/30 biopsies were positive by AGPT, 19/30 by IFAT and 30/30 by PCR. While results of sero-diagnosis showed that 45/100 from apparently healthy non vaccinated cattle and 68/100 from vaccinated cattle were positive by SNT respectively and in general 90/200 of test...

Lamya A. F. Ateya1, Said A. Ahmed 2, Mansour H. Ayman3, Khamees K. Ashraf 4, Heba A. Abdel-Hady 5

...AT) using specific hyper immune serum against Lumpy Skin Disease Virus. Further identifications were carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: 15 samples were +ve for LSDV by conventional PCR.The results showed that 11/23 biopsies were positive by IFAT. Molecular identification of LSD virus by using RT-PCR, revealed positive for amplification of bands at the predicted molecular size (1926bp). Neutralizing antibodies against LSDV were (55) out of...

Rana A. Rabiea1, Mohamed Fawzy2, Mohamed H. Khodeir3 and MokhtarM. EL-Tarabili2

...uated TRT vaccine on the immune response of turkey chickens.
Methods: Four groups of bronzy turkey chickens were used in this study; group-1 received live
attenuated TRT vaccine, group-2 received inactivated AI vaccine, group-3 received TRT and AI
vaccines and group-4 served as non-vaccinated control. The humoral immune response evaluated
serologically by using hemagglutination...
Hanan Sayed1, Mohamed S. Madkour1, Hussein A. Hussein2, Mounir Mohamed Elsaft 3,
Marwa F. El saied3, Ahmed A El-Sanousi2
...iv>Background: Prolonged immune protection for H9N2 and Newcastle in layer chicken rearing is an
important issue.
Objective: To evaluate the protection duration for H9N2 and NDV post vaccination by inactivated
trivalent (H9N2, LaSota, M41 and Var2 IB) vaccine based mainly on repetition of challenge.
Methods: We prepared formalin inactivated combined vaccine for Avian Influenza (H9N2N),
Newcastle (La),...

Hanan Sayed 1, Mohamed S. Madkour 1, Hussein A. Hussein 2, Ahmed A El-Sanousi 2

...iv>Background: Prolonged immune protection for classic and variant IBV in layer chicken rearing is an
important issue.
Objective: Evaluation of the protection duration for IBV (M41 and Var2) post vaccination by
inactivated combined (H9N2, LaSota, M41 and Var2 IB) vaccine based on laboratory tests and
repetition of challenge test.
Methods: We prepared formalin inactivated combined vaccine for Avian Inf...

Youssef A. Elgharbawy1, Mervat M. Ali1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Mohamed A. Shalaby2

... of cellular and humoral immune response and the challenge test showed that using inactivated LSDV vaccine improved by Montanide ISA 206 elevate the protective immunity level and considered more safe and avoid viral reversion and transmission of the virus by the blood feeding arthropods.

...
Shourok E. Aly 1, Karim Zaki1, Soad E. Elsayed2, M. Elgamal2, Ausama A. Yousef1, Mohamed A. Shalaby1
Karim M. Selim1, Abdullah A. Selim1, abdelsattar Arafa1, Hussein A. Hussein2, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2
...luation are the antibody immune response using hemagglutination
inhibition (HI) assay, protection post challenge, virus shedding and transmission in contact
non vaccinated chickens using qRT-PCR test.The genotype VII (GVII) vaccine group
induced higher HI titer by using GVII monospecific antigen and decreased virus shedding
than other group. The vaccinated group with genotype VII significantly reduced the virus
Guan-bao Ning1, Sheng Niu1, Yue-jian Li1,2, Xiao-xiao Lu1,3, Shi-xiong Yang1,  Ali-Raza Jahejo1, Ding Zhang1, Wei-fang Hao4, Wen-wei Gao1, Yu-jun Zhao1, Jian-hui Li1, Fang Yan1, Rong-kun Gao1, Yu-hai Bi1,5, Wen-xia Tian1* and Ling-xia Han6*
... study was to reveal the immune responses of MDV-infected erythrocytes of chicken by transcriptome analysis. Twenty specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were divided into two groups as control and treatment. The chickens of treatment group were inoculated with MDV, and blood samples of two groups were obtained at 14 and 22 days post-infection (dpi) for RNA extraction. Transcriptome analysis was performed to explore the immune
Chao-Qun Shi1, Hong-Ying Lin1, Jin-Qing Zheng1, Fan Yang1, Kwame Ayisi Lartey1, Dan-Ju Kang1, Hwa-Chian Robert Wang2, Ravi Gooneratne3*and Jin-Jun Chen1*
...has potential to improve immune function against E. coli infection, restored the intestinal structure and cured the E. coli-induced diarrhoea in mice.
...
Zhengyi Fu1,2,3,4, Rui Yang1,2,3, Shengjie Zhou1,2,3, Zhenhua Ma1,2,3* and Gang Yu1,2,3*
... MSTN-1 and MSTN-2), and immune-related genes (IL8, IL10, TGFβ1, TNF, INF-γ1, Mx, CRP, C3, C4, mTOR, mLST8, eIF4E, HSP70 and HSP90) to measure their relative expression level. Results from the present study indicate that the expression level of GHR, IGF-I and IGF-II is consistent with body length, but there is no similar rule between GHRH, GH, mstn-1 and mstn-2. TOR pathway related genes were more actively expressed in L grade. Heat shock protein ha...
Muhammad Farhan Qadir1, Xin-Yu Han1, Meng-li Qiao1, Qian-qian Cheng1
Raza Ali Mangi1, Ali Raza Jahejo1, Afrasyab Khan1, Yu-hai Bi1,2 and Wen-xia Tian1*
...pate in inflammation and immune responses. Influenza viruses interact with the host cells at cell surface, leading to cell death in human and animals through apoptosis. Current study was designed to investigate the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes in the H9N2 infected chicken erythrocytes. qRT-PCR and Western blot techniques were performed to determine the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes including Bax, Bcl-2 BAG-1, BAG-3 and STAT3 in H...
Muhammad Zahid1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Khushi Muhammad2,Muhammad Usman1,*, Muhammad Husnain1 and Nadeem Kamal3
... BW) after every 8 h and immune booster (Selevit® @ 20ml) daily by IV route. The members in groups B were treated similarly except that they were not given immune booster. Both groups were treated for three consecutive days. The effectiveness of a particular treatment regime was evaluated on the basis of disappearance of clinical biomarkers, while values of BEF positive animals’ hematological and serum b...
Zhiyuan Sun1, 3, Xuhui Zhang2,*, Xian Li3, Yanping Huang3, Shiyan Sui3, Weifeng Liu3, Guochao Ni3, Xiaozhou Xu1, Jianbo Yang1, Xue Lian1 and Hui Jia1
... glucocorticoid (GC) and immune response is critical for the maintenance of homeostasis. However, it remains elusive whether chronic stress affects lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced inflammation via the crosstalk. Pigs were administered LPS injection with or without continuous adrenocorticotropine hormone (ACTH) pretreatment. Twenty-four 30-day-old Duroc × Landrace × Large White crossbred piglets (12 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly assigned to 4 tre...
Song Jiang, Dong-liang Liu, Fa-lin Zhou, Xian-bin Mo, Qi-bin Yang, Jian-hua Huang, Li-shi Yang and Shi-gui Jiang*
...ion and the body’s immune process consume a lot of energy.
...

Ayesha Muzamil, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir, Shaukat Ali, Iram Liaqat, Aamir Ali, Muhammad Summer

... as asthma, allergy, autoimmune diseases, hepatitis, coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel disease and glomerulonephritis are linked directly or indirectly to different inflammatory processes. Conventionally, different steroidal and non steroidal drugs i.e., antibiotics are used to treat inflammatory disorders. Theses synthetic drugs have many side effects on the health such as gastrointestinal problems, stomach ulcers, dizziness, liver or kidney problems etc. C...
Shoaib Ahmed Pirzado1,2*, Wu Zhengke1, Adanan Purba1, Chen Jiang1, Huiyi Cai1, Chen Guilan1 and Guohua Liu1*
...stinal enzymes activity, immune function, and bone mineralization of broiler chickens. A total of 240-day old male chicks were randomly assigned into comprising four treatments with six replicates (n=10), which included control (basal diet), control +0.25% AZO, control + 0.50% AZO and control + kitasamycin (as AGPs). The results indicate that LBGW, ADG and FCR was significantly (P<0.05) improved in AZO 0.25% and 0.50% than the control. Eviscerated (EV), bre...

Syed Sikandar Habib1*, Saira Naz2, Sehar Khalid3, Rimsha Kanwal2, Iqra Ameer1, Sadia Nawaz1 Aamir Khan4, Abid Ur Rehman5, Muqaddas Kousar6, Shafa Ullah Khan7 and Nadia Nazir7

...nd these are the perfect immune stimulator, antibiotic alternative and growth promotor. The current research was conducted to assess the effect of variant level of Agaricus bisporus on immunity and haematological parameters of Oreochromis niloticus. A total of 120 healthy fishes with average weight 24.0 ± 12.5g were distributed randomly into four fiber glass tanks in triplicates (each tank contains 10 fishes). The experimental diet was prepared with var...

Keiven Mark B. Ampode1*, Federico C. Mendoza2 

...esults revealed that the immune organ indicators of broiler chickens fed with OP were higher than those birds without OP in the diet. On the other hand, the total expenses of broiler chickens fed with 5% oregano powder were reduced by 5.81% of the total inputs, and the income generated increases as high as 30.86% of the return above feed and chick cost. In conclusion, 5% oregano powder can be incorporated without adverse effects on the production performance a...

Chunjie Song1, Shangquan Gan2 and Xiaoyun Shen1,3*

...hemical parameter, serum immune and antioxidant indices were measured. The results showed that the P. przewalskii were sensitive reaction, increased appetite, and no diarrhea in the modified Yujin powder group. The healing rates were 75%, 85%, and 60% in low-dose group, high-dose group, gentamicin sulfate group, respectively. The effects of modified Yujin powder was better than gentamicin sulfate. The contents of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), malondialdehyde (MDA...

Keqiang Wei1*, Yue Wei2 and Changxia Song1

...mpletely on their innate immune system comprised of various cells, molecules and signaling pathways to survive. Although signaling pathways such as MAPK, NF-κB and Nrf2 have been extensively studied in vertebrates, our current understanding of them in crustaceans is still in the infancy. Studies have found that three members, i.e. p38, RelA (p65) and Nrf2 are evolutionarily conserved, but the specific cells responsible for their synthesis and function ha...

Muhammad Khubaib Hameed, Muhammad Aziz ur Rahman, Muhammad Ashraf, Safdar Hassan, Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Qamar Bilal, Fawwad Ahmad, Muhammad Sharif*

...s of growth, carcass and immune system in broilers birds. A total of 240 day old cobb-500 male chicks were purchased and were divided into 4 treatments in completely randomized design. Each treatment further subdivided into six replicates and each replicate contained 10 chicks. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric starter (CP and ME as 22% and 2850 kcal/kg, respectively) and finisher (CP and ME as 20% and 2950 kcal/kg, respectively) diets (A, B, C and D) were ...

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