Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

...for 7 to 15 days at room temperature (20oC) and then applied to appropri- ate pots. The treatments of farm yard manure (FYM) @ 10 t ha-1, press mud @ 20 t ha-1, compost @ 0.7 t ha-1 and poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1 were applied with half of the recommended dose of NPK @ (75:60:30 kg ha-1) with or without EM. In 2009-10, the application of EM with Press mud @ 20 t ha-1 significantly enhanced spinach growth by exhibiting higher average spinach plant height (35 cm),...

Farhad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ashfaq

... of mean maximum average temperature at the time of maturity, ceteris paribus with one oC increase in temperature the average wheat yield increased by 56.64 kg per hectare in the study area. It was deduced from the economic variable that the level of input used was less than optimum. The negative coefficient of the location variables revealed that increasing the area virtually decreased the yield. It was concluded...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

... drought and low or high temperatures.

...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1, Faizah Abood2, Yusof Bin Ibrahim3

...gree correlation between temperature and B. bassiana infectivity was analysed. Beauveria bassiana infection was in range of 27-30ºC. Based on these findings, it is concluded that B. bassiana has promising potential as microbial control agent against A. sciodoxa and should be exploited under field conditions.

...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

... ocular discharges, high temperature, diarrhea and ulcerative lesions in the oral cavity. A total of eighteen goats from a herd of sixty, were affected and two goats succumbed within two weeks. Interestingly, the disease was exclusively observed in goats and all sheep kept in the same herd were serologically positive but did not show any clinical signs of PPR. The active PPR virus (PPRV) infection was confirmed by antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR in both swab ...

Muhammad Siddiq1* and Hamid Ullah Shah2

 

...amples stored at ambient temperature. Storage conditions increased PV from 218 to 27.82, FFA from 0.88 to 1.47, AV from 1.02 to 1.56, while decreased IV from 63.38 to 58.05, CI from 0.392 to 0.337 and BC from 27.87 to 3.46. It was concluded that olive:palm oils mixed at a level of 10:90% and 20:80% ratios have the best quality stricture, which are more acceptable and better than other blends when mixed together that will achieve better strength as well as fina...

Yingbin Wang*, Ting Ye, Xiaogang Wang and Congyu Zhou

... (RELE), and sea surface temperature (SST). The results showed that the interpretation ratio (IR) of the 6 factors reached 83.76%, within which the IR of the RELE is the largest (26.02%). The IRs of NMV and PTV also exceed 20% (20.21% and 20.10%, respectively). The IRs of SST, PMV and NTV are similar, and all are between 5.6% and 6%. The catch of P. trituberculatus positively correlated with the fishing efforts of main catch vessels, but showed negative correl...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

... orbital shaking at room temperature. The same procedure was performed for commercial dyes. The dye was removed due to the interaction with the polysaccharide starch and flocculation phenomenon. Chitosan starch based polymer composites can be used as an efficient and cost effective method to treat waste water polluted with carcinogenic dyes by coagulation-flocculation. Moreover this method is beneficial over other methods that employ toxic polymers or mineral ...

Wan-Long Zhu* and Gao Wenrong 

...ammals. Ambient cues, as temperature and photoperiod, play important roles in animals’ physiological adjustments. In order to determine the contributions of temperature and photoperiod to seasonal changes in body mass and thermogenesis in Apodemus chevrieri, we examined seasonal-acclimatized and lab-acclimated animals on several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical markers indicative of thermogenic capa...

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

...oasca spp. Furthermore, temperature had a significant positive correlation with B. tabaci, N. inconspicuous and Empoasca spp, suggested increased in temperature also increased their population. In conclusion, B. tabaci, Empoasca spp and N. inconspicuous are major pests of sunflower which should be controlled by exploiting of spiders and lady beetles.

...

Muhammad Raheel1,*, Nazir Javed2, Sajid Aleem Khan2, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3 and Sohail Ahmed4

...e influence of different temperature ranges on the reproductive potential of native and exotic species of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) was checked on Galleria mellonella larvae. The native species included Steinernema asiaticum and Heterorhabditis indica whereas exotic species were S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. G. mellonella larvae were exposed to 300 IJs of each species. After inoculation at different temperatures, ...

Wang Tian1, Huayong Zhang1,*, Jian Zhang2, Lei Zhao1, Mingsheng Miao3 and Hai Huang1

...CCA) revealed that water temperature, Secchi disk depth (SD), total phosphorus and phytoplankton biomass were the most significant factors that influenced zooplankton. Strong correlations between SD and Brachionus leydigi, Chrysophyta and Diaphanosoma leuchtenbergianum, Cryptophyta and Theopilium, Ascomorpha ovalis, Hexarthra mira were observed during the CCA. These zooplankton species may be used as indicators of relevant variables. Results in this resea...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...ared to WT, both at room temperature and at 42°C. The above results showed that HsfA1d positively regulates thermotolerance in tobacco plants and can be used as target gene for engineering thermotolerance in crops.  

...
Naime Zülâl Elekcioğlu*
...">The effect of constant temperatures on developmental time and parasitization rate of Citrostichus phyllocnistoides was evaluated on Phyllocnistis citrella at nine constant temperatures ranging from 15ºC±1 to 35ºC±1 in 2.5ºC increments in the laboratory. Developmental periods of immature stages ranged from 34.98 days at 15ºC to 9.15 days at 35ºC. The lower developmental t...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...oxygen (5.6 to 7.5ml/l), temperature (25°C to 28°C). pH (7.6-7.8), ammonia (NH4-N) and `nitrites (NO2-N) less than (0.001mg/l), Secchi’s disc visibility (8 cm to 46 cm). Higher percent weight gain (2665 g), specific growth rate (2.76±0.5 % day-1), best feed conversion ratio (0.14), condition factor (4.1), viscerosomatic index (7.1), hepatosomatic index (1.4) were significantly (P< 0.05)...
Jun Cui, Xiaoxu Zhou, Zhicheng Wang, Derong Kong, Xuemei Qiu, Hongdi Wang and Xiuli Wang*
...fy;">The Wap65 is a warm temperature acclimation-related protein, and it plays an important role in adapting temperature shock. But the research about Wap65 in crucian carp is very limited. In this study, the CDS of Wap65 was firstly cloned and characterized from crucian carp (Carassius carassius). This sequence is 1338bp that encodes a polypeptide of 445 amino acids. The calculated molecular weight of crucian ...
Mürşide Dartay*, Tuncay Atessahin and Erdal Duman
...nd multifilament), water temperature, and water depth. CPUE values were found to be higher at 24.5 °C water temperature and 13.7 m water depth with multi-monofilament gillnets with a result of 15.23 g/m, and the lowest was with multifilament gillnets with a result of 3.95 g/m (0.5); however, multi‑monofilament gillnets had a result of 23.28 g/m and multifilament gillnets 14.58 g/m (0.67) in July, respectively. Depe...
Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed
...logical factors, such as temperature, relative humidity and sunshine. The highest mean population of fruit fly remained at 499 in the month of August. It started to decline afterwards and remained at 348 in the month of September. The lowest population was recorded at 26, 3, 2 and 1 for November, December, January and February, respectively. The optimum monthly average temperature and relative humidity ranged from 26 to 35 &...
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
... range and daily minimum temperature may be related to energy requirements or prey activities. The average group size of the scaly-sided merganser was 3.91 ± 2.94 individuals, and extremely significant differences existed at different time of day (F = 25.540, df = 11, P < 0.01). The largest group size (5.22 ± 5 individuals) appeared at 16:00–17:00, and the smallest at 08:00–09:00 (2.6 ± 1.12 individuals), similar resu...
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
...y parameters remained as temperature (28.1±0.2°C), dissolved oxygen (6.10±0.1 ml/l), pH (6.6±0.1 ml/l) and ammonia (0.02±0.004 ml/l) throughout the study period. Taking into consideration the number of fertilized eggs and survival of fry data attained in the present study, a salinity level of 20% is suggested for red tilapia breeding in concrete tanks.
...
Syed Ishfaq Ali Shah1,*, Tassawar Hussain Malik2, Imran Rafi Khan1 and Zahid Hussain
...ies. Maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and wind velocity were negative and non-significantly correlated while, % relative humidity (%R.H) was found non-significantly and positively correlated both with USDA accessions and local varieties. On overall basis, during the course of the season, lowest number of jassid/leaf was recorded on USG-12-8 (1.7) followed by USG-12-44 (3.2) and USG-12-24 (3.3) while, number of whiteflies/leaf on USG-14-2460 (11.6) fo...
Muhammad Qadir Ahmad¹*, Farheen Ashraf Raza¹, Abdul Qayyum¹, Waqas Malik¹, Rao Wali Muhammad2, Muhammad Asif Saleem1, Amir Hamza2, Ahmad Baksh Mahar3
...s a balance between leaf temperature, leaf energy exchange and photosynthesis. The experiment was undertaken to study the association of leaf related traits i.e. leaf area (LA), leaf angle position (LP), number of lobes per leaf (NL), leaf chlorophyll contents (SV), relative water content (RWC), leaf hairiness (HL), leaf color (LC) and yield related traits i.e. boll weight (BW), number of seeds per boll (NS), number of locules per boll (NLB), seed index (SI) a...
Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3
...torage intervals at room temperature” was conducted at post harvest laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during the year 2015. The research work was conducted in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications and two factors i.e. guava varieties (Safeda and Karela) and storage intervals (0, 3, 6, and 9 days). The data was recorded onfirmness (kg/cm2), weight loss (%), moisture contents (%), ...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

...heric CO2, variations in temperature and precipitation are helping tools to forecast scenarios for the climate in an area. Changes in these tools from the past due to any unavoidable circumstances for today and in the future is refers to climate change (CC). Besides other living being, crops are either benefited or adversely affected by these changes in the climate of an area. Maize is one of the widely grown crops in the world and even in Pakistan has also in...

Zain-ul-Aabdin Abro1*, Naheed Baloch1, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2, Waseem Akbar Qazi2, Noor Abid Saeed3

...vely correlated with the temperature while negatively correlated with relative humidity.

...

Wajid Hasan1 and C. P. Singh2

Relationship between the population of mustard aphid,Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and weather parameters on different cultivars of Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.)
...with maximum and minimum temperature,rainfall, wind velocity, evaporation and positive with afternoon and morning relative humidity. The values of coefficient of determination (R ) were high (0.92 to 0.99), indicated that the population of L. erysimi governed significantly with the weather parameters. It concluded that the temperature (max. 18.7 and min. 5.0 C), relative humidity (morning 91.5 and afternoon 50.5 percent), ra...

M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal
...ation with max & min temperatures, min relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy days. Step down multiple regression analysis revealed that the forecasting of BLS could best be done from min temp, minimum relative humidity and number of rainy days.

...

1N. Johnson Singh, 2Amitava Konar and 3Palash Mondal

Incidence of aphids in different traps on potato in Gangetic plains of West Bengal
...he abiotic factors viz., temperature (maximum & minimum), relative humidity% (maximum & minimum) and bright sunshine hour had significant effect on aphid population. The same abiotic factors were quite different between the first and second year. This was due to the fact that the climatic conditions in second year varied distinctly from the first year.

...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
... days at an average room temperature of 28 ± 2ºC and 70-75% RH during September, 2009. Male mealybug has a short life span of 3.0 ± 0.21 days. Females live for nearly 80.7 ± 10.43 days with an oviposition period of approximately 21 days. This mealybug is capable of active movement throughout its adult life. The stripped mealy bug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) was found to infest the leaves of different ornamental plants in Rajshahi an...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...weather factors, such as temperature, total rainfall, number of rainy days and relative humidity on the development of diseases like canker (Pestalotia psidii), anthracnose and die back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), stem canker and dry fruit rot (Botryodiplodia theobromae) and Phytophtora fruit rot (Phytophthora nicotianae var parasitica) of guava were analysed for predictive purpose from regression equations. The simple correlation coefficient matrix show...

P. Barma and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal activity of fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq.) on pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) and weather relations
...h of maximum and minimum temperature had significant positive correlation (r = +0.386 and +0.501, respectively) on the population build up of the pest. The relative humidity % of morning hours had significantly negative correlation (r = -0.451) and that of evening slightly positive (r = +0.284). Rainfall had insignificantly positive (r = +0.195), soil temperature significantly positive (r = +0.555) and the bright sun shine h...

SK Fashi Alam, Atanu Seni and Ajoy K Sahoo

Biology of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) on sprouted potato and brinjal plant
... plant at 20-36.2° C temperature and 15.1±1 days and 18±0.82 days respectively on sprouted potato. The ratio of the male: female were 1:1.75 and 1:1.87. The duration from nymphs to adult female was 28 days on brinjal plant and 25 days on sprouted potato tubers. The pre-¬oviposition period was 6.37 ± 1.29 days and 6.89±0.84 days on brinjal and sprouted potato respectively. The average oviposition period was 5.89±0.89 d...

M. A. Al-Helal, K. N. Ahmed, N-E-P. Khanom, and S. Bulbul 

Observations on papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) damag-ing some crops in Bangladesh
... days at an average room temperature of 25 ± 1ºC and 67 ± 5 % RH. The adult life span for male and female were 29 and 27 days, respectively. P. marginatus is a devastating insect pest causing immense damage to the field crops, vegetables and ornamental plants of economic importance in Bangladesh perspectives.
 

 

...

A.A. Oyerinde, P.Z. Chuwang, P.Z. and G.T. Oyerinde

Evaluation of the effects of climate change on increased in-cidence of cowpea pests in Nigeria
...e to rise in atmospheric temperature and carbon dioxide differ from one region to the other. The latest assessment report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts an increment in mean atmospheric temperature from 1.1 to 6.4°C toward the year 2100 with equally increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Such climatic changes could profoundly affect insect’s population on essential crops. T...

S. Patra, V.W. Dhote, SK F. Alam, B.C. Das, M.L. Chatterjee and A. Samanta

Population dynamics of major insect pests and their natural enemies on cabbage under new alluvial zone of West Bengal
...Both maximum and minimum temperature had major role to build up the population of diamond back moth, C. plutellae and coccinellids beetle while aphid population was enhanced only by maximum temperature. Relative humidity and rainfall had negative influence on pests and natural enemies during the study period. 

...

Dinesh Kachhawa and Sahidur Rahman

Factors influencing incidence of red spider mite of tea, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) in Assam
...orological factors viz., temperature (maximum and minimum), relative humidity, total rainfall and bright sunshine hours were collected for the entire period of study from the Department of Agrometeorology, AAU, Jorhat.The incidence of red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae on tea leaves was maximum during month of April to May-June and September-October (2011). The minimum number of mites was recorded from July- August and November (2011) to February (2012). The...

Amitava Konar and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of aphids on various potato germplasms in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal
...and increasing effect of temperature. It is also concluded that K. Chandramukhi was susceptible to aphid, and K. Jyoti and K. Jawahar were tolerant to aphids while K. Chipsona-1, K. Chipsona-2 and Atlantic germplasms of potato were quite resistant. Therefore, it may be inferred that Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chopsona-2 and Atlantic needed only one or two insecticide application at 15 days interval during late January to protect the crop against the aphids while ...
Obaidullah1, Zafar Ali Shah1* and Sami Ullah2
...ater at pH of 7.6 having temperature 40 °C for 3 hours. Whereas, copper-Lapachol nanoparticle synthesis was performed by treating 1 mM copper acetate tetrahydrate (Cu (CH3COO)2. 4H2O) with 1 mM solution of Lapachol at pH of 7.8 having temperature 40°C for 5 hours. Both newly formulated silver and copper nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible, FT-IR spectroscopic techniques followed by SEM evaluation. The U...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...directly proportional to temperature, season and elevation.
...

Niamatullah Khan1*, Najeeb Ullah2, Inam Ullah2 and Asif Imran Shah1

... and boll formation when temperature was much cold that adversely affected cotton yield. The results further illustrated that, genotype DNH-105 ranked first for plant population, sympodia per plant, bolls per plant, weight per boll and seed cotton yield when sown on April 01. CIM-616 was the 2nd suitable variety under April 01 sowing. Earlier and later planting produced lower cotton yields due to unfavorable environment and shorter growth duration, respectivel...
Shuangye Wang1, Yunlin Zhao1, Zhenggang Xu1,2,*, Li Li3, Liang Wu1, Choucang Duan1 and Jiao Peng1

 

...iours were influenced by temperature.
...

Kamran A. Awan1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal3

...expected to decrease and temperature has to rise for wheat growth in Pakistan. Wheat crop is planted on more than 52% area as rainfed crop in the providence Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa (KP). The study, therefore, aims to plant wheat in season from early to late i.e. November 15 to December 25 with about 10 days intervals. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar in winter season 2015-16. Experiment was in a rando...
Hameeda Kalhoro1, Abdul Malik2,Ghulam Abbas2,*, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Sajjad Ali Shah4and Haleema Kalhoro3
...ater quality remained as temperature (25.2 ± 0.20 °C), dissolved oxygen (5.2 ± 0.11mg/L), pH (6.9 ± 0.15), ammonia (0.48 ± 0.02 1mg/L) and hardness (118 ± 2.4 mg/L). Our results indicated that better growth increment can be achieved on squid or pellet feed and so it is suggested that in similar culture conditions of Snakehead will be more profitable on pellet feed followed by squid feed.
...

Jawad Anwar* and Zafar Iqbal 

...flask culture, 25 °C temperature, media of pH 5 and light fermentation.The EtOAc extract exhibited the minimal value of MIC (10.41±4.50 µg/mL) against gram negative E. coli, while its acetonitrile fraction yielded (6.50±2.25 µg/mL) of MIC against S. aureus. Hence, it is revealed from the results that T. harzianumis a potential source of antibiotic drugs as it showed a wide range of bioactivity against both phyto and human pathogen...
Mushtaq Ahmad1,*, Mehboob Ahmed1,2 and Nasim Ahmad1
...in tampon either at room temperature or at 60oC, Protocol III (concentration of dye in staining solution); slides were stained with 1, 5, 200, 500, or 1000µg/mL solution. The slides were observed, intensity of staining and debris presence in samples. The debris presence was reduced (P<0.05) due to washing of semen sample. Intensity of staining increased (P<0.05) due to washing and heating during incubation in tampon solution. However, si...

Syed Tanveer Shah* and Muhammad Sajid 

... storage with an average temperature of 8±2°C and relative humidity of 50%, hence recommended for the grower of Peshawar valley.  

...
Muhammad Hannan Ahmed1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Abu Bakar M. Raza1, M. Afzal1, A. Khaliq1, Yasir Iftikhar2 and Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3
...ical factors (especially temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) also play vital role in the population dynamics of sucking insect pest complex like jassid, aphid, thrips and mites. The present study was conducted on six cotton cultivars (3 Bt and 3 non-Bt) to monitor the population dynamics of thrips in relation to abiotic climatic factors. Interaction effect was found significant in Bt varieties but not for non-Bt cultivars. ...
Furqan Sabir1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Bushra Muneer2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Sehrish Firyal1
...nzyme at a wide range of temperature and pH makes it a potential candidate to be used in the poultry feed industry.
...
Rana Muhammad Aadil1,2*, Xin-An Zeng1, Saqib Jabbar3, Akmal Nazir2, Abid Aslam Mann2, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan2, Abdullah2, Amna Ramzan2
..., 150, 200 and 250 MPa), temperature (40, 50 and 60 oC), for processing time of 3 minutes and thermal treatment was done in a water bath at 70 oC for 90 seconds. In HPP treatment (250 MPa/60 °C/3 min), significant reduction was observed in microorganisms, PME and PPO whereas improvement was observed in cloud value, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins, DPPH activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total flavonoids (TF) and total f...

Zahid Mehmood*, Alam Zeb and Muhammad Ayub 

... ) and stored at ambient temperature (22-320C). The jam was studied for physicochemical attributes (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid) and organoleptic characteristics (flavor, color, texture and overall acceptability). The results revealed decrease (P<0.05) in pH, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity while increase in acidity, total soluble solids during six months storage. Dec...

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

...to investigate impact of temperature and rainfall on wheat growers’ net-return in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan. Data for this purpose are collected from 255 wheat growers, selected from Southern, Central and Northern climatic zones of KP. Results from descriptive statistical analysis demonstrate that net-return per acre from wheat crop is highest in the Central zone because of conducive agro-climatic conditions. The estimated Cross-sectio...
Zia-ur-Rehaman1, Naila Chand1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Rifat Ullah Khan2,*
...al (TN) and high ambient temperature (HAT) on immune response and oxidative status of four broiler strains. Day old broiler chicks (n=242) of four different commercial strains (Ross, Hubbard, Cobb and Arber Acer) were placed in brooding room in first two weeks and then chicks were divided into two groups: TN and HAT zones. Chicks in TN group were housed at constant room temperature, while chicks in HAT zone were kept at...
Mahmood-Ul-Hassan*, Naeem Fiaz, Muhammad Akhlaq Mudassir and Muhammad Yasin
...p is essential since low temperature severely effects the sprouting of subsequent ratoon in cane growing areas. A field study was conducted on loamy soil during 2011-2013 at Sugarcane Research Institute (SRI), Faisalabad to explore the ratooning ability of five sugarcane varieties/clones under varying harvesting dates of plant crop using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangements. The cane genotypes viz. S2003-US-704, S2006-SP-...

Attaullah Ansari* and Nasreen Memon 

...n of hoverflies whereas; temperature had a strong negative and significant correlation with the abundance of hoverflies. Moreover relative humidity, rainfall and cloudiness were also negatively correlated with hoverfly population but their correlation was not significant. Habitat wise variation in average population size, species richness, evenness and diversity index were also calculated. The highest and lowest degrees of population size, richness and evennes...
Jiandong Wu, Miao Ye and Zaigui Wang*
...V·h-1; temperature was 25°C. For desorption, elution solvent ethanol-water (95%, v/v) solution was 4.5 BV; flow rate was 2.0 BV·h-1. Flavonoids with content of 68.3% were obtained with a flavonoid recovery of 93.7%. The results showed that AB-8 resin revealed a good ability to purify total flavonoids. Lastly, feeding experiments results indicated that flavonoids had significant anti-hyperlipidemic activities to rabbits b...
Liushuai Hua1,3, Shiping Gong1,*, Xiangjing Zhong2, Jun Tao2, Yu Chen2 and Jieming Deng2 
...; 0.01) when the ambient temperature is not cold enough for normal hibernation. These findings can provide technical guidance for safe overwintering of big-headed turtles in captivity, and will help facilitate conservation of this endangered freshwater turtle species.
...
Teresa Napiórkowska* and Julita Templin
...ed on the application of temperatures of 14 and 32°C changed every 12 h for the first ten days of spider embryogenesis.
...

 Bushra Mazhar1, Nusrat Jahan1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa andleeb2, Shaukat Ali2*

...hormaechei was 7 and the temperature was 30°C. Using optimum growth conditions and suitable fermentation medium, E. hormaechei can be used at an industrial level as producer of vanillin. Bioconversion of waste residues of rice bran oil to vanillin by bacterial strains is of greater interest nowadays. Bioproduction of vanillin is not only considered natural but also safe for human health.

...
Qingying Jia1, Hui Wang1, Tianhong Wang1, Na Dong1, Shuguang Ren1,2, Xiaolong Yang1, Jingze Liu1,* and Zhijun Yu1,3,*
...estigated the effects of temperature on reproductive fitness of the engorged H. longicornis, results indicated that the engorged H. longicornis could survive all treatments at 0°C and 4°C, and pre-ovipositon periods were prolonged after 0°C, 4°C and 40°C treatment, whereas it was shortened after 37°C stress (P<0.05). The oviposition periods were varied among different temperature trea...

Farah Rauf Shakoori, Momina Shokat, Faiza Saleem and Tanzeela Riaz

...gh stability at elevated temperatures and in alkaline conditions. The present study was aimed to isolate and screen xylanase producing bacteria and to optimize cultural conditions for maximum production of enzyme from locally isolated bacteria and to optimize the assay conditions under which enzyme possessed maximum activity. Two bacterial isolates XPB-GS02 and XPB-CW01 with maximum activity ratio showed 18.3 and 12.2 U/ml xylanase activity, respectively. Maxi...
Zia ur Rehman1, Naila Chand1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3
...strains in two different temperature zones i.e., thermoneutral zone (TN) and high ambient temperature zone (HAT) group. Day-old broiler chicks (n=242) of four different commercial strains (Ross, Hubbard, Cobb and Arber Acer) were placed in brooding room for the first two weeks and then chicks were divided into two groups: TN and HAT. Chicks in TN group were housed at constant room temperature<...
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
...ed in 1 hr and 10 min at temperatures 600C. It was also tested in hot water bath on same temperature. Results were same in both techniques. Results showed that LAMP was more sensitive for FMD strain O (positive reaction upto -4 dilution) than others strains A and Asia -1 (positive reaction upto -3 dilutions). Further studies will be conducted to develop LAMP PCR as field test that does not require RNA extraction.<...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4, Lorenzo Gallus4 and Syed Sajjad A. Shah2,3
...ermil;-15‰. Water temperature (28.02±0.12°C), dissolved oxygen (6.4±0.02 mg/L), pH (7.47±0.04) and ammonia (less than 0.022±0.001 mg/L) were monitored throughout the study period. Water quality parameters remained within the recommended range. Our results suggest that Nile tilapia, O. niloticus may give maximum eggs up to 15‰ salinity with 92% survival of fry.
...
Tasleem Akhtar*, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Sheraz Ahmedand Imran Bodlah
...c environmental factors, temperature had a strong, significant and positive correlation with the foraging activity of A. mellifera on B. napus (r= 0.766; P= 0.0037 **), whereas relative humidity and rainfall had significantly negative correlation (r= -0.759; P= 0.0041 **, r= -0.715; P= 0.0089 **).
...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Dastagir4, Sara Ferrando5, Lorenzo Gallus5, Asad Ali Muhammad1,6, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khalil-ur-Rehman2 
... for tilapia i.e. temperature 28.42±0.08°C, dissolved oxygen 7.48±0.06 mg/L, pH 7.64±0.04 and ammonia 0.022±0.004 mg/L. Relationship between log body weight and log total length of the the fish shows that Nile tilapia fingerlings reared from 10‰ - 20‰ was significantly (P <0.05) higher than 25% and 30% salinity levels. Present study suggests that Nile tilapia can be reared up to 20% salinity to get...

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

...ter adaptation to higher temperatures and countries closer to the equator. Crop damages can reach 50 - 100%, due to infected plants and shriveled grain. These problems can be overcome by knowledge about the disease, identifying resistance lines and subsequently develop resistant varieties with an aim to shorten the disease cycle. One of the quickest ways in this direction is the designing molecular markers for non-race-specific resistance genes. Use of molecul...

Bashir Ahmad1*, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Hayad Zada2, Shahid Sattar1, Toheed Iqbal3, Saddam Hussain1 and Muhammad Saeed4 

...nd observe the impact of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on population of Plutella xylostella (L.) in Cauliflower, Brassica oleracea crop at District Haripur of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Field studies results showed that the population of P. xylostella gradually increased from mid of July where the population was 2.1 and 2.0 larvae and pupae per plant in the year 2012 and 2013 respectively. The population increased in September to highest number of larva...

Fazal Ullah1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Syeda Leeda Gul2, Bibi Zainub1 and Maaz Khan

...water treated (Hot water temperature: 45 °C) sweet orange fruits can be stored commercially up to 60 days at room storage conditions (Storage Temperature: 12 ± 2 °C and RH: 70 - 80%). HWT can serve as a dynamic means of maintaining the postharvest quality of sweet orange fruits during long term storage with economic benefits. 

...
Alim-un-Nisa1*, Sajila Hina1, Sania Mazhar1, Imran Kalim1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Naseem Zahra1, Shahid Masood1, Muhammad Khalid Saeed1, Qurat-ul-Ain Syed1 and Maida Asif2
... concentration at higher temperatures i.e. 25oC and 45oC. The microbiological study of the extracted color and candies prepared in laboratory and dyed with T. erecta extract color showed that the color extracted from T.erecta itself do not promote microbial growth rather it has antibacterial activity. The lethal dose and toxicity determination of the color extracted from marigold showed that it is safe for consumption as no ...

Noreen Rasul1*, Madeeha Rashid2, Aqeela Abbas1 and Rubina Sohail

... and maintenance of body temperature at 37 degree centigrade is the discharge criteria. During the period of six months, total number of deliveries was 6459, out of them spontaneous vaginal deliveries were 52.2% (3372) and caesarean sections were 47.7% (3087). In 55.4%neonate’s(both preterm and term)early essential newborn care was practiced.Total preterm were 290 (4.5%), out of them 121 (2%) neonates were kept in Kangaroo Mother Care position and 129 (4...

Saeeda Raza, Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Amer Mumtaz, Nouman Siddiqui, Khalid Nasim and Muhammad Amjad*

...ethylene bags at ambient temperature (20-25 ºC).

...

 Muhammad Azeem Khan*, Abid Hussain, Irfan Mehmood and Sonila Hassan **

... increase in mean annual temperatures and irregular rain patterns, area under major crops at Kohat and productivity of major crop at Attock decreased. Bivariate correlations between mean seasonal rainfall, area and production of major crops were moderately positive and statistically significant (except for wheat crop at Attock). This means that an increase in rainfall contribute positively towards area under major crops and their production and vice-versa. Far...
Asad Sultan1, Sahal Ahmad1, Sarzamin Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Naila Chand1, Muhammad Tahir3 and Shakoor Ahmad2
... groups in thermoneutral temperature (TN) and three dietary groups under high temperature. One group of birds received a basal diet only (control group), second group of birds received a diet supplemented with silymarin at the level of 10g/kg and third group of birds received a diet supplemented with ZnO at the level of 60 mg/kg in both TN and HS birds. It was found that supplementation of ZnO significantly (P<0.05) impro...
Xia-Lin Zheng1, Pan Wang2, Jun-Yan Liu1, Yu-Jing Zhang1, Jun Li1 and Wen Lu1,*
...s are lower than the air temperature during the winter, which suggested that these stages are the potential overwintering stages of this species in Wuhan City.
...

 Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Mike Copland**

INFLUENCE OF THREE CONSTANT AND TWO RHYTHMICALLY FLUCTUATING TEMPERATURE REGIMES ON THE LIFE-TABLE PARAMETERS OF BROWN LACEWING SYMPHEROBIUS FALLAX
...rhythmically fluctuating temperature regimes from 16°C to 24°C and 24°C to 32°C. Studies were carried out describing survival, reproduction and development of S fallax. Survival was positively temperature dependent. Sex ratio was not affected by constant temperatures from 20 to 28°C; however this ratio was affected by rhythmically fluctuating te...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai, Saeeda Raza* and Shahzad Arshad Saleem**

MICROBIAL COUNT AND SHELF LIFE OF STRAWBERRY JUICE
...pt for two weeks at room temperature to check its shelf life. Total plate count (TPC), pH, flavor, color, yeast and moulds were checked weekly. Quality changes of strawberry juice during storage can be caused both by microbiological and physiological processes. At day 0; pH 3.2, color bright 2 -1 red, excellent flavor, TPC 2.7 x 10 cfu g were recorded, while no yeast or mould were found. After one week, the pH 3.6, dull red color, TPC 2 -1 3 -1 5 -1 2.25x10 cf...

 Javed Khan, Ehsan-ul-Haq, Naheed Akhtar, Waseem Ahmad Gillani*, Naila Assad**, M.Asif Masood and Irum Raza*

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF IMMATURE STAGES OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON RICE MEAL MOTH, CORCYRA CEPHALONICA EGGS
...a eggs at three constant temperatures 24 ±1 ºC, 28 ±1 ºC and 32 ±1 °C were studied. The results indicated that incubation period was 4.9±0.08, 3.8±0.08 and 3.0±0.06 days at three temperatures, respectively. Developmental duration of first instar were 3.6±0.07, 3.0±0.11, 2.0±0.06 days, second instar were 3.4±0.11, 3.0±0.07, 2.8±0...

 Munir Ahmad* and Asif Ali Mirani**

HEATED AIR DRYING OF GROUNDNUT
...intaining the drying air temperature above 49°C. The cost of drying one kg of groundnut was estimated as Rs 1.45 (1.7 US cents), which was very reasonable for the groundnut growers.

...

 Asrar Ali*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Abdul Rehman***, Javed Khan, Waseem Ahmad Gillani** and Maria Rauf*

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF MENOCHILUS SEXMACULATUS FAB. (COLEOPTERA:COCCINELLIDAE) AT VARYING TEMPERATURE ON RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI L.
... influenced by different temperature regimes and host were studied at Insectary-Biological Control Laboratories, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The results revealed that there was a significant effect of different temperature regimes on the development and predatory potential of M. sexmaculatus reared on Rhopalosiphum padi. The egg incubation period of predator beetle was 4.16, 3.66 and 2.24 days at...

 Rizwana Sultan*, Javed Khan, Ehsan ul Haq, Tariq Mehmood**, Roshan Zada Khattak***, and Naheed Akhtar**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF TRICHOGRAMMA CHILONIS ISHII (TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) FEEDING ON SITOTROGA CEREALELLA EGGS AT THREE CONSTANT TEMPERATURES
...a eggs at three constant temperatures and five different ages of host eggs at Insect Pest Management Programme, National Agricultural Research Centre, (NARC) Islamabad. The results revealed that maximum rate of parasitism was 95.70 ± 1.94 at 28 ± 1 °C while minimum was 61.30 ± 1.70 at 32 ± 1 °C. Maximum adult emergence and female ratio from parasitized eggs were 96.30% with 59.2± 5.83 female ratio at 28 ±1 °...

 Maria Rauf*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Javed Khan**, Abdul Rehman***, Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Asrar Ali**

BIOLOGY AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTATA LINN. ON SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM APHID UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS
...ndani) at three constant temperatures 20±1 °C, 25±1 °C and 30±1 °C in Insectary-Bio Control Laboratories, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The results revealed that incubation period of C. septempunctata was 5.12, 3.62 and 3.20 days with 75.6%, 82.0% and 71.2% hatchability, respectively. The larval durations were 29.5, 15.9 and 8.1 days with predatory potential of 573.7, 575.0 and 667.8 aphids per larvae...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-Din*, Sikandar Khan Tanveer*, Maqsood Qamar* and Syed Haider Abbas*

EVALUATION OF ADVANCE WHEAT LINES FOR AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN RAINFED ENVIRONMENT
...y growth period and high temperature stress during reproductive growth stage. Better yield under stressful environment is the main objective while evaluating genotypes for rainfed ecologies. A field study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan to evaluate the agronomic traits of three advance lines (NR-397, NR-379 and NR-400) in comparison to released variety (NARC-09) under rainfed conditions during crop season 2010...

 Munir Ahmad*, Asif Ali Mirani**, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood**, Tanveer Ahmad** and Muhammad Azhar Saeed**

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CROSS-FLOW RICE DRYERS
...ndicated that drying air temperature of the gas-fired and rice husk-fired dryers was 54° and 66°C, respectively. However, the average air flow rate was 6.24 and 3 -1 2.60 m s of gas-fired and rice husk-fired cross-flow dryers, respectively. -1 The drying rate of gas-fired dryer was 2.0 percentage point h , whereas the -1 drying rate of rice husk-fired dryer was 1.0 percentage point h . The drying costs of gas-fired and rice husk-fired dryers were about...

 Usman Shakoor*, Abdul Saboor*, Irfan Baig*, Anila Afzal** and Abdul Rahman***

CLIMATE VARIABILITY IMPACTS ON RICE CROP PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...that rising mean maximum temperature would lead to reduction in rice production while increase in mean minimum temperature would be advantageous towards rice production. Variation in mean minimum temperature brought about seven percent increase in rice productivity as shown by Variance Decomposition. Mean precipitation and mean temperature would increase...

 Quratulain*, Muhammad Aslam**, Muhammad Khalid Rafique*, Mian Atiq Ahmad* and Rashid Mahmood***

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF ROSE APHID MACROSIPHUM ROSAE L. ON DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF ROSA INDICA L. IN PAKISTAN
... decline with decline in temperature in December. While its population started rising again at the end of February. Significantly more aphid populations were observed on Perfecta than other varieties; however, significantly few aphids were observed on Christan Diar. These studies revealed that farmers growing roses on a commercial scale should grow Christan Diar to avoid aphid attack. Maximum average number of aphid nymph, winged and wingeless adults on leaves...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai*, Amer Mumtaz*, Saeeda Raza* and Shahzada Arshad Saleem** 

MICROBIAL COUNT AND SHELF LIFE OF PHALSA (GREWIA ASIATICA) JUICE
...ped phalsa juice at room temperature. Phalsa was purchased from local market, juice was prepared and kept in sterilized bottles at room temperature. Physicochemical and microbial and oragnoleptic quality of the juice was examined till two weeks. Microbial activity in phalsa juice increased while organoleptic attributes such as texture (mouth feel), flavour, taste, colour and overall acceptability of phalsa juice were decreas...

 Abdul Razaq*, Muhammad Jamal Khan*, Tahir Sarwar* and Mohammad Jamal Khan**

EFFECT OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION, SOWING METHODS AND MULCHING ON WHEAT YIELD AND NITROGEN UPTAKE
...o farm lands, increasing temperature with high evaporation rate and poor sowing, an experiment was conducted at the research farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2011-12. In the study three factors were studied i.e., sowing methods, mulching and deficit irrigation with four levels viz: full irrigation (DI ), 20% deficit irrigation (DI ), 40% deficit irrigation (DI ) and 60% deficit irrigation (DI ). Soil moisture was continuously monitored an...

 Ummad-ud-Din Umar*, Muhammad Aslam Khan**, *Ateeq-urRehman*, Abdul Hannan***, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi*, Azhar Ali Khan****, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar****

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF POTATO LEAF ROLL VIRUS DISEASE PREDICTION MODEL BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS FOR FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN
... Maximum and minimum air temperatures, relative humidity and rainfall were employed as independent variables while PLRV disease incidence served as the response variable. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to select potentially useful predictor variables for model development. In stepwise regression analysis minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall emerged as the main contributing environmental variables f...

 Abdul Rehman Khan*, Muhammad Mahmood–Ul-Hassan**, Rizwan Ahmad** and Anjum Munir ***

ARSENIC III TOLERANCE POTENTIAL OF FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLLUTED AND NON-POLLUTED SOILS OF PAKISTAN
...l growth was observed at temperature of 30 to 35 C and pH 6 to 7 under incubation period of 96-120 hrs. The isolated strains were capable of growing over a wide range of pH and temperatures and at high Arsenic concentrations. These findings show that the isolated strains are quite suitable for use in bioremediation under field conditions.

...
Anum Rafique, Sajid Abdullah, Khalid Abbas, Huma Naz* and Wardah Hassan
...ainst different range of temperature and pH. As a result of ion exchange chromatography enzyme from kidney of control and Pb+Cr treated fish had highest activity as 508.33 and 427 UmL-1 while highest specific activity was 1105.06 and 1055.55 Umg-1 with 1.98 and 2.70 fold purification, respectively. Recovery was 70% and 68% in kidney of control and Pb+Cr treated fish, respectively. After characterization it was observed that SOD had wide r...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos*, Abdullah N. Al-Owaimer, Elsayed O.S. Hussein and Mutahar H. Ali
... levels of environmental temperatures: normal (22°C) and high (32°C) and two levels of vitamin C in drinking water (with and without) were arranged in a factorial arrangement resulted in four dietary treatments for the period from 15 to 30 days of age. Results revealed a significant two way interaction for body weight gain (BW) and feed intake (FI) (P<0.01) for the first week of the trial (15-22 day). The effect of treatment in the second week (23-3...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
...e, relative humidity and temperature in Nsukka, Nigeria. Hospital records from three hospitals in Nsukka town: Bishop Shanahan Hospital, University of Nigeria Medical Centre and Sadiq Hospital were examined for malaria prevalence and intensity from January to July 2015. Indoor biting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected by standard procedures within the study duration. Meteorological data on relative humidity and temperature
Wei Dang1, Ning Xu1, Wen Zhang1, Jing Gao2, Handong Fan1 and Hongliang Lu 1,*
...s.
...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
...cked at different pH and temperature conditions. Best growth was observed at pH 7 and at 37ºC.
...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
...cked at different pH and temperature conditions. Best growth was observed at pH 7 and at 37ºC.
...

Ikramullah Khan1,2*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Sohail Akhtar2, Ijaz Ali3 and Ghufran Ullah4 

...sampled at environmental temperature 18, 32 and 42 °C in February, April and June, respectively. The physiological parameters recorded were rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR) and pulse rate (PR) whereas biochemical parameters determined from blood serum were glucose, cortisol and Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70). Thermal stress increased all physiological parameterssignificantly (P < 0.001). Holstein Frisian...
Shahzad Mahmood1, Memuna Ghafoor Shahid1, Muhammad Irfan2, Muhammad Nadeem3*, Quratulain Syed3
...ange of 4.0-6.0. Optimum temperature of enzyme was 40oC and attained 96% activity at 40oC for 70min. Metal profile showed that α-amylase activity was enhanced in the presence of Ca2+, Cs1+, Mn2+ and Co2+, whereas inhibited in the presence of Na1+, Mg2+, Ag1+ and Cu2+. Enzyme kinetics revealed that crude enzyme exhibit Km and ...

Muhammad Suleman Bacha1*, Mohammad Nafees1 and Syed Adnan2
 

...°C/year) and minimum temperatures (0.024 °C) and decrease in the mean annual precipitation (-0.73 mm per year) favors the local community perceptions about climate changes. To offset such worsening situation, future planning is vital to keep the natural resources intact while minimizing the risks in the years ahead. 

...
Song Jiang1,2, Fa-lin Zhou3, Jian-hua Huang1, Qi-bin Yang1, Li-shi Yang1 and Shi-gui Jiang1,*
...cultivated under a water temperature of 27.0±1.5 °C, salinity of 30–32, pH of 8.0–8.3, and light intensity of 1000 lx. Results showed that food consumption and feeding intensity of the eyestalk-ablated broodstock were higher than those without eyestalk ablation. The night-time feeding intensity was 1.46-fold and 1.31-fold higher than the daytime feeding intensity in the treatment and control groups, respectively (P<0.01). Food ...
Farhan Ahmad1,*, Muhammad Waris Sanjrani1, Shah Nawaz Khuhro1, Asif Sajjad2, Abid Ali3, Rashad Rasool Khan3, Farooq Ahmed3 and Junhe Liu4,*
...v>Among abiotic factors, temperature and relative humidity are important factors for higher cotton yields in all cotton growing regions. Cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci G.) being vector of CLCuV in Pakistani cotton crop is responsible to cause an economic damage. A survey of whitefly populations and its parasitism with connection to temperature and relative humidity was conducted in fourteen cotton growing districts o...
Noor Fatima1, Muhammad Irfan2,*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
...f fermentation period at temperature of 50oC. Results showed that cellulase production was greatly affected by the thermochemical pretreatment as compared to the chemical pretreatment. At the pretreatment condition of 1% H2SO4 conc, 6h residence time, 15% substrate concentration maximum CMCase production (0.858 IU/ml/min) was obtained while at pretreatment conditions of 1% H2SO4 concentration, 8h residence...

Muhammad Iftikharul Husnain1, Aneel Salman1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Tahir Mahmood3 

...nvestigate the impact of temperature on agriculture controlling for potential endogeneity by using locality as an instrument. Unsurprisingly, the magnitude of temperature coefficient increases substantially when endogeneity is controlled and becomes significantly higher (6 percent to 13 percent) than the previously reported findings in the literature. The findings suggest that endogeneity is a crucial issue and must be contr...

Muhammad Waqar Yasin*, Mobushir Riaz Khan and Muhammad Amin 

... changes in rainfall and temperature of Punjab, Pakistan on the production of five major crops viz. wheat (triticum), maize (zea mayes), cotton (gossypium), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and gram (Cicer arietinum). Firstly, changes in mean temperature and rainfall from 1951 to 2015 were assessed at district level. Secondly, the changes in crop performance were computed through remote sensing and crop reporting data obtai...

Sher Nawab Khan* and Ghulam Hassan 

... was recorded on average temperature of 24.8˚C. On the basis of field scoring resistant genotypes were identified which are prerequisite for further molecular and biochemical study to explore resistance pathway. These lines could be used as a source of aphids resistance in future wheat breeding program 

...
Gulnaz Malik1, Abdul Qadir1 and Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,*
...prevailing environmental temperature since it has a significant effect on the toxicities of insecticides. The focus of the present study was to evaluate the effect of post-treatment temperature on the toxicity of four insecticides viz., spinosad, emamectin benzoate, lufenuron and thiamethoxam. For this purpose, toxicities of insecticides were tested at three different temperatures 2...

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Irshad Khan Abbasi2, Muhammad Tariq2, Jawad Ali3, Melad Karim4 and Rizwan Ahmad1 

...d that increasing global temperature will result in waning glacier based freshwater availability in future. River Indus fed by glaciers is critical for Pakistan as it is irrigating its 80% of agricultural land. Shigari Kalan watershed is one of the water sheds located in Skardu, Northern Pakistan, which also contributes to River Indus flowing to Pakistan. The aim of instant research is to evaluate the correlation amid temperature
Wael S. El-Tohamy1,*, Russell R. Hopcroft2 and Nagwa E.M. Abdel Aziz3
...05) related to salinity, temperature, phosphate concentration and phytoplankton biomass. The main spatial gradients along the estuary were associated with salinity. The high salinity zone in the estuary downstream was dominated by the calanoid paracalanidae and the harpacticoid Euterpina acutifrons. In the lower salinity transects, the tintinnid Favella serrata dominated the estuary midstream, together with several rotifer species in the estuary ...
Xi-wen Chen1,2, Qian Wang1,3, Miao Yin1, Zhong-hui Pu1,2, Ai-wei Guo3, Lian Li 1,3, Wen-tao Luo1,3 and Xiong-qing Wang1,*
...as optimal at a constant temperature of 65 °C. The output of the RT-LAMP assay was visualized using 1% agarose gel electrophoresis or color change after the addition of the SYBR Green I dye. The RT-LAMP method was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than RT-PCR for PRRSV detection. The assay was also specific for PRRSV and did not cross react with CSFV, PCV-2, PPV or PRV. In clinical samples (n=5) RT-PCR and RT-LAMP both identified the same 2 PRRSV infec...

Rizwana Qamar1, Maria Ghias1, Fida Hussain1, Sajida Habib1, Muhammad Khuram Razzaq2*, Muhammad Aslam1 and Imran Habib3 

...phyll fluorescence, leaf temperature (°C) and relative water contents (%). Results indicated the presence of significant genetic variability among hybrids and inbred lines. Hybrids had more tolerance to drought conditions on both levels of water stress treatments. With the increase in stress, root length and leaf temperature increased, while shoot length, plant fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll fluorescence and relative ...
Ayesha Iftikhar1,*, Muhammad Asif Aziz1, Muhammad Naeem1, Munir Ahmad1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...erstanding the effect of temperature variations on its demography and predation rate is necessary to predict the population dynamics of this beetle against cotton mealy bug. Age-stage, two sex life tables of zigzag beetle were constructed at three different temperature regimes: 24 ± 0.5 °C and 27 ± 0.5 °C with 60-70% R.H. and ambient condition (32 ± 4 °C; 16-50% R.H.) with 14:10 h (L:D) photo...
Amna Waseem, Sikander Ali* and Syeda Wajiha Khalid
...m conditions at 30°C temperature, pH 7, and incubation period 64 h, the lipase activity was increased up to 124±2.48 U/g. The crude enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation method at 40 %. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 33 kDa. The results showed that the enzyme produced from mutant strain gave significantly higher (p≤0.05) lipase activity than the wild-type. From the results presented in the study, it was observe...

Syed Muhammad Hassan Raza1*, Syed Amer Mahmood1, Veraldo Liesenberg2 and Syed Shehzad Hassan1  

...patiotemporal changes in temperature are a main cause for a shift in crop phenology as well as failure of crop calendar. Yellow stem borer (YSB) is an insect pest of rice crop that may reduce rice yield about 20% due to the use of insecticide at inappropriate times and unsuitable locations following the crop calendar. The purpose of this research was to delineate the vulnerable zones for YSB attacks on rice crop using satellite thermal datasets. The area under...
Irshad Ali1, Mohammad Masood Tariq2,*, Abdul Waheed2, Ferhet Abbas Yousafzai1, Farhat Abbas Bokhari1, Majed Rafeeq1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Adnan Attique1, Shahid Amin3 and Tahir Hameed1
...nst > 50oC temperature in the hot weather nevertheless still gives good productive results. It has extraordinary long limbs which protect them from very heated ground. The odor of BN animal sweat is so pungent that helps it in tick resistance. The white color of the skin is natural reflector in an extreme weather, whereas, the inner coat of this animal has black lining (the natural insulator), provides an excellent insulation capability against h...
Laiba Shafique1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2, Mehroze Fatima3, Huma Naz4, Qaisra Saddique1
...dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature) were checked daily throughout the trail. Results concluded that the body mineralization in L. rohita was increased by supplementation of organic acid. The maximum body mineralization was noted in fish fed with the dietary group OA3 that contain citric acid and minimum mineralization was noted in the diet OA5 containing lactic acid when compared with other dietary treatments. In conclusion, citr...
Md. Abu Affan1,*, Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani1, Adnan Jaman Turki2 and Mohammed S.B. Hariri3
...w dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, salinity, pH, ammonia, turbidity, pesticides, toxins, and diseases. The study was carried out to find out the reasons of sudden fish killing. Therefore, physico-chemical and biological parameters, and postmortem, especially the gills and gut content of dead fishes were studied. The dead Tilapia tilapia (Tilapia), Chanos chano (Milkfish) and Parapriacanthus ransonneti (Glassfish) were found with wide mo...

Mohammed Zaki Fathy* 

...ratory rates, and rectal temperature were recorded. Blood samples were collected at 0, 20, 40, 80 minutes and 12 hours after administration for detection the hematological changes. Results showed that the onset, duration and total recovery times of anesthesia were 7.33±3.05 min and 3.33±1.53 min, 26.33±3.51 min and 45±3.00 min and 64±4.58 min and 86.67±6.11 min in G1 and G2 respectively. In G1, presence of a signifi...

Muhammad Haroon Hullio1,4, Abdul Ghani Lanjar2, Abdul Rahman Dhuyo3, Imran Khattri4 and Agha Mushtaque Ahmed4* 

...fect of abiotic factors (temperature and relative humidity). In last, the varietal screening of 30 local rice varieties in term of pest population was observed. The data were collected for two rice growing seasons 2012 to 2013. In results, the maximum mean population of 15.25 WBPH/25 hills at 38 0C with 50% relative humidity was observed in district Badin in the first week of August, 2012. The correlation results regarding mean population of WBPH also indicate...
Hafiz Manzoor Ahmad1,*, Hamad Bin Rashid1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Asim Khalid Mahmood1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Muhammad Rafi Ullah2 and Usman Ghani1
...al parameters like; body temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate with normal averages 105.02±0.12ºF, 103.75±3.18 beats/min and 19.2±1.62 breaths/min, respectively. All the physiological parameters varied significantly (p<0.05) between the two groups with exception of body temperature, which varied non-significantly (p>0.05). The post drug administration onset of sedation in ...
Gokhan Sahin1, Ecevit Eyduran2,*, Mete Turkoglu3 and Fatma Sahin2
...(estimated losses due to temperature and low irradiance), ESTLOSANGREF (estimated loss due to angular reflectance effect), and COMPVLOSS (Combined Photo Voltaic system losses) were calculated. Estimation of global irradiation parameters was made through multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) data mining algorithm for multiple responses (Hd and Hm) with the support of R software program and the utility prediction equation was aimed to improve for furth...

Aftab Khan, Shahid Ali, Syed Attaullah Shah and Muhammad Fayaz 

...forecasted the effect of temperature and precipitation on net revenue of maize growers across Northern, Eastern, Central and Southern zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. 200 maize growers were randomly selected through multistage sampling technique. Primary data on net revenue from maize crop was collected through an interview schedule and secondary data on temperature and precipitation was collected from Regional Metrolo...
S. Jalbani1, P. Khan2 and N.T.Narejo2,*and Y.M. Jalbnai3
...among the treatment. The temperature 28.1-30.7°C, pH 7.0-7.60, DO 3.9- 4.9 (mg/L), alkalinity 155-175 (mg/L), ammonia 0.37-0.52 (mg/L) and nitrate 0.168-0.174 (mg/L) were found to provide optimum condition to the fish. 
...
Iqbal Ahmad Alvi, Muhammad Asif, Rabia Tabassum, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*
..., and IttPL, at distinct temperatures for complete one year is described. Our results indicated that storage of bacteriophages at 4oC was most appropriate, followed by storage at -20oC and -80oC as no drop in viral titer was witnesses in bacteriophage samples stored at 4oC for up to one year. The results of this research indicated, that a standard refrigeration is suitable and economical means of long term storage wi...
Rahim Dad Brohi1,*, Amir Bukhsh Kalhoro1, Allah Bux Kachiwal1, Illahi Bux Kalhoro1, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro1, Sarfaraz Ahmed2, Farhan Anwar Khan3, Hira Sajjad Talpur1, Zia-ur-Rehman1 and Dinesh Bhattaria4
...spiratory rate. The body temperature decreased (P<0.01) with all the three anesthetic regimens. The means of safe induction of anesthesia (propofol, 14.00 ± 0.2582; and thiopentone sodium, 14.83 ± 0.1667 seconds) and duration of anesthesia (thiopentone sodium, 14.50 ± 0.2236 and propofol, 13.22 ±0.1014 min), and a full recovery from anaesthesia (thiopentone sodium, 13.67 ± 0.4216; and propofol, 12.45 ± 0.2432 min) w...

Sana Rana1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2* and Khalid Abbas1 

...against different pH and temperature. CAT activity was measured spectrophotometrically at A240 nm. Results showed that highest CAT activity was noted from the crude extract of control fish gills (140.66±0.71UmL-1) as compared to DM+END exposed fish (99.23±0.71UmL-1). After desalted the CAT activity in gills of both control and insecticides exposed fish was calculated as 73.45±0.71 and 42.77±1.36UmL-1, respectively. The highest speci...
Peng Xu1, Bin Liu1,2, Yongqiang Zhao3, Shicheng Lv3 and Changhu Lu1,*
...lts showed that mean air temperature in wintering period showed a linear upward trend. Annual maximum wintering crane population was 623±33. Fitting the population size and the climate variables in the same year with GAMs indicated significant correlations between population size and mean maximum air temperature in November, mean minimum air temperature in December, mean air

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

...arcity is extremely high temperature in the core zones colligate, which is already under observations where the temperature is extremely high. In Pakistan, closely 1.7 million peoples they are engaged in growing cotton crop. The farmers of Pakistan surveying and evolution for high quality of fiber and high quality of lint yield sweetening, the Pakistan also fulfills its 18.8% of comestible oil demand from cotton seed oil. In...
Tahira Jamil*1, Mohammad Asghar1, Fatma Husain1, Haq Nawaz Bhatti2
...cal parameters including temperature, pH, inoculums size and fermentation time (each at five levels) were optimized using central composite design (CCD) design in 30 triplicate experimental runs. The maximum statin formation (19 mg/g) was achieved at 25oC, pH 5.5, inoculums size 3.5 mL and fermentation time 144 h on wheat straw as a growth substrate. The growth medium has an important effect on lovastatin production. Effect of carbon and nitrogen su...
Mouslim Bara1,2,* and Luciano N. Segura3
...tudied the effect of air temperature and water depth on bird abundance and two ecological diversity indices (Shannon and Shannon E). Significant inter-annual fluctuations in bird abundance were recorded. Maximum values were always recorded during autumn. Water depth correlated positively with bird abundance and Shannon index. Field samplings indicated that bird abundance was frequently higher than 1000 individuals, which suggests that this site is an important...
Ejaz Mahmood Ahmad Qureshi1,*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Seemal Vehra3 and Atif Yaqub4
...>2 of MIR with air temperature in all seasons, strongest in early post-rainy season while with humidity and rainfall; these were significant in only early rainy and early post rainy seasons. It was concluded that higher MIR in mosquitoes indicated increased infectivity in them.
...

 *Irum Javed1, Muhammad Asgher2, Sadia Noreen1, Humara Naz Majeed1 and Tanzila Sahar1

SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING AGRICULTURE RESIDUE AS SUBSTRATE
...g inoculum size and 30oC temperature, are the initial requirements for maximum production of citric acid. It was also observed that Yeast extract in 1% concentration was the best nitrogen source. Surfactants like Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulphat (SDS) showed no effect on the citric acid.

...

 Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa Andleeb2, Bushra Mazhar1, Anum Imtiaz1, Shaukat Ali2*

Assessment of antibiogram and resistogram of pathogenic bacteria isolated from irrigated wheat field water
...rious parameters such as temperature and pH on growth of pathogens were also studied. Antibiogram and resistogram analysis were carried out through agar disc and agar well diffusion methods. Optimum temperature for growth of all bacterial strains was 37oC and pH 7 except Salmonella which had pH 6. Among all the antibiotics Oxacillin was less potent as three bacterial strains showed resistance against it while others antibiot...

 Siddra Tayyab Akhtar, Anjum Nasim Sabri

Twitching, swimming, swarming in biofilm forming strains in response to chemical and physical factors
...us subtilis. The optimum temperature
and pH for swimming, swarming and twitching motilities was 37°C and pH 7. All the
bacterial strains showed reduction in diameter of zones of all motilities when the
concentration of NaCl increased in medium. Among chemical factors, tobramycin
was proven to have excellent efficiency to reduce bacterial motilites whereas
proteinase K enzyme showed weak antimotility effect against all tes...
Haniya Mazhar1, Naaz Abbas2, Tehseen Zamir3, Zahid Hussain1, Syed Shahid Ali4*
...ptimum pH was 8 and best temperature was 40oC for the reported strain. Addition of divalent Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions resulted in 2-fold increase in enzyme activity while SDS completely inhibit the lipase activity to zero. 
...

Khush Bukhat Zahid1*, Ghaffar Ali2, Samina Sabir1 and Mohammad Fayaz2 

...tuations in rainfall and temperature in relation to agricultural productivity for the period 1981-2009. For estimation purposes, the production function technique is used to evaluate the relationship between climate and yield variability. The results show that higher amount of rainfall has a negative and significant impact on the production of all crops including wheat, rice and maize. It may be because unexpected rainfall in Pakistan during monsoon season sev...
Xiao-Ying Ren1, Di Zhang2 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
... were main influenced by temperature and humidity; E. olitor, E. custos and E. chinensis were main influenced by diet. Thus, the environmental factors (temperature, humidity and diet) may lead to the difference of geometric morphometry of skulls characteristics in Eothenomys.
...

Syed Said Badshah Bukhari1*, Ghulam Ali Bajwa2 and S. Shafiqur Rehman

...non manifested in rising temperature, erratic changes in precipitation and other climate variables. To assess such impacts, climate-growth response function of the Blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) was studied in Galies Forest Division -Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, for the time period 1962-2011. Time function response and impacts of changing climate were estimated on the basis of annual ring-width and intra-ring wood formations. The results showed mea...

Sahar Shibli1,2*, Farzana Siddique1, Saeeda Raza2, Zaheer Ahsan3 and Irum Raza4 

... to three months at room temperature

...
Jair Millán-Orozco1,*, Jersson Millán-Orozco2 and Luz María Tejada-Ugarte3
...ined between environment temperature and grazing activity. It was concluded that Saint Croix sheep, showed monthly pattern throughout the year and displayed high grazing activity at noon along the year, denoting great heat tolerance.
...

Babar Tasim1, Tariq Masood1*, Zafar Ali Shah1, Muhammad Arif2, Ata Ullah1, Ghazal Miraj3 and Muhammad Samiullah4 

...g (AD) were pyrolyzed at temperature range of 300-500 oC in order to compare the biochar samples obtained on the base of its physical and chemical properties. Physico-chemical characteristic such as pH, EC, proximate composition, macro and micronutrients, surface functional groups identification by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and structure morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were carried out in biochar samples by using standard ...

Raza Ullah1* and Jamal Shah

...d risks including rising temperature, changes in rainfall patterns, floods, droughts and heavy rains etc. Farmers adopt available risk coping tools to minimize the impacts of such risks at farm level however, these adoptions require farmers to incur cost or forgo part of the potential benefits from agricultural production. These costs (explicit or implicit) are referred to as the cost of risk management. Previous studies on risk management in agriculture howev...

Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Muhammad Irfan Zafar1, Faqeer Hussain2, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3 and Azhar Ali Khan3 

... of morning, evening and temperature positively in both of the rust disease. Fungicidal application showed great reduction in the management of the disease. 

...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2 
... the other hand, average temperature was found non-significant and negatively correlated in case of Brinjal Long 6275, Round Brinjal 86602 and Singhnath 666 while significant but negatively correlated in case of Short Purple and Round White Brinjal. Maximum temperature also showed significant and negative correlation for all the cultivars. Minimum temperature was observed negative but non-...

Sonia1, Khuram Nawaz Sadozai1*, Noor Paio Khan2, Abbas Ullah Jan1 and Gulnaz Hameed3 

... variables that includes temperature, precipitation and humidity was also inquired through this research. Panel data of wheat crop’s input and aforesaid climatic variables for the period of thirty years (1985-2015) was employed to figure-out the major findings. Econometric diagnostic tests were used to verify the model stability. Therefore, LM test was encompassed to detect the serial correlation. The result of Hausman test has suggested applying “...
Zhi YiJin1, Shao MingQin1,*, Cui Peng2 and Chen Bin1
...fects of sex and ambient temperature on how time was budgeted, and activity rhythms were established in wintering Mandarin Ducks (Aix galericulata). This was done using instantaneous scan sampling in the Poyang Lake watershed in the Jiangxi province, China. The results showed that the Mandarin Ducks’ predominant behaviors were resting (36.56%), swimming (21.75%), foraging (20.88%), and maintenance (15.58%), indicating that during the winter, Manda...
Ali Raza Jahejo1,2, Nasir Rajput2, Wen-xia Tian1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro2, Asmatullah Kaka2, Sheng Niu1 and Fa-jie Jia1
...d the water intake. Body temperature and mortality percentage were significantly decreased in ascorbic acid and basil supplementary group as compared to control. Dressing percentage significantly increased in both supplementary groups. It is concluded that supplementation of basil at 5g/kg feed, promotes the growth, improves the intestinal villus size, feed efficiency and immunity of heat stressed broiler chicken.
...
Fariha Latif* and Muhammad Javed
...re performed at constant temperature (30oC), pH (8) and total hardness (250 mgL-1). All the three fish species varied significantly in their sensitivity towards metals mixture with the C. catla beingsignificantly highly sensitive followed by L. rohita and C. mrigala. After the acute toxicity tests, fish were exposed to 2/3rd of their respective 96 h LC50 of metals mixture for 90 days, after which...
Muhammad Usman Ahmadand Ikram-ul-Haq*
...solved oxygen at pH 7.5, temperature 37°C, 25mM lactate as H+ donor after 20 min. This strain was later on confirmed by 16S ribotyping procedure. Oxyrase was used for improved cultivation of anaerobic bacteria by employing Hungate Technique where its antioxidant potential was compared with common reducing agent Cysteine-HCl (Cys-HCl). Four anaerobic bacterial strains (Anaerobaculum hydrogeniformans OS1, Akkermansia muciniphila, ...
Ayesha Chaudhary1, Fouzia Mumtaz1, Muhammad Yaseen2* and Muhammad Younis Afzal3 
 
...easing the earth’s temperature. The decrease in crop yield will cause another associated issue of food insecurity in the continent and emerge severe problem for a human to survive. Climatic change is definitely disturbing the farming approaches through an increase in disease spread, and careless usage of natural resources. Due to these effects, pastoral families are at high risk, hence there is a need to make farmers aware of the reasons and causes of cl...
Hande Küçükönder1, Pınar Çelebi Demirarslan1,*, Aykut Burgut2 and Mustafa Boğa3
...s for the input factors [temperature (oC), humidity (%) and feed per hen (g)] that provide effectiveness ii) Determination of targeted improvement values for the ineffective months to become effective. With this hybrid approach, which is based on the integration of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA), the effective months are determined by DEA method and a performance rank is performed between the effective months ...
Umar Farooq Gohar1, Hamid Mukhtar1,*, Ali Nawaz1, Ikram-ul-Haq1 and Asad Mehmmood2
...tions such as incubation temperature (30°C), pH (6.5) and inoculum size and age (2%, w/v, 48 h) were optimized. The maximum cephalosporin production was achieved after 144 h of incubation. The dry mycelial mass was found to be 39.46 mg/ml. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by disc diffusion method. Cephalosporin production was estimated by using spectrophotometric technique.
...
Song Jiang, Fa-Lin Zhou, Jian-Hua Huang, Qi-Bin Yang* and Li-Shi Yang
...fresh water and a sudden temperature change of 5°C), the survival rate in the two treatment groups was markedly higher than that in the C group (14.46% and 9.65%, respectively; P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that microecological preparations significantly enhanced the growth, survival and stress resistance of L. vannamei larvae.
...
Aisha Khalid1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Abdual Rauf Shakoori2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Tahir Yaqub3, Ali Raza Awan1, Muhammad Wasim1, Sehrish Firyal1, Zaheer Hussain4 and Munir Ahmad5
...llulase at wide range of temperature, pH, its high level activity and its paper deinking potential makes it a suitable candidate for its use in paper industry.
...

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Irshad Abbasi2, Himayatullah Khan1, Arjumand Nizami3, Abdul Hakeem4, Jawad Ali3 and Muhammad Jamal Khan

...ses with increase in air temperature and maximum flow discharge of 31.25cfs was observed during the month of June and then decreases with decrease in air temperature. In general, the snow/glacier melt was the major contributor (79%) during the summer months and spring water contribution was 21%. However, in winter months only spring water is available for drinking and domestic use and hardly any water is available to meet ir...

 Huma Naz1,*, Sajid Abdullah2, Khalid Abbas2 and Muhammad Anjum Zia3

...with further increase in temperature (70 °C) until it was 0.132 and 0.495 KJ mol-1, respectively. The free energy (ΔG*) of thermal denaturation for metal treated and control fish were 58.45 and 58.79 KJ mol-1, respectively at 40 °C and increases with increase in temperature until it remained 62.65 and 63.18 KJ mol-1, respectively at 70 °C. The negative value of entropy of in...

 Attaur Rahman1, Sadeeq ur Rahman1,*, Ashfaq Ahmad2, Abdul Sajid1, Muhammad Asif Hussain1, Mian Muhammad Salman1, Niamat Ullah Khan1, Kamran Khan3, Fazli Rabbani1, Muhammad Akbar Shahid4, Irshad Ahmad5 and Shakoor Ahmad6

...owed that a peak cloacal temperature was recorded on day 3 and day 4 with a 2.3°F and 1.2°F maximum rise in broiler and ostrich, respectively. A decrease in feed and water intake was recorded in both broiler and ostrich from 116 g to 82 g/bird and from 235 ml to 172 ml/bird for broiler, and from 1300g to 790 g/bird and from 1433 ml to 995 ml/bird for ostriches on days 0-7 post-inoculation. Interestingly, morbidity was observed 100%, while maximum morta...
Faiza Jabeen1,*, Bushra Muneer2 and Javed Iqbal Qazi3
...rew over a wide range of temperatures (40-70°C) and pH (4-9). The isolates exhibited growth with variety of nitrogen sources. Both thermophilic strains were grown on agro-dairy wastes to attain their cheap production by utilizing the wastes nutrients. Protein production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-dairy wastes in production medium both with and without nutrients at pH 7.0 for 48 h at their respective suitable temp...

Ragia S. Mohamed1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mamdouh. M. Hamoud1, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shimaa A.E. Nasr1, Manal M. Zaki1, ElShaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...og2 NDV and kept at room temperature then daily examination of poultry manure for the survival of NDV on the basis of virus isolation and haemagglutination assay (HA). Our results revealed that pH of the manure from time of its mixing with the NDV infected allantoic fluid till day 4 was 7, then pH values changed progressively and recorded 8.5 on day 12. After that, pH increased towards the alkaline side and recorded pH = 9 till day 33 of the experiment. Regard...
Muhammad Nasir1,*, Ata-ul-Mohsan2, Shafqat Saeed3, Munir Ahmad2, Muhammad Asif Aziz2 andMunir Ahmad4
...study different diapause temperature (-2-0 ºC), (1-3 ºC), (4-6 ºC) and duration (two and three months) showed the highest survival rate of the queens after diapause period of two months at 1-3 ºC. Highest colony initiation rate was observed at 1-3 ºC for three months duration. Early pre-oviposition period and early emergence of the first worker in a colony was also observed at three months diapause period at diapause
Muhammad Nasir1,*, Ata-ul-Mohsan2, Munir Ahmad2, Shafqat Saeed3, Muhammad Asif Aziz2, Muhammad Imran4 and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh4
...effect of five different temperatures (24 ºC, 26 ºC, 28 ºC, 30 ºC and 32 ºC) was studies on different colony characteristic of post-hibernated queens of Bombus terrestris during flight activity period and solitary phase of development. Results showed that survival rate and colony initiation rate of the queen was highest at 28 ºC and 30 ºC. Different parameters in the initial stage of colony growth like pre-oviposition ...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

... of NDV and kept at room temperature ranged from 20 to 25oc which is nearly the same as poultry farms on different coupon surfaces (metal, plastic and cooling pads). Daily examination of poultry manure for the persistence of NDV was conducted on the basis of virus isolation followed by haemagglutination assay (HA) which revealed that NDV survived in the manure up to 28 days. Likewise, monitoring for the manure pH and moisture % was carried out. Our explanation...
Aisha Khalid1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Tahir Yaqub2, Ali Raza Awan1, Muhammad Wasim1, Shagufta Saeed1, Sehrish Firyal1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori3
...nduction time, effect of temperature and pH were examined for the maximal production of recombinant cellulase. The effect of supplementation of LB medium with additional carbon and nitrogen sources was also analyzed for maximal production of recombinant protein. Higher level enzyme activity was recorded at 25°C, pH 7.0 when the cells were induced with 0.5 mM IPTG with 22h post induction incubation. Supplementation of LB medium with 1% glucose and ye...
Zahra Nazir1, Saba Ijaz1, Roquyya Gul2 and Mahjabeen Saleem1,*
...pendent studies revealed temperature optimum of enzyme to be 40°C and stable up to 60°C. Among substrates, polygalacturonic acid was established as the best substrate for polygalacturonase showing its specificity in the hydrolysis of polysaccharide galacturonate chain. The presence of Na+1 and K+1 enhanced polygalacturonase activity up to 110% and 130%, respectively when used at a concentration of 1mM, however, the enzyme was almo...
Shengjie Zhou1,2, Pengfei Wang1,2, Chao Zhao1,2, Mingjun Fu3, Jian G. Qin4, Lihua Qiu1, Zhenhua Ma1, 4,* and Maoshang Lin1
Muhammad Ahmad, Zohaib Noor*, Karim Johar Khan, Waqar Younas and Ajmal Hussain
...s were conducive however temperature fluctuated between 26°C-29°C. Significantly higher values of (P<0.05) crude protein, fats, carbohydrates, Mg (%) and K (%) was recorded in the H. molitrix than C. catla. The results of the study showed that H. molitrix probably consumed all the phytoplankton density by filtering the water continuously resulting in the reduction of growth in other fish species in the polyculture system.
...
Sun Hong1, Zhang Yifeng1, Wang Baishi2, Li Yangwei1, Xu Wenbo1, Mao Runkun1 and Wang Zhenglong1,*
...) concentrations and the temperature and humidity in the underground burrows of mandarin voles in Xinzheng, Henan Province, China during the spring and summer of 2015. Our results show that 1) the depth and complexity of the burrow were higher during summer than during spring; 2) maximal CO2 levels (2.55%) and minimal O2 levels (16.04%) were recorded in the underground burrows during summer; and 3) the temperature...

Asim Khan1, Shahid Ali1*, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Aftab Khan1 and Raza Ullah2 

...rea under maize, maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation, respectively. For statistical analysis, panel data record for twenty years (1996-2015) across five districts of the province were scrape together from Development Statistic of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Bureau of Statistic and Pakistan Meteorological Department, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Hausman test recommended fixed effect model (as opposed to random ...
Sagir Hussain, Erum Iqbal* and Shahina Fayyaz
...14-2016 to determine the temperature dependent property of Quinisulcius capitatus. About 280 root and soil samples were taken from 47 locations and 28 agricultural crops.Compilated data from the world has shown that Q. capitatus has the potential to survive and propagate proficiently at low temperature (-2 to -15ºC).
...
Muhammad Afzal1, Nighat Sultana1, Ali Hassan1, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2,*, Mahroze Fatima3, Syed Makhdoom Hussain4, Muhammad Bilal5 and Majid Hussain2
...ality parameters such as temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored and maintained within acceptable limits for fish during entire experiment. The findings of the experiment showed improved weight gain%, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), muscle composition and digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein and crude fat in Labeo rohita juveniles when fed CA supplemented diet. Similar observations were also recorded for the...
Syeda Shazia Bokhari*, Ghashia Qayyum, Uzma Rafi and Aisha Waheed Qurashi
...mum growth at pH 7.0 and temperature 37C. In the finally formed vermicompost water holding capacity, soil pH and aggregation changed positively by EG4. The results of the present finding showed positive impact of inoculation on vermicomposting in the presence of L. terrestris. This is beneficial for improving soil fertility and aggregation.
...
Fatima Tufail1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2*, Khalid Abbas1, Laiba Shafique3
...owed that optimum pH and temperature for hepatic CAT was noted as 7.5 and 25oC, respectively. It was concluded that the insecticides mixture exposure can alter the activity of antioxidant enzymes in fish. T
hese parameters can be used as a good biomarker to evaluate the aquatic pollution.
...

Hakim Shah1*, Noor Jehan2, S. Shafiqur Rehman1 and Syed Said Badshah Bukhari

...erent climate regimes of temperature and precipitation. Mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures and mean annual temperature at the two Forest Divisions during 1965-2015 significantly increased, while mean annual precipitation significantly increased in KaFD, but non-significantly decreased in KFD. Mean values of ring-widths of Spruce at KFD and KaFD during 1965-2015 were 1.36±0...
Khalid P. Loneand Irfana Liaqat*
...when the photoperiod and temperatures were highest, while the lowest GSI was seen in October (0.09±0.01). The start of the monsoon rains was a cue for final maturation and spawning and by the middle of July; the testes were already declining and reached the minimum point in October. Both photoperiod and temperature have a strong influence on completion and regression of the spermatogenesis. This detailed study is the ...
Mujahid Niaz Akhtar* and Amjad Farooq
...significant with minimum temperature. Linear regression equation is used to predict bollworm population to minimize economic losses. 
...

Azeem Haider1, Muhammad Mohsin Alam2*, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3

...s, nitrogen sources, pH, temperature and incubation period influence on biomass and different enzymes viz; xylanase, CMCase and laccase production by Pleurotus ostreatus were optimized in shake flask cultures. The results indicated that the optimum fermentation medium in shake flask studies contained a carbon (glucose 4%), nitrogen (0.5% ammonium chloride), inoculation level (three disks, 0.5 cm in diameter), temperature (30...
Zakirullah1, Hamayun Khan1, Ali Gohar2, Haq Amanullah1,*, Muhammad Younas1, Muhammad Tarique Tunio3, Muhammad Saleem Khan4, Ibrar Muhammad Khan1 and Noushad Khan5 
..., maintained at 42°C temperature. Gross and microscopic examination was carried out subsequent to the semen collection. Semen specimen with more than 70% motile characteristics were used for further processing. The semen was split into four aliquots in which tris-citric acid extender (TCA) was supplemented with various concentrations of L-cysteine 0 mM, 0.5 mM, 1.0 mM and 1.5 mM. Cooling and equilibration of the diluted semen was done at 4°C for...
Abd El-Nasser Ahmed Mohammed1,2,*
...30 days. Changes of body temperature, heart rate, blood parameters (RBCs, WBCs, hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose and total protein), oocyte quality after ovarian transplantation (cumlus enclosed, brilliant cresyl blue stain and diameter) and reproductive performances (litter size and weight) were determined and recorded. In addition, values of body temperature and blood glucose were determined after general anesthesia. The re...
Muhammad Saeed1,2,*, Tariq Mukhtar1 and Malik Abdul Rehman3
...2014. The effect of soil temperature was also evaluated on the populations of the nematode. The nematode populations differed significantly at both the soil depths. The populations were significantly higher at a depth of 30 cm as compared to 45 cm throughout the year at both the orchards. Similarly, females per gram of roots also followed the same pattern. The number of nematodes in the soil and females in the roots were the higher during the months of April t...
Qiuxia Lei1, 2, Haixia Han1, 2, Jinbo Gao1, 2, Yan Zhou1, 2, Wei Liu1, 2, Chunlei Wang3, Jie Liu1, 2, Dingguo Cao1, 2, Huimin Li1 , Baohua Huang1,* and Fuwei Li1, 2, *  
...nce between the internal temperature of the plies and the addition of bacteria. After adding strains, the time to reach the fermentation temperature was advanced by 1 to 2 days. The content of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were increased at the first weekend, reaching up to 10ppm and 3.5 ppm respectively. Three weeks later, the content of the ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were decreased to 0.3...

Zeshan Siraj1*, Amjad Farooq1 and Zahid Mehmood2 

...to climatic factors (air temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on different cultivars of Bt. cotton from May-November 2011 -May-November 2013 at cotton research institute, Multan, Pakistan, Jassids appeared in 21st Standard Meteorological Week(SMW)and attain its peak in 36th SMW. Maximum and minimum mean population of jassids (4.19±0.16 and 0.03±0.13 per leaf) was observed in September and November 2011, respectively. Maximum and minimum p...

Rizwan Ahmad and Muhammad Zulfiqar* 

...84 to 2013 pertaining to temperature, precipitation, area under cultivation and yield of crops was collected. Analytical models used are Logit Model and ARDL Model. Regarding farmers perceptions, results show that age of farmers, farming experience and education level of the farmers are positively and significantly, except education, associated with perception regarding climate change. However, size of HH, farming types and area under cultivation are negativel...

Muhammad Waqas, Shahid Ali*, Syed Attaullah Shah and Ghaffar Ali 

...n in response to minimum temperature was 0.764 in the long run and 0.23 in the short run. Long and short run elasticities in response to seasonal rainfall were 0.60 and 0.34, respectively. It is recommended that government needs to devise appropriate policies about unirrigated land and use different methods to make it arable for wheat production. Government also needs to make large reservoirs in unirrigated areas in order to store rainfall water for irrigation...

Naveed Afsar* and Muhammad Idrees 

...ening and long-term mean temperatures have been increased with a significant decrease in the long-term mean rainfall over the past decades. The study recommends that farmers should be trained well to more appropriately tackle the menace of climate change, extension workers should be made sure to visit the farmers in their fields on regular basis, and Government should promote information technology in order to properly disseminate the climate change knowledge....

Muhammad Sharif1*, Sadullah1, Ghulam Rasool2, Muhammad Nasir Khan1, Zubair Rehman1, Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Khalid Hussain4 

...otal soil porosity, soil temperature, crop biomass and crop yield. The results revealed that TOC under ZT (0.57%) was increased significantly. EC of ZT (0.314 ds m-1) was decreased numerically, but pH was not affected by tillage treatments. No significant difference regarding SWC, soil temperature, infiltration rate was observed under different tillage treatments, but the results under ZT were appriciable and CT (1.28 g cm-3...
S. Jalbani1, N.T. Narejo2,* and P. Khan2 
 

 

...ality parameter like pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen; ammonia nitrate and alkalinity were monitored fortnightly and found within the suitable ranges. Finally decided that chopped chicken viscera found to be ideal food for better growth and survival of catfish Rita rita reared in cemented cisterns.

...
Yue Ren1, Peng-Fei Liu2, Wan-Long Zhu1,*,Hao Zhang1 and Jin-Hong Cai1
...he roles of altitude and temperature on body mass regulation in Eothenomys miletus from different areas of Hengduan mountain region in different seasons. Body mass, resting metabolic rate (RMR), nonshivering thermogenesis (NST), food intake, serum leptin levels and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti aelated peptide (AgRP), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) expressions were measured. The results showe...
Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Asma Ashraf 2*, Iram Liaqat2, Bushra Mazhar2, Shaukat Ali2 and Saiqa Andleeb3
...i.e., optimum pH and temperature. Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem Plant) was also checked. Methanol is used as a standard against which all the pathogenic bacterial isolates showed resistance. The minimum sensitivity showed by Staphylococcus sp. (BS4C) with the zone of inhibition of about 2mm in diameter while the maximum sensitivity showed by Staphylococcus sp. (BS6) with zone of inhibition of 8mm. M...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Khalid Usman2*, Shahid Hameed Khan Khalil3, Abdul Mateen Khattak4, Muhammad Ehsan Elahi1, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik2 and Amir Hamza2
...ls needed fine-tuning of temperature and relative air humidity, which affect fruit quality. During dates’ drying process high temperature and low humidity is required. This research was conducted at Arid Zone Research Center, D.I. Khan, Pakistan for quick and safe ripening of date fruits under controlled conditions. For ripening of date fruits, 35 ± 5°C temperature and 80 ...
Muhammad Ramzan1, Unsar Naeem-Ullah1*, Muhammad Ishtiaq1, Ghulam Murtaza2, Mirza Abdul Qayyum1 and Faisal Manzoor1
... the weather parameters (temperature, humidity and rainfall on two cotton genotypes; Bt (MNH-992) and Non-Bt (Cyto-124). The four natural enemies i.e. ladybird beetle, green lace wing, syrphid fly and spider were studied. The population of the natural enemies remained active throughout the studied period. The population of green lace wing and ladybird beetle were maximum in June to September, respectively. The study showed that green lace ...

Sameera Arshad1*, Arshad Mahmood Malik2 and Iftikhar Hussain3 

...bird strikes and maximum temperature (r=0.452, p=0.000), minimum temperature (r=0.422, p=0.000), and rainfall (r = 0.242, p = 0.017).Information drawn by this study could be incorporated into bird control practices at the airfield. Management efforts could be intensified during periods of high bird activity.  

...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Imtiaz Sarwar1, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Rehan Khalid1, Muhammad Yahya1 and Khurram Shehzad2
...d with pH, bulk density, temperature and moisture contents of the soil.
...
Abdul Majeed1*, Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq2, Abid Niaz3, Abid Mahmood4, Naeem Ahmad1 and Hafiz Muhammad Walyat Ali Khan1
...s.
...
QihangLiu1,2, YueliJiang2, Tong Li2, Jin Miao2, Zhongjun Gong2, Yun Duan2, and YuqingWu2*
... the visual and thoracic temperature responses of locusts. Our results showed that ultraviolet (UV), violet, and orange light stimulated the visual system of the locust and resulted in increases in thoracic temperature, orange light stimulated the visual response the most, violet light triggered the strongest response, and UV light resulted in a response of the longest duration. In terms of the impact on thoracic

Sohaib Afzaal1,4*, Usman Hameed2, Nasir Ahmad3, Klas Udekwu4, Paulina Pastuszek4 and Muhammad Saleem Haider1 

Aamir Saleem1, Arshad Mahmood Malik2*, Najam Ul Hassan1 and Imtiaz A. Qamar

...ata regarding rain fall, temperature, pan evaporation, sunshine and wind speed for interpreting results along with their statistical analysis as fixing legume with grass has improved the forage quality. Overall, these results has suggested that grass-legume mixtures can improve livestock and pasture productivity, sustainability and as well as to fix atmospheric nitrogen and this may improve soil N status also. These mixtures were also recommended for use in th...

Muneer Abbas1*, Muhammad Ramzan1, Niaz Hussain1, Abdul Ghaffar1, Khalid Hussain1, Sohail Abbas2 and Ali Raza3 

Muhammad Abdul Rahman1*, Abdul Saboor1, Gulnaz Hameed1, Ghulam Bilal2 and Farooq Tanwir3 

...tiveness of buffaloes to temperature, slow and reduced weight gain and effect on birth and death rate are weighted high as threat to farm animal health while India-Pakistan ties on water, water scarcity, high water requirement for buffaloes and lack of innovation in processing of milk and milk products are other major threats to production from farm animals. The findings of this study can serve as basis of providing key elements for policy devising in order to...
Fizza Anwar1, Muddassar Zafar1*, Zahid Anwar1, Raja Tahir Mehmood2
...d at 45°C temperature, 5.5 pH, 5 mL inoculum concentration, 1.5 mL banana peel as substrate and 20 days incubation time. The antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites was tested against Streptococcus aglactaie, Streptococcus pyogene, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. The fungus Aspergillus niger was found best among all tested strains as it produced maximum amount of antimicrobial agent Tautomycetin. The a...

Arjumand Nizami1, Jawad Ali2 and Muhammad Zulfiqar

...sed on empirical data on temperature and rainfall change from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region of North-West Pakistan to illustrate that climate change is no longer theoretical. It is real and becoming self-evident. Climate assessment 1981-2010 and future scenario 2010-2040 for KP noted little shifts in the annual average rainfall. However seasonal shifts are rather significant. In all the districts, spring and summer rains are showing an increasing trend whereas fal...
Fariha Latif1*, Muhammad Javed2, Hammad Ahmad Khan2 and Khalil-Ur-Rehman3
...glass aquaria at pH 7.5, temperature 30°C and total hardness 250mgL-1. After each fortnight, fish were sampled from each treatment and different organs such as liver, kidney, gills muscles and brain were taken out for determination of bioaccumulation and oxidative stress in the fish. The results showed that water-borne Pb exposure caused significant accumulation in the fish tissues that increased significantly with increasing exposure of Pb. Pb ...
Hafrijal Syandri1*, Ainul Mardiah2, Azrita3 and Netti Aryani4

 

...ub>-N (0.02 mg/L): water temperatures ranged from 27.5 to 30.5 °C, DO 4.3 to 5.6 mg/L, pH 6.56 to 6.96, alkalinity 50.65 to 52.25 mg/L, and hardness 6.65 to 66.85 mg/L. Survival was high at 100.0% in synthetic sheet pond at 10, 15 and 20 fish/m3, respectively. Density significantly affected (p<0.05) final mean weight (164.72±2.20, 155.34±1.40, 138.40±0.98 g) and percent weight gain (113.04±5.10, 100.89±3.4...

Muhammad Sohail1*, Imtiaz Hussain2, Maqsood Qamar2, Sikander Khan Tanveer2, Syed Haider Abbas2, Zeshan Ali1 and Muhammad Imtiaz3 

...t genotypes using canopy temperature measurement as physiological indicator. The trial was comprised of forty spring wheat genotypes which were sown on normal and late planting dates to create variable growing environments under field conditions. Wheat genotypes showed significant variation (p<0.05) under both normal and late planting dates. The genotypes showed a strong correlation among canopy temperature, spike sterili...

Muhammad Akbar Ali Shah1, Gamze Özel2, Christophe Chesneau3, Muhammad Mohsin4, Farrukh Jamal5* and Muhammad Faheem Bhatti6 

...based on monthly average temperature and humidity during crop period and Model II is based on average temperature and humidity during crop period. The factors affecting rice crop production are also tested. Durbin-Watson test is applied to measure the serial correlation in the residuals and variation inflation factor (VIF) is also applied to test the multicollinearity. The VIF values of independent variables in Model I indic...
Nurlybay Kazhgaliyev1*, Talgat Kulmagambetov2, Dulat Ibrayev1, Saule Bostanova1 and Zhanat Titanov1
...rmoneutrality or comfort temperature zone for Hereford and Aberdeen Angus breeds was within the range of +19-2 +27-31ºC. Analysis of ethology of animals showed that all groups had 0.19 functional activity index; as for the other indices, animals of group I and II groups (Hereford heifers) had a comparative advantage, they were more active and spent more time in moving and feed eating. Taken together, different breeds can be acclimatised and adapted to the...

Ajmalud Din1*, Munir Ahmad2, Fahad Masoud Watto2, Sheraz Ahmed1, Imtiaz Ali1 and Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah

...phyll content and canopy temperature. Mean squares for all traits revealed significant differences among genotypes under moisture stress and normal environmental conditions. High variations were recorded for cell membrane stability, relative water content and osmotic adjustment which indicated the suitability of these traits as selection criterion for drought tolerance. Significant association was observed between chlorophyll and proline content. Osmotic adjus...
Nadeem Munawar1,2*, Tariq Mahmood2, Paula Rivadeneira1, Ali Akhter2 and Saqib Mehmood2
...tructure and complexity, temperature, rainfall, crop productivity, predation, trampling and grazing, surrounding landscape, and succession of the natural wild vegetation. Livestock grazing, cutting, harvesting (for fuel wood and animal feed) and burning of field boundary vegetation are common practices that affect rodents and their habitat. During crop season, local farmers in the Pothwar agro-ecosystem in Pakistan do not manage wild vegetation on the field ed...

Mudassar Rashid1, Zuhair Husnain2, Usman Shakoor1* and Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain

...roductivity are: rise in temperature, heavy rainfall, precipitation, floods and drought etc. This paper has empirically examined the effect of climatic variations on cotton productivity in Pakistan. In order to evaluate the climate change, three climatic variables (rainfall, max. temp and min temp) and three non-climatic variables (technology, fertilizer and area) had been used for analysis. Historical climate data from 1981-2015, was collected from Pakistan M...
Muneer Abbas1*, Muhammad Ramzan1, Khalid Hussain1, Abdul Ghaffar1, Niaz Hussain1, Muhammad Irshad1, Mudassar Khaliq1 and Sohail Abbas2
...ificant correlation with temperature.
...
Kadir Seyhan1,*, Nimet Selda Başçinar2, Nadir Başçinar3 and Umar Khan3
...y other variable such as temperature and dietary energy density. Their stomach contents were sampled at predetermined postprandial times, and were dried at 60° C to constant weight. The course of GE in both sizes of S. fontinalis fry was best described by the square root model. The relationship between GER and body mass was then determined by a power function of fry mass that can be summarized by the equation (g h-1), where S...
Babar Khan1,2 *, Nazir Javed1, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Nasir Ahmed Rajput1, Muhammad Atiq1, Abdul Jabbar1, Abdul Rehman3, Anam Moosa1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1*
... the effect of different temperatures was also studied to evaluate the efficacy of S. kraussei on insect larvae. At 25°C, S. kraussei showed significantly higher larval mortality of insect larvae followed by 15°C and 10°C. Effect of storage time of EPN culture was studied on insect’s larvae and results showed that 2-week-old culture was more efficient as compared to 4- and 6-week-old cultures in reproduction. The larvae weight o...

Muhammad Zeeshan Nazar*, Ayyan Umer, Zahid Mahmood Sarwar, Faiz Ullah Faiz and Sikandar Hussain 

...ty. Provide the required temperature and humidity with appropriate hygienic condition to B. mori are advised to produce healthy silk. 

...

Saeed Ahmed Shah Chishti1, Saba Aleem1*, Iram Sharif2, Kashif Nadeem1, Nusrat Parveen1 and Muhammad Najeebullah1 

...m L. is sensitive to low-temperature as it inhibits the fuit growth and causes poor fruit setting. The present experiment was conducted to improve the fruit growth and fruit set in tomato during low-temperature stress conditions by the use of growth regulator 4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid. Seven different 4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid levels along with two indeterminate tomato varieties saandal and sahel were tested in two minim...

Humayun Saleem1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Zia-Ur-Rehman1 and Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique

...nters that can withstand temperatures as low as -30 ° C. The apricot has been used as a treatment for various diseases in Folk medicines. Shot hole which is a fungal disease caused by Wilsonomyces carpophilus is one of the diseases that target apricot. The purpose of the current study was to record the prevalence of shot hole disease on Islamabad’s Federal Capital Territory markets. The frequency and severity of shot hole disease was estimated from m...
Quratulain1, Ata-ul-Mohsin1, Muhammad Naeem1, Ghulam Shabir1, Muhammad Khalid Rafique2 and Rashid Mahmood2*
...tive correlation between temperature and thrips development. Considering categorization of ten onion accessions against thrips, Red Imposta was found as highly resistrant, early red, Chiltan, Nasar puri as resistant cultivar whereas Swat 1, Virio7 and 8, Phulkara, Saryab red were found susceptible while Hazara grouped in highly susceptible category due to maximum thrips infestation. Visual assessments depicted that all resistant cultivars had yellowish-green l...
Ali Uzun* and Bilgenur Yasa
...his study, the effect of temperature and the total number of individuals of coot Fulica atra on group formation and dispersal on the lake surface was studied. Coots form large groups in winter (as many as 11,500 individuals). The total number of individuals has no effect on dispersal on the lake surface and grouping behavior of the species (p>0.05). Temperature and security are the primary effective factors for the...
Şükrü Önalan1*, Muhammed Arabacı1and Haşmet Çağırgan2
...der 21, 37 and 45 °C temperatures with 0–6.5 % NaCl salinity. As a result of the examination of biochemical properties with API Rapid ID 32 Strep test, it was observed that 2 L. garvieae isolates were different from other isolates in respect of sucrose utilization. 1 and 19 number isolates were negative for sucrose whereas other isolates gave positive results. 1 number isolate was different from other isolates based on maltose profile. While i...
Fermín López-Uriostegui1, Jesus T. Ponce-Palafox2*, Fabiola Lango-Reynoso1, María R. Castañeda-Chávez1, Itzel Galaviz-Villa1, Sergio Castillo-Vargasmachuca2 and Arturo Ruiz Luna3
...t of different levels of temperature (23, 26, 29, and 32ºC) and salinity (0, 5, and 10‰) on growth performance and survival of Macrobrachium americanum was studied under controlled laboratory conditions. Sub-adult’s prawns (10.29 ± 0.27 g) were reared in these conditions for 72 days. Each experimental group contained 25 prawns in an approximately 100-L water capacity tank. The experimental design was factorial with three repetit...

Ghulam Mohi Uddin Paracha* and Yasser Durrani 

...age stability at ambient temperature (25 ± 5°C) of blended pulp of peach and persimmon. Effect of preservatives on physico-chemical parameters (total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity) and sensory evaluation of blends was carried out. The treatments in this study included BPo [peach persimmon blend (6:4)], BP1 [peach persimmon blend (6:4) + potassium sorbate (0.1%)], BP2 ...

Aurang Zeb, Abdur Rab and Shujaat Ali* 

...ed up to 48 days at room temperature, Data was recorded after 12 days of intervals. All the studied parameters were found significantly affected by both the factors i.e. storage duration and locations. The results revealed that the maximum fruit weight loss (16.37 %) was recorded from Wartair (Malakand). The percent weight loss increases with increase in storage duration. The highest fruit Firmness (.6.33 kgcm-2) was observed in location Rabat (Lower Dir) at ...

Yasir Iftikhar1, Mustansar Mubeen1,2*, Waqas Raza1, Qaiser Shakeel3, Waseem Abbas1, Shehzad Iqbal1 and Ashara Sajid

...ficantly correlated with temperature (max and min), and relative humidity (RH). Whereas, disease severity in moderate resistant varieties also showed a significant correlation with temperature. However, disease severity in the moderate resistant varieties were significantly correlated with the temperature and relative humidity. Highest disease incidence (39.33 %) was recorded at maximum

A.N. Ashfaque1, F. Shahina1 and S. Dawar2

 

Diversity of nematode fauna associated with cotton fields of high temperature areas of Sindh, Pakistan
...their occurrence in high temperature cotton growing areas of Sindh by using Euclidean distance has been estimated. The fauna obtained in June2017 and June 2018 surveys of cotton fields of five Districts Sanghar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Mitiari and Tando Allah Yar of Sindh where temperature in May to July raised up to 40ºC -50ºC.The data was subjected to construct the dendrogram for interpretation on the basis of their...

 K. Abbasi 1 , R. Wick2† and D. Zafari1

Chitinase activity of biocontrol fungi cultured from the golden potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis
...etermine the optimum pH, temperature, and reaction time. Zymography was also used to demonstrate the chitinase activity of the four isolates. The biocontrol potential of 10 selected isolates was assayed in water-agar in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. L. muscarium had the most potential and Fusarium solani was the least based on the number of parasitized juveniles and eggs in water-agar. Greenhouse trials showed T. atroviridae and B. bassiana had the hi...

 M. M. A Youssef and W. M. A. El-Nagdi †

Effect of some temperature changes on the population density of some plant parasitic nematode species
...climatic changes such as temperature, and most stages of nematodes may be killed when exposed to temperatures above 40°C (Santmayer,1955). Hence, during the study, the effect of temperature changes during a year representing the all four seasons (autumn, spring, summer and winter) on the numerical fluctuations in the population density of some parasitic nematodes on plants viz., date p...

Muhammad Alam Zeb Khan1*, Muhammad Ali Kamran1, Khan Muhammad2, Khizar Azam1 

IDENTIFICATION OF THE OPTIMAL OPERATING PARAMETERS OF LOCALLY AVAILABLE COAL FOR USE IN PAKISTANI INDUSTRIES
...by measuring the furnace temperature. Mesh size 200 was found to
be readily combustible within the operating ranges, while tight control of the operating parameters was required
to combust coal at mesh size 150. Optimum ranges of primary air and Air-Fuel Ratio are suggested for effective
combustion. The study will help in effective utilization of indigenous coal reserves of Pakistan.

...

Naveed ul Hasan Syed*1, Qurat-ul-Ain1, Muddasar Habib1, Naseer Ahmed Khan1, Sultan Ali1 

A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESS VARIABLES ON THE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT IN A SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
... and the hot water inlet temperature on the overall
heat transfer coefficient (U). The results show that the U increased with increasing the hot water and cold water flow
rates. Similarly, the increase in hot water inlet temperature, improved heat transfer rate. It was observed that the
increase in the U by increasing the cold water flow rate was significantly higher than with increasing the hot water

Riaz Muhammad1*, Naseer Ahmeda, Abdul Basit2, Rizwan Alim Mufti2 

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FRACTURE TOUGHNESS, HARDNESS AND LOAD-INDENTATION DEPTH RESPONSE OF TI-64 USING VICKERS INDENTATION TECHNIQUE
...s properties at elevated temperature are the main attribute
of titanium alloys. These alloys also exhibit low modulus of elasticity, making it ideal for spring, body implant,
dental fixtures and different sports equipment. Ti-64 accounting for more than 50 percent of titanium usage in today
modern world high-tech industries subjected to various nature of cyclic loading. This study includes the experimental
assessment of fracture tou...

Younis Jamal1, Asad Naeem Shah1, Wasif Amin Butt1, Ahmad Naveed1*, Muhammad Usman1 

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF FUEL INJECTION PARAMETERS ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS
...s and increase in global temperature are the key factors that have mainly amplified the exploration
studies of changing fuel injection and other constraints of compression ignition (CI) engines for the abatement
of exhaust emissions. In current study, a direct injection (DI), CI engine was run on a test bench for the performance
and emission analyses using different nozzles and injection timings. During the experiments, two types of nozzle...

Muhammad Aamir1*, Riaz Muhammad1, Naseer Ahmed1, Muhammad Sadiq2, Muhammad Waqas3, Izhar1 

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LEAD FREE SOLDER ALLOY FOR GREEN ELECTRONICS UNDER HIGH STRAIN RATE AND THERMAL AGING
...e selected thermal aging temperatures are 60
°C, 100 °C and 140 °C. Strain rates are measured at 10/s, 20/s, 30/s and 40/s. The microstructure examination
before and after thermal aging is carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) followed by confirmation
of chemical composition with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The microstructure is further analyzed using ImageJ
to investigate the Intermetallic compounds (I...

Muhammad Shahzad Khattak*1, Barkatullah1, Ayesha Aziz1, Jamil Ahmad2, Mohammad Sharif3, Mukand Singh Babel4, Muhammad Fahad5

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CROP WATER REQUIREMENT UNDER MULTI - REPRESENTATIVE CONCENTRATION PATHWAYS DURING MID-CENTURY: A CASE STUDY OF D. I. KHAN
...br /> the comparison of temperature and precipitation data projected by different GCM with the observed data. The delta
change and ratio method was used to obtain the corrected value of temperature and Precipitation (PPT) for the
future. The ETo calculator of Food and Agriculture Organization was used to calculate evapotranspiration. The CWR
of wheat and maize crops was computed using CROPWAT 8.0. Resul...

Nabeel Maqsood1,2*, Afzal Khan1, Muhammad Khalid Alamgir2, Shaukat Ali Shah1, Muhammad Fahad3 

PTFE THIN FILM COATING ON 316L STAINLESS STEEL FOR CORROSION PROTECTION IN ACIDIC ENVIRONMENT
...on curves at room
temperature and compared. The morphology of uncoated and coated substrates were examined by scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) while the compositional analysis performed through energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX).
The morphology of the coated and uncoated substrates were also studied before and after electrochemical corrosion
test and then compared. The thickness of the coating was also examined well. The r...

Sajjad Ali1, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak1, Daulat Khan1, Mohammed Sharif2, Hamad Khan1, Asmat Ullah3,
Abdul Malik1 

PREDICTING FUTURE TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION OVER PAKISTAN IN THE 21ST CENTURY
...dquo; was used to obtain temperature and precipitation departures projected by three different
GCMs under A1B, B1 and A2 emission scenarios. To ensure the maximum possible spatial coverage, a total of 16
climatic stations in Pakistan were selected. Results indicated a temperature departure in the range of 1.3-2.7°C for
the mid century period, and a temperature depa...

Hamza Tariq1, Imran Hayat1, Saima Rafiq1*, Aqsa Qayyum2 and Sohrab Qayyum1 

...age (90 days) at ambient temperature for consumer acceptability. An increase in titratable acidity, vitamin C, total phenolics and antioxidant activity was observed with increasing the concentration of autumn olive in the beverage blends while a decreasing trend was observed for pH, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and total sugars. Organoleptic parameters such as color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability significantly (p < 0.05) influenced. The TS...

Muhammad Asad Ali, Mirza Jahanzaib, Muhammad Ahsan Ul Haq 

ANALYZING THE EFFECT OF SQUEEZE CASTING PROCESS PARAMETERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF OVERCAST AL-ALLOY JOINT USING RSM
...essure duration and melt temperature. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to analyze the effect of above mentioned input parameters on UTS and YS. Empirical models for UTS and YS were developed which help the practitioners to achieve desired UTS and YS by using optimum vales of input parameters. ANOVA results shows that melt temperature has most significant effect on UTS and YS followed by squeeze pressure and pr...

Numan Habib, Naseer Ahmed, Riaz Muhammad, Himayat Ullah, Muftooh Ur Rehman, Kareem Akhtar 

ANALYSIS OF CHIP PRODUCED IN FREE MACHINING OF TI-6AL-7ZR-3NB-4MO-0.9ND AND TI-5AL-7ZR-7NB-0.7ND ALLOYS
...d ability to resist high temperatures. However, all these properties of this alloy results in poor machinability, hence, make the automatic machining of these alloys nearly difficult. The main limitation of titanium and its alloys is that it produces long chips during machining which tangled around tool, hence; reduce tool life and sometime leads to fracture during conventional turning (CT). In recent days new two alloys are developed named Ti-6Al-7Zr-3Nb-4Mo-...

 Muhammad Asad Ali 1*, Mirza Jahanzaib1, Muhammad Ahsan Ul Haq1

ANALYZING THE EFFECT OF SQUEEZE CASTING PROCESS PARAMETERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF OVERCAST ALUMINIUM-ALLOY JOINT USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY
...essure duration and melt temperature. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to analyze the effect of
above mentioned input parameters on ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS). Empirical models for
UTS and YS were developed which help the practitioners to achieve desired UTS and YS by using optimum vales of
input parameters. ANOVA results shows that melt temperature<...

 Numan Habib1, Naseer Ahmed1, Riaz Muhammad1*, Himayat Ullah2, Muftooh Ur Rehman1, Kareem Akhtar3

ANALYSIS OF CHIP PRODUCED IN FREE MACHINING OF TI-6AL-7ZR-3NB- 4MO-0.9ND AND TI-5AL-7ZR-7NB-0.7ND ALLOYS
...d ability to resist high temperatures. However, all these properties
of this alloy results in poor machinability, hence, make the automatic machining of these alloys nearly difficult. The
main limitation of titanium and its alloys is that it produces long chips during machining which tangled around
tool, hence; reduce tool life and sometime leads to fracture during conventional turning (CT). In recent days new
tw...

Tabassum Yasmin*, Muhammad Sadiq*

IMPACT OF LANTHANUM DOPING ON SAC305 LEAD FREE SOLDERS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS
...indering its use in high-temperature microelectronics. To improve the properties, a number of researchers used the Rare-Earth (RE) materials to refine the microstructure of lead-free solders due to their suiface-active properties. The focus of this res...

Saeed Gul*, Muhammad Irfan*, Hazrat Bilal*, Atta-ur-rehman*, Umair Khan*, Sadaqat ullah khan*

RECYCLING OF USED ENGINE OIL USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND DISTILLATION
...eed for blending, boiler temperature and solvent to used oil ratio. The maximum recovery for refined oil was 72% using solvent to used oil ratio of 9:1 at a boiler temperature 120° C and agitator speed of 600 rpm. The maximum solvent recovery of 98% was also obtained at the same process conditions.
...

Farid Ullah Khan*

ACTUATION ENHANCEMENT OF A MICRO BIMORPH THERMAL ACTUATOR
...eld strength and melting temperature. Under such extreme conditions Si-SS bimorphs perform well, opening up new field applications for this micro device. In order to fabricate the novel Si-Steel bimorph, a generic fabrication sequence is described according to criteria of reproducibility, batch fabrication, applicability and cost effectiveness with the use of newer micro fabrication techniques such Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD), Laser Ablation (LA) a...

M. Rizwan Gul*

COMPARISON OF THE OF MECHANICAL AND WEAR BEHAVIOURS OF DIFFERNT TYPES OF POLYETHYLENES AND THE EFFECT OF RADIATION CROSS-LINKING ON THESE BEHAVIOURS
... properties such as high temperature resistance and wear behavior. Radiation cross-linking using high energy electron beam or g-radiation constitutes one of the most convenient methods. This study explores the difference in mechanical and wear behavior of different polyethylenes, and compares the effect of radiation cross-linking and radiation dose on these properties. Three different types of polyethylenes: low density (LDPE), high density (HDPE), and ultra-h...

M. Nafees*, Bushra Khan*, Robina Naz*

STUDY OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SAFETY IN STEEL RE-ROLLING MILL WITH REFERENCE TO HIGH NOISE LEVEL AND TEMPERATURE
...he exposure to noise and temperature in a steel re- rolling mill. The measured noise and temperature values were then compared with international standards set by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Our results indicate that temperature level was high at two places of the mill i.e. furnace and re-rolling mill sections with the average value of 67 °C and 39°C respe...
Naeem Ejaz*, Daulat Khan**, Usman Ali Naeem*, Muhammad Ali Shamim*, Muhammad Fiaz Tahir*, Faisal Shabbir*, Jawad Hussain*
DETERIORATION OF ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT AND FLY-ASH BASED GEO-POLYMER CONCRETES DUE TO SULFATE ATTACK UNDER THE ACTION OF SULFURIC ACID AND WASTEWATER
...ured for 28 days at room temperature. After curing, specimens were immersed in three types of sulfate containing solutions to check corrosion.. These sulfate containing solutions include static sulfuric acid, dynamic wastewater and static wastewater. Samples were tested at 28, 45 and 60 days after immersing in different type of solutions to find the corrosion depth. By visual inspection the corrosion depth and residual compressive strength ...

Muhammad Irfan*, Saeed Gul*, Mohammad Younas*

SOLAR STILL PERFORMANCE FOR SEA WATER PURIFICATION: A STATISTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
...th in still, average day temperature and average water temperature in still were studied experimentally and verified statistically though ANOVA (analysis of variance). It was found that the water temperature in the still is the most significant parameter that largely affects the evaporation rate. The fresh water with 240 mg/L dissolved salt has been extracted from the model ...

Mumtaz Shah*, Hashim Nisar Hashmi* Naeem Ejaz* Abdul Razzaq Ghumman*

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AQUATIC MACROPHYTES FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
...ovalswere observed for attemperature range of 15-38oC and at pH variation between 6 and 9. In developing countries like Pakistan, where no importance is being given to municipal sewage treatment, the method found to be environmentally and financially sustainable.
...

 Iftikhar Ahmad1, Sahar Noor1

CHARACTERIZATION OF CERAMICS WALL TILES USING LOCAL TALC AS A FLUXING AGENT
...p;20% talc even at lower temperature of 1030-1050°C compared to 1160-1167°C used in local industry. This substantial decrease of nearly 100°C in production temperature will reduce the energy cost for wall tile production. In addition talc's use is economical because of its cheaper cost than other fluxes like feldspar and lime stone.
...

 Arshad Ali1, Hashim Nisar Hashmi2

TREATMENT FEASIBILITY OF THE BLEACHING EFFLUENT OBTAINED FROM NSSC PULP AND PAPER MILL IN A UASB REACTOR
...paper mill at mesophilic temperature and neutral pH. Methanol as a source of an easily biodegradable substance along with an activated carbon of effective size 1.5-2.5mm was added to the reactor R-I to evaluate its efficiency. It was observed that corresponding to an OLR of 2.14kg-COD/m3-day the overall COD removal efficiency of the reactors R-I and R-II was 83% and 64%, respectively. And the AOX removal efficiency was noticed as 71% and 49...

Javed Iqbal1, Ali Zohaib1*, Muzzammil Hussain1, Iftikhar Ahmad1, Adnan Bashir1, Wardah Muzaffer2, Naeem Faisal1, Muhammad Tahir Latif1 and Sami Ullah1

...mation by fluctuation in temperature regimes during sowing season of crop. However, different varieties could differ in their potential for yield formation in response to sowing time. This 3-years study was conducted to ascertain impact of sowing dates on grain yield and critical yield component of different wheat varieties. Wheat varieties (Lasani-08, Faislabad-08, Millat-11, AARI-11 and Punjab-11) were sown on different sowing dates (November 01, November 15...

Uzma Arif1, Sadar Uddin Siddiqui2, Muhammad Fareed Khan1, Muhammad Arshad3 and Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi

...led-ageing for different temperatures and incubation time during 2016 at Seed Preservation Laboratory, Bio-resources Conservation Institute, NARC, Islamabad. Forced seed ageing was carried out at 25, 30, 35 and 40°C for Day-one (D1) through day-six (D6) of incubation period. Observations were recorded for percent germination, shoot length (cm), root length (cm), fresh seedling biomass (g) and dry seedling biomass (g); revealing significant differences at a...
Sinan Uzundumlu1, Yesim Buyukates1,*, Murat Yigit2, Musa Bulut2,  Rıdvan Kaan Gurses1 and Barbaros Celikkol3
...ality parameters such as temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, chlorophyll-a and inorganic nutrients such as NO2+NO3, NH4, PO4 and SiO2 were observed between May 2014 and September 2014 in the study area. The observed results were compared with acceptable limits pronounced in international organizations such as EPA and FAO, and national organizations such as WPCR and RTMAF as well as...

Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal1*, Ijaz Ahmad2, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed Basra3, Abu Baker Ijaz4, Zahid Hassan Tarar5, Muhammad Ansar6, Umer Iqbal7, Tayyaba Naz4, Bilquees Fatima8, Muhammad Akram9, Allah Wasaya10, Asif Iqbal11, Shakeel Ahmed Anwar12, Khalid Saif Ullah Khan13, Azeem Khalid14, Asif Aziz15 and Rashid Mehmood16 

...versely affected by high temperature during anthesis. Asynchronous fertilization and pollen desiccation reduce maize yield by reducing grain number and their size. Spray of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), salicylic acid (SA) and ascorbic acid (AsA) may induce heat stress tolerance. Spray of SA, AsA, and H2O2 increased chlorophyll, relative water and nutrient contents, membrane stability index (MSI) and antioxidants activities in heat stress. Moreover, foliar applica...
Roni Koneri1*, Meis Nangoy2 and Pience V. Maabuat1
... by vegetation cover and temperature.
...
Waqar Majeed1, Naureen Rana1, Elmo Borges de Azevedo Koch2* and Shahla Nargis1
Aribah Naz1*, Uzma Badar1,Afsheen Arif2*, Zaid Qureshi1, Sondas Saeed1,Erum Shoeb1, Maqsood Ali Ansari1 and Obaid Yusuf Khan1
...in bream fish.Isolation, temperature optimization for growth and luminescence, growth curve, MTC for heavy metals and antibiotics were determined. Morphological, Biochemical and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing have been done for the identification of the strain. 16S region was amplified by PCR and subjected to DNA sequencing. The sequence data analysis of the isolated strain showed 98% homology with Vibrio harveyi species. The sequence obtained...
Sumaira1, Syed Mohsin Bukhari1, Maqsood Iram2, Arshad Javid1Ali Hussain1, Waqas Ali1, Khalil Ur Rehman3, Shahla Andleeb3, Irfan Baboo4 and Nimra Khalid1
...thon molurus. Higher temperature and humidity accelerated the ecdysis process.
...
Duo Jing Qiu1,2,3, Xin Yu1,2,3, Mao Jun Zhong1,2,3 and Long Jin1,2,3*
...ch leads to variation in temperature, food availability and duration of breeding season in amphibians. Here, we examined differences in somatic condition and testis mass of male Duttaphrynus melanostictus distributed in two altitudes (120 m and 1673 m above sea level) in Hunan and Yunnan Province, southwest China. We found that D. melanostictus displayed significant differences in body mass and relative testis mass between low- and high-altitude ...
Ishrat Perveen1, Yasar Saleem2 and Javed Iqbal Qazi3* 
...les (only thawed at room temperature) revealed presence of HCAs in K, S, D and B brands with respective values of 0.97, 1.09, 5.63 and 13.66 µg/g. The high thermal cookings of the RTE samples enhanced the levels of HCAs. Microwave cooking was found to produce highest total HCAs contents (0.71-35 µg/g) followed by deep-frying (1.62-22.21 µg/g) and pan-frying (1.11-8.57 µg/g) of the RTE chicken kabab samples. Highest level of IQ appeared ...

Adnan Arshad1*, Huma Qamar2, Ristina Siti-Sundari3, Zhang Yue1, Muhammad Zubair2, Muhammad Ali Raza4, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rehman5 and Lizhen Zhang1*

Phenotypic Plasticity of Spineless Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Cultivars in Response to Exogenous Application of Salicylic Acid under Rainfed Climate Conditions
...longed droughts, rise in temperatures, and erratic rainfall are common factors affecting crop productions in rainfed areas worldwide. This research intended to identify spineless Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) performance in acclimating changing climate, as safflower has gained prominence as an oilseed industry due to its hardiness in nature. A two-factor factorial experiment using completely randomized block design (RCBD) followed by five spineless saffl...

Kanwar Muhammad Raheel Mehboob1, Rashid Iqbal2*, Muhammad Israr3,4, Jaweria Shamshad5, Umair Riaz6, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman7,8, Fawad Ali9, Arif Nawaz10, Maliha Sarfraz11, Abdul Waheed12, Muhammad Tahir Khan13 and Muhammad Aslam2

 

Assessment of the Consequences of Heat Changes on Cotton Cultivars Growth, Phenology and Yield at Different Sowing Regimes
...f phenology of crops are temperature sensitive. Hence, information on appropriate temperature for best yield is significant so as to get maximum production. In current examination, a field test was directed to evaluate the phenology, relative development, ideal sowing time, comparative growth just as yield execution of three cultivars of Bacillus thuringiensis Cotton (Bt. Cotton) at different sowing systems during summer 201...

Abdul Jalal, Abdur Rab* and Naveed Ahmad

Aloe Vera Gel Coating Retains Persimmon Fruit (Diospyros kaki) Quality during Storage at Room Temperature
...y during storage at room temperature. Storage at room temperature (26±2 °C) resulted in significant decline in fruit firmness, percent acidity, and ascorbic acid content with a concomitant increase in total soluble solids (TSS), organoleptic quality (Taste) score and decay incidence. Coating of persimmon fruits with 30% Aloe vera gel retarded the storage related changes and retained high fruit firmness, acidity an...

Zahir Shah1*, Saima Munawar1, Ihsan Ullah2, Taif Shah3, Haq Aman Ullah1, Saqib Nawaz1, Farhan Anwar Khan1 and Manoj Kumar Shah4

Combined Physico-chemical and Analgesic Effects of Electroacupuncture Plus Clonidine in Goats
...piratory effects, rectal temperature, hematological and biochemical variables were assessed in all groups. Clonidine at the dosage of 20µg/kg increased the pain threshold, and decreased cardio-respiratory rates and rectal temperature in goats. EA plus 10µg/kg of clonidine resulted higher pain threshold for 45-60 min than those goats treated with clonidine at 10 and 15µg/kg or EA alone but showed similar pai...
Ateeq Ahmad1, Umar Hayat2, Shahid Ali2*, Hazrat Bilal3, Naveed Ali2, Khan Mir Khan4 and Khalid Khan4
Descriptive Analysis of Water Resources in Pakistan: A Perspective of Climate Change
...or. Data on rainfall and temperature was taken from (PMD) Pakistan Metrological Department for the period of 1980-2011. The data was analyzed through descriptive statistical tolls and Arc GIS 9.8. Result suggests that climate change has severe implications on variation in temperature and rainfall of Pakistan. The after effects of climate change are variation in temperature, changing precip...

Zulnorain Sajid1*, Muhammad Ramzan2 and Noreen Akhtar1

Foraging Behavior and Pollination Ecology of Bumble Bee and Honey Bee in Pakistan; A Review
...iciency to forage at low temperature, vibration to burst the pollen sac, high speed to flower visitation at low temperature and solitary colony structure. In northern areas of Pakistan bumblebees are natural pollinators. The various products of honey bee especially honey, royal jelly and bee venom used for the treatment of various diseases like cardiac diseases, hypertension and many others problems. These are the main sourc...
Rabea Ejaz1*, Saima Qadeer2,Muhammad Sajjad Ansari3, Bushra Allah Rakha4Shazia Shamas5, Iram Maqsood1, Asma Ul Husna6, Asima Azam1 and Shamim Akhter6
...rtificial vagina keeping temperature at 42°C for a period of 5 weeks (replicates; n=30). Ejaculates were mixed in tris citric acid extender having 0.0 (control), 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0 ng/mL of arachidic acid at a temperature of 37°C (>1 mL volume, >0.5 billion per mL conc., >60% motility) and cryopreserved using standard procedures. Percent sperm motility, liveability, plasmalemma integrity and viabilit...

Muhammad Nazar1, Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub2, Mujahid Ali3*, Malik Abdul Rehman4, Shoib ur Rehman5 and Saqib Ayyub2

Amelioration of Thermo-Tolerance Ability in Spinacia oleracea L. Cultivars by Foliar Application of Chitosan
...ak) were grown at normal temperature 18/20°C (day/night temperature) and then after four weeks after emergence 40/32°C (day/night temperature) was given by gradually enhancing 2°C per day. After one week of heat stress (40/32°C), four treatments (25, 50, 75, 100 ppm) of chitosan were applied as a foliar spray on spinach cultivars in comparison to control (non-treated with c...
Tehreem Zahra1, Muhammad Irfan1, Muhammad Nadeem2, Misbah Ghazanfar1, Qurratulain Ahmad3, Shaukat Ali4, Farzana Siddique5, Zarina Yasmeen6, Marcelo Franco7
...ith pH 5.0 at incubation temperature of 30C. The model proposed was found significant. The cellulase produced could be potentially used in industries especially for biofuel production. 
Yonghua Liu*, Xianhua Li, Xiongfei Yan and Gang Li
...r laboratory conditions (temperature 25 ± 1ºC, 80 ± 5% relative humidity, photoperiod 14L:10D), the effect of the 4 host plants Armeniaca vulgaris (apricot), Malus pumila (apple), Prunus salicina (plum), and Amygdalus persica (peach) on the growth, development, survival, reproduction, and life table parameters of A. fimbriana were studied. Different host plants had significant effects on the growth, develop...

Shujaat Ali1,2*, Tariq Ahmad Jan3, Khalil Ur Rahman3, Shah Masaud Khan2, Ijaz Hussain2, Waseem Ahmad2, Qasim Ayub2, Muhammad Abbas1 and Israr Ahmad1

Effect of Room Condition on Sweetening and other Chemical Components of Different Cultivars of Potato in Swat District

Numan Habib1*, Muftooh Ur Rehman Siddiqi1 and Riaz Muhammad2

Thermal Simulation of Grain During Selective Laser Melting Process in 3D Metal Printing
...nt process parameters on temperature distribution in grain and capability of the specified laser to melt and fuse above mentioned material powder grain. Three different 2D models of 1µm, 2µm and 3µm grain sizes are modeled and simulated with different scanning speed 60, 100, 140, 180 and 220 mm/sec. Results are demonstrated for thermal distribution on grain along the depth. Center of the lower surface of the grain is chosen as a focus point a...

Zaka ur Rehman1*, Kashif Akbar1, Altaf ur Rehman1, Hassan Waqas1, Alif Khan1 and Asad Ali2

Development and Storage Stability of Diet Mango Juice
...ples were stored at room temperature for physicochemical analysis (Total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, pH, percent acidity, and sugar-acid ratio) and organoleptic evaluation (appearance, taste, flavor, overall acceptability) for three months. These were prepared with sweeteners, numbered as (T0) pure mango juice (control sample), (T1) mango juice+2.5g sucralose, (T2) mango juice+2.5g cyclamate, (T3) mango juice+2.5g aspartame, (T4) mango juice+1.25g sucralose...

Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai1, Amer Mumtaz2, Naseem Rauf1, Saeeda Raza2, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui2, Muhammad Naeem Safdar2, Sahar Shibli2, Muhammad Suhail Ibrahim3*, Muhammad Akhtar4 and Muhammad Saad Rehan5

Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Soymilk Carrot Blend
...studied at two different temperatures to improve its pro vitamin A profile. Soymilk being potential source of protein was used as a carrier of pro- vitamin A. Carrot powder was blended in soya milk at three different concentrations levels 2%, 4% and 6% and packed in sterilized bottles. The product was kept at two different temperatures (ambient and refrigerated temperature) for 14 days to ...
Fangqing Liu1, Jared Atlas2, Chaohao Du1, Anoop Das3 and Longying Wen1*
...vely correlated with air temperature (P<0.05). Many measures of body size (wing length and tail length for males; tail length for females) increased with latitude after controlling for altitude, indicating that the body size of this species, especially in males, is significantly larger at high latitudes. It is the common pheasant’s adaptability to considerable environmental change that has facilitated the vast distribution of this species.
Nadia Islam1, Khalil Ahmed1,*, Maisoor Ahmed Nafees1, Mujtaba Khalil2, Ishtiaq Hussain3, Muhammad Ali1 and Raja Imran1
.... At Misto uch, the mean temperature was 9.7°C and 15.4°C, turbidity was 0.44 NTU and 0.67 NTU, electric conductivity was 147.4 µS/cm and 226.7 µS/cm, total dissolved solids was 99 mg/l and 118 mg/l, pH was 6.8 and 6.8 and total phosphorus was 48.3 µgP/L and 64.3 µgP/L in both the seasons. Whereas Bar spring the mean values in both the seasons were 10.8oC and 16.0oC for tempera...
Minghao Gong1*, Shiliang Pang2, Zhongyan Gao2, Wanyu Wen1, Ling Zhang3, Gang Liu1, Huixin Li1, Fawen Qian4 and Wenfeng Wang2
...bitat. We confirmed that temperature, rather than precipitation, had the most impact on RCC breeding. To cope with climate change, we recommend that new refuges be designed within the study area and the transformation of wetland to farmland in the area be banned. Also, organic agriculture methods and crop species that consume less water than rice should be adopted to mitigate the adverse climate changes that accompany global warming and will contribute to RCC ...

Shishir Sharma* and Laxmi Prasad Joshi

Current Insights on Stemphylium Blight of Lentil with its Management Strategies
...avored by high humidity, temperature greater than 220c, and cloudiness. The pathogen mainly persists in crop debris and occasionally in seed during the offseason. Mapping QTLs by utilizing wild varieties and landraces may be used to develop disease-resistant varieties which it is the most efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable technique. Integrated disease management approaches along with Omics and weather prediction tools may be crucial in...

Muhammad Farooq1*, Elham Azadfar2, Zohre Bahrami3, Mahniya Sharifi3, A. Shakoor4, Shabir Ahmed5, Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi1, Muhammad Noman Khan6, Memona Siddique7, Naila Ilyas8*, Muhammad Bakhtiar9, Mohamed El-Fatieh Ismael1 and Wang Yunyang1

Optimization of Drying Process of Rambutan by Combined Method of Osmosis Ultrasound and Complementary Drying of Hot Air
...en dried in an oven at a temperature of 70°C. The characteristics of solid gain, water and weight loss, shrinkage and rehydration were evaluated. The obtained results showed that by increasing the concentration of weight and water loss, solid gain increased. Accordingly, in a higher concentrated osmotic solution, the osmotic pressure, which is a key factor in mass transfer in the osmotic dehydration process, increases by increasing concentration, the perce...
Muhammad Farooq1*, M. Javed Iqbal2, Rizwan Shukat2, Qayyum Shehzad3, Shabir Ahmed4, Elham Azadfar5, Abdul Saboor6, Ibrar Ahmad7, Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi1, Kaleem Kakar8, Shoaib Khan9 and Wang Yunyang1
Development of Onion Powder by using Egg Albumin as a Foaming Agent by Foam-Mat Drying Process
... tray drier at different temperatures (55°C, 65°C and 75°C) with 3mm sheet thickness of onion foams. Effect of different concentration of foaming agent and drying temperature was studied on moisture and drying rate of onion paste. Increase in concentration of foaming agent significantly increased the drying rate from 0.422 ± 0.169 for (Control) to 0.743± 0.169 (egg albumin). Foamed onion paste were ...
Umair Faheem1*, Qaisar Abbas1, Saghir Ahmad2, Ghayour Ahmad2, Abdul Karim2and Mussurat Hussain1
...logical limitations i.e. temperature (oC), relative humidity (RH) and rainfall (RF) on population fluctuation or dynamics of the A. biguttula biguttula. It was found that there is a direct relationship between A. biguttula biguttula population and temperature. While, no significant correlation of A. biguttula biguttula population with the RH except two years (2014 and 2016) where, it has shown...
Muhammad Muhsin1, Muhammad Nawaz2, Imran Khan1, Muhammad Bilal Chattha3,Sadia Khan4, Muhammad Talha Aslam1, Muhammad Mahmood Iqbal5, Muhammad Zubair Amin6, Muhammad Ahsin Ayub7, Usman Anwar8, Muhammad Umair Hassan1 and Muhammad Umer Chattha1*
 
 
...ld of wheat owing to low temperature during emergence and early growth. Seed size has an appreciable potential to improve stand establishment, growth, and yield under late sowing conditions. Therefore, the present study was performed to assess the impact of diverse seed sizes (SS) on the growth and yield of wheat crop under late sowing conditions. The study was comprised of different sowing dates (SD), SD1: 15th December, SD2: ...
Shahid Hussain Abro1*, Mohammed N. Alghamdi2, Muhammad Sohail Hanif3, Hazim Moria2 andHamza Suharwardi1
 
 
...nite formed at different temperatures and time 10s, 15s, 30s, and 60sec and 800°C 710°C, 740°C, 770°C respectively. Initial microstructure for both the steel is ferrite and pearlite. AC1 temp: is assumed to be 740°C and AC3 temperature 800°C has been examined methodically. The soaking time and holding temp: play an important role in developing of gamma-austenite. Mostly ferrite a...
Muhammad Hamayoon Khan*, Niaz Hussain Khuhro, Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Usman Asif and Raza Muhammad
 
 
... and minimum and maximum temperatures and sunshine hours whereas relative humidity (R.H.) and rainfall were found to have a negative correlation with B. zonata abundance. Correlation analysis of B. dorsalis catches with respect to meteorological data revealed a significantly positive correlation of monthly captured flies with all the climatic factors such as maximum temperature, minimum
Malik Muhammad Yousaf1*, Muhammad Mohsin Raza1*, Mumtaz Hussain1, Jahangir Shah1, Rao Wali Muhammad1, Sami Ullah2,3, Hera Gul4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Muhammad Zeshan6
 
 
Wenyou Huang1, Dan Yü1, Song Huang1,2, Jian Xiao2, Ping Qi2, Anhua Song2* and Zhen Huang1*
...c factors including high temperature, desiccation and UV irradiation. Selecting isolates with high UV tolerance and virulence is important in improving the efficacy and utility of fungal insect pathogens as insect biological control agents for use under field conditions. UV-irradiation of Metarhizium lepidiotae, coupled to growth selection, second metabolites change and insect bioassays using Plutella xylostella larvae as the host resulted in the...
Ye Ge1, Chunmiao Zhao1, Weitian Xie2, Ying Liu2,* and Chunhou Xu1,*
...e ability to resist high temperature and hereditary stability. The results showed that RH-3 was a perfect protoplast from which 48 strains were obtained through regeneration, with a sporogenic rate of 69.1% and a colony number of 2.7×105 CFU/mL after an 80 °C high-temperature treatment. After 7 generations of fermentation, the average pH value was 4.47. The average number of colonies in the culture mediu...
Ijaz Haider1*, Muhammad Akhtar1, Ali Noman2 and Muhammad Qasim3
...ome abiotic factors like temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on the adult population of these pests was also studied. The population of these pests was monitored on the light trap from March to November from 2000 to 2014 in rice wheat cropping system. Yellow stem borer (YB), white stem borer (WB) and pink stem borer (PB) first appeared on the light trap in March when average temperature was 18°C. YB and WB had fi...
Grace Okongor, Chukwudi Njoku*, Pauline Essoka and Joel Efiong
...tate, Nigeria. Rainfall, temperature, sunshine and relative humidity (1976-2016), as well as yam yield data (1990-2016) were considered. Results revealed that climate elements fluctuated steadily during the period with a marginal increase in yam yield. The projections from the Time Series Modeler showed that relative humidity will decrease slightly while yam yield will increase by an additional 265 metric tons in 2026. Although minimal, and not significant to ...
Asima Batool1, Ghulam Abbas2*, Zuhair Hasnain3, Nasira Perveen4 and Muhammad Naeem Akhtar5
...ve response against high temperature / heat stress at Botany Department, Agriculture University, Faisalabad. Germinated maize seedlings / plants were placed in the glass fitted canopies, where canopy temperature was found 7-10°C higher than ambient temperature along with light reflection was enough for optimum photosynthesis. The
Shakeel Ahmed Soomro1,2, Sikandar Almani3, Lal Bux4, Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto2, Muhammad Sohail Memon2, Farman Ali Chandio2, Shakeel Hussain Chattha2, Zaheer Ahmed Khan2, Zubair Ahmed Soomro5,Babar Mustafa Ansari6 and Kunjie Chen1*
...fects of indicators i.e. temperature (40.86, 45, 55, 65 and 69.14 ºC) and time (4.11, 30, 92.5, 155 and 180 min) each with five levels on observed parameters. The suitability of quadratic model for present study was described by the responses having acceptable R2 and Adj. R2 values, non-significance of lack of fit which compares residual to pure error and significance of analysis of variance which is essential for testing the applica...
Simeen Mansoor, Jabeen Farheen* and Meher Hassan
 

...ins induced by sublethal-temperature are molecular chaperons that positively regulate plant growth and development that govern acclimation in plants but little has been known under lethal-temperature stress. Thus, the impact of induction of thermotolerance by sublethal-temperature (40 °C), 100 µM indoleacetic acid (IAA), and 100 µM gibberellic acid (GA

Masood Sadiq Butt1, Sadia Aslam1,2, Rizwan Shukat1,*, Syed Qamar Abbas1, Muhammad Issa Khan1, Shadab Shaukat3 and Muhammad Shahid4

...the reaction conditions (temperature, time, pH and enzyme to substrate ratio) for enzymatic hydrolysis of fish proteins. The optimum reaction conditions for degree of hydrolysis (DH) using flavorzyme enzyme were temperature 46.37oC, time of hydrolysis 116.91 min, [E]/[S] ratio 1.97% and pH of 7.99. The experimental value of DH at optimized conditions was 50.13% while the statistically predicted value for DH was 50...
Uzma Ayaz1,* and Muhammad Fareed Khan2
 

...20 to 25 cm. The average temperature was varying between 24.3°C (75.7°F) and 34.8°C (94.6°F) throughout the season with 112.8 mm (4.44”) of precipitation. By randomly selecting ten plants per plot data was recorded for various traits i.e. germination percentage, flower initiation days, full flowering days, full development days, total leaves per plant, chlorophyll content (mg/cm-2), height of plant (cm), disk length...

M. Javed Iqbal1, Rizwan Shukat1, Muhammad Farooq2*, Iftikhar Ahmed Solangi2, Naila Ilyas3, Rahman Ullah4, A. Shakoor5, Muhammad Bakhtiar6 and Faraz Ahmed7 

... tray drier at different temperatures (55°C, 65°C and 75°C) with 3mm sheet thickness of onion foams. Effect of different concentration of foaming agent and drying temperature was studied on moisture loss drying rate of onion paste. Increase in concentration of foaming agent significantly increased the drying rate from 0.422± 0.169 (Control) to 0.744± 0.169 (soy protein). Foamed onion paste were drie...

Ali Zaman1, Nabila Roohi1 and Muhammad Irfan2*

...to acute) like increased temperature, variation in rumen motility, mucous membrane, salivation, edema, dullness, depression, nasal discharge, respiratory distress and recumbence or death. A significant change in complete blood count (CBC) including packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration, red blood cells (RBCs) count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) platelets co...

Aurang Zeb1, Abdur Rab1, Shujaat Ali1,2*, Ijaz Hussain2, Shah Masaud Khan2, Israr Ahmad1, Bilal Pervaiz Khan1, Shakila Umer3 and Muhammad Abbas1

...n be best stored at room temperature (20±1 0C with a relative humidity of 45-50 %).

...

Muhammad Musa1*, Muhammad Riaz Gondal2, Aaqib Riaz3, Sikander Hayat2 and Iftikhar Haider1

Jing Yu1*, Jiangmei Mao1,2 and Dongliang Wang1,3
...an color and sea surface temperature (SST) provided by MODIS-Aqua. On the basis of modified VGPM model, fishery resources in the Daya Bay were evaluated according to the Tait model, Cushing model, and trophic dynamics model. Results showed that the seasonal variation of PP was obvious in the bay, the average PP reached the highest in summer (1595.60 mg C·m-2·d-1) and the second in autumn (1274.67 mg C·m-2&m...
Rida Haroon Durrani1*, Fareeha Akhtar1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh1, Munazzah Maqbool1, Aleena Kokab1, Kiran Imtiaz2 and Muhammad Ilyas Riaz3
...d the effects of storage temperature associated with bacterial spoilage of fish meat. A total 24 samples were procured during three different seasons from local retail shops (n=12) and supermarket (n=12) in order to observe the bacteria which are associated with meat spoilage. Total viable count of aerobic psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria was performed through selective enrichment and culturing of samples to determine the diversity of bacter...

Shujaa Arshad1, Muhammad Umair1*, Rana Shahzad Noor1, Chaudhry Arslan2, Arslan Afzal1 and Zafar Islam3

...room. Parameters such as temperature and humidity were recorded for room and ambient environment. The results showed that prototype help to keep the room temperature up to 4 °C to 5 °C lower than the ambient temperature while using the only solar energy through PV panel. The use of solar energy with new technologies in Pakistan is not yet adopted on large scale. This research will ...

Saima Naz1*, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha2, Saba Saeed1

...es were kept at constant temperature (32°C), pH (7) and hardness (250 mg L-1) of water. Physico-chemical parameters of test medium were monitored regularly. The observed mean LC50 and lethal concentrations for Cirrhinus mrigala were 55.85 ± 2.84 and 128.44 ± 9.25 mg L-1, respectively. On the other hand, for Labeo rohita, mean values of LC50 and lethal concentrations were calculated as 56.42 ± 2.51 and 120.98 ± 7.18 mg L-1, respe...
Md. Alal Hossen1, Mohammad Amzad Hossain1*, A.K.M. Munzurul Hasan1,2, Bipresh Das1, Sohel Mian1, Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal1
 
...plusmn;0.01 mm while the temperature of water was 30±1°C. The present study revealed that application of S-GnRHa hormone at dose of 0.5 ml kg-1 body weight of female could be efficacious for production of M. gulio seed in freshwater successfully.
 
Novelty Statement | This research work is very first approach to breed Mystus gulio by using S-GnRHa in freshwater environment and to observe thei...

Saba Aleem1*, Iram Sharif2, Mehvish Tahir3, Muhammad Najeebullah3, Ali Nawaz1, Muhammad Imran Khan1, Amina Batool1 and Waheed Arshad1 

...o the global increase in temperature, heat stress has become a great threat for the crops production worldwide. This research was conducted to assess the genotypic variability and relationship of accumulation of glycine betaine, proline, chlorophyll contents, and cell membrane thermostability with yield in different cauliflower varieties under heat stress. Heat stress was imposed by early sowing of genotypes (in July as compared to September sowing). Under the...

Muhammad Fiyyaz1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Muhammad Aftab2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Sarfraz Hussain3, Ayesha Zafar1, Imran Shehzad1 and Aneela Riaz4

...te level because of high temperature and low rainfall. Different sources of organic matters such as farm yard manure, poultry waste, rice husk etc. can increase productiveness of soil. Combined usage of poultry waste material and chemical fertilizer improved maize growth and health of soil. This experiment comprised of 11 treatments applied under completely randomized design like, T1 = chemical fertilizers at recommended rate, T2 = chemical fertilizers at half...

Muhammad Rafique1, Inam Ul Haq1*, Humara Umar2, Muhammad Jan2 and Muhammad Azhar Iqbal2

...ltivation, where minimum temperature occurs between 10oC and 12oC during end March before olive flowering. In recent past, mass scale olive plantation over an area of 10,000 acres was done in these parts of the country. So, in order to ensure the sustainability of olive orchard development in Pakistan, a research trial was conducted to improve the rooting ability of olive cuttings to strengthen the local olive nursery setup. A practical problem is that the com...

Muhammad Ahsan1*, Aneela Ramzan1, Muhammad Nafees1, Adnan Younis2, Muhammad Amin1, Gulzar Akhtar3, Khansa Saleem1 and Azka Sabeeh1

... design (CRD) under room temperature. The results showed that maximum fresh weight (g) was obtained in T4 (acetic acid), flower head diameter (mm) and flower color was ideal under T3 (salicylic acid). Maximum dry weight (g), highest flower freshness on 1st and 3rd day, minimum petal discoloration which leads to productive market acceptability and highest vase life was recorded in T2 (sugar). It is worth to note that lowest market acceptability of flower was ob...

Alim-un-Nisa1*, Sajila Hina1, Imran Kalim1, Mohammad Khalid Saeed1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Naseem Zahra1, Sania Mazhar1, Shahid Masood1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Qurat-ul-Ain Syed1 and Rabia Shad2

...C showing that at higher temperatures the color is deteriorated. Stability in pH of red beet dye was also monitored at three different temperatures (4°C, 25°C and 45°C). Increase in pH was observed with increasing storage temperatures. Maximum stability of the color was observed at 4°C at most stable acidic pH and color degradation was observed with gradual increase in pH a...
Zhi Wang1*, Wenhua Liu2 and FadaoTai3
...olonged exposure to cold temperatures, as a survival strategy. Squirrels were observed for a total of 1680 h, they devoted 65.71% ± 1.64 of time to resting. Feeding accounted for 16.82% ± 0.64 of observation time. Other behaviors included self-grooming, watching, locomotion and so on. The percentages of nighttime spent in each of all behaviors varied greatly in some time period among different seasons, especially near early evening and midnight. ...

Muhammad Yamin1*, Usama Ali Zafar1, Ghulam Usman2, Muhammad Nauman1, Muhammad Rizwan3, Muhammad Nadeem1, Muhammad Azhar Ali1 and Usman Haider1

...ironmental factors using temperature, humidity and soil moisture sensors. Two of three tunnels were fit with control units of exhaust fans and air heaters and a water pump for controlling the temperature and soil moisture. During the testing and validation of the system, temperatures recorded through DHT-21 sensor and thermometer in tunnel 1, 2 and 3 had strong correlations of 0.9986, 0.99...

Rahat Rukhsana1, Shahnaz Rashid2, Asma Fatima2, Owais Iqbal Khan3, Syed Babar Hussain Shah4, Mumtaz Ali4 and Ghulam Abbas2*

... of ammonia, alkalinity, temperature, nitrate, salinity, nitrite, pH, total hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a and phytoplankton-density during the period from March, 2015 to June, 2016. The chlorophyll-a concentration was determined by using the acetone extraction technique. Ponds water sample (50 liters) was filtered through plankton net of 20 µm pore size and preserved in 4% formaldehyde for the analysis of phytoplankton. Subsequently, the...

Samra Aftab1, Saleem Ullah1 and Farida Anjum2*

...n of incubation time and temperature showed 72 hrs of incubation time and tempreture of 50 °C was best for cellulose degradation. From the data, it was concluded that Trichoderma sp. among microbes, HCl in acid and NaOH in bases were best for cellulose hydrolysis in samples while, incubation of 72 hrs at 50 °C showed higher cellulose degradation rate.

...
Shafaq Fatima1,*, Farkhanda Manzoor1, Humaira Amman1, Zakia Kanwal1, Asma Latif1, Zeeshan Ali2, Hamid Iqbal Gondal2, Sumera Sajjad1 and Raja Shahnawaz Janjua3
...d for 31 days at ambient temperature. The control group was fed with soybean based commercial diet. No significant effect of diet A and C was observed on fish growth and profile of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in total liver lipids. However, the treatment group fed with diet B showed a significant increase in K (1.75 ± 0.14 %), FCR (0.97) and HSI (0.62 ± 0.1%) as compared to those in the control group. A high profile of DHA (C22:6) was observed in...

Iftikhar Jan* and Sahib Alam

... blue fluorescence, room temperature phosphorescence, ammonium hydroxide vapor induced color change and sclerotia production) and immunological methods i.e., enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All the four cultural methods successfully differentiated aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic isolates, however ammonium hydroxide vapor induced test was found to be the most efficient (80.29%) for segregation of the isolates. Among all isolates, thirty were scree...
El-Dougdoug K.A.1, Sofy A.R.2, Rehab A. Dawoud3 and Korkar H.M.4
...ose concentration at low temperature. Shoot tips and
subculture 1st of banana plantlets were preservedsuccessfully for 12 months on
storage MS medium supplemented with 40, 50, 60 and70 gL-1 at 10, 15 and 20ᴼC.
The highest survival percentage 100% with recorded with 40 and 50gm sucrose
concentrations at 10, 15 and 20°C while 70 gL-1at 20°C recorded the lowest
survival percentage, 70.5% sucros...
Sallam A.A.A.1, Hoda M.A.Waziri2,E. K .F. Elbeshehy1, SamiaI.Massoud,1 and Abeer M. Abo El-Wafa2.
...rage at room
temperature. The BBMV was tested serologically against antibodies of Broad bean
stain virus (BBSV) and (BBMV) using indirect ELISA. Positive reactions was
obtained only with BBMV antiserum.The BBMV induced amorphous cytoplasmic
inclusion bodies in infected cells .The Susceptibilityof some faba bean cultivars and
genotype was also studied forvirus infection.The effectiveness of extracts fr...

Amira A. Mazyad1; A. A. Kheder1; Ahmed K. El-Attar1; W. Amer.2; Mahasen, H. Ismail.2; Amal, A.F.1

...tro 10 - 18 days at room temperature. The diagnosis of SLRSV in the infected tissues of strawberry plants was performed using both serological (DAS-ELISA) and molecular assays. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to amplify 497 bp fragment using PCR primers specific for the viral coat protein gene as a tool for molecular diagnosis. The PCR detection was confirmed with direct DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis for the coat pr...
Ruqayya Bint Khalid1, Asif Nadeem1,2*, Maryam Javed1, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir3 and Masroor Ellahi Babar4
...ng to respective melting temperatures. PRALINE tool, MEGA 6.0 and POPGENE tool were utilized for phylogenetic tree construction and statistical analysis, respectively. Characterization of physical and chemical properties of β-casein protein was performed by ProtParam and SWISS MODEL was utilized for protein model prediction. Sequencing results of amplified PCR products revealed total 9 SNPs including 1 in exonic and 8 in intronic regions of β-casein ...
Zain-Ul-Aabdin Abro1*,Naheed Baloch1, Raza Muhammad Memon2 and Niaz Hussain Khuhro2
...ificant correlation with temperature and slight negative relativity with humidity. The result suggests that high temperature enhances the fruit flies activity in connection with the availability of fruiting parts. The present investigations would be helpful to attain effective integrated pest management campaign in guava orchards.
...

Muhammad Nasir1, Muhammad Usman Asif2*, Abdul Hayee Abid1, Qurat ul Ain Haneef1 and Muhammad Awais2

...with maximum and minimum temperature and positively correlated with jassid and thrips. Relative humidity exhibited a positive association with all the insect pests and CLCuV incidence. Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the combined as well as individual impact of maximum and minimum temperature and relative humidity on population fluctuation of insect pests. The R2 values indicated that maximum and minimum

Nusrat Habib

...spectives. Flash floods, temperature rise, erratic rainfall, and land sliding were the main climatic hazards perceived by women. During the risks, the most vulnerable people were women and children. Women’s household activities burden doubled during the disaster days comparing with their male member’s counterparts. Women contribute significantly to adaptation and resilience to climatic extremes. The drivers of their resilience are hard work and div...

Syed Ismat Hussain1, Khalid Mehmood2, Mudassar Khaliq3, Habib Anwar1, Syed Muhammad Zaka4, Ateeq ur Rehman5*, Muhammad Shahid6, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi5*, Ummad ud Din Umar5 and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar7

...gical data and base line temperature and found 7 generations of pink boll worm to be found in all districts. Data for moths trapped in sex pheromone traps was noted as highly significant i.e., P>0.0001. Peaks of moth catches in 14 districts were observed in the month of September to October while for pest survey P= 2 X 10-16 were highly significant meaning that all variables had significant result in response to ETL. The results by pest survey of pink boll ...
Maimoona Imran1,2, Soumble Zulfiqar2, Hafsa Saeed2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*
...e range of pH (5-10) and temperature (25 -44°C). KW and CC were also investigated for their resistance potential against various antibiotics. KW was found to be resistant to broader range of antibiotics as compared to CC. All these characteristics viz., high tolerance against Cu++, excellent Cu++ uptake and efflux abilities, remarkable multi metal resistance potential and tolerance against substantial ranges of
Atta Muhammad Memon1, Ubedullah Kaka2*, Muhammad Umer3, Asghar Ali Kamboh4, Atique Ahmed Behan5, Habibullah Janyaro6, Yong Meng Goh7, Amir Bukhsh Kalhoro6Jalila Abu8, Khaleeq ur Rehman Bhutto9 and Arsalan Maqbool10


...iratory rate and cloacal temperatures decreased significantly after premedication as well as during anaesthesia in the MK group which served as the control. The MKA group significantly increased (P < 0.001) the pulse rate, respiratory rate and cloacal temperature compared to MK group that indicated a reversal effect of atipamezole. Atipamezole incorporated into medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia produced quicker recovery (...

Javed Anwar Shah1, Azhar Iqbal1, Muhammad Tariq Mahmood2, Muhammad Aslam3, Muneer Abbas4 and Ilyas Ahmad5*

...loped by maintaining the temperature between15-20 °C and humidity >70%. Test entries were inoculated equally by spraying fungal suspension during initial flowering and pod filling stages. Observations on disease incidence were recorded by employing 1-9 Disease Rating Scale. Result showed that no line was resistant whereas, only eight chickpea desi lines were found moderately resistant, three lines were tolerant, seventeen were moderately susceptible and...

Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research

September

Vol. 34, Iss. 3, Pages 394-671

Featuring

Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits


Subscribe Unsubscribe