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Ruse, Michael, The Gaia Hypothesis: Science on a Pagan Planet, The University of Chicago Press, 2013, 251 pp, $26.00, ISBN 978-0-226-73170-4

 

Science, Religion and Culture

Tom Gilson & Carson Weitnauer (eds), True Reason: Confronting the Irrationality of the New Atheism (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2013), 315pp, US$17.99 (paperback), ISBN 978-0-8254-4338-1

Reviewed by Gregory W. Dawes, Associate Professor of Philosophy

Science, Religion and Culture
...blems posed by religious diversity, the so-called “naturalism” of the modern sciences, the relations between faith and reason and religion and science, the role of religion in supporting our moral convictions, the reliability of the biblical accounts of Jesus’ life, and the problems posed by biblical endorsements of slavery and genocide. No review could do justice to so wide a range of issues, so my aim here is simply to offer some general re...

Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology
...h studies on the genetic diversity of the antigenically important RVA VP7- and VP4- protein encoding genes are important for vaccine development or judging the efficacy of existing RVA vaccines, they do not always provide conclusive information on the overall and complex genetic makeup of RVAs, as the remaining 9 RVA gene segments are also susceptible to the forces governing RVA genetic diversity. Whole genomic analysis of R...

Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
...s faced with an enormous diversity of options in virtually every area of human life, end up making important decisions simply on the basis of momentary personal preference. In this article, I first review the classical philosophical understanding of the relation between the One and Many in which the One is conceived as ontologically prior to the Many as their necessary principle of unity and intelligibility. I then propose a new paradigm for the relation betwe...

Yanina Panzera1*, Nicolas Sarute1, Lucia Carrau1, Jaime Aldaz2, Ruben Perez1

... analysis of the genetic diversity, evolution, and epidemiology of the virus in several countries. Our study allowed us to establish the presence of four genetic lineages in South America, being the continent with more lineages described to date, underscoring the high genetic diversity of the circulating strains.

...

Shahid Iqbal Awan1*, Syed Dilnawaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Amjad Ali3, Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed1, Aurangzeb Rao1

...s was used to assess the diversity in 176 wheat genotypes for morpho-physiological traits. Simple correlation coefficients indicated that grain weight had a significant positive relationship with residual transpiration, osmotic adjustment, cell membrane stability, flag leaf weight, specific flag leaf weight, while negatively correlated with specific flag leaf area. These results indicated the importance of physiological traits and their positive influence on g...

Neil Levy

...when there is sufficient diversity among the deliberators. This fact will give AIs a reason to value our continued flourishing, so that we are able to contribute to valuable epistemic diversity

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Neil Levy

...when there is sufficient diversity among the deliberators. This fact will give AIs a reason to value our continued flourishing, so that we are able to contribute to valuable epistemic diversity

...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

...pon knowledge of genetic diversity between species’ population. Two species were studied: Glossina palpalis palpalis and Glossina morsitans submorsitans using two mitochondrial DNA fragment primers- Cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and Cytochrome b (CytB). Twelve samples of laboratory-reared population of each species were used for the study. Sequencing data were used to calculate haplotype, haplotype diversity<...

Halide Nihal Açikgöz1*, Serdal Kenan Köse2 and Ali Açikgöz3

 

 

...s were used to determine diversity (Shannon-Wiener [H’], Simpson Dominance [Sd], Simpson Diversity [S], Margalef Species Richness Indices, Pielou’s Evenness [EH], and Simpson Resiprocal Indices). Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Lucilia richardsi (Collin) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were identified. C. vicina was found in whole year in 2012 and 201...

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

...ants and the ground. Ant diversity in fire ant-infested plots was significantly reduced compared with in fire ant-free plots. Compared with in the no-ant plots, the colony growth rate of mealybug significantly increased, and the parasitism of mealybug was obviously decreased, both in fire ant-infested plots and in fire ant-free plots. Colony growth rate of mealybug in fire ant-infested plots was greater than fire ant-free plots. These results suggest that S. i...

Haji Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal* and Saira Saleemi

... sites to ascertain fish diversity and their distribution pattern. A total 2249 fish specimen were collected using a variety of fish nets and identifications of these fishes were made by using standard taxanomic keys on the basis of morphometric characters. Seventy species belonging to 43 genera and 17 families were recorded from the study area of Indus River. Thirty two species were commercially important. Alpha Diversity I...

Süleyman Kök1*, Sertaç Atalay1, Hasan Semih Eken2 and Mustafa Savaşçi3

...e for preserving genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to reveal the genotype profile of indigenous types for TGC breed. In order to characterize TGC population, two polymorphic loci in cattle Calpain gene (CAPN1) and one polymorphic locus in Calpastatin gene CAST were studied. In order to sort the allele variants (G/C), PCR products, the ones in CAST with RsaI enzyme, was cut using RFLP method. The allele variants (G/C) of CAPN1 316 and (C/T) of CAPN1 ...

Atta ur Rehman1, Sher Ali2 and Sajid Malik2*

...collected. Absolute gene diversity, gene differentiation and genetic diversity were estimated to be 0.01, 0.019 and 0.515, respectively. There were the highest affinities between the samples obtained from Lakki Marwat and Tank districts, whereas the least affinities were evident between Karak and South Waziristan Agency populations. Collectively, these results show the presence of sub-populations in lower KPK which may sugge...

Ibrar Khan1,2,3,*, Sadia Qayyum2, Shehzad Ahmed2, Kashif Syed Haleem2, Mujaddad-ur-Rehman1, Guang-Lei Liu3 and Zhen-Ming Chi3

...w Sea is one of the mega diversity centers of the world and contains vast amount of flora and fauna. The Penicillium species belongs to one of the most common and economically significant group of marine micro-fungi family. The study comprised isolation, microscopic observations and ribotyping, allowed discrimination of the marine fungal isolates as Penicillium viticola F1, Penicillium restrictum F2, Penicillium rubens F8, Penicillium implicatum F10, Penicilli...

Fukuan Du1,2, Yan Li2, Zhixin Wen1, Ruguo Chen1 and Pao Xu2*

...ng investigating genetic diversity, constructing genetic maps, and marker assisted selection.

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Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed and Dilnawaz Ahmed Gardezi

...l evaluation, phenotypic diversity analysis and their flowering behavior sugarcane under local conditions. Two year data revealed that genotype HSF-242 showed maximum mean values for, internodes length, brix percentage and reducing sugar while S-08-FSD-19 showed maximum values for number of tillers and stem girth, whereas S-05-FSD-307 revealed maximum values for plant height and number of nodes. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences for ...
Waheed Anwar*, Muhammad S. Haider, Ahmad A. Shahid, Hamid Mushtaq, Usman Hameed, Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman and Muhammad Javed Iqbal
...t is not enough to score diversity within species and isolates. Additionally pathogenicity of isolated Fusarium species was evaluated against nymph and adult of Bemisia tabaci. Under controlled conditions different species of Fusarium restrained the growth of B. tabaci as compared with control.
...
Ahmad Kamran Khan1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1,*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Nazir Javed2
...ning the soil health. Biodiversity of Mesostigmata can be used to access the soil health within a geographical region. Family richness, diversity, abundance and evenness of soil inhabiting Mesostigmata mites in cultivated and undisturbed soil were estimated from five different localities of Punjab, Pakistan in 2014. Family richness, abundance and Shannon diversity indexes were higher in un...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Zhong-Yuan Zhang1, Yan-Guo Han1, Wei-Wei Ni1, Ming-Xing Chu2, Yue-Hui Ma2, Jian-Ning He3, Huai-Zhi Jiang4, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Yan Zeng1, Ri-Su Na1, Gao-Fu Wang5, Hang-Xing Ren5 and Yong-Fu Huang1*
...heep. We estimated their diversity and population structure in three high fecundity goats (Jianzhou big ear goat, Jining grey goat, Dazu black goat) and three low fecundity goats (Boer goat, Nubian goat, Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat). The results revealed a high diversity of those markers in the goat populations. The population structure did not diverge significantly between high fecundity goats and low fecundity populations...

Sadiq Ali* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...ting in loss of local biodiversity. Field survey of district Swabi (Peshawar Valley) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, was carried out during May-June, 2013-14 to study the distribution of Parthenium weed. Five villages were selected and thirty locations were randomly selected from each village. The data revealed that the flora is predominated by parthenium weed with the highest relative density of 63.4% among all weeds, followed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Cannabis ...
Tianzhu Chao, Huiqiang Cai, Yuxun Zhou, Kai Li* and Junhua Xiao
...subspecies distribution, diversity and differentiation of the house mouse Mus musculus provide insights into past dispersal events in natural populations of this species. We investigated the molecular phylogenetics of Chinese house mice based on 466 DNA sequences from mitochondrial D-loop fragments. Our analyses revealed that Mus musculus musculus and M. m. castaneus are older colonized subspecies with broad distributions in East China, wh...

M.A. Pendse, P.P. Karwande and M.N. Limaye

Past, present and future of nematophagous fungi as bio-agent to control plant parasitic nematodes
...y various workers on the diversity, morphology ecology, physiology of nutrition, trap formation and mechanism of nematode capture as well as probable causes of death. The review traces the shift in the areas of research as well as ups and downs in the interest shown by the researchers. Guide lines for organized, coordinated research to i) screen different strains of NF that are tolerant to antagonism by other fungi, and ii) develop a bioagent based on nematoph...

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
...dy the molecular genetic diversity in major root knot and cyst nematode species of India to assist the breeding program for developing resistant varieties and other purposes like regulatory and nematode diagnostics. Attempts have also been to made to understand the molecular signaling events during compatible plant nematode interactions by identifying the genes during the transition from preparasitic to parasitic stage in ear cockle nematode and molya disease ...
Ghulam Abbas1,Asif Nadeem1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Muhammad Sajid Tahir3, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3, Muhammad Tayyab1 and Maryam Javed1
...nt role in phylogeny and diversity analysis. In Pakistan hog deer (Axis porcinus) is an important wild species belongs to the family Cervidae. The hog deer is one of the least studied species at molecular level in Pakistan. The present study was planned to investigate its molecular phylogeny and diversity analysisusing mitochondrial cytochrome b, cytochrome c and d-loop region. Samples werecollect...
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
...red to explore molecular diversity of the pathogens together with sero-conversion in animals and humans.
...
Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Fatima Sellami3 and Muhammad Afzal1
...lity represented highest diversity indices of Shannon-Weiner’s (1.65), Margalef’s (1.40) and Simpson’s (0.75).
...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

...d close to the center of diversity of P. striiformis f.sp. tritici. Around 1600 wheat fields were sampled covering a geographical area of little less than 5000 acres in the southern, central and northern zones located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. Yellow rust occurrence was distributed over an area of 463 acres in all three wheat production zones. Maximum yellow rust impact values (estimated by Field Impact Factor (FIF) of 121, 201 and 328 were rec...
Wanchao Zhu1, Qinguo Wei1, Shuyu Xue1, Huanxin Zhang2, Tianshu Lv1 and Honghai Zhang1,
... to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure for the conservation and management of sables (Martes zibellina), we developed six microsatellite markers using a method of fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) from them in this study. The primers designed by Primer Premier 5.0 based on conservative regions were tested on 22 individuals. Our results demonstrated that the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to...
Rabia Arif*, Shahar Bano, Muhammad Ishfaq and Muhammad Saleem
..., to examine genetic diversity. Strains were taken from two contrasting environments (Natural and Harsh) from the south facing and north facing slopes of Evolution Canyon, Israel. Sequenced amplicons were introduced to the NCBI database as a query in BLASTN. The query revealed >100% resemblance with the Ascomycota genus Sordaria and the topmost species in this investigation was fimicola. Circular Phylogram showed close relatedness among th...

Attaullah Ansari* and Nasreen Memon 

...s richness, evenness and diversity index were also calculated. The highest and lowest degrees of population size, richness and evenness and diversity were recorded in agriculture crops and fodder crops, respectively. 

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Mubashir Hussain1,Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Ijaz Ahmad2*, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3 and Sohail Latif4
...2, seed frequency, diversity of weed species and relative importance value. The input and output data was also collected to find out the socioeconomic feasibility of the techniques. The comparative analysis of seed bank extraction methods revealed higher weed seeds density, weed frequency with more diversity of weed species under sieving method in comparison to seedling emergence method. Therefore, sieving method was c...
Farid S. Ataya,1,2,* Dalia Fouad,3,4 Ajamaluddin Malik,1 Nikolaos E. Labrou,5 Mohamed S. Daoud1,6 and Hesham M. Saeed7
...urther insights into the diversity and complex enzymatic functions of GST superfamily.
...
Saswati Roy1, Rakesh Pashi2, S. Dey3 and Shantanu Jha
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Muhammad Shahzad2, Xiaokang Wu3, Chaofeng Ma4 and Jiru Xu1,*
...ration in similarity and diversity of gut microbial composition with comparison of healthy controls. Fecal samples from fifteen patients and five healthy individuals were collected. PCR-DGGE, by using universal primers focusing V3 region of 16S rRNA gene, was performed for characterization of gut microbial composition. Sequencing of most dominant excised gel bands was done. Real-time PCR was performed to evaluate the copy numbers of dominant bacteria of gut mi...
Telat Yanik1,* and Irfan Aslan2
... and deforestation on biodiversity, it is imperative to investigate the global warming on aquaculture welfare and productivity. Our current understandings on impacts of altered climate dictate a weak relationship between global warming and naturally occurring migrations. However, several models have been presented that elucidate the negative impact of global warming on the aquatic biodiversity. While impact of global warming...
Qingying Jia1, Hui Wang1, Tianhong Wang1, Na Dong1, Shuguang Ren1,2, Xiaolong Yang1, Jingze Liu1,* and Zhijun Yu1,3,*
...and can transmit a great diversity of pathogens. The current study investigated the effects of temperature on reproductive fitness of the engorged H. longicornis, results indicated that the engorged H. longicornis could survive all treatments at 0°C and 4°C, and pre-ovipositon periods were prolonged after 0°C, 4°C and 40°C treatment, whereas it was shortened after 37°C stress (P<0.05). The oviposition periods were varie...

 Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal*, Mehedi Hasan Kanon, Mohammad Amzad Hossain, Abul Hossain, Shamima Nasren, Md. Jahidul Islam, Md. Arifur Rahman

...2000. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found highest (3.12) in June and lowest (2.9) in January. Margalef richness index was found highest (3.02) in July and lowest (2.70) in December. On the other hand, Pielou’s evenness index was lowest (0.82) in three successive months i.e., in October, November and January and highest (0.88) in April. The fish species of Konoskhaihaor found to be evenly distributed. Simpson dominance index were found to be high...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

...time of fruits trees, biodiversity and livestock’s. Respondents were selected randomly but priority was given to elders and those possess land and practice agriculture. The study reveals that majority of the respondents are well aware of climate change and its effects on cropping calendar, crop variety, crop yield, crop diseases as well as an earlier blossoming of fruit trees. The respondents in all the fifteen villages unanimously agreed that sowing and...

Muhammad Zamin* and Abdul Mateen Khattak 

... existing variations and diversity of Sporobolus spicatus and its suitability as turf grass needed to be assessed for conservation and to combat salinity problem. For this purpose, various ecotypes of Sporobolus spicatus were investigated by conducting mowing tests in the year 2013 under UAE climatic conditions. Fifty ecotypes of Sporobolus spicatus were cut at various heights, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm. Significant differences were found among various ecotypes...
Shahid Mehmood1,*, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Hassan Raza1, Rida Ahmad1, Azhar Muhammad3, Zulfiqar Ali2, Farhan Abid1, Fehmeeda Bibi4 and Syed Maviz Ahmed5
... year round bird species diversity from October 2014 to September 2015 at Safari Zoo Lahore (31°2257 N, 74° 12 47 E and elevation 208m) located in district Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. In total, 5456 birds belonging to 71 species, 40 families and 12 orders were recorded. Bird species distribution was: year round residents 50 (70.4%), winter migrants 12 (16.9%), summer breeders eight (8) (11.3%) and passage migrant one (...

Syed Asif Imran Shah1*, Shah Jehan Khan2, Kalim Ullah1 and Obaid Ullah Sayal

Tasleem Akhtar*, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Sheraz Ahmedand Imran Bodlah
...ring 2015 to compare the diversity and abundance of different insect pollinators on canola (Brassica napus L. Var. Chakwal Sarsoon) crops along with managed Apis mellifera. Thirty five insect species belonging to twenty families under five orders were recorded on canola. Among the hymenopterans, abundance of managed A. mellifera was maximum (87.76%) followed by Apis florea (1.11%) and Apis dorsata (0.98%). Peak activity of th...

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

...cient tool for screening diversity of rust genes in wheat germplasm and can facilitate the integration of multiple genes into wheat by pyramiding and transformation. This review discusses information regarding rust disease and resistance in wheat to tackle the disease through resistance breeding. 

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Bashir Ahmad1, Muhammad Idrees1,*, Kafeel Ahmad1, Dawood Ahmad2, Sajid Ali3 and Shumaila Bashir4
...ned to study the genetic diversity in the M. tuberculosis isolates isolated from clinical samples. In the current study total 794 patients were tested for suspected tuberculosis by fluorescence microscopy and GeneXpert system during the study period (2015-2016) at the Provincial TB Reference Laboratory, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Among the 794 patients studied, 170 samples gave positive results. Fifty-two Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MT...

Aslam Memon, A. M. Khushk* and Umer Farooq**

...ted to increase varietal diversity on their farms to avoid any risk of complete crop failure due to any reason. Sugar mills in all three provinces are suggested to take serious note of status of adoption of different sugarcane varieties through a collective action in their respective provinces. Activities like planting demonstration plots of promising varieties on farmers’ fields, launching special sugarcane varietal promotion campaigns for spreading des...

 Aly Khan* and S. Shahid Shaukat**

...ogyne incognita. Species diversity (H’) was highest in Wadh while lowest in Ali Dasht. Equitability (J’) component of diversity was highest in Kork and lowest in Ali Dasht, while species richness (d’) component was highest in Alat. The soils associated with Pomegranate orchards were coarse-structured, alkaline with low maximum water holding capacity. In most cases similarities were low between localities.

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah, Shahid Masood** and Muhammad Irfan Khan*

.... Due to greater genetic diversity in Ocimum germplasm and its suitability for commercial cultivation even in the area under small holdings, the investigation suggest its genetic as well as biochemical investigation for the production of commercial varieties and exploitation of the plant for economic benefits of the local communities.

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Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

...rmation on the molecular diversity of CCoV in many parts of the world. In this study, canine fecal samples from diverse States of Brazil were screened by PCRs for CCoV and positive samples were subjected to partial sequencing for the membrane (M), spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) and non-structural protein 3b genes. Out of the samples collected, 40.17% were positive for CCoV; 57.45% of CCoV-infected animals showed enteritis and most of these (76%) were younger than...
Haixia Liu, Yuwei Ye, Yang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Dongmei Xiong* and Lixin Wang
...o rivers and the genetic diversity of wild population, 11 microsatellite loci were firstly used to evaluate the genetic characterization using 120 samples from 2 tributaries (ZZ and LX populations) of the Weihe river and 2 tributaries (YX and TB population) of Hanjiang river. A total of 59 alleles were found and the number of alleles in each locus ranged from 3 to 8, with an average of 5.4. There were 6 highly polymorphic loci and 4 moderately polymorphic loci...

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah and Shahid Masood**

Corresponding author: shazia_rm@yahoo.com

PHENOTYPIC VARIATION AMONG MENTHA SPP.
...tigate the morphological diversity and relationship within 17 genotypes of mentha species. Different species of Mentha were collected from different ecological zones of the world. Great variation was observed in stem length with the coefficient of variation of 198.7% and standard deviation of 14.1. Among the 17 mint collection, nine special aromas was smelled including mint gum, strong camphoraceous, mint like, spicy, lemon, pungent, musky and acrid due to the...

 Ayesha Tahir* and Zafar Altaf**

DETERMINANTS OF INCOME FROM VEGETABLES PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NORMAL AND OFF-SEASON VEGETABLES IN ABBOTTABAD
...essed with wide climatic diversity which offers opportunities for growing variety of vegetables throughout the year. The promotion of vegetables in Pakistan is necessary not only for increasing farmer's income and production diversity concerns, but also for increasing the intake of micronutrients in human diet through increased vegetable consumption. The spectrum of year round availability of vegetables could be further exte...

 Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Muhammad Yasin Mirza*, Muhammad Amjad*, Nazakat Nawaz*, Malik Shah Nawaz* and Doulat Baig*

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN GERMPLASM OF LINSEED ( L.)
...tence of greater genetic diversity in the accessions for these traits. Dendrogram based on Euclidean distance coefficient using 10 quantitative traits, grouped all the linseed accessions into 13 clusters. Cluster II was the biggest and had 33 accessions followed by Cluster I having 11 accessions. For the development of high yielding varieties, best performing accessions of Clusters I and II could be used in hybridization programme by crossing with accessions o...

 Md. Nazirul Islam*, A. K. Azad**, Leon O. Namuco***, Teresita H. Borromeo***, Maria Lourdes O. Cedo*** and Edna A. Aguilar***

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF A MAKAPUNO COCONUT POPULATION IN U.P. LOS BANOS
...bsp;

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 Said Salman*, Shah Jehan Khan*, Javed Khan**, Rehmat Ullah Khan*** and Imran Khan****

GENETIC VARIABILITY STUDIES IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) ACCESSIONS
...ferent clusters. Maximum diversity was found in cluster 1 and cluster 4. This maximum diversity explains the better parental selection for future breeding programme.

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 Md. Nazirul Islam*, M. Z. Rahman**, R. Ali***, A. K. Azad**** and M. K. Sultan**

DIVERSITY ANALYSIS AND ESTABLISHMENT OF CORE SUBSETS OF HYACINTH BEAN COLLECTION OF BANGLADESH
...revealed high phenotypic diversity in vine and pod characters. High diversities were estimated in quantitative characters of inflorescence and pod characters. Considering a core collection strategy, the accessions were stratified into two groups based on vine colors: green and purple. Maximum genotypes of the collection were of green vine. Each of two subgroups were divided into three groups according to colors of pod i.e., green, white and red. Each group aga...

 Frasat Saeed*, Jehanzeb Farooq*, Abid Mahmood**, Tassawar Hussain***, Muhammad Riaz* and Saghir Ahmad****

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN UPLAND COTTON FOR COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE, EARLINESS AND FIBER QUALITY
...or estimation of genetic diversity regarding CLCuD tolerance, fiber quality and some yield contributing traits, 101 cotton genotypes imported from USA were evaluated. Different statistical procedures like cluster, principle components (PC) and correlation analysis were employed to identify the suitable genotypes that can be further exploited in breeding programme. Significant associations were found between yield contributing trait, boll weight and fiber relat...

 Rashid Minhas*, Iftikhar Ahmad Khan**, Faisal Saeed Awan**, Lal Hussain Akhtar*, Syed Awais Sajid Shah* and M. Shahjhan Bukhari* 

ESTIMATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND HYBRID IDENTIFICATION IN AMERICAN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) BY PCR BASED RAPD ANALYSIS
...es to estimate 1 genetic diversity and hybrid identification. Out of the 26 RAPD primers used for DNA amplification, 14 primers produced polymorphic bands, while 12 produced monomorphic bands. These 14 primers yielded total 96 RAPD markers, out of which only 40 were found polymorphic which resulted in 41.66% polymorphism among the genotypes studied. The number of RAPD markers produced ranged from 4 to 12. Average number of 6.40 bands per primer was observed. O...

 Israr Ali*, Naushad Ali*, Riffat Tahira**, Sardar Ali*, Izhar Hussain* and Sher Aslam Khan*

GENETIC DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT IN BRASSICA GERMPLASM BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES
... justify;"> Genetic diversity of 28 Brassica genotypes was studied using different morphological attributes. Data were recorded on days to maturity (DM), -1 -1 plant height (PH), primary branches plant (PBPP), pod length (PL), seed pod (SP), -1 1000-seed weight (1000-SW), yield plant (YPP) and oil (%). Three checks (Pakola, CM and TA), were used to check the performance of collected materials with already available brassica varieties. Significant statisti...

 Muhammad Mohsin Raza*, Muhammad Aslam Khan*, Irfan Ahmad**, Ali Ahsan Bajwa***, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam*, Badar Ahsan Ullah****, and Kashif Riaz*

FOREST PATHOGENS AND DISEASES UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE -A REVIEW
...ating, planning, genetic diversity and facilitated migration, genetic protection and breeding for disease resistance and relating results to forest policy, planning as well as decision making, the suspicions innate to climate change effects can be minimized.

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 Raja Zoq-ul-Arfeen*, Aamir Saleem*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Muhammad Akmal**, Hafiz Muhammad Tayyab* and Obaid Afzal***

BIODIVERSITY AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM RIPARIAN AREAS OF PAKISTAN: SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TAUNSA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY AND KETI SHAH FORESTS
...ition of riverine floral diversity in low riparian zone of River Indus. The data was collected from Keti Shah forest and Taunsa wildlife sanctuary. Total 14259 plants/individuals were recorded, which belong to 54 plant species with 18 different families. In Taunsa pre-monsoon survey, total 30 plant species were found with 4476 plants from 16 different families. In Taunsa post-monsoon survey total 3348 individuals were recorded from 20 plant species and 9 famil...

 Abdul Haq*, Anjum Shehzad**, Muhammad Ilyas**, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**, Abdul Rauf Bhatti** and Mian Inayatullah*

DIVERSITY AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF CITRUS POLLINATORS IN DISTRICT HARIPUR, PAKISTAN
...All calculated values of diversity indices except Shannon-H does not show significant difference. Shannon's diversity shows that Naseem Town is most diverse locality then Nikrian B with relative values of 2.213 and 1.136.

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Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2,*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza2, Muhammad Afzal2,Hafiz Salah-ud-Din2, Imtiaz Sarwar2, Muhammad Yahya2 and Khurram Shehzad3
...t of soil belowground biodiversity and play a significant role in soil biological functioning and sustained productivity. As these fauna readily respond to biotic and abiotic perturbations in soil profiles, different land-use systems have different community assemblages of macroinvertebrates. This study was conducted to determine the impact of different land-use types viz. natural (grassland, forest/silviculture, barren) and agricultural (lemon, guava, ...
Grace Chinenye Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie, Joseph O. Okoro, Christopher Didigwu Nwani*, Ngozi Ezenwaji, Ndubisi Stanley Oluah and Fabian C. Okafor
...he snails assessed using diversity indices accorded A. balteata highest values for Shannon-Wiener (1.03) and Brillouin (0.90) indices with the 3 species harboured being very abundant (Reciprocal Simpson index = 2.80). A thorough understanding of the snails helminthes parasite life cycles, associated host morbidity, and direct and indirect cost of such parasitism to human is important, first for human health and welfare, secondly for sustainable snail fa...
Sana Zahra
...veals widespread lineage diversity and mutational specificity of a population. This study reports p.Y556C mutation as a recurring mutation in Punjabi population of Pakistan. A detailed genetic evaluation of four unrelated but ethnically similar families from Punjab province was performed.Linkage to SLC26A4 locus was confirmed through linkage analysis using Short Tandem Repeat Markers (D7S2420, D7S2459 and D7S2456). p.Y556C was identified as causative mu...
Mubashar Hussain, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Sehreen Siddique, Muhammad Umar, Tamkeen Zainab, Fatima Zafar
...n order to assess the biodiversity and distribution of coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), sampleswere collected from rainfed and irrigated fields of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan during 2015-2016. Adult specimens were collected fortnightly from crops, weeds and shrubs from randomly selected locations i.e. Dolat Nagar, Lala Musa, Jalalpur Jatan, Guliyana, Fateh Pur and Kunjah. Analysis of specimens indicated a representation of 14 species, 6 genera and...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
... habitats. To enrich the diversity of isolated bacteria that produce pectinase, samples were collected from the soil, water, fruits and vegetables wastes. Initial screening of pectinase producing bacteria was carried out on pectin containing agar plates of pH 7 incubated at 37ºC. Among isolated thirty-seven strains, a total of thirteen strains showed satisfactory pectinase productivity. Pectinase production of the thirteen strains was then determined qual...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
... habitats. To enrich the diversity of isolated bacteria that produce pectinase, samples were collected from the soil, water, fruits and vegetables wastes. Initial screening of pectinase producing bacteria was carried out on pectin containing agar plates of pH 7 incubated at 37ºC. Among isolated thirty-seven strains, a total of thirteen strains showed satisfactory pectinase productivity. Pectinase production of the thirteen strains was then determined qual...
Muhammad Arshad,1* Sajjad Ahmad1, Muhammad Sufyan1, Zain-ul Abdin1 and Sumaira Maqsood2
... the wheat aphids’ diversity and their predators association with strip intercropping (brassica, alfalfa, berseem and garlic) and wheat monoculture. Results showed that the first aphid was seen in the last week of January while the predator population was first recorded during the first week of March. Aphid population was maximum on wheat monoculture when 130 specimens were recorded per tiller. Among strip cropping garlic showed maximum population (113 p...
Waqas Ali1,*, Arshad Javid1, Syed Mohsin Bhukhari1, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Hira Rafique1
...o record data related to diversity, distribution and habitat preferences of amphibians and reptiles in any particular ecosystem. During past few years, a decline in amphibian and reptilian species attracted attention of the conservation biologists worldwide to monitor herpetofunal diversity for effective conservation planning and management. Different sampling techniques are applied during herpetofaunal surveys and some of t...
Archana Naithani, Pongthep Suwanwaree* and Bartosz Nadolski
...t the average of species diversity index of the avian community (H’)during the study period was 3.88. Using the Berger-Parker dominance value, we found the most abundant species was House sparrow (Passer domesticus), followed byOriental turtle dove(Streptopelia orientalis), Peaceful Dove (Geopelia striata), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis)and Red collared dove(Streptopelia tranquebarica).The threatened status of birds...
Nanjing Zeng1, Guanhua Liu1, Sibiao Wen1 and Feiyun Tu2,*
... to investigate the bird diversity and avifauna of PLNNR, complete species checklist was strictly checked according to systematic analyses of species records from multisource. Fifty-seven species were newly recorded based on the previous study of 330 bird species. Six previously reported species were removed. We finally recorded 381 bird species, belonging to 18 orders 64 families, accounting for 27.8% of bird species in China; 205 species (53.8%) are Palearct...
Huma Ayub1,Iftikhar Ahmad2, Syed Lal Shah3,*, Muhammad Zafarullah Bhatti4, Nuzhat Shafi5 and Mazhar Qayyum1
...ifera and cladocera. The diversity of the zooplankton species in the lake was determined by richness and evenness indices, which were found as follows; Margalef Index 1.30 to 3.87, Shannon’s Index 2.54 to 3.68, Simpson Index 0.92 to 0.97, Simpson’s Reciprocal Index 12.25 to 37.69 and Pielou’s Evenness Index 0.94 to 1.0. The zooplankton community was found abundant in summer as compared to winter. The copepods were found dominant followed by r...
Muhammad Mohsin Ahsan1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2,*, Khizar Samiullah3
...a of Pakistan is rich in diversity and applicability. However, limited information is available on these animals especially in Punjab province of Pakistan. Furthermore, distributional pattern and habitat structure of known species is also ambiguous. In this study, we report the scorpion Androctonus finitimus (Pocock, 1897) from several areas of Punjab, Pakistan. This scorpion species has not been previously documented from this part of the country, high...
Zeqin Fu, Yunfang Tian, Yingying Ye*, Pengzhi Qi and Changwen Wu
... for researching genetic diversity and population structure and provide more in-depth understanding of Mytilus coruscus.
...
Tariq Mahmood1,*, Shafqat Rasool1, Faraz Akrim1, Shaista Andleeb1, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2 and Fiaz Nadeem3
...o May 2015 for recording diversity of owl species inhabiting Margalla Hills National Park, Islamabad (MHNP). Three owl species viz., Spotted Owlet (Athene brama), Little owlet (Athene noctua) and the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) were recorded from the park at five different sampling sites, at elevations ranging from 615 m to 655 m above sea level. Only one of the three species Tawny owl  was previously known from the park while the ...
Nadeem Munawar, Iftikhar Hussain and Tariq Mahmood*
...mportant component of biodiversity of the agricultural lands and have been identified as destructive mammalian pests of agricultural crops at global level. They cause severe damage to various crops, directly and indirectly, by gnawing, spoilage, contamination and hoarding activities. The current study investigated the occurrence of different rodent species inside the crop fields and at field edges, associated with four major crops (wheat, groundnut, millet and...
Danyu Zhang1, Ying Liu1, Qinxin Shi1, Zhiwei Peng1, Yan Hua1 and Zhijun Hou1,2,*
...a of the sable have more diversity than Siberian tiger, panda, horse, and human, and it may originate from the more divertible diet of the sable.
...
Qaisar Jamal1, Muhammad Idrees1, Saif Ullah2, Muhammad Adnan1, Farrah Zaidi1, Qaiser Zaman1,3 and Syed Basit Rasheed1,*
...tiles shows that maximum diversity (26 species) has been observed at an altitude range of 550-1000 meters which decreased gradually reaching to occurrence of only four species at 2500-2900 meters above sea level. District Dir lower, primarily sub-tropical, was found more diverse regarding squamate species than the mountainous, temperate Upper Dir.
...

Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Muhammad Rizwan2*, Muhammad Akram1, Jaffar Hussain1 and Fiaz Ahmad1 

... yielding genotypes. The diversity analysis categorized fifty-eight genotypes into four clusters. Clustering pattern did not show any relation to the geographic origin. Cluster-I with three genotypes (Thailand: 2; Sri Lanka: 1) and Cluster-II with seventeen genotypes (Thailand: 12, Pakistan: 3, India: 2) showed the highest values for yield and yield contributing traits. Three distant genotypes were identified;a genotype, VC3012B was found high yielding, NIMB-1...
Tanveer Hussain1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar1, Marcos De Donato2, Abdul Wajid1, Asif Nadeem3, Zahoor Ahmad3, Waqas Ahmad Khan4, Sunday O. Peters5 and Ikhide G. Imumorin6
...d the origin and genetic diversity of native cattle breeds (Bos indicus) in Pakistan, partial sequencing of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b (339 bp) was done in 136 individuals from 10 different breeds. Analysis of the Cyt b gene showed high conservation in Pakistani cattle as expected, with only 26 individuals showing nucleotide changes. Only 5 point mutations were present in multiple individuals (SNP), but one was specific for indicine cattle. Two...
Wang-Dui Basang1, Tian-Wu An2, Luo-Bu Danjiu3, Yan-Bin Zhu1, Shi-Cheng He3, Xiao-Lin Luo2, Wei-Wei Ni4, Xiao Wang4, Shu-Zhu Cheng4, Jian Wang4 and Guang-Xin E4,*
...udy, we investigated the diversity and phylogeography of four geographic ecotype populations of the Naqu yak (133 individuals) using an 811-bp mitochondrial DNA D-loop region sequence. In total, 57 polymorphic sites, including 54 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 3 single-nucleotide copy number variants, and 59 haplotypes were detected. The number of haplotypes within the population ranged from 17 (SN and JL) to 28 (DX). The haplotype <...
Riaz Aziz Minhas1,*, Muhammad Nasim Khan1, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Basharat Ahmad1, Syda Shaista Bibi1, Mohsin Hanif1 and Afsar Mian2
...sed the level of genetic diversity and genetic isolation of different langur populations using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) genetic markers. We collected 86 different samples (feces 64, hair 13, blood 5, tissues 4) from 5 geographic langur populations of Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) and succeeded in extraction of DNA from 23 samples, which were used for further genetic analysis. RAPD makers (n=8) produced 245 bands (30.62±2.87 ...
Ai Guo1,2,3, Jiaguang Xiao4, Binbin Shan4, Tianxiang Gao5 and Yongdong Zhou3,*
...r understand the genetic diversity and phylogeny of Coilia, the complete mitochondrial genomes of two lineages in Coilia mystus were compared. They were all typical circular double stranded DNA molecule with 17075 bp in C. mystus N and 16964 bp in C. mystus S, respectively, containing the standard metazoan set of 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and non-coding regions. The mitogenomes of C. my...
Gokhan Sahin1, Ecevit Eyduran2,*, Mete Turkoglu3 and Fatma Sahin2
...o improve for further biodiversity investigations. To determine the predictive quality of the MARS algorithm, goodness of fit criteria viz. coefficient of determination (0.994 and 0.996 R2 for Hd and Hm), Generalized Cross Validation (0.000038 and 0.024024 GCV for Hd and Hm), Cross-Validation R2 (0.974 and 0.967 CVR2 for Hd and Hm), Residual Sum of Squares (0.00046 and 0.28829 RSS for Hd and Hm) and Standard Deviation Ra...
Amtur Rafeh, Rana Manzoor Ahmad, Ayesha Iqbal, Abdul Majid Khan*
...Gazella has great diversity from Middle Miocene to Pliocene from Africa to Eurasia. The morphological characteristics indicate this genus as a conservative bovid with simple morphology. 
...
Haozhen Liu1, Xiangfu Li2, Yinong Wang1,*, Xun Liu3,4, Li Wang1, Dong Liu1, Chen Chen1, Jinjing Li1, Haifeng Jiao5 and Zhongjie You1,5
... knowledge of abundance, diversity and multivariate structure of macrobenthos in the East China Sea of Xiangshan and elucidate main environmental variables that shape their spatial patterns. The environment of the study area has significant spatial heterogeneity. Environmental variables of sediment and water column were studied to provide models for spatial patterns of macrobenthic assemblages. Result showed that most of variation in macrobenthic spatial patte...
Qiang Li1,2, Guo Qiao2, Li Wang1, Jipeng Zhang1, Ruijun Li1, Ping Ni1, Yi Guo1 and Shigen Ye1,*
...vestigated the bacterial diversity and Vibrio harveyi distribution associated with diseased fugu (Takifugu rubripes) in northeastern China from January to December in 2014. The main clinical signs included fin ulceration, skin darkness, hepatohemia and intestinal hydrops. Totally, 104 diseased live fish were collected and 70 strains isolated from naturally diseased T. rubripes. Most isolates were obtained in May, September and December. Th...
Yuan Li1, Liyan Zhang2, Karhoe Loh3, Ji Feng1, Xinqing Zheng1, Puqing Song1 and Longshan Lin1,*
...nd Malaysia. The genetic diversity of all P. minor populations was moderate, and two major haplotype lineages were detected that were differentiated approximately 0.3 million years ago. These two haplotype lineages differed significantly in frequency distribution of Chinese and Malaysian populations, showing an imperfect geographical pedigree structure. Results of AMOVA also showed that the genetic differentiation was mainly among populations. According...
Fehmeeda Fatima, Asif Nadeem* and Maryam Javed
...344 bp) to study genetic diversity and evolutionary characteristics of Sindh ibex. In this research, samples of Sindh ibex were collected from Kirthar National Park, Sindh, Pakistan, the gene of interest was amplified, PCR products were sequenced and data was analyzed. The results of genetic diversity indicated that Parsimony informative sites were found to be 11 while Singleton variable sites were not detected. The total nu...
Mouslim Bara1,2,* and Luciano N. Segura3
...dance and two ecological diversity indices (Shannon and Shannon E). Significant inter-annual fluctuations in bird abundance were recorded. Maximum values were always recorded during autumn. Water depth correlated positively with bird abundance and Shannon index. Field samplings indicated that bird abundance was frequently higher than 1000 individuals, which suggests that this site is an important refuge of water birds in the Guerbes-Sanhadja wetlands complex. ...

 Abbas Ali1, Muhammad Altaf2*, Muhammad Samar Hussain Khan3

Winter survey of birds at Keti Bunder, district Thatha, Pakistan
...sment
of avifauna diversity and also noted the threats to the birds of Keti Bunder. To know the avian dominance and
diversity of Keti Bunder; we carried out at dawn and dusk in winter season (November, 2015 to February, 2016),
using direct and indirect methods. During the survey, total of 49 winter season bird species belonging to 33 genera
and 21 families were recorded. A total of 4280 birds were...

 Zafar Iqbal*, Hafiza Madhia Imtiaz

Parasites of double tail goldfish, Carassius auratus L. imported to Pakistan
... to protect the local biodiversity of
Pakistan.

...

 Abdul Majid Khan*

Review report on mammalian dental defect (enamel hypoplasia) in different groups of mammals
...als. It also depicts the diversity in feeding habitat of
mammals having positive results for occurrence of this tooth malady. The present
review correlates the research studies that have been conducted in deciduous as
well as permanent dental material of modern, archeological and palaeontological
animals belongs to multiple orders of class Mammalia and also provides a road
map for comparative analysis of dental health in diff...
Aiguo Zhou1,3,4, Shaolin Xie1,4, Zhenlu Wang1, Lanfen Fan1, Yanfeng Chen2, QiaoYe1, Fang Zeng1 and Jixing Zou1,*

 

...elationships and genetic diversity of two color morphs of northern snakehead. For the Chnannidae family, the average genetic distances of Cyt b gene was 0.171 (ranged 0.000 to 0.248) with the inter-species genetic distances. The intra-species genetic distance ranged from 0.000 to 0.002. For the haplotypes of two color morphs of Channa argus, the mean pair-wise genetic distances were estimated as 0.002, which were within the intra-species genetic ...
Faiz Muhammad1,2, Canfeng Dou1, Zhen-ming Lü1,*, Li Gong1, Xun Du1 and Muhammad Shafi3
...type and nucleotide diversity observed. The data was further tested with AMOVA that validates 91.24% variation among populations and 8.76% within population. Genetic fixation index was also calculated as 0.91243*. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis revealed three lineages. The Dongshan population distinctly has shown separate lineage. The haplotype networking has shown that Hap1 contributed 48.051% and appeared in six populations whereas, Hap6, Ha...

Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Nazakat Nawaz, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan, Tahira, Doulat Baig, Ihsan Ullah Khan and Shamim ul Sibtain Shah 

... a wide range of genetic diversity in this set of sesame germplasm which could be utilized for crop improvement. It is further recommended that for making improvement in sesame crop, identified superior sesame lines viz. SG-115, SG-103, SG-78, SG-79, SG-31, SG-117, SG-108, SG-41 and SG-1 could be used in breeding program and further by making selections in segregating generations. This will help to increase sesame crop yield in the country. 

...
Abderraouf Chouaib Rebbah1, Mohcen Menaa2,*, Salah Telailia3,Menouar Saheb1 and Mohamed Cherif Maazi2
...ies richness and species diversity were significantly higher in pure pine woodlands than in mixed oak-pine and oak forests. According to PERMANOVA and ANOSIM tests, and the NMDS plot, the avian assemblages of Sidi Reghis Mountain varied significantly between different habitats. Further, SIMPER test indicated that six of the seven species were responsible for the mean of 50% of dissimilarity between sampled habitats. The dissimilarity between pine woodlands an...

Amara Amjad Hashmi1,2,*, Maqbool Hussain Sial3, Waqar Akram4 and Maaida Hussain Hashmi5,6

...measures; one is dietary diversity score and second one is share of staple food in total calories consumed by household, suggest that households dietary diversity score is good on average that is 9 out of 10 food groups and on the whole it is slightly improved from (8.8 %) to (9%) in previous 10 years. Interestingly, when we analyze the share of staple food in total calories, results suggest that major portion of a household...

Muhamad Jawad*, Shahid Riaz Malik, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar, Muhammad Asadullah, Israr Hussain and Rabia Khalid 

... to evaluate the genetic diversity among 36 lentil genotypes for mechanized harvesting. Analysis of variance for qualitative and quantitative traits showed significant variability among the genotypes. Correlation analysis indicates negative correlation of yield with lowest pod height and highly significant correlation between lowest pod height and plant height. Cluster analysis performed for qualitative and quantitative traits separately. It was observed that ...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Nosheen Fatima1, Raheel Babar3 and Ikramul Haq4  

...nown as ecosystem and biodiversity. Any disruption in this balance may result catastrophic effect on the environment including impact on plant, animal and human life. Hence, efforts to maintain a healthy biodiversity through conservation are needed. Since the life is passing through the time of global warming and climate variation, new issues for farming community are on the rise. These issues are related to protection of na...
Hamidullah1,*, Arshad Javid2, Basit Rasheed1,Jehan Zeb3, Abidullah1 and Muhammad Iftikhar Khan1
...explored for chiropteran diversity prior to the present study. Five congeners namely common Pipistrelle Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Javan Pipistrelle P. javanicus, Coromandel Pipistrelle P. coromandra, least Pipistrelle P. tenuis and Kelaart’sPipistrelle P. ceylonicus were recorded for the first time from the study area. Average forearm length of P. pipistrellus, P. javanicus, P. coromandra, P. te...
Liyan Zhang1,2, Zhidong Zhou1,3, Haiping Li1,2, Yanlong Qiao4, 5 and Yueping Zhang1,3,*
.... The results of genetic diversity and genetic structure analysis of S. japonicus showed that these four populations exhibited moderate genetic diversity across the sampled geographical range of the species. However, no phylogenetic structure corresponding to geographic location was observed from the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree and haplotype network analyses, and gene flow and exact P test results revealed that ...
Zhen-Yang Wu1, Guang-Xin E2,*, Hui Ran1, Da-Hui Wang1 and Tian-You Yang1
...study, we determined the diversity and phylogeography of 10 geographic populations (252 individuals) from Tongren, Guizhou Province using 516-bp sequences of the mitochondrial D-Loop region. In total, 63 polymorphic sites, including four single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 59 parsimony-informative sites, and 18 haplotypes were detected. The number of haplotypes within populations ranged from one (WS and DJ) to six (JK). Haplotype diver...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

... Indian sub-continent. A diversity of plant pathogenic fungi has been identified and isolated from the various affected sheesham trees from Indian sub-continent, yet the actual cause of the diseases is still controversial. It is pertinent to mention here that no viruses or any bacteria has been reported from a singly tree in whole of the Indian sub-continent. Although the involvement of the insect’s species has been recorded and authenticated by various ...

Huma Khalil1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Sajjad Khalil1, Farghama Khalil2 and Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel1 

...estigate the seasonal biodiversity of braconid parasitoids in citrus orchards of Sargodha, Pakistan. Surveys were done during January 2014 to December 2015 from various citrus growing localities. A total of 3,176 parasitoids belonging to five subfamilies (Alysiinae, Aphidiinae, Braconinae, Microgastrinae and Opiinae), 12 genera and 16 species were collected. Out of them, two genera and 12 species were recorded for the first time from this area. Aphidiinae cont...
Iram Maqsood1,2,3 and Ke Rong *1,2
...art of this ecosystem biodiversity in perspective future. China contributed greatly to conserve ecological and cultural roles of Chinese alligators and its sustainable utilization.

...

 Tazeen Jamil, Saba Ijaz, Rabia Arif*, Faiza Akram and Muhammad Saleem

...itable source of genetic diversity due to their abundance in eukaryotic genomes and their insertion in coding regions leads to altered gene expression. We examined the diversity of retroelements in four consecutive generations of different strains of Sordaria fimicola. The parental strains werecollected from two contrasting environments of Evolution Canyon i.e. harsh South facing slope and neutral North facing ...
Faiz-ul Hassan1,*, Muhammad Sajjad Khan1, Muhammad Saif-ur-Rehman1, Syed Muhammad Raihan Dilshad2 and Muhammad Amjad Ali3
...ces.

...
Zhaochao Deng1, Na Song2, Yongzhen Li3, Tianxiang Gao1 and Zhiqiang Han1,*
...ic structure and genetic diversity of L. olivaceus, a 495 bp segment of mitochondrial DNA control region was sequenced. We collected a total of 65 individuals from three archipelagos (Xisha, Zhongsha and Nansha) in the South China Sea and 107 polymorphic sites were obtained defining 39 haplotypes. Based on the NJ tree, two distinct lineages were detected, with strong frequency differences in the geographical distribution. Both lineages were found in Xis...
Ashfaque Ahmed Nahiyoon1,*, Shahina Fayyaz2 and Nasira Kazi2
...udy was to determine the diversity of plant parasitic and soil nematodes associated with cotton plants in Sindh. During 2017–2018 extensive surveys were conducted at the time of cropping and at harvesting and soil root samples were collected from different fields in the cotton producing regions of five districts of Sindh viz., Sanghar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Mityari and Tando Allahyar. The analysis of samples resulted in the identification of one ne...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...continuous evolution and diversity. In the present study, manure from specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks was contaminated with allantoic fluid of NDV and kept at room temperature ranged from 20 to 25oc which is nearly the same as poultry farms on different coupon surfaces (metal, plastic and cooling pads). Daily examination of poultry manure for the persistence of NDV was conducted on the basis of virus isolation followed by haemagglutination assay (HA) which...
Bushra Siddique1,*, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Naeem1 and Muhammad Ali2
...es help to correspond in diversity of associations between prey and host plant species. Recent studies exhibited that the use of natural enemy is an ecofriendly measure to control pests. The Seven spotted ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata play a prominent role in aphid management. It exploits several different cues released by plants to increase the efficiency of foraging. Aphid endoparasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh) (Hymenoptera:...
Bingbing Gao1, Na Song1, Zhonglu Li2, Tianxiang Gao3 and Liqin Liu3,*
...terized by low haplotype diversity (0.39–0.59) and low nucleotide diversity (0.00038–0.00073). The result of AMOVA and pairwise Fst values indicated weak or no genetic differentiation among different populations. Haplotype network and NJ phylogenetic trees revealed that there was no distinctly geographical distribution pattern among the haplotypes. Furthermore, the mismatch distribution of pairw...

Tahira Jatt1, Ghulam Sarwar Markhand1, Lane Rayburn2, Ray Ming3, Mushtaque Ahmed Jatoi1 and Ameer Ahmed Mirbahar1,4* 

...Sindh is known as the biodiversity center of date palm. Investigations were carried on the chromosome number and karyotype one of the seven indigenous commercial date palm varieties and four wild type date palm of Sindh province, Pakistan by using the traditional Fuelgen squash method. Results indicated that all seven commercial varieties and four wild types of date palm are diploid in nature and having 2n=36 chromosomes. First time detailed karyotype of these...
Zhimin Yuan1, Yan Yu2, Yanmei Wang1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...to explore the microbial diversity of the gastrointestinal tract of H. alaschanicus and to estimate the risk to humans caused by the hosted pathogenic bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene V1−V2 regions were sequenced using MiSeq high-throughput sequencing platform to study the bacterial community of both the stomach and the intestine of H. alaschanicus. A total of 21, 336 and 34, 188 high quality reads of microbiota were obtained from the sto...
Mohammed Anas Chowdhury1, Md. Abdul Karim1, Md. Tayfur Rahman1, Shoaibe Hossain Talukder Shefat1, Ashikur Rahman1, Mohammad Amzad Hossain2*
...t status of fish species diversity of Surma River at Sylhet Sadar, Northeast Bangladesh. A total of 51 fish species belonging to 16 taxonomic families has been identified. The most abundant family was recorded as Cyprinidae covering 36%, while the least abundant family was Gobidae and Plotosidae comprising 1%. A Shannon-Weaver diversity index was fluctuated between 2 to 2.5 with mean value 2.30±0.14, which reveals exp...
Mohsen M. El-Sherbiny1,2,*, Reny P. Devassy1, Erinn M. Muller3, Abdulmohsin A. Al-Sofyani1 and Ali M. Al-Aidaroos1
...hytoplankton biomass and diversity as well as the diel variability of the major mesozooplankton taxon, Copepoda was studied with respect to the prevailing hydrographic conditions along the coastal waters of Gulf of Aqaba, Saudi Arabia during the summer period. Conspicuous stratification was evident in the water column while nutrient distribution highlighted the oligotrophic nature of the region. Nitrate showed a notable increase in the deeper layers of almost ...
Jie Zhang1,2,*, Baradi Waryani3,4 and Qihai Zhou2,*
...bet Plantae. The genetic diversity and molecular invasive mechanism are urgently needed for both native and invasive populations. Present investigation details 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci and 12 to 26 alleles per locus denoted. Whereas, d expected and observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.902 to 0.972 and 0.750 to 0.958, respectively. Moreover, the polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.869 to 0.949. The cross-species amplific...
Yan-Bin Zhu1, Wang-Dui Basang1, Zhan-Dui Pingcuo1, Yang-Ji Cidan1, Sang Luo1, Dun-Zhu Luosang1, Yang-La Dawa1 and Guang-Xin E2,3,* 
...y was to perform genetic diversity and population structure estimation on 382 individuals from seven Chinese Tibetan ecotype yak population using twenty-one microsatellites. The results revealed that the HO ranged from 0.4854±0.0194 in NNV to 0.6086±0.0267 in YRY, and the NA ranged from 3.86±1.98 in XMY to 6.05±3.37 in NNV. The least number of markers which deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within the population was W, and la...
Jae-Kang Lee, Hyun-Su Hwang, Tae-Kyung Eom and Shin-Jae Rhim*
...forest management and biodiversity conservation. 
...
Joyce Osarogie Odigie*
...ed to statistical and biodiversity analysis with the extracted data for water quality analyzed via Weighted Arithmetic Index and pollution tolerance Index via pollution sensitive group. The dominant benthos group was Chironomidae: making up 20.99%, 18.47% and 16.65% of the benthic community. The results of WQI calculated across the three study stations were above the 100 benchmark. However, the PTI values recorded at the three study stations were less than 10,...
Yacheng Hu1,2, Xueqing Liu1,2, Jing Yang1,2, Kan Xiao1,2, Binzhong Wang1,2 and Hejun Du1,2,*
...ool to study the genetic diversity of Dabry’s sturgeon.
...
Min Li1,2, Jingjing Wang3, Suxian Hu3, Philip Stott4, Baoqing Lin5, Lianshan Li5, Hui Liu1, Heng Bao1, Duoying Cui6 and Guangshun Jiang1,* 
...ess, and Shannon’s diversity using a stepwise linear regression model and regressions of proportions of cover types at different spatial scales. We recorded 109,026 sightings comprising 94 species, and found that avian diversity indices were positively influenced by the presence of open water, farmland, and alkaline marsh, and negatively by human settlement; and in addition, these relationships were only apparent when ...
Shanshan Cai1, Tianxiang Gao2, Binlun Yan3, Aiyi Zhu1 and Xiumei Zhang1,2,*
...also showed high genetic diversity and a certain degree of heterozygote deficiency of natural swimming crab populations. The advancing technology and its unique advantages will make molecular markers as novel and highly-efficient approaches for assessment of stock enhancement.
...
Tasleem Akhtar1,2,Ghazanfar Ali1,*, Nuzhat Shafi2 and Abdul Rauf2
...observed, with haplotype diversity (Hd) 0.5323±0.080. Among 5 haplotypes, 2, 2 and 1 haplotype were detected in S. plagiostomus, S. niger and S. esocinus, respectively. Haplotype diversity was lowest and same in S. esocinus, S. niger and S. progastus (0.0001) and highest in S. plagiostomus (0.5436). Average number of nucleotide differences of 4 species (Kt) was 0.737 and total nucleo...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Imtiaz Sarwar1, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Rehan Khalid1, Muhammad Yahya1 and Khurram Shehzad2
... the soil.
...

Muneer Abbas1*, Muhammad Ramzan1, Niaz Hussain1, Abdul Ghaffar1, Khalid Hussain1, Sohail Abbas2 and Ali Raza3 

...apturing, killing and biodiversity studies of nocturnal insect population. Funnel shaped light traps were used in mungbean and gram crops throughout the year. Effects of light traps were assessed by daily night collections in relation with abiotic factors based on marginal cost benefit ratio. Results indicated that total 32415 insect’s captures were made with >26 insect species including 4 species of bio control agents. Helicoverpa armigera, Spodopter...

Sana Munir1, Muhammad Kamran Qureshi1*, Ahmad Naeem Shahzad2, Ismat Nawaz3, Muhammad Shahzad Anjam4, Sumaira Rasul4 and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar5 

...stimate level of genetic diversity various cotton genotypes, inter and intraspecific hybrids were assessed for yield, yield contributing and fiber traits using various multivariate analysis such as principle component analysis and linkage cluster analysis. Principle component analysis (PCA) exhibited that first four PC out of nineteen PC, with eigen value >1, contributed about 80.326 % of total variability. Positive contribution towards PC1 was given by see...
Javeria Zafar1, Asif Nadeem1*, Maryam Javed1, Fehmeeda Fatima1, Wasim Shehzad1, Ghulam Abbas1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal2 and Muhammad Muddassir Ali1
...n. Polymorphism, Genetic diversity and Phylogenetic analysis were carried out by the MUSCLE, DnaSP and MEGA6 tools. Total of 20 variations at different positions were found in aligned sequence results. Sequence conservation was observed for the ibex population. The overall results showed a close evolutionary relationship among Capra aegagrus, Capra nubiana, Capra falconeri, Capra hircus and Capra caucasica, demonstrating that they all were evolved from ...

Iffat Nawaz1*, Farhatullah1, Fida Muhammad1, Sajid Ali2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali

...ortant source of genetic diversity. A total of 96 indigenous accessions of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were collected from three different areas of Himalaya region of Pakistan. In all accessions, 78.1% were collected from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa while 11.5% from Kashmir and 10.4% from Gilgit Baltistan. Primary evaluation of seed characteristics was done according to International Board of Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) descriptors. Significant variation w...

Sanaullah1, Fazli Rabbi2*, Shahid Ali2, Zeeshan Khan3 and Muhammad Zamin4 

... a famous tourist and biodiversity hot spot. The valley has remained underdeveloped in terms of infrastructure, tourists’ information facilities, telecommunication, affordable public transport system, and comfortable accommodation for the tourists. In the past few years, the development of this tourists’ spot has been neglected in the public development budget. Moreover, due to the war against militancy in Swat, the frequency of tourists was declin...

Muhammad Asim1*, Asghari Bano2, Sikander Khan Tanveer3 and Muhammad Umair Aslam

...essity to have genotypic diversity for best exploitation of the environmental conditions coupled with appropriate crop management strategy. The best match of this genotype × environment × management production paradigm could lead to sustained improvement in wheat grain yield. 

...
Haroon1,2, Yu-Feng Meng1, Zahid Khan1, Farzana Perveen2, Muhammad Ather Rafi3, Sayed Waqar Shah4, Xiao-Hong Su1 and Lianxi Xing1,*
...div>...

Hamoudi Naoual1, Alloui Nadir2*, Barberis Abdelhak2 and Boudaoud Amine2 

...observations confirm the diversity of migratory bird species, particularly Anatidae infected with AIV, in the wetlands of Eastern Algeria. Molecular characterization of circulating avian influenza viruses in these wild birds will help assess the potential for spread of these viruses in poultry farms. 

...
Muhammad Asif Gondal, Qazal Waheed, Sana Tariq, Waseem Haider, Aisha Khan, Qudsia Rasib and Haroon Ahmed*
...ological attributes like diversity, species richness and equitability of freshwater gastropods are important due to various reasons like intermediate hosts for many trematodes and bio-indicator. Snails are cosmopolitan in distribution and diversity of habitat to perform ecological performance is abosolute. The freshwater malacological information is sparse within Pakistan specifically in the foothills of Margalla hills. Ther...

Muhammad Ilyas1, Sardar Ali Khan1, Shahid Iqbal Awan1, Shafiq-ur-Rehman1, Waqar Ahmed1, Muhammad Riaz Khan2, Raja Mohib Muazzam Naz2, Muhammad Mohib Ullah Khan3 and Sumaira Hafeez1* 

.... Broad range of genetic diversity was shown by the inbred lines and displayed different levels of drought tolerance. Four inbred lines were selected i.e., VDR-51, DR3-126, DR-37 and 5CDR-53. Crosses were attempted between the selected inbred lines. Six generations as P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 were prepared for both the crosses for the estimation of gene action under generation mean analysis and planted in a triplicated Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD...
Sana Aslam1, Wayne Thomas Shier2 and Imran Sajid1*
...lore the actinobacterial diversity of the saline lake, situated in the salt range, Punjab, Pakistan and to screen them for antagonistic activities against multi drug resistant pathogens and to characterize the bioactive metabolites produced by them. A total of seventy strains of actinomycetes were isolated from lake samples, out of them only forty bioactive strains were selected for further characterization on the basis of their preliminary antimicrobial activ...
Muhammad Younis Laghari1,2, Zixia Zhao1, Yiwen Gong3, Punhal Lashari1,2, Shangqi Li1, Jian Xu1 , Ateeque Rahman Khooharo4, Jiongtang Li1,* and Yan Zhang1*
...he mainland, the genetic diversity in Hainan island is different to that in the mainland. One of fifty sequences isolated from SINE element was polymorphic, including six haplotypes with an average sequence divergence of 11.03% (SE = 0.78%). Four haplotypes (MF177501-MF177504) were shared in these four population. However, two specific haplotypes (MF177499-MF177500) were only observed in Hainan population. To simplify procedure and improve effectiveness of ide...
Jiantong Feng, Xueping Wen, Yahong Guo, Yingying Ye*, Jiji Li and Baoying Guo
...characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of M. lamarckii, a 750 bp region of mitochondrial COIII gene and an 822 bp region of 12S rRNA gene were sequenced and analyzed for 118 and 105 individuals from five populations (ZS, WZ, ZP, ST and ZJ) in the Southeast coastal areas of China, respectively. Results revealed that 33 haplotypes were defined in COIII gene, and 30 haplotypes were defined in 12S rRNA gene. The pairwise Fst
Yunfang Tian, Zeqin Fu, Jiantong Feng, Yahong Guo, Yingying Ye*, Jiji Li and Baoying Guo
... genes). The genetic diversity of seven samples was in a high level (h = 0.879-0.949, π =0.0033-0.0110). The Bayesian skyline plots showed that the samples were a stable population. The genetic divergence of seven samples was suggested that there was detected two obviously groups from pairwise FST values and networks. This differentiation was conformed to the geographic of the sampling sites. However, within the groups, t...
Muhammad Rizwan Ashraf1, Asif Nadeem1,2, Eric Nelson Smith3, Maryam Javed1, Utpal Smart3, Tahir Yaqub4, Abu Saeed Hashmi1 and Panupong Thammachoti3
...genetic relationship and diversity through mitochondrial genes in saw-scaled viper from Pakistan. Tail tip biopsies of Saw-scaled vipers were used for amplification of mitochondrial genes fragments (ND4, 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA) through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Nucleotide data was used for DNA polymorphism analyses and homology was measured among different species of genus Echis. Using the concatenated nucleotide data, Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phy...
Peimin Yang*, Zongyun Hu, Yixin Liu, Guanghai Jin and Lei Wang
...exhibited high haplotype diversity (h=0.8467) and low nucleotide diversity (Pi=0.0063). Genetic distances ranged from 0.0002 to 0.0149 within and 0.0007 to 0.0140 between populations. AMOVA analysis indicated significant genetic differentiation among populations (Fst=0.3202, P<0.01) and 68.98% of the total variation was resulted from intra-population differentiation. Pairw...
Waqas Ahmad Shams1*, Gauhar Rehman1, Khurshaid Khan1, Ibrar Ahmad1, Saima Bibi1, Saif Ul Islam2, Dawood Safi1, Saba Gul Ayaz1
...n the present study, the diversity and abundance of crabs from Buner district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan were looked over, over a period of three years extending from June 2013 till June 2016, collected at different sampling points. Extensive surveys were conducted for three years at different timings during the active periods of crab life. To have a comprehensive study of the crab fauna of Buner District, nine different localities were selected for conduc...
Mubashar Hussain1*, Misbah Younas1,Muhammad Faheem Malik1, Muhammad Umar1, Maimoona Kanwal1, Moazama Batool2
...nd areas. Shannon-Wiener diversity index values calculated from different sites indicated variations in species richness (H= 1.72-2.14) and evenness (e^= 0.65-0.85). Similar trend in the values of other diversity indices were observed that indicated better richness and evenness of species. The diversity reported from the Sialkot emphasizes on detailed surveys with respect to feeding guilds...
Maria Khalid1, Tanveer Hussain1*, Zahid Farooq2, Kamran Abbas1 and Masroor Ellahi Babar1  
... investigate its genetic diversity and phylogeny using mitochondrial DNA, Cyt-b and Cox1 genes. A total of 749bp of Cox1 and 472 bp of Cyt-b complete coding regions of both genes were amplified by PCR followed by sequencing. The sequences were aligned and edited using Bio-Edit software and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. The boot strapped Neighbor joining tree constructed from MEGA7 explained the genetic rela...
Wen Qin1,2, YanGan Huang1, Lei Wang1, Gonghua Lin1, Jundong Yang1,2, Pengfei Song1,2, Hongmei Gao1,2, Jingjie Zhang1,2 and Tongzuo Zhang1,3,*
...sent our findings on the diversity of the gut microbiota in fecal samples from wild goitered gazelle from Qiadam Basin, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which are the first such data to be reported. A total of 25 phyla were found, of which the dominant phyla are Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in both summer and winter, representing more than 90% of the overall relative abundance. Diet is a key factor in shaping the gut microbiota. Because of large differences in host diet...
Qingzhan Ma1, Bo Wu1, Jianping Jiang2 and Zhaobin Song1,3*
...ess considerable genetic diversity. The largest genetic differentiation (FST) among the eight populations was 0.233 (between POPB and POPD) and the lowest FST was 0.04 (between POPA and POPE). Furthermore, population structure analysis and UPGMA dendrogram suggested that there were close genetic relationships between POPA and POPE, POPA and POPG, and POPF and POPH, respectively. POPH showed serious inbreeding based on F

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1 and Onyemocho Audu2 

...he extent of HCV genetic diversity is important for treatment and development of vaccine. Among the routes of HCV transmission; intravenous drug addiction or injection drug use accounts for the majority of many cases apart from hemodialysis patients, unprotected sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and vertical transmission. Therefore, there is a need for government commitment for HCV elimination program through making the DAAs available and its affordability...

A.N. Ashfaque1, F. Shahina1 and S. Dawar2

 

Diversity of nematode fauna associated with cotton fields of high temperature areas of Sindh, Pakistan
...stimate nematode species diversity, richness and evenness, the data has been submitted for calculating the diversity parameters such as Dominance (D), Simpson’s diversity index (1-D), Shannon diversity index (H’), Evenness (e), Brillouin Diversity Index (HB), Menhinik Diversity

Gulzar Ahmad*, Sahibzada Faheem*, Amjad Ullah*, Waqar Shah*, S.M. Majid Ashraf*

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RELAY PROTOCOLS USING SIMULATION
...y to exploit the spatial diversity or antenna diversity. The implementation of the cooperative relaying systems involves less hardware and low complexity but gives comparable performance and diversity gains to the actual multiple antenna systems. The aim of this paper is to compare various techniques used in cooperative relaying protocols. The performance is evaluated i...
Guang-Hui Tan, Yi-Yu Zhang*, Yuan-Yu Qin, Lei Wu and Jie-Zhang Li
...medium levels of genetic diversity. Association analysis revealed that two SNPs were significant association with at least four of seven lipid indexes. Allele A of CDS 216 A>G locus and allele T of CDS 681 T>A locus was favorable to improving meat quality, respectively. Three haplotypes and six diplotypes were identified by the combination of two SNPs. Diplotypes had dominantly affected on tested lipid indexes except for IMF. Diplotype H1H1 was advantage...
Roni Koneri1*, Meis Nangoy2 and Pience V. Maabuat1
...lyse the composition and diversity of dragonflies in Tunan Waterfall area, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Sampling was conducted from March 2018 to May 2018 at at three types of habitat, namely primary forest, secondary forest, and agricultural land. At each habitat type were laid four 300-metre-long transect lines. The lines were placed along the river of each habitat type, and sampling was carried out along the lines using sweep nets. From the research, 7 famili...
Waqar Majeed1, Naureen Rana1, Elmo Borges de Azevedo Koch2* and Shahla Nargis1
...="font-size: small;">The diversity and distribution of arthropods associated with seasons and environmental variables in two different wetlands sites was estimated and study was performed on monthly basis for a whole year. The arthropods were collected by sweep net, direct hand picking, forceps. For each sampling day in each month, 20 sweeps were randomly taken in each block. The insects at rest or on shrubs were manually collected. Overall, 5867 individuals w...
Muhammad Rizwan1*, Bilal Atta1, Ana Maria Marino de Remes Lenicov2, Roxana Mariani2, Arshed Makhdoom Sabir1, Muhammad Tahir3, Misbah Rizwan4, Muhammad Sabar1, Ch. Muhammad Rafique1, Muhammad Afzal5

Muhammad Jawad1*, Shahid Riaz Malik1, Rana Muhammad Atif2, Haris Ahmed2 and Muhammad Shahzad Afzal3

Species Identification of Gram Wilt Complex through ITS Region by PCR-RFLP Analysis
...ersal Rice Primers based diversity analysis indicates high polymorphism within the collected wilt isolates. Primers ITS 1 and ITS 4 generated internal transcribed spacer fragments that were restricted four restriction enzymes (HhaeI, MboI, BsuRI, HinfI). PCR ITS-RFLP banding pattern identified two Fusarium species i.e. Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani. In conclusion, PCR-ITS-RFLP proved to be an efficient and easy technique for the identification of wilt...
Tabassum Yaseen1*, Shehzad Ahmad1, Khushnood Ur Rehman2, Fayaz Asad1, Abdul Waheed1, Rani Gul3, Hussain Gulab4 and Naveed Akhtar2
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Spore Density and Root Colonization in Weeds of Carrot field at Charsadda, Pakistan
... of plant influences the diversity and population of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Our study revealed that the AMF spore density and root infection is closely related to the soil physicochemical characteristics.
...

Mohammad Javad Golmohammadi1, Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust Chamanabad1*, Bijan Yaghoubi2 and Mostafa Oveisi3

GIS Applications in Surveying and Mapping of Rice Weeds in Guilan Province, Iran
...ies diversities, species diversity in 2015 was more than 2014 and 2016 years. The frequency of weed species in Guilan rice farms in 2014-2016 was 3.38, 3.87 and 4.82percent, respectively. Cyperus esculentus and P. distichum were the most abundant species with 9 and 8 plants/m2, respectively. Echinochloa crussgalli and C. difformis with a density of 5 plants/m2. Weeds were non-uniformly distributed in various families including Cyperaceae, Poaceae, Lythraceae, ...

Khan Sher1*, Muhammad Subhan1, Muhammad Nisar2, Ali Hazrat2, Zahid Fazal1, Gul Rahim2, Imran Ahmad1, Riaz ul Haq1 and Shamia Bibi1

Genetic Diversity in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgarus L.) Collected from Different Ecological Zones of Malakand Division (A Part of the Sino Japanese Region of Pakistan)
...yze the level of genetic diversity (GD) of bean landraces collected from diverse ecological zones of Malakand division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The qualitative traits showed significant level of diversity like seed shape was determined by two alleles, seed color was defined by 13 numbers of alleles and four alleles were responsible for flower color. Similarly, the quantitative traits showed 73%

Asif Ali Abro1* and Iqbal Ahmed Panhwar2

Impact of Various Factors on Crop Diversification Towards High Value Crops in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis by using THI
...erfindahl Index (THI) of diversity. To check the impact of improved infrastructure; the length of the road was adopted and showed a positive and significant relationship with crop diversification. Per capita income, urbanization, and profitability of minor crops were taken as demand side factors. Per capita income, urbanization and profitability of minor crops regression coefficients showed positive and significant impact on crop diversification. The technolog...
Muhammad Umer Khan1,2*, Muhammad Farooq Sabar1, Atif Amin Baig3, Arif-un-Nisa Naqvi4 and Muhammad Usman Ghani1
...presented a high genetic diversity of 0.9996 and a low random match probability of 0.0129. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mtDNA profiles of the Shin population, providing a complementing dataset for curative generation of future mtDNA databases in Pakistan.
...

Sehrish Ashraaf1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1* and Sajida Naseem2

Jun Yan Bai1*, Ren Tao Di Wu2, Qiang Zhang2, Di Bao2, Le Ma Dao2 and Xing Hua Tian3
...d to analyze the genetic diversity of Sonid bactrian camels, and the correlation between microsatellite markers and their body size was analyzed to find microsatellite markers associated with the body size traits of Sonid bactrian camels, so as to provide reference for marker-assisted selection of Sonid bactrian camels. The results showed that 64 alleles were detected in 17 microsatellite markers. The average number of alleles was 3.7647, the average heterozyg...
Sukhpreet Kaur Sidhu*, Gurkirat Singh Sekhon, Randeep Kaur Aulakh and Tejdeep Kaur Kler
...was carried out on avian diversity and its services of composition in relation to vegetation distribution to understand their biodiversity. Four natural ponds and one man-made pond were surveyed at three locations viz. Ludhiana (location I), Ropar (location II) and Ferozpur (location III) falling in three agro climatic zones. A total of 51 bird species belonging to 31 families and 15 orders were recorded from studied locatio...
Chaojie Yang1,2,3, Haishan Wang1,2,3, Le Ye1,2,3 and Zhi Chen1,2,3,*
...phylogenetic studies, biodiversity monitoring and conservation. The morphological descriptions and DNA barcoding study about Muraenesocidae in the East China Sea were old, rough and deficient. Morphometric measurements and meristic counts were taken for all collected Muraenesocidae samples in our present study. Teeth characters that are conclusive for the species were consistent with Muraenesox and were sufficient for separation from other Muraenesocidae speci...
Ehsan Kashani1, Hamid Reza Rezaei2*, Morteza Naderi3 and Nematolah Khorasani4

 

...wledge about the genetic diversity of the mammalian species and their plasticity in ever-changing environments is emphasized by scientists and conservation biologists. Central deserts and steppes of Iran host a different kind of insectivores like hedgehogs; however, their ecology and genetic properties are rarely documented. For species of hedgehogs that are included in the subfamily Erinaceinae, at least four known species are listed for Iran. Brandt’s ...

Muhammad Rizwan1*, Jehanzeb Farooq1, Muhammad Farooq1,2, Aqeel Sarwar4, Abid Ali3, Farrukh Ilahi1, Muhammad Asif1 and Ghulam Sarwar1

Quantitative Studies in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using Multivariate Techniques
...genetic and geographical diversity. First seven components in principal component analysis (PCA) having eigenvalue more than 1, showed 91.131 % the cumulative variance, while PC-1 alone showed 32.47 % variance. Hierarchical cluster analysis and PCA provided an opportunity to identify subgroups of clusters at different stages, so that every single subgroup may be analyzed critically and it will be helpful for incorporation of desirable characters in future bree...
Wentao Wang1,2, Xu Lin3, Jianshu Zhuo3, Dongjie Zhang2, Xiuqin Yang3* and Di Liu1, 2*
... knowledge of E2F3b mRNA diversity and provide basis for in-depth functional research.
...

Muhammad Shahbaz1,*, Nosheen Farooq1, Abu ul Hassan Faiz1, Arshad Javid2, Irfan Baboo3, Misbah Shoukat1 and Muhammad Aslam Khan4 

...nt study explored the biodiversity of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the district of Bagh, and at some adjoining areas, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, during the period May 2017 to October 2017. The specimens were identified under the binocular microscope by following the taxonomic keys of Christophers (1933), Barraud (1934) and Rueda (2004). A total of 2895 specimens of mosquitoes were collected from the study area, belonging to family Culicidae and two subfamil...
Sana Mehmood1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1*, Muhammad Summer1, Sher Muhammad Sherawat2, Shaukat Ali1*, Sajida Naseem3
... To describe the species diversity and richness in numerical structure, diversity indices (Shannon’s and Simpson’s) and evenness indices (Margalf’s index, Chao 1) were applied. No overlap was found between inter-specific and intra-specific divergence values. Neighbor joining tree clearly separated the species into different clusters. Present study concluded that although morphological identification of spid...

Inam Ullah1,2, WU Qing-Ming1*, Ruqia Bibi2 and Najam Un Nisa2

Comparison of Nesting Site Preferences and Breeding Ecology of Red-Vented Bulbul, Baya Weaver, and Grey Bush Chat in Sheikh Badin National Park Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
...spect of wildlife and biodiversity , which makes the nesting behavior a vital factor when investigating the life of birds. This study was conducted to know the trees used for nesting by avifauna species of Sheikh Badin National Park. The current study was conducted at Sheikh Badin National Park from October 2018 to September 2019   . Most birds’ breeding was observed from May to August. The dominant tree and shrub species include Ziziphus jujub...

Saba Aleem1*, Mehvish Tahir2, Iram Sharif3, Muqadas Aleem4, Muhammad Najeebullah2, Ali Nawaz1, Amina Batool1, Muhammad Imran Khan1 and Waheed Arshad1

Principal Component and Cluster Analyses as Tools in the Assessment of Genetic Diversity for Late Season Cauliflower Genotypes
...align: justify;">Genetic diversity is the baseline of any breeding program as determining the variability of germplasm is an indispensable assist for crop improvement strategies. Multivariate analyses such as cluster and principal component analysis measures the amount of genetic diversity in respect of several charaters and asseses the relative contribution of different traits to the total variation. In the present study, n...
Ghulam Sarwar1, Amna Nazir1*, Muhammad Rizwan1, Eram Shahzadi2 and Abid Mahmood3
... Awareness about genetic diversity is very essential for fruitful genetic improvement approaches. Correlation, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analyses were performed to estimate genetic diversity in 25 cotton genotypes. Correlation analysis revealed that days to first square, flower and boll opening were positively associated with seed cotton yield. Staple length and CLCuV % were negatively associated with fi...

 Shuanping Zhao, Lei Xu, Hai Jin and Yutang Jia*

...ulation (n=298). Genetic diversity analysis showed that g.1500G>A and g.1694T>A belonged to an intermediate level of genetic diversity (0.25<PIC<0.5), and SNP g.2213C>G belonged to a low polymorphism level (PIC<0.25). LD (Linkage disequilibrium) analysis showed that SNP g.1694T>A and g.2213C>G had a strong linkage (r2>0.33), a total of four different haplotypes were constructed and the f...
Ming-Yue Zhang*, Bo Yuan, Xiao-Hui Zhang, James Ayalaand Rong Hou*
...ereotypes and behavioral diversity. The results showed that both adult and juvenile giant pandas preferred to feed in places where substrate was placed; additionally, juvenile giant pandas living in an outdoor playground that was covered with substrate were more active than those without substrate (p<0.01); moreover, the social and the play behaviors were significantly more frequent in the juvenile giant pandas with substrate (p<0.01). The P. koraiens...
Muhammad Umar1, Mubashar Hussain1*, Muhammad Faheem Malik1, Muhammad Naeem Awan2 and David C. Lee3
... abundance, richness and diversity was recorded in Deva, with lowest community measures recorded in Barmala. Species richness and diversity peaked in September and was lowest in November. Applying a suite of community composition analyses, bird communities were significantly different across all the three sites (ANOSIM), with 10 species explaining 16.5% to 17.2% of these community dissimilarities (SIMPER). Of these key contr...
Muhammad Zubair1, Habib Ahmad2*, Brian E. Hemphill3, Muhammad Tariq4 and Muzafar Shah5
...e: small;">Analyzing the diversity of non metric phenotypic traits of the mature teeth, in three ethnic groups’ viz. Daudzai, Khalil and Mohmand of Peshawar districts, of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KP) of Pakistan. Dental casts obtained from both mandible and maxilla of 375 volunteers in which 75 male and 50 females of all the tribes. The dental casts for each individual were analyzed for a set of 35 tooth-trait accordance with the Arizona State Un...
Ahmad Kamran Khan1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir2*, Shanza Ahmed3, Muhammad Amjad Bashir1, Shahbaz Ali1, Syeda Amber Hameed4Munaza Batool5, Irfan Ahmed6 and Muhammad Naeem Khan7
...system. Family richness, diversity, abundance and evenness of soil inhabiting Prostigmata mites population in disturbed and undisturbed soil were estimated from five different localities of Punjab, Pakistan. Soil sampling was done after two months interval for a year 2014. Family richness, abundance and Shannon diversity indexes were higher in undisturbed soil as compared to the disturbed one in all the localities, while low...
Muhammad Qayash Khan1,2, Muhammad Zubair Anjum2, Muhammad Adnan3, Abbas Khan1, Hafsa Zahid1, Javed Nawab4, Sher Zaman Safi5Muhammad Ishaq Ali Shah6, Atif Kamil7 and Abid Ali1*
...only conceal the genetic diversity but also pose problems in fisheries management and conservation practices. The purpose of the present study was a molecular characterization of fish species of economic importance belonging to the genus Schizothorax, Tor and Mystus collected from various rivers of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The samples were morphologically identified, its mitochondrial DNA was extracted and subjected to molecular characteriza...
Rao Muhammad Ramiz1, Arfan Ahmad2*, Aamir Ghafoor2, Muhammad Avais3, Qurat-ul-Ain1 and Muhammad Zahid Iqbal3
...rts presence and genetic diversity of BLV in cattle of two districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Blood samples (n=400) taken from local (n=200) and exotic (n=200) breeds of cattle were processed for complete blood count. Based on lymphocyte counts, samples were divided into two groups (A, lymphocytosis, B, normal lymphocytes) and tested through ELISA and nested PCR for serological investigations and molecular characterization respectively. In this study, animals of g...
Tanveer Hussain, Masroor Ellahi Babar*, Akhtar Ali and Fiaz Hussain
...ing the Earth’s biodiversity, the camel proved to be a unique animal with physiological features. These attributes of the camel instigate us to explore its genetic architecture. Pakistan boasts a camel population of about 20 different breeds and a total of one million head. However, till date, scarce genetic data is available on Pakistani camel’s genomics. In efforts to explore the genetics of the camel, we chose to study the Inteferon beta 1 (IFN&...
Jiawei Hong1,2, Mingqiang Chen 1,2, Zhenghua Deng1,2, Youning Li1,2 and Yu Wang1,2*
...ly altered the community diversity of noble scallop. This study characterized the variation regularity of the intestinal microbial of the noble scallop in response to enrofloxacin treatment. These results, provide a comprehensive acquaintance with intestinal microecosystem of the noble scallop and contributes to a reasonable use of enrofloxacin treatment on noble scallop.
...
Aylin Celile Oluk1*, Ugur Serbester2, Murat Reis Akkaya3 and Oya Berkay Karaca4
...ds, the goats consumed a diversity of plant species. Milk collected from Kilis had 15.27-16.10% total solids,5.70-6.50% fat and 4.80-5.10% protein. The lactose content did not differ significantly between milk samples from the two locations (3.90-4.20%). Total unsaturated fatty acid levels were significantly higher than total saturated fatty acid contents, irrespective of the lactation period (p<0.05). Milk from Hatay was high in saturated fatty acids, arom...

 Amjad Ali1*, Pirzada Jamal Ahmad Siddiqui1, Naveed Ahmad2,Shabir Ali Amir3, Rafaqat Masroor3,Seema Shafique1 and Zaib-un-Nisa Burhan1

...e of recreation and fish diversity. Present study aimed to record the distribution and diversity of fishes from different coral habitats along the coast of Pakistan. Additionally, potential threats and conservation strategies were also discussed. SCUBA diving was conducted at 10 different dive sites along the coastline. Relative abundance of the fishes was determined using visual techniques. Sea water physiochemical paramete...
Titin Herawati1,*, Indra Adiwiguna1, Ayi Yustiati1, Iis Rostini1, Roy Hendroko Setyobudi2, Hafizan Juahir3 and Asep Sahidin1
 

...e research is to map the diversity of fish in Cimanuk River, specifically upstream and downstream Jatigede Reservoir. Field observation method and census sampling technique were applied. Research commenced from November 2017 to January 2018. Parameters measured are diversity index, dominance index, equitability index, and water quality. Data analysis employed comparative-descriptive method by mapping the species and comparin...
Uzma Ayaz1,* and Muhammad Fareed Khan2
 

...3, 0932 reported maximum diversity. The hybrids i.e. 0942, 0951, SH-K-6, SH-K-4, 0917, 0916, Sun-star-333, Hysun-33, 0927 and 1023 exhibited maximum seedling emergence, chlorophyll content, leaves per plant, grain yield and oil content hence recommended to be included in future breeding programs of sunflower.
...
J.Y. Bai1,*, R.T.D. Wu2,*, Q. Zhang2, D. Bao2, L.M. Dao2 and X.H. Tian3
Rida Haroon Durrani1*, Fareeha Akhtar1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh1, Munazzah Maqbool1, Aleena Kokab1, Kiran Imtiaz2 and Muhammad Ilyas Riaz3
...samples to determine the diversity of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus (42%), Enterococcus faecium (54%), Salmonella sp. (38%), Bacillus sp. (71%), and Moraxella sp. (63%)were isolated from the samples collected from two different managemental systems. Statistical analysis revealed that temperature and seasonal variations alongside storage conditions affect not only the shelf-life of fish meat but a...

Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Hamid Bashir2, Shah Najaf Mukhtar1, Muhammad Arshad1, Nimra Altaf1

...o assess mites’ biodiversity in different citrus orchards of Kinnow, Musambi, and Feutrell’s early at tehsil Sahiwal Sargodha, Sillanwali, and Bhalwal of district Sargodha. Sampling was done at fifteen days interval to record the population dynamics and identification of citrus mites during 2018. A total 37,963 mites specimens were collected in which nine species were identified from four families Cunaxa sp. (Cunaxidae); Amblyseious andersoni Chant...
Muhammad Furqan1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Usman Ali2, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad3, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Waqar Ahmed1, Zakir Hussain1, Mian Amman Ullah1Nimra Afzal1 and Anjum Ara2
...a rich floral and faunal diversity. The Indian grey mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii Hilaire, 1818) is a small carnivore, controls the population of reptiles, ground birds, small mammals, insects, distributed in plain areas of Pakistan and southern AJ and K. The present study aimed to investigate conflict of Indian grey mongoose with human beings. Field surveys were conducted from April 2015-March 2016 in 18 localities of Mirpur, AJ and K. Human mon...
Tariq Mahmood1*, Luqman Ullah Khan1 and Muhammad Naeem2
...t 13% of the world avian diversity, Indian sub-continent has approximately more than 2060 species of birds. In Pakistan, there are more or less 660 bird species belonging to 23 orders and 74 families. The abundance and diversity of avian species in a specific habitat can serve as a useful measure of their ecological status. In response to land use changes, 20-25% of pre-agricultural birds have vanished. In the current study,...

Hafiz Basheer Ahmad1*, Sajida Habib2, Waqas Shafqat Chattha3, Rizwana Qamar2, Shazia Saeed2, Abdul Khaliq1 and Salsabeel Rauf2

...align: justify;">Genetic diversity in Maintainer (B-line) and Restore (R-Lines) is a corner stone for the development of sunflower hybrid varieties. Seventy-seven of each, maintainer and restorer lines were sown in field and data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. The results revealed that the mean values of all traits except for days to 50% flowering of maintainer lines were higher than restorer lines. The principal component analysis for B-lines s...
Yahong Guo1,3, Zeqin Fu1,3, Jiantong Feng1,3, Chengrui Yan1,3, Yingying Ye1,3*, Kaida Xu2 and Baoying Guo1,3
...to analyze their genetic diversity, population structure and understand the relationship between the wild and cultured specimens groups. The results showed that haplotype diversity (h) of the cultured specimens groups (from 0.621 to 0.797; average, 0.717) was higher than that of three wild specimens groups (ZSW, WZW, and NNW; from 0.428 to 0.668; average, 0.560). The pairwise FST values suggested tha...
Sadaf Aslam1*, Abdul Majid Khan1 and Muhammad Akhtar2
...nsight to understand the diversity and geographic distribution of Siwalik Suids.
...

Kiran Shahjeer1*, Gauhar Rehman1, Khurshaid Khan1 and Toheed Iqbal2

... in ant species. Species diversity and abundance are expected more diverse collections in these and other similar areas. These findings can be strengthened by modern techniques of molecular identification.

...

Arshad Khan1, Mohammad Ihsan1, Mohammad Nisar1, Ali Hazrat1*, Murad Ali3, Rashid Ul-Haq3, Khalid Khan2, Karishma Gul1 and Shah Faisal1 

...align: justify;">Genetic diversity can be investigated through different methods such as morphological traits, biochemical (SDS PAGE) and molecular markers. The present work was conducted on the basis of morphological and biochemical characterization in order to estimate the genetic diversity among the barley landraces; to explore significant variation which can be used in breeding programs. For this purpose, 40 barley landr...
Asif Sadam*, Rahmat Ullah Khan and Sajid Mahmood
...scape causes shift in biodiversity. This study aimed to identify the traits that enable bird species to become urban exploiters i.e. to colonize and become abundant in highly urbanized areas. Bird species were identified in point counts without distance estimation, in three habitats: urban area, residential area, and agricultural area. Twelve sampling sites were selected in well-defined habitats in Mardan district. Bird species traits were taken from field obs...

Hanaa H. A. Gomaa1; Entsar A. A. Nassar2; K. A. El-Dougdoug3

Amro A. Farrag1; Ahmed K. El-Attar1; Om-Hashem M. El-Banna2; Ibrahim A. I.2; H. M. Mazyad 1 
...showed a relatively high diversity among the three different isolates that the
identity ranged from 89 to 94%.
...
Aly M. Abdel-Salam1, Rehab A. Dawoud2, Amira M.E.Aly2, and Salama M. El-Saghir2
...n 29-63% indicating high diversity. In addition, the four BSV
isolates showed nucleotide identity between 64-88% with four BSV accessions,
retrieved from the GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial RT/RNaseHsequence
showed that the four Egyptian BSV isolates clustered together with two
Egyptian sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus apart from other badnaviruses
circumventing several viruses of ...

Mohamed I. Azzam1, Safaa M. Ezzat1, K. A. El-Dougdoug2, Badawi A. Othman2

...iv>work assesses the bio-diversity of coliphages to use as bio-indicators for viral water
pollution. The study elucidates the occurrence of enteric viruses at various locations in
Rosetta Branch of the Nile River in addition to five main drains located on its sides which
selected for confirmation the eco-diversity of aquatic viral isolates. The evaluation was
carried out using ...

Ayman S. El-Habbaa 1, Gabr F. El-Bagoury1, Samar F. El-Adaway2, and Susan S. El-Mahdy2

...ch. These results proved diversity between the isolated velogenic NDV Giza 2014 strain and other vaccinal and circulating NDV strains. Conclusion: It is concluded that further studies on the antigenic characters of that variant isolate is required to study antigenic variation between NDV strains circulating in Egypt.

...

Ahmed M. Soliman

...MV suggesting no genetic diversity. The four CMV isolates located in one cluster, belonging to subgroup IA.
...
Hadeer M. Mossa, Ausama A. Yousif, Emad A. Aboelsoud, Mahmoud El Gamal, Ahmed El-
Sanousi
...oducing a high microbial diversity in
biological samples that was limited by using second generation sequencing as Illumina . DNA
concentration and sequencing had been performed in demands for faster and more accurate methods to
analyze, characterize and qualify the virus as a seed for future vaccine production. Analysis workflow
starts on a high performance laptop device (GENUS), sequence data is generated for b...

Zainab Iftikhar, Muhammad Arif, Iqbal Munir and Sajid Ali

...essitates exploration of diversity in crop duration parameters in wheat with particular emphasis on novel sources of genetic variation, including hybrid wheat. The present work was designed to assess the potential of Chinese wheat hybrid germplasm for cultivation across Pakistan. For this purpose, 416 hybrids were assessed for diversity in crop duration parameters in the year 2017-18 and a subset of better performing 108 hyb...

Shakeel Ahmad1, Muhammad Israr2*, Muhammad Amin3, Muhammad Sadiq Hashmi4, Nafees Ahmad5 and Rasheed Ahmad6

...-Pakistan are rich in biodiversity and provide fragmented and fragile ecosystem services while vulnerability to the rapid changes in LULC with irreversible impacts on ecosystems, especially in district Shangla. Real-time monitoring and assessment are essential to understand such changes in LULC. In the current study, spatio-temporal changes of LULC were obtained from MODIS (MCD12Q1) product from 2001–2018 to examine LULC in the district Shangla of Khyber...

Nusrat Habib

...lience are hard work and diversity of livelihood resources. In changing climate conditions, it is imperative to devise gender-sensitive and region-wise policies and planning.

...
Liangkun Pan1, Qun-Lan Zhou1*, Bo Liu1, Jiaxing Yan2 and Ajun Sun1
...erent based on the alpha-diversity and the cluster results. Dominant microbioorganisms of blunt snout bream at genus level were Cetobacterium spp., Lactococcus spp., CK-1C4-19, Rhodobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Meanwhile it was found out that Lactococcus spp. preferred the foregut, while Cetobacterium spp. and Flavobacterium spp. preferred the hindgut. Dominant bacteria preferred differe...
Arshad Khan1, Mohammad Ihsan1, Ali Hazrat1*, Mohammad Nisar1, Muhammad Laiq1, Maryam Bibi1, Nasir Ali2, Ulfat Naz1, Muhammad Zakria1, Nausheen Nazir3, Adam Khan4 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz5
...titative). A significant diversity was found for leaf length with the range of 4 to 15 cm, leaf width 1 to 7.0 cm, petiole length range from 0.5 to 4.5cm.The internodes length ranged from 0.5cm to 6. The seed length ranged from 4 to 11mm. The 100 seed weight ranged from 7.7 to 48g. Correlation analysis revealed that leaf width was strongly significant with leaf length (0.454**), 100 seed weight with leaf length (0.289**), seed width was also found strongly sig...
Zunaira Noreen* and Khawar Sultan
...eline situation of avian diversity and abundance on various land uses including the landfill at Gujranwala in northeastern Punjab, Pakistan, and understanding the impact of urban solid waste in changing bird behavior. Field observations in a variety of land uses (agriculture, forest, lake, urban and landfill) in summer 2018 using the point count method for bird census determined the baseline for 56 species (birds/10 min) indicating a significant change in nati...
Hui-Ming Li1, Bi-Ze Yang1, Xue-Jun Jin1,2, Lin-Miao Li1, Hai-Ying Jiang1
Xiu-Juan Zhang1 and Jin-Ping Chen1*
...rstanding of its genetic diversity and structure. In this study, 24 novel SSRs were isolated from full-length transcriptome and they were used for assessing of parent-offspring relationship for M. javanica. All SSR markers were highly polymorphic with a mean of 6 alleles per locus, ranged from 2 to 10 alleles. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.62. The observed (HO) and expected average heterozygosity (HE<...
Wanqiu Zhao1,2, Taoyan Yuan1, Li Chen2, Xue Du2, Weihu Chen4, Yan Fu1, Dong Niu3,* and Lizhi Lu2,*
...itionally, the microbial diversity and richness were significantly higher in the laying group than the broody and recovery groups. These results provide a basic profile of Zhedong white goose microbial community for the further study on goose broodiness and microbiology.
...
Hui Wang1,2, Yuchen Zhao1 and Xinpu Wang1,*
... used to help restore biodiversity and the production of the natural grasslands in China. The effects of grassland management on invertebrate diversity and its associated environmental factors were less reported in northern China. The relationship between the activity-density of carabid beetles and environmental factors was conducted under three different grassland management regimes (typical enclosure, enclosed mowing, and ...
Ayu Suci Wulandari1, Siwi Indarti1,2*, Muhannad Illayan Massadeh3 and Nguyen Van Minh4
... factor to abundance and diversity of plant parasitic nematode in garlic crops, this research was conducted Sampling  was carried out in four locations: Brebes, Magelang, Tegal and Temanggung, Central Java, Indonesia. Samples of soil, roots and tubers were collected. Soil abiotic factors are taken measurements such as pH, temperature, and organic matter. The altitudes are measured using the Geograpichal Positioning System (GPS). The results showed that th...

Najam-un-Nisa1, Ruqia Bibi1, Balqees Riaz1, Bushra Khalil1, Iqra Maheen1, Saima1, Uzma Islam Khan1 and Inam Ullah1,2*

...s to assess the avifauna diversity in Dhapchapak lake and forest areas. There is no previous record of any detailed research on bird species in Dhapchapak lake and the forest area.The study was conducted to estimate the diversity and abundance of avifauna species found in dhapchapak wetland and forest during winter (2017-18 and 2018-19). As birds are the best indicator for environmental changes hence the migratory birds faun...

Huda Bilal1, Hasnain Raza2*, Kaynat Ahmed2, Iqra Tariq2, Qurat-ul-Ain2, Sana Sarfaraz1, Sanaullah1, Maryam Maqsood3 and Ali Raza3

...nd subsequent loss of biodiversity are threatening human existence. Due to its significance in ecosystem functioning, biodiversity is very important but difficult to replenish and recover when eroded. A severe threat to the anthropological system was the loss of biodiversity that took place over the planet. Climate change has the opposite effect on habitat fragmentation and contributes to ...

Amir Muhammad Khan1, Laila Fayyaz2*, Raziuddin2, Sajid Ali1, Israr-ud-Din1, Sheraz Ahmad2, Haidar Ali1 and Ijaz Ahmad2

...production. To determine diversity within this specie, ten different genotypes of B. napus L. including Chinese (CA-2, CA-4, CA-5) and doubled haploid lines from a population were field-tested at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar (UAP). Genotypes were examined for seven morphological traits including days to flowering, primary branches mainstem-1, plant height, main raceme length, pods mainraceme-1, pod length, 1000-seed weight and three seed quality tra...
Jun-Dong Tian1,2, Wei-Jie Guo1,2, Han Yan1, Jie Zhang1, Shu-Liao Tian3 and Ji-Qi Lu1,2,*
...y evenness and community diversity at OTU level of the AM group were significantly higher than that of the PM group, v) though no analyses could significantly differentiate the two groups, there were significant differences in specific taxonomic groups including genus Lactobacillus, families Lactobacillaceae and Rhodospirollaceae, and phylum Tenericutes, and vi) the ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in AM group was lower than that in PM group. The f...

Iffat Nawaz1*, Tahseen Zeb1, Bibi Saima Zeb2 and Javaria Sherani3

...nd Andean). Furthermore, diversity in qualitative traits (leaf color, leaf pubescence, hypocotyls pigmentation, flower color, pod color, growth habit, dry pod color, pod curvature, pod beak position, pod beak orientation, seed shape, seed coat pattern and seed color) was studied by using standard Chi square test for homogeneity of populations. Results showed that agro climatic conditions have no influence on the qualitative traits. Secondly, each landrace has ...

Ruqia Bibi1, Najam-un-Nisa1, Sania Komal1, Hafiza Nimra Ghani Qureshi1, Maryam Safdar1, Hafiza Hina Jameel1, Saman Gul1, Sania Saeed1 and Inam Ullah1,2*

... to explore the avifauna diversity at the study site. 16371 individuals were observed belonging to 11 families belonging to approximately 38 species during the present study. The relative abundance was found to be 1, the Shannon-wiener diversity index (H´) was calculated as 3.43, the Simpson index (D) was 0.96, and the Evenness was 0.35. Little Cormorant (Microcarbo niger), Gadwall (Mareca streper), Great Cormorant (Ph...

Bibek Aryal, Naresh Pandey and Laxman Khanal*

...assemblage of biological diversity. Bird diversity serves as a good ecological indicator; hence, this study examined the effects of urbanization on bird species richness and diversity in Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City, one of the rapidly expanding cities in the central lowland Nepal. Bird surveys were conducted during the winter and post-monsoon seasons of 2020 along eight transects each of ...

Sonam Khatri1, Shaheen Faizi2, Shahina Fayyaz1 and Erum Iqbal1*

...ct on environment and biodiversity which create urgency in development of an alternative biosafe measure to control these pests. In this regards, researchers have focused on the use of phytopesticides which are eco-friendly and easily accessible and degradable in soil as compared to synthetic chemcials. The given information in this review article highlights the importance of Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad as a promising biological and pesticidal agent useful...

Dewi Ratih Ayu Daning1,2, L.M. Yusiati1, C. Hanim1, B.P. Widyobroto1*

...ng methane, Microbial biodiversity, Rumen fermentations, In vitro 

...
Romaan Hayat Khattak1, Zhensheng Liu1*, Liwei Teng1* and Ejaz ur Rehman2
...which are heading the biodiversity towards dramatic falls. The presence of several endangered species in many areas remains unveiled due to the lack of faunal inventories. In such situations, it is imperative to make proper records of the existing fauna on local scales to strengthen the conservation practices. Twenty-one species representing 18 genera, 12 families and six orders of mammals were recorded in Nowshera district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (KP), P...

Asif Sadam1*, Rahmat Ullah Khan1, Sajid Mahmood1 and Juma Gul2

...justify;">Maintaining biodiversity in urbanized landscapes is the top most conservation priority. Urban development results in an increase in local extinction rates and eliminates the majority of native species. The pattern of rainfall is changing and frequency of extreme events increasing due to urbanization and rapidly increasing average global temperature. These changes are having observable impacts on biodiversity at spe...

Mary A. Sargious1, Hanaa A. Ahmed1, Ragab M. El-Shawarby2, Hatem H. Bakery2, Sherif I. Ramadan3, E. Gus Cothran4 and Ayman Samir Farid5*

...nt status of the genetic diversity and inbreeding of Arabian horse populations reared in Egypt. Secondly, to examine the traditional maternal based strain classification system “Al Khamsa” using samples of native Arabian horses reared in the El-Zahraa stud based on 16 microsatellite markers. El-Zahraa stud showed high inbreeding (FIS = 0.110) and should be corrected by modifying mating system through avoiding excessive use of certain sires in breed...

Muneeb M. Musthafa1,* and Fauziah Abdullah1,2,3

...laysia, as one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world, however, very little has been studied at lower elevational mountain reserves and their beetle diversity, which could be decisive in resolving mysteries in tropical biogeography. Objective of this study is to assess and compare the beetle diversity at three selected lower elevational mountains to enlighten our understanding. Measurin...

I Nyoman Sulabda1*, I Nengah Wandia2, I Ketut Puja3 

...e used to evaluate allel diversity using 18 samples of Taro white cattle. Genetic variability was low, with observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity for locus BM1815 was 0.778 and 0.51, and for DRB3 was 0.556 and 0.478, respectively. Moreover, the polymorphic information content (PIC) for these two microsatellite was 0.397 for BM1815 and 0.413 for DRB3. The Taro white cattle showed low level of genetic diversity...

Saeed Ahmed Essote1, Asim Iqbal1, Muhammad Kamran Taj2*, Asmatullah Kakar1, Imran Taj2, Shahab-ud-Din Kakar1 and Imran Ali 3,4*

... genus each. The highest diversity was recorded in Sibi Division and the lowest diversity in Kalat Division. Seven snake species, Eryx tetaricus, Typhlops ductuliformes, Bungarus sindanus, Lycodon travancoricus, Spalerosophis arenarius, Psammophis condanars and Lytorhynchus paradoxus were recorded for the first time from Balochistan Province.

...

Shang Zhenda1,2*, Kong Qinghui1,4*, Li Jiakui1,4, Liu Suozhu1,2, Tan Zhankun1,2, Shang Peng1,3 and Wang Honghui1,2

...e analysed the bacterial diversity in fresh faeces of wild yak and domestic yak. Results showed that the structure of the bacterial flora in wild yak and domestic yak was significantly different. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and TM7 were the dominant phyla, and Micrococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Planococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Christensenellaceae, Coriobacteriaceae and Bacillaceae were the dominant families. C...

Najeeb Ullah1*, Adnan Ihsan1, Syed Fahad Shah1, Kamran Sohail1, Muhammad Sohail Khan1 and Said Hussain Shah2

...istan has diverse ant biodiversity but very little work is done on this group. Based on the recent collected specimens of Formicidae from Kahuta Azad Kashmir Pakistan Pseudoneoponera rufipes Jerdon, 1851 is reported for the first time from part of region. Morphological descriptions and digital images are provided. 

...

Javed Khan1, Abdul Majid1, Mohammad Nisar2*, Ali Hazrat2, Nausheen Nazir3, Muhammad Zahoor3, Mohammad Ihsan2, Azhar Hussain Shah1, Muhamad Ajmal Khan4 and Muhammad Yahya1

Maid Zaman1*, Imtiaz Ali Khan1, Amjad Usman1 and Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi2

...ross the country but its diversity, genera strength, percent host and habitat attacked for district Swabi, Buner and Haripur is unreported. After collection (either on spot or through NIFA-Termaps) and identification, all districts had equal species number (05) but different type of species from the genera Heterotermes (02), Odontotermes (04) and Angulitermes (01). Genus Odontoteremes is more strengthened (57%) in number of species followed by genus Heteroterm...
Anjum Ara1, Usman Ali1, Muhammad Furqan2*, Zulfiqar Ali2
Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad3, Khawaja Basharat Ahmed4
Riaz Aziz Minhas4, Waqar Ahmed2, Zakir Hussain2 and Mian Aman Ullah2
...aimed to investigate the diversity, distribution, threats and conservation of freshwater turtles in Mirpur, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan where no research work was done previously. Study area was divided in three study zones (Mirpur, Dadhyal and Chakswari) along the Jhelum river and further sub-divided into 18 localities. Line transect, hand capture, visual survey, tracking, trapping methods were applied to collect data related to ...

Mukhlisi Mukhlisi1,*, Tri Sayektiningsih2 and Ishak Yassir1

...tudy sites. The score of diversity, species richness, and evenness indices of hill karst forests was higher than that in coastal karst. A t-test revealed that there was a significant difference in diversity index between coastal and hill karst (T = 2.016, p = 0.039). Birds characterized by a wide range of distribution and were able to adapt to various types of environments, particularly secondary forests, were most dominant....
Muhammad Faisal Riaz1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1*, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1 and Talha Nazir2
...etermined the prevailing diversity of aphids on different economically important plantations in district Sargodha. From November to April 2018-2019 and 2019-2020, about 51,000 apterous adult aphid specimens were collected from various plantations from all six tehsils of district Sargodha and were identified up to species level. Richness and relative abundance of different aphid species were determined by calculating Shannon Wiener’s (H’), Evenness ...

Lifang Zhang, Xiuyue Zhang and Bisong Yue*

...>We analyzed the genetic diversity on Periplaneta americana of 12 populations consisting of 360 individuals with 16 high polymorphic markers. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus ranged from 16 to 32, with an average value 24.5. The observed heterozygosity value (HObs) varied from 0.481 to 0.906 and the mean HObs was 0.698; the expected heterozygosity value (HExp) varied from 0.625 to 0.928 and the mean HExp was 0.840. The polymorphic inform...

Maskur Maskur1*, Muhammad Muhsinin1, Lestari, Tapaul Rozi1, Asnawi2 

... 

...

Omer Eyuboglu

...nd changes in biological diversity. The most prominent alien species in Turkish Black Sea waters are  species invasions which are witnessed in the Black Sea. The Black Sea, which has incurred significant losses in biodiversity due to the increasing eutrophication and various pollution related problems, have surfaced significantly and provided a considerably suitable environment to invasive NIS. In this study, measures a...

Shahid Sherzada1,2*, Muhammad Naeem Khan1 and Masroor Ellahi Babar2

...aplotypes and nucleotide diversity was 0.42 and 0.0018, respectively. The mean intraspecific and intragenric K2P genetic distances were 0.2% and 1.2%, respectively. Rate of transitional and transversional substitution was 16.68% and 4.16%, respectively. The transition/transversion bias value R was 1.25. The negative values of Tajima D test as well as Fu and Li D and F tests supported the process of population expansion with excess of rare alleles. The overall ...

Houria Bouazzara1,2,*, Rachid Chaibi 1,2, Farouk Benaceur 1,2,3, Amira Nouioua4 and Laura Bruno 5

... Nematoda. The following diversity indexes were used to measure the diversity of zooplankton species in the lake; Shannon Index 3.14 to 3.8, Pielou Evenness Index 0.72 to 0.84 and Margalef Index 1.08 to 1.45. The zooplankton communities were observed to be abundant in spring and summer compared to autumn and winter. Rotifers were found to be dominant followed by copepods, cladocerans and nematods for the entire research dura...
Mubashir Ali Rather1, Ambreen Hamadani2*, Syed Shanaz2, Nusrat Nabi2, Showkat Ahanger1, H. Hamadani2, Ruksana Shah2
...ia. The state has a rich diversity of sheep genetic resources. However, concerning wool traits, the production potential of these breeds was poor. Accordingly, crossbreeding was taken up the breeding policy to improve the genetic worth of these breeds. As a result, a fast-growing and fine wool-producing sheep strain Kashmir Merino was developed. The present article summarizes the performance of this important synthetic sheep strain in the temperate region of J...

Mohammad Mahmudi1,2*, Muhammad Musa1,2, Sulastri Arsad1,2, Evellin Dewi Lusiana1,2, Alamanda Bunga1, Nur Azlina Wati1 

...plankton but low species diversity. Meanwhile, the water inlet and outlet of the shrimp farming which served at mangrove area had higher phytoplankton diversity. The composition of phytoplankton in this work was ideal for shrimp farming because it was dominated by the Chlorophyta and Chrysophyta divisions, which favour shrimp growth. On the other hand, water quality parameters across studied sites were quite similar, except ...

Mudssar Ali1*, Muhammad Awais Ahmad1, Asif Sajjad2 and Shafqat Saeed1

...designed to evaluate the diversity and effectiveness of native insect pollinators in carrot seed production. An experiment was performed at the research farm of MNS University of Agriculture, Multan during vegetative season (October-April) in 2019-20. Seven syrphid fly and four bee species were found visiting the carrot flowers that comprised of 65% and 35% of total abundance respectively. Among Syrphidae, Eristalinus aeneus was the most abundant followed by E...

Hyun-Ju Cho1, Eun-Jae Lee2 and Shin-Jae Rhim3*

...ns. Investigations of biodiversity in urban areas are necessary and should be considered in urban planning for the conservation of biodiversity.

...

Zunaira Noreen* and Khawar Sultan

...for retaining the native diversity of avifauna. This however may necessitate an Economic analysis while selecting tree species for planting.

...
Muhammad Tariq Khan1, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Riffat Sultana3*, Anjum Munir1 and Sajjad Ahmad4

Hua Liu, Wei Hou, Li Peng, Changjun Peng, Yansen Cai and Jing Li*

... based on which, genetic diversity and population structure of three populations of M. thibetana were estimated. Our results showed the novel SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic. The observed and expected heterozygosity across 38 individuals varied from 0.184-0.605 and 0.405-0.506, respectively. The minor allele frequency were ranged from 0.277 to 0.487 with an average of 0.417 per locus. We detected the lowest genetic diversity

Djadouni Fatima* and Meliani Amina

...ting the economy, animal diversity and ecological balance. These diseases are transmitted among animals in different ways and endemic especially in large and common pastures and among the causes of their spreads are contact, vectors, air, water, feeds, wastes, and pollution. Environmental conditions play an important role in increasing the spread of disease, which is often found in humid and warm seasons compared to temperate zones and Saharan zones. So throug...

Abida Shehzadi*, Muhammad Shafique and Ahmad Ali Shahid

...repeat (Y-STR) haplotype diversity analysis of 143 healthy unrelated male individuals from Jat population of Pakistan. Seventeen Y-STR loci were simultaneously amplified through AmpFISTR®YfilerTM PCR amplification kit. Evaluation of statistical parameters for forensic importance revealed in recognition of 124 unique haplotypes with diversity value of 0.996. Locus DYS385a/b demonstrated highest power of discrimination, po...

Tehseen Ali Jilani1*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani2, Javeria Sherani3, Kashif Waseem2, Muhammad Sohail Khan2, Hasnain Saleem3, Abdul Manan2, Rashid Jawad2 and Sami Ullah4

...to assess the phenotypic diversity in diverse pea genotypes for yield determining traits under the growing condition of D. I. Khan, KPK. Experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated thrice during two normal growing seasons (2013-14 and 2014-15). At physiological maturity, data were collected for yield contributory traits. In Season 1, the genotype Minarellet proved to be early maturing by taking lesser number of days to flower ...

Saima Naz1*, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha2, Sajjad Ali2 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah3

...justify;">Insect’s diversity plays an important role in ecosystem. Different types of environmental pollutants like heavy metals, pesticides and antibiotics cause changes in insect diversity and continuously have become threat to health of living organisms. Additionally, pollutants coming from traffic smoke also affect the interaction of insects with other insects and plants. Exposure of toxic level of heavy metals can...

Judith Kiptoo1*, Daniel Mutisya2, Paul Ndegwa1, Ruth Amata3, Lucy Irungu4 and Rotich Godfrey5

...ndance, distribution and diversity of plant parasitic nematodes from different soil rhizosphere. Nematode population in 200cc of soil and 5g of roots were collected for PPNs extraction by using modified Baermann’s technique and identification by morphological features. The findings indicated that four major genera were abundant in different citrus growing ecological zones in Kenya. The identified species were Meloidogyne incognita, Tylenchulus semipenetr...

Weidong Huang1,2,3, Xinyue Liang1,2,3, Xiufeng Xie4, Xingmin Wang2, 3 and Xiaosheng Chen1,2,3*

...elationships and genetic diversity of discrete color patterns in coccinellids is still poorly known. Here, we present a comprehensive genetic diversity analyses and phylogenetic relationships within seventeen different phenotypes of elytral color patterns in Menochilus sexmaculatus based on two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and II (COII), and two nuclear genes, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CAD) a...

Dali Wang1,2, Yujing Zhu1,2, Wancai Xia1,2, Mei Zhao1,2,3, Chan Yang1,2 and Dayong Li1,2*

...33%). The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was significantly higher in the lower section and the Bray-Curtis distance was significantly lower, suggesting vegetation recovery has progressed faster on the lower end of the debris field. The speed of restoration within the landslide and debris flow area is important for the protection of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys living at Gehuaqing. A reasonable plan for vegetation restoration according to the composition of the su...

M.A. Salam1,*, Sarada Kanta Bhagabati1, Rajdeep Datta1, H. Ramananda Singh2 and Gunajit Oinam2

...text-align: justify;">Biodiversity has been defined as the variability among living organism from all sources including, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. The fish diversity of lake Kharungpat comprised of 29 species under 20 genera, 11 families an...

Zaniar A. Abas1, Mohammed Omer Baba Sheikh2,5*, Hardi N. Aziz3, Omed I. Abid4 

Nkiru E. Ekechukwu, Felicia N. Ekeh, Chinenye M. Ohanu, Hope C. Ezinwa and Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie*

...d that understanding the diversity of insect fauna might help to shade light on vector insect-borne diseases, prevalence and transmission rates in abattoir communities. Here we randomly selected three (Orba, Ikpa, and Obollo-afor) abattoirs in Enugu senatorial zone and surveyed for insect fauna abundance, diversity, and distribution. The sampling was carried out over a period of eight weeks, using sweep net and hand picking ...

Nour H. Abdel-Hamid1*, Walid Elmonir2, Eman I. M. Beleta1, Rania I. Ismail1, Momtaz Shahein1, Mahmoud E. R. Hamdy1 

...es of 62% and 54% with a diversity index of 0.82 and 0.88. Both ERIC-PCR and RAPD-PCR dendrograms clustered B. abortus isolates into two clusters and three genotypes with discriminatory of 0.8 and 0.72. Both ERIC and RAPD PCRs revealed 25 singleton genotypes (G) out of 35 genotypes. DNA-based typing techniques showed substantial diversity among the Brucella isolates. The genetic diversity ...

Jae-Kang Lee, Hyun-Su Hwang, Tae-Kyung Eom, Dong-Ho Lee and Shin-Jae Rhim*

...dents and encouraging biodiversity.

...

Zilu Zhang1, Ning Wang2, Ce Hou1, Laiba Shafique1, Saif ur Rehman1, Zhuyue Wu2, Zhiqiang Wang1, Mingsong Wei3* and Kuiqing Cui1*

...hong dairy goat, genetic diversity in PIS region of the goat were identified and the key gene polymorphism sites still waiting to be determined.

...

Phassakon Nuntapanich1*, Hathaichanok Nuntapanich2 and Woraman Maicharoen3

...he number of fish and biodiversity in paddy fields by reducing using chemical fertilizer and eliminate using chemical pesticides in cropping areas; (2) According to the first, to develop appropriate technologies for small farmer households that improve rice yields or other crops to be higher and stable without using any chemical; (3) Develop strategies and policies that act as a mechanism for driving society leading to organics farming production in the TKR.&n...

Ghassan Zahid1, 2*, Sara Iftikhar3, Muhammad Umer Farooq4 and Shakeel Ahmed Soomro5

...s in the area of genetic diversity, varietal identification studies, hybrid detection, disease diagnostics and sex differentiation by administering the powerful diagnostic polymorphism detection tools at specific loci and the genome level. This review focuses on exploring the application, recent advancements and future implications of DNA-based molecular markers with the context of their role in the genetic improvement of fruit germplasm that is widely grown i...

Naseem Sharif1,2*, Imran Muhammad Siqqique2, Muhammad Kashif Raza3, Urwa Irshad1, Muhammad Ikhlaq Khan4, Ammara Noreen4 , Muhammad Ahsan Qureshi1, Mohsin Abbas5, Muhammad Maaz Aziz5, Sitwat Riaz5, Komal Aslam5 and Naseem Akhtar6

...te analysis. Significant diversity was counted for selected morphological and biochemical traits like leaf length (1.8-5.4cm), thorn length (0.6-2.9 cm), fruit weight (1.88-4.72g), fruit length (8.83-19.34mm), fruit width (11.03 -22.74mm), stone weight (0.32-1.09g), TSS (5.9-13.2%) and vitamin C contents (131.2 to 165.56mg/100g). Most positive correlation was noted between leaf length and leaf width (r=0.897) whereas, the correlation between stem girth and sto...

Iftikhar Alam1*, Muhammad Ali2 and Muhammad Farooq3*

...gh food prices; low food diversity and restricted food environment. Themes related to physical activity were limited physical activity (PA) resources; lack of programmed PA and limited knowledge/awareness support. Participants were very contented with photo-elicitation stimulated discussions. Using these photos, students were able to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy eating and lifestyle habits. Photo elicitation is an effective technique to engage p...
Amreen Zahra1*, Mushtaq A. Saleem2, Hasnain Javed3, Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan4 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori4
...due to increased genetic diversity in Pakistani isolates. However, SNAP analyses demonstrated higher values for Subtype A1 and Subtype C denoting a positive selection pressure and sequence conservation among the HIV-1 isolates in Pakistan. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that HIV subtype A1 was found to be the most predominant subtype found in Pakistani population with 30% ratio among the isolates, 10% was of CRF02_AG, Subtype C a potential recombinant had ...

Ngoc Tan Nguyen1*, Minh Thanh Tram1, Thi Thu Pham1, Tan Loi Le1, Thi Khanh Ly Nguyen1, Tuan Thanh Hoang2, Cong Thieu Pham3, Nguyen Khang Duong4 

... polymorphism, haplotype diversity and genetic distance to construct a phylogram. Results showed that the fragment of 687 bp was successfully amplified. Examination of 49 sequence variants in 599 bp of the control region revealed the nucleotide composition was Adenine (A) = 32.55%, Thymine (T) = 28.33%, Guanine (G) = 14.67%, Cytosine (C) = 24.87% and G+C content was 39.12%. Out of a total of 50 nucleotide polymorphic sites, 48 were transition and 2 were transv...
Makhamadi Abramatov1*, Abdurakhim Kuchboev2, Bakhtiyor Ruziev3 and Khumoyun Sobirov2
...is article describes the diversity of gastrointestinal nematodes in domestic ruminants of Uzbekistan. Nematodes were collected from the gastrointestinal tract of 611 small ruminants and 105 of cattle during the 2018-2020 in the farms of in Uzbekistan. These nematodes represented 28 species, including sheep - 25, goats - 21 and, cattle – 22 of these 27 species belonged to in are geohelminthes, and only 1 species was biohelminthes the main core of nematode...

Jawaid A. Khokhar*, T. J. Ursani, Fareeda Memon, Samina Malik, Asif Soomro and Fareeda Shah

Tooba Ather1, Muhammad Rafiq Shahid2*, Muhammad Ahsin Ayub3, Javed Iqbal2, Muhammad Asim Bhutta2, Muhammad Akram2, Naveeda Anjum4, Muhammad Rizwan6, Hafeezur Rehman5 and Umar Farooq5

...y nature and can feed on diversity of host plants. Different concentrations of Pyriproxyfen and Buprofezin are Insect Growth Regulator (IGR) were bio-assayed against 3rd instar of CMBat Integrated Pest Management Laboratory, Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during 2016. The results revealed that mortality of 3rd instar of P. solenopsis increased with increase in concentration of Pyriproxyfen and Buprofezin at three days of post ...

Muhammad Jamil1*, Kamran Javed1 and Imran Akhtar2

...s to explore the genetic diversity in the strains under study. Principal component analysis, along with agglomerative hierarchical clustering tools were employed. Twenty-four recently bred upland cotton strains bearing diversified origin were configured in triplicate following Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The data for novel attributes were recorded. Analysis of variance results indicated that a significant level of variation was existing among the ...

Mudssar Ali1*, Muhammad Awais Ahmad1, Asif Sajjad2 and Shafqat Saeed1

... Pakistan. Abundance and diversity of native insect pollinators, their foraging behavior in terms of visit duration and visitation rate (number of flowers visited per minute) along with their pollination effectiveness in terms of single visit seed set efficacy were assessed. Pollinator community was composed of seven solitary bees species (Nomia oxybeloides, Amegilla sp., Lasioglossum sp., Megachile sp., Xylocopa sp.), two honeybee species (Apis dorsata, A. fl...

Asma Fatima*, Ghulam Abbas and Shahnaz Rashid

...plankton and zooplankton diversity of marine water ponds at Thatta district, Sindh, Pakistan. Water samples were collected monthly (Jan-Dec, 2019) from different sites of the ponds and studied the total abundance of plankton in each month. During the study, physicochemical parameters of the pond water like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, transparency, ammonia, phosphates, nitrates, potassium, calcium, total alkalinity and total hardness were deter...

Jie Zhang, Na Li, Tingting Guo, Dandan Hu, Xiaofeng XU and Lili Zhang*

... results showed that the diversity of rumen flora in the grazing group was significantly higher than that in the house-raised group (P < 0.01). In the grazing group, the abundance of 96 genera was significantly higher than that in the house-raised group (P < 0.05), whereas in the house-raised group, the abundance of only 24 genera was significantly higher than that in the grazing group (P < 0.05). At the phylum level, the abundance of Bacteroidetes, F...

Zaidi Zona, Zulfiqar Ali*, Rida Ahmad and Irfan Zainab

...ment and freshwater fish diversity of cold-water Indus River, along a 400-kilometer stretch from Raikot (upstream) to Tarbela (downstream) was examined during 2019. The river channel was divided into five zones such as Raikot-Basha, Basha-Dasu, Dasu-Pattan, Pattan-Thakot and Thakot-Tarbela. The mean water quality of study site was as follows: pH 7.32, air temperature 21.15°C, water temperature 15.9°C, dissolved oxygen (DO) 6.41 mg/L, Total Dissolved So...

Amna Sulaman1, Qurat-ul-Ain Ijaz1, Muhammad Shafi2 and Faiz Muhammad1*

...nt and has remarkable biodiversity. Turbinella pyrum is a marine species found only in the Indian Ocean. It is an economically important resource as well as a sacred animal. The meat of this animal is used in traditional medicine. T. pyrum is a less known species from Pakistani marine waters. This research validated its molecular identification as T. pyrum. The neighbor-joining results revealed that it clustered with the same species of family Turbinellidae ex...

Ngoc Tan Nguyen1*, Pham Kim Ngan Nguyen1, Thao Huong Phan1, Tan Loi Le1, Thi Khanh Ly Nguyen1, Tuan Thanh Hoang2, Cong Thieu Pham3, Cong Dinh Nguyen3, Nguyen Khang Duong4 

...r understand the genetic diversity of native buffalo populations in different regions of Vietnam based on nucleotide sequence in a displacement loop (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Thirty-one blood samples that were collected from three native buffalo populations such as Bao Yen (BY: 7 samples), LangBiang (LB: 7 samples) and Thanh Chuong (TC: 7 samples) and two imported buffaloes from Thailand (T: 5 samples) and India (Murrah – M: 5 samples) were ...

Indyah Aryani 1,3*, Suyadi Suyadi2, Hartutik Hartutik2, Kuswati Kuswati2 

Shakeel Ahmad1, Muhammad Israr2*, Rasheed Ahmed3, Anam Ashraf1, Muhammad Amin4 and Nafees Ahmad5

.... Pakistan is rich in biodiversity and provides ecosystem services to the country’s population, especially the mountains of the northern highland. These areas have experienced extensive depletion of ecosystem services and are susceptible to fast LULC changes. Real-time monitoring and assessment based on spatio-temporal are important to know such LULC changes. This study examines LULC in the northern mountains of Pakistan from MODIS (MCD12Q1) time series ...

Ishtiaq Ahmad1,2* and Muhammad Akbar Anjum1

... out to evaluate genetic diversity among 78 selected genotypes of Capsicum frutescens through morphological attributes. The diversity assessment based on morphological attributes indicated maximum fruit weight was gained in genotype AZRI-Selection-10-B (2.82 ± 0.26 g), maximum fruit length was observed in genotype Super-Hot F1 (6.79 ± 0.52 cm), however maximum fruit diameter was recorded in genotypes 36563 (26....

Yue Ren1, Ting Jia2, Hao Zhang1, Zhengkun Wang1 and Wanlong Zhu1*

...d in detail. But genetic diversity and skull adaptation within T. belangeri chinensis populations from different habitats remain largely unknown or are controversial. In the present study focuing on T. belangeri chinensis that from Mengla, Puer, Jingdong, Kunmimng, Chuxiong, Dali, Pianma and Lijiang. Using microsatellite approaches, we observed considerable genetic variation and high heterozygosity in T. belangeri chinensis populations in different Yunnan prov...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1*, Zahid Rızwan2 and Muhammad Atıf Majeed1

...d fractioning of genetic diversity and gene erosion. In this study ten bivoltine hybrids were screened by heterosis using 11 biological and silk yielding quantitative traits. Heterosis was measured using multiple evaluation index (MEI), mid-parent heterosis (MPH) and better-parent heterosis (BPH), and hybrids were ranked using MEI and cumulative sub-ordinate function (CSF). The hybrids produced MEI >50 with the highest in PO206×J101 (63.2). All hybrid...

Khalid Khan1*, Mahmood-ul-Hassan2, Ihsan Ullah1, Haris Khurshid1, F.Y Saleem Marwat1, Salman Saleem1, M. Jehanzeb1 and Zubair Ahmad1

...nd utilizing the genetic diversity of sorghum hybrids for better crop production. In this study, crossing and selfing was done in parental lines of sorghum hybrids; such as A, B and R line system out of which 14 hybrids were finalized based on its morphological traits and statistically interpreted. Its genetic diversity is most important for exploitation of the genetic resources to develop promising hybrids. The objectives o...

Muhammad Umar1*, Mubashar Hussain1 and David C. Lee2

...asonal patterns in avian diversity and distribution of agroforestry, urban croplands and rural croplands of Gujrat, Pakistan from April 2017 to March 2019. We randomly positioned three one km transects > 500 m apart at each sampling point in all three study sites. We conducted both morning (0500-0800 hours) and afternoon (1600-1900 hours) surveys, recording all birds seen or heard along transects to a maximum perpendicular distance of 50 m; 0.1 km2 surveyed...

Marat Kuibagarov1, Assylbek Zhylkibayev1, Dinara Kamalova1, Anara Ryskeldina1, Nurdina Yerzhanova1, Yerlan Ramankulov1, Alexandr Shevtsov1*, John A Angelos2  

...helium. To evaluate pilA diversity amongst Kazakh isolates of M. bovoculi, the pilA gene sequence was determined for 35 isolates of M. bovoculi. Ten genotypes (gNA1-gNA10) were identified which were 96.1% to 99.8% identical. It was found that as a result of the replacement of cytosine with thymine at the 97th position of the gNA8 genotype, a stop codon resulted which, if expressed, would have resulted in a truncated PilA. Phylogenetic analyses of the deduced ...

Jie Yang1, Wenjun Zhou2, Qi Zhang2, Lei Chu2, Zhenshi Chen1, Xiajun Zhang2, Weidong Wu3*, Shaoru Zhang1* and Lihui Wang1*

...anyang have high genetic diversity. ST1866 isolates showed a high level of AZM-R, Therefore, measures should be taken to monitor the spread of ST1866 N. gonorrhoeae clones in eastern China.

...

Ty Nguyen, Giang Thi Huong Phung, Lan Le Thuy Hoang and Giang Van Tran*

...fication and the genetic diversity, which are the basis for further research about M. cunnesius in breeding, species conservation and management at the Tam Giang Cau Hai Wetland Reserve. Research results showed that this species distributed in the North has a size ranging from 101.7 to 160.7 mm, with an average of 137 mm, corresponding to a weight of 10.6 - 35.6 g, with an average of 25.2 g, the fish distributed in the South has a size ranging from 112.4 - 172...

Arif Mehmood1*, Muhammad Asam Riaz1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Waqas Raza2, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1

...phically. These webs and diversity indices provide hotspot information, and hotspot information is always an efficient tool in precise control of mosquitoes in the form of epidemic occurrence.

...

Bilal Saeed Khan1*, Muhammad Arslan1, Abdul Ghaffar2, Muhammad Farooq2, Saghir Ahmad3, Sami Ullah4 and Awais Rasool5

...the variety of soil mite diversity, seasonal variation and influence of intercropping within mango orchards through diversity index. A total of 1898 soil inhabiting mite sample slides were prepared from soil collected samples and after microscopic observation of slide specimen, 08 different families were recognized as Laelapidae, Pachylaelapidae, Ameroseiidae, Macrochelidae, Parasitidae, Phytoseiidae, Uropodidae, and Bdellid...

Muhammad Khalid Bhatti, Khalil Ahmed*, Ghulam Shabir, Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum, Muhammad Sarfraz, Amar Iqbal Saqib, Abdul Wakeel, Hafeezullah Rafa, Nadeem Iqbal, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz, Ghulam Qadir, Muhammad Rizwan and Muhammad Faisal Nawaz

...however, a great genetic diversity exists within rice species for salinity tolerance. Therefore, a study was executed to identify salinity tolerance of seventeen advance rice lines based on of agronomic characters and Na and K contents. Advance lines of rice namely, SRI-22, SRI-23, SRI-24, SRI-25, SRI-26, SRI-27, SRI-28, SRI-29, SRI-30, SRI-31, SRI-32, SRI-33, SRI-34, SRI-35, SRI-36, SRI-37, and SRI-38 were transplanted in cemented block at electrical conducti...

Arif Mehmood1*, Muhammad Naeem2, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Asam Riaz1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Nadra Khan3 and Waqas Raza4

...itative habitat webs and diversity indices show that scrapyard, animal sheds, and residential areas were the most abundant habitats respectively, while areas near stream were found to be the least abundant habitats. These microhabitats, which are the most abundant ones act as hotspots in case of mosquito-borne epidemic, which should be targeted to control epidemic.

...
Ahmad Zaman, Azhar Rafique*, Farhat Jabeen and Tayyaba Sultana
...ed to find out the avian diversity of district Chiniot, Pakistan. The surveys were performed from March, 2020 to February 2021 on weekly basis, using point count method for the collection of data. Naked eyes and binocular telescope (10x50) were used to count the birds and camera was used to photograph the birds. The study area was divided into two major landscapes types such as open field area (agricultural land, river Chenab sides, canals and cemeteries) and ...

He-Cai Zhang, Tian-Ge Hu, Chang-Ying Shi, Guang-Wen Chen* and De-Zeng Liu

...r to explore the genetic diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of D. japonica in Taihang Mountains, the mitochondrial Cytb and nuclear ITS-1 sequences of 120 individuals from 20 populations were analyzed. The results showed that 46 haplotypes were detected in total, including 10 shared haplotypes and 36 private ones. The overall haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity<...

Muhammad Saif-ur Rehman1, Faiz-ul Hassan1* and Muhammad Sajjad Khan2

...align: justify;">Genetic diversity and relationship among 10 indigenous cattle breeds (Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Cholistani, Dajal, Dhanni, Rojhan, Lohani, Hissar, Hariana and Tharparkar) were analysed using RAPD markers. A total of 80 RAPD primers were used for PCR amplification of DNA from the cattle breeds. The PCR products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Scoring of bands were performed to generate dendrogram using unweighted pair group method of a...

Lei Zeng1,2,3,4, Pimao Chen1,2,3,4, Zhenzhao Tang1,3,4, Jie Yu1,2,3,4 and Guobao Chen1,2,3,4*

...ns involving density, biodiversity and spatial heterogeneity of nekton community were studied in Beibu Gulf China. The spatial pattern of nekton community was clearly classified into two groups (A and B) in April 2017. However, the variation of nekton densities between A (48529 ind/km2) and B (30220 ind/km2) was not significant (P= 0.17). Therefore, the ecological effects evaluation of AR merely based on density assessment is not sensitive enough. Shannon-Wien...

Barbosa Carla1*, Gregori Fabio2, Thomazelli Luciano1, Oliveira Amanda1, Araújo Jansen1, Ometto Tatiana1, Marcatti Roberta3, Nardi Marcelo3, Paludo Danielle4, Utecht Nathalia1 and Edison Durigon1

...o detect and discuss the diversity of these agents in birds at migratory stopping and wintering sites, along Brazilian Segment of the Atlantic Flyway. Therefore, 738 avian samples from different regions of Brazil were subjected to a RT-Nested-PCR protocol, with primers targeting RdRp region. Positive samples were confirmed using Sanger followed by Ion Torrent S5 sequencing platforms and results were submitted to phylogenetic analysis. From total of 8 confirmed...

S. Samina and Y.I. Erum†

...udy was to ascertain the diversity of plant parasitic nematodes at different locations of Kurram Agency, Pakistan. For this purpose, surveys were conducted and 150 samples of root and soil were collected from different locations of Kurram Agency. The detail morphological and taxonomical studies revealed a total of 26 species of plant parasitic nematodes belong to 17 genera, 13 families, 15 subfamilies and 3 orders while free-living soil nematodes revealed a to...

F. Shahina†, K. Nasira, K. Firoza and Y. I. Erum

...wledge on the biological diversity through systematics and faunistic studies. Information published in different scientific journals, newsletters, reports, book chapters, books booklets and proceedings have been considered. Those records contained in abstracts of conferences/ congresses, doctoral theses were not included. A total of 749 species belonging to 261 genera of 81 subfamiles, 85 families of 24 Superfamiles, 19 suborders of 12 orders have been describ...
K. Nasira, S. Shamim and F. Shahina†
...e. The two indices viz., diversity index and maturity index were
lowest at sites, Jamesabad and Khesana Mori which can be considered as indications of stress at these sites.
...

Y. I. Erum and F. Shahina†

...vel, to estimate genetic diversity among wheat germplasm (20 cultivars/lines) in
relation to their response against cereal cyst nematodes Heterodera avenae, through Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
(RAPD) technique. A total of 589 bands were generated using 14 primers with an average of 28.8 bands/genotype. Maximum
percentage of polymorphic loci was 92.86% for genotype TJ-83. Inferences have been made regarding bioassay and<...

K. Nasira† and S. Shamim

... add to the knowledge of diversity of fresh water nematodes and evidence on their
categorization of the basis of feeding habits and the community structure.
...

F. Shahina† and G. Mehreen

... the
genetic diversity. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using two different methods maximum parsimony (MP) and
Bayesian inference (BI) in which most of them form highly to moderately supported clades.
...

Mohsin Shad1, Muhammad Usman2 and Qurratulann Afza Gardner1*

...helps in studying the biodiversity and is a valuable tool for the identification of species. Mutations in the cyt b gene produce abnormal protein leading to deficiencies in the complex III (coenzyme Q), resulting in defective oxidative phosphorylation and consequently effects other metabolic pathways. In the present article, we comprehensively compare the biodiversity of cyt b in bc1 and b6f complexes using in silico structu...

Malik Muhammad Yousaf1, Wali Muhammad1, Muhammad Mohsin Raza1*, Mumtaz Hussain1, Muhammad Jahangir Shah1, Bashir Ahamad1, Annum Sattar2, Hera Gull3, Sonia Sumreen4, Malik Waqar Yousaf5, Nazakat Nawaz6 and Nazim Hussain7

...heritability and genetic diversity among fifty-eight (58) psyllium genotypes. Data on eight yield linked factors, i.e., Days to floral initiation (DFI), Days to 50% flowering (DF), number of tillers per plant (NTPP), plant height (PH), spike length (SPL), number of spikes per plant (NSPP), days to maturity (DM) and seed yield per plant (SYPP) were recorded. Estimates of heritability values were high in SYPP and DF ranged from 0.998 to 0.930, respectively, like...

Malik Muhammad Yousaf1, Wali Muhammad1, Muhammad Mohsin Raza1*, Mumtaz Hussain1, Muhammad Jahangir Shah1, Bashir Ahamad1, Annum Sattar2, Hera Gull3, Sonia Sumreen4, Malik Waqar Yousaf5, Nazakat Nawaz6 and Nazim Hussain7

...heritability and genetic diversity among fifty-eight (58) psyllium genotypes. Data on eight yield linked factors, i.e., Days to floral initiation (DFI), Days to 50% flowering (DF), number of tillers per plant (NTPP), plant height (PH), spike length (SPL), number of spikes per plant (NSPP), days to maturity (DM) and seed yield per plant (SYPP) were recorded. Estimates of heritability values were high in SYPP and DF ranged from 0.998 to 0.930, respectively, like...

Tariq Mahmood1*, Mamoona Wali Muhammad2, Sami Ullah1, Bilal Ahmad3, Zarmina Aslam4, Naveed Ahmad Khan5, Muhammad Shahzaib Tariq6, Muhammad Ali Raza6, Rana Usama Iqbal7 and Samia Zain8

...tat degradation, genetic diversity loss, inclusion of genetically modified crops, and parasites are among the main threats to these pollinators. As a result of their decrease, there has been a significant loss of ecological activities, negatively influencing the global economy. This work covers the management of foraging activities, factors influencing this behavior, foraging preference, subspecies variations, monitoring approaches, and the need of preservatio...

Muhammad Afzal1,3*, Shafqat Saeed1, Hasan Riaz1, Muhammad Ishtiaq1, M. Habib ur Rahman2

...dy revealed that overall diversity of whitefly cryptic species in Pakistan is higher than previous studies. Some whitefly cryptic species cause direct damage to the crops by feeding and indirectly by transmission of plant viruses that reduce the crop yield and quality. Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) management is difficult due to multiple virulent strains and higher recombination rate that is a serious threat to the cotton crop of the last two decades in Pakis...

Hidayat Ullah1, Sadia Tabassum1, Sultan Ayaz2, Shumaila Noreen1, Atta Ur Rehman1, Naveed Akhtar3, Muhsin Ali3, Zaib Ullah3* and Sajid Mahmood1,4

Songruo Tao1, Cuiyi Liao1, Jinju Peng1, Yuexia Ding1,* and Yi Ma1,2,*

...oil on 16S rDNA sequence diversity of phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria. Five different concentrations of florfenicol (0 mg·kg-1, 0.1 mg·kg-1, 1 mg·kg-1, 10 mg·kg-1 and 100 mg·kg-1) were used to collect soil samples on the 7 d, 21 d and 49 d after dosing. The effects of florfenicol on 16S rDNA sequence diversity of soil phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria were determined by amplifed ribosomal D...

Safriyanto Dako1, Nibras Karnain Laya1, Syukri I Gubali1, Ari Ardiantoro2, V.M Ani Nurgiartiningsih3, Gatot Ciptadi3, Desinta Wulandari3, Suyadi Suyadi3*

...aims to evaluate genetic diversity and relationships using microsatellite markers between the populations of Gorontalo cattle in Gorontalo Province, Indonesia, using 3 microsatellite markers. A total of 126 samples of local bovine blood were collected, which consisted of North Gorontalo (n=28), Gorontalo (n=52), Bonebolango (n=37), PO (n=3), and Bali (n=6), were used in this study. The Genomic DNA Mini Kits were used for DNA extraction for an analysis fragment...

MUHAMMAD EJAZ*1, MUHAMMAD JAMIL YOUSAF5, ASMA MAQBOOL3, ALTAF HUSSAIN4 & ABDUL QAYYUM KHAN SULEHRIA2

...align: justify;">Species diversity and community assemblage of planktonic rotifers were determined with respect to seasonal variations in a pond of Pipnakha village, Gujranwala. Sampling was executed on monthly basis at three sites of the pond from October, 2011 to September, 2012. Altogether, 74 rotifers belonging to 24 genera and 13 families were identified. Highest (128.7±40 ind/ml) ppopulation density of rotifers was observed in June while lowest (6...

MUHAMMAD ASHFAQ*1, QURAT-UL-AIN ASGHAR1, RAHILA HAFEEZ1, AMNA ALI1, MUHAMMAD SALEEM HAIDER1, MUHAMMAD ALI1, MUHAMMAD BILAL CHATTHA1 ABDUL RASHEED1 & MUHAMMAD SAJJAD2

...ro-flora, blotter paper, diversity
...
Jameel Ahmed1,2*, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Nadeem Rashid1, Asim Faraz3*, 
Majed Rafeeq1, Irfan Shehzad Sheikh1, Mudassar Jahan1,2, Abdul Fatih1,2
Masroor Ahmad Bajwa1, Ifrah Jameel1, Muhammad Ali1 and Saira Iftikhar4
... The presence of genetic diversity was apparent and these markers would be employed for identification of Bibrik sheep through DNA fingerprinting. It was concluded that present assessment of genetic diversity could be used as tool for making future breeding plans but large scale enumeration is required for the Bibrik sheep.

...

E. K. Allam.1; B. A. Othman.1; Hayam S. Abdelkader2; and Noher A. Mahmoud2

... of the epidemiology and diversity of nepoviruses as well as to facilitate resistance breeding, cultivar selection, and development of control strategies.

...

Shabana Mangi1*, Abdul Manan Shaikh1, Waheed Ali Panhwar1, Javeed Ali Ujjan1, Fakhra Somroo1, Shazia Praveen Solangi2, Sumbul Mureed Mastoi3 and Ranjeet Kumar1

...s, conflicting on the biodiversity table are provided.

...

Chun Shi, Juanjuan Guo, Meng Li, Qi Yang and Jingang Li*

...was no significant alpha diversity during the four periods; however, the beta diversity was different, especially in the awakening period. These differences in beta diversity may be due to the significantly increased abundance of 11 kinds of bacteria, including Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Klebsiella, Thermus, and Acinetobacter (P<0.05), and the significantly reduced abundance of 16 spec...

Asmaa A. M. Abdel-Ghany1, Ahmed N. El Taweel2, Yassmin Moatasim2, Nagwa S. Ata1, Amany Adel3, Ayman Hany El-Deeb4, Ahmed Kandeil2, Mohamed A. Ali2*, Hussein Ali Hussein4* 

...emiology, evolution, and diversity of currently circulating viruses in Egypt.
 

...

Muhammad Awais Ahmad1, Mudssar Ali1*, Asif Sajjad2 and Shafqat Saeed1

...chieved by recording the diversity of insect pollinators, abundance, foraging activity and most importantly pollination efficiency in a single visit in terms of reproductive success parameters (head size, florets per head, seed count/head, seed mass/head and seed mass of 1000 seeds). The pollinator’s community was composed of 06 Hymenoptera, 03 Diptera and 02 Lepidoptera species. It was found that the total abundance of a solitary bee Pesudapis oxybeloid...

Abdul Hassan1*, Arshad Farooq1, Muhammad Ishaq2, Ghulam Sadiq2 and Asif Nawaz3

...echnology and production diversity. Leasing inputs, market monitoring and switching to other markets had loadings in market strategy while maintaining good relationship with friends/relatives and maintaining good relationship with market actors in institutional strategy. Human strategy was related to engaging on off-farm employment for income generation and reducing hiring of labor for farm activities while financial strategy was related to sale of perennial c...

Pawinee Kingkan1, Thanathip Supcharoenkul1, Chaowit Rakangthong1, Chaiyapoom Bunchasak1, Komwit Surachat2,3, Wiriya Loongyai1* 

...t affect cecal bacterial diversity. Firmicutes was the core phylum in the gut microbiota of nursery pigs, and there was a significantly increased relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the Amox-Phage group. Concurrently, the Amox-Phage group showed an increase in the relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae in the caecum. The results of this study indicate that the bacteriophage cocktail has the potential to alter the abundance of intestinal microbiota without ...

Muhammad Zeeshan Siddiqui1, Mujahid Ali2*, Shoaib ur Rehman3, Shahid Iqbal4, Malik Abdur Rehman5, Hafiz M. Tayyab Khan4, Muhammad Ali6, Muhammad Azher Nawaz4 and Saqib Ayyub1

Bahlouli Fayçal1*, Chourghal Nacira2, Salamani Amel3, Benaini Mohammed4, Maamri Khelifa2, Kachaou Cherifa5, Djaballah Melak5, Atek Younes6 and Aissat Fares6

...h significant phenotypic diversity. In our work we studied 6 varieties: Azéradj, Frontoio, Neb Djmel, Limli, Sigoise and Chemlal, at the level of the area of El-Annasser, wilaya of Bordj-Bou-Arréridj, this study is based on phenological, physiological and agronomic characterizations established by COI (1997).The results obtained indicate that the large number of stomata in the leaves of the Azeradj variety (1.22 stomata/1mm²), Limli variety ...

Hafiz Muhammad Walayat Ali1, Hafiz Basheer Ahmad1*, Zaheer Ahmad Nazar2, Muhammad Akhlaq Mudassir1, Mahmood-Ul-Hasan1, Abdul Khaliq1 and Muhammad Shahzad Afzal1

...g is limited due lack of diversity and disease infestation. One hundred and three clones of sugarcane were evaluated for two crop seasons through applying high inoculum conditions for smut incidence following RCBD during 2017-18. The analysis of variance revealed significant variations in cane weight, sugar recovery and smut incidence for both years. During the evaluation 84 and 80 clones were found resistant to smut in plant and ratoon crop respectively. Prin...

Peng Xu1, Yankuo Li2*, Shusong Zhang1 and Bin Liu3

...estigated rodent species diversity in Jiangxi Wuyi Mountain National Nature Reserve of China in 2014-2015. Rodents were trapped at nine selected sampling sites varying in altitude for evaluating their diversity. Consequently, 16 rodent species belonging to eight families were recorded. Out of 376 individuals of rodent species trapped (capture rate = 4.7%), Apodemus agrarius, Eothenomys melanogaster, Niviventer fulvescens and...

Ruobing Han, Shanshan Gui, Xunwu Zhao and Heping Li*

...to determine the genetic diversity and genetic relationship in the white-red deer population. We used ten microsatellite loci to genotype all 28 white-red deer individuals in China, and constructed a Neighbor-joining (NJ) tree based on genetic distances. In addition, genetic structure analysis was carried out. The results showed that a total of 67 alleles were detected, and the average number of alleles at each locus was 6.7. There was high genetic

Khalid Mahmood1*, Arslan Lodhi1, Muhammad Asim2, Muhammad Adeeb Babar3 and Muhammad Akbar Khan1 

...cates moderate taxonomic diversity of bovid fauna in the Dhok Pathan region of the Siwaliks of Pakistan.

...

Yanping Li, Fei Xu, Yongming Wang*, Yunyun Lv, Jinrong Shi, Biwen Xie, Wenyao Cai and Dian Liu

...used to evaluate genetic diversity between hybrid offspring and their parents. The mean polymorphic information content (PIC) among groups ranged from 0.685 to 0.818, implying high polymorphism in all of the four groups (PIC > 0.5). The mean observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.779 to 0.887, and the hybrid combination of S. superciliaris ♀ × S. reevesae ♂ obtained the highest observed heterozygosity, while S. reevesae had the lowest. The high het...

Ying Guan1,2, Puqing Song2, Xing Miao2, Hai Li2, Rui Wang2, Liangming Wang3, Yuan Li2* and Longshan Lin2*

...ly. The functional group diversity (HFD) and species diversity (Hs) showed similar variations, reaching their lowest values in winter and highest values in summer. In 2009-2010, the mean trophic position of the fish community in Dongshan Bay and adjacent waters was 3.64. This value was 3.74 in winter (highest), 3.49 in summer (lowest), 3.71 in spring, and 3.63 in autumn. The relationship between the trophic position and the ...

Muhammad Salman Ikram1, Tahir Mehmood1,2*, Sehrish Firyal3, Huma Sattar4, Shagufta Saeed3, Fareeha Nadeem3 and Muhammad Imran Mahmood Khan5

...ern of Y-chromosome STRs diversity in different regions of world which helps to understand the pattern of variation in DNA within and between species, importance of Y-STR in relation of its haplotype diversity and frequencies among different population, role of paternal lineages identification which helps to determine the mutation rate of Y-STR and its relationship with paternal lineages determination. When familial searchin...

Qi Liu1,2, Weiyuan Li2,3, Qi Zhang2,3, Ziwei Wang2,3, Rui Gao1,2, Wenlei Liu1,2, Lei Zhang1,2, Ying Liu1,2, Tao Tian2,3 and Hongwei Yan2,3*

...tocks. A loss of genetic diversity was detected in the 2019 stock and significant differences were observed for number of different alleles, number of effective alleles, allelic richness and unbiased expected heterozygosity in the 2019 stock (P < 0.05). The highest pairwise relatedness and the lowest observed heterozygosity were also observed in 2019 stock. Moreover, a small but significant genetic differentiation was detected between the 2019 stock and the...

Yingying Ye1, Chengrui Yan1, Kaida Xu2, Jiji Li1, Jing Miao1, Zhenming Lü1 and Baoying Guo1*

...alyze population genetic diversity of cuttlefish in China Sea. The results showed high levels of genetic diversity in all populations with highest mean number of alleles and mean effective alleles estimated in population Ningde and lowest in Qingdao. Heterozygosity at species level was high and Fst ranged between 0.105 and 0.271, overall, without signs of inbreeding except for Qingdao population, with Fst = 0.271. The studie...

Alisher Safarov1*, Nasreen Nasreen4, Firuza Akramova5, Shukhrat Djabbarov1, Adolat Mirzaeva5, Javokhir Esonboev5, Djalaliddin Azimov5, Mourad Ben Said2,3 

...ea, host, breed, species diversity, age, and seasonal infestation rate, were recorded and analyzed. This research represents the first investigation of ectoparasites in carnivorous mammals in Uzbekistan and encompassed 12 regions (Andijan, Namangan, Fergana, Samarkand, Jizzakh, Syrdarya, Bukhara, Kashkadarya, Surkhandarya, Navoi, Khorezm, and Tashkent regions). Results: The study identified a total of 23 ectoparasite species belonging to the classes Arachnida ...

Rida Ahmad1,2*, Zulfiqar Ali2*, Farkhanda Manzoor1, Usman Ahmad3, Safdar Sidra4, Irfan Zainab2, Muhammad Furqan2, Aliza Batool1,2 and Zaidi Zona2

...itats to support species diversity and maintain viable population. Avian studies provide substantial information about these changes as birds are predictor of ecological disturbances. The current research explored the avian diversity, richness, abundance and their feeding habit in selected habitats of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Gilgit Baltistan (GB). Data were collected from May 2017 to October 2017 using point count techni...

Gang Liu*, Na Xu, Zhizhong Gong and Jiahui Feng

... in the geese. The alpha-diversity indices differed significantly between the Shengjin Lake and Caizi Lake geese. The Shengjin Lake geese ate mainly Poaceae species, whereas the Caizi Lake geese ate mainly Carex spp., suggesting that different diets might induce varied gut fungal communities between the geese. More fungal genera were significantly correlated with bacterial genera (Sphingobacterium, Brevundimonas, Stenotrophomonas, Chryseobacterium, Acinetobact...

Deny Anjelus Iyai1*, Ambo Ako2, Sitti Nurani Siradjuddin2, Budiman Nohong2 

...nge are open gates to biodiversity loss. The aim of the research was to find out the types of plants that can be a source of natural food for livestock both inside and outside the oil palm land. The study area was purposively selected from 9 districts (subdistricts) as many as 4 districts (44.44%). Withdrawal of grass clippings is done using a quadrant measuring 1 x 1 m2. Quadrant laying is done diagonally in a land area of ​​100 m2. Dominance Index, Speci...

Nasratullah Baloch1, Naeem Tariq Narejo2, Hamida Narejo3, Muhammad Farooq Hassan4, Ghulam Abbas5, Shahnaz Rashid5, Muhammad Hanif Chandio6, Faheem Saddar7 and Majida Parveen Narejo8

...imed to evaluate fish biodiversity from Sonmiani Bay of Balochistan, Pakistan during January to December 2019. Total 36 families, 68 genus and 91 species were recorded from this research work. Out of which, 4 species were reported as dominant species namely Liza subviridis (24.88%; TL 1.8-35.0±0.2 cm), Sardinella longicep (15.83%;2.8-20.4±0.3 cm), Sillago sihama (9.04%; TL 3.5-20.3±0.4 cm) and Acanthopagrus berda (7.99%; TL 1.47-28.5&plusm...
Misbah Ammanat1, Abdul Qadir1, Zulfiqar Ali2*, Rida Ahmad2,3, Usman Ahmad1, Irfan Zainab2 and Aliza Batool2,3
...e greatest abundance and diversity of avifauna. The number of individuals observed per survey peaked in November, at the height of fall migration; the secondary peak of back migration in March was much smaller. Most abundant species in the study area included Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Carrion Crow (Corvis corone) with relative abundance 9.36, 6.58 and 5.73 respectively. Out of 215 species, 27 are collision-pr...

Arnold Christian Tabun*, Ferdinan Suharjono Suek, Cardial L Leo Penu, Johanis A. Jermias, Thomas Lapenangga  

...3.75% and the nucleotide diversity was 6.25%. The percentage of nucleotide similarity with Bos javanicus is 100%. The conclusion is that Bali cows with different coat colors in Kupang have 100% genetic similarity with Bos javanicus and the CYT B gene can be used as a genetic marker for Bali cows with different coat colors in Kupang.  

...

Meryem Betmezoğlu1*, Dilek Arsoy2 and Mahmut Çerkez Ergören3

...rus’s agricultural diversity Therefore, the allele frequencies of Caprine Prnp gene variants should be well understood for goat breeding programs in Northern Cyprus. This current study was designed to determine the putative allele frequencies and genotype distributions of Caprine­ Prnp gene variations in Northern Cyprus Damascus, Cyprus Native Hair and hybrid goats. Four different locations in the Northern Cyprus were selected for targeted gene seque...

Mamona Jabeen1, Sumra Naz1, Hina Amjad1, Khalid Abbas1*, Sajid Abdullah1, Muhammad Anjum Zia2, Taqwa Safdar1 and Muhammad Sarfraz Ahmed1

...es of decline in genetic diversity of C. marulius and provide significant guidelines over the effective management and conservation strategies for sustainable fisheries of Channa species in Pakistan.

...

Saima Naz1, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha2, Rifat Ullah Khan3*, Saba Iqbal1, Nimra Amjad1, Azka Kiran1, Ammara Javed1, Maria Lateef1 and Amna Nawaz1

...ation about current fish diversity at famous public place at Panjnad Headworks, Punjab, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. All fish samples were collected from three different sites (Panjnad, Abasia, Abu Dhabi canal) during February 2020 to January 2021 using different fish inclusive. The evident fish groups found were Cyprinids, Catfishes and others including (Channa punctata, Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis mossambicus, Bagarius bagarius). The data was statistically a...

Razia Sultana1, Shinawar Waseem Ali1*, Ghulam Murtaza2 and Shahid Mahmood2

...ate the presence of wide diversity of bacterial microbiota in locally processed back-slopped yogurt. 

...

Nabi Ullah, Abdul Samad Mumtaz*, Lubna Anjum Minhas, Muhammad Kaleem, Rooma Waqar, Amber Jabeen and Ayesha Hanif

...sonal link between algal diversity and water physico-chemical parameters in District Bajaur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Total of 52 algal species belonging to 2 classes, 6 orders, 13 families, 22 genera, were reported from the four different sites (E1, E2, E3 and E4) of District Bajaur Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Comprehensive investigation of four research stations revealed the phytoplankton diversity from Chlorophyceae to Cyanophyceae. A...

Wen Xiong1*, Shengao Chen2, Dong Xie3, Qiang Wang4, Yanxia Li5, Lei Pan6, Xiaolei Ren7*, Wei Tang8*, Kang Chen9 and Ross N. Cuthbert10

...ustify;">Freshwater fish diversity is imperiled by multiple stressors with global change, including invasive species and habitat loss. There is an urgent need to establish synthesized baseline information pertaining to current ecological communities to quantify future change and identify habitats to protect. The Qiantang River is the largest river in the Zhejiang Province, located in the southeast of China, with extensive fishery and aquaculture sectors. Howev...

Muhammad Altaf1*, Arshad Javid2, Abdul Majid Khan3, Sadia Nazer4, Irfan5, Khalid Javed Iqbal6, Muhammad Sultan Haider7 and Sana Ashraf7

...mpacts on wild mammalian diversity around river Chenab in Sialkot, Gujrat and Gujranwala districts, Punjab, Pakistan. The mammalian diversity was recorded from May, 2013 through April, 2014 along forested landscapes, cultivated plantations, semi-urban and urban areas. The data on diversity and distribution of various mammalian species of the study area were collected through linear count m...

Weidong Liu, Jiashen Tian, Zhen Wang, Zhongren Kong, Jiabo Han and Zhichuang Lu*

...e collected. The genetic diversity and population structure of this population were investigated using mitochondrial ND4L and D-loop sequences, and the results were compared with the same population in 2005. The haplotype diversity of Liaodong Gulf spotted seals was low compared to other spotted seal populations in other habitats. Fortunately, the genetic diversity of the current Liaodong ...

RUBAB ZAFAR KAHLON*& IBTISAM BUTT

...in the bird richness and diversity in the Rawalpindi division of
Punjab during 2007-2015. Secondary sources of data were utilized for the
study. The district-wise data for 12 bird species was obtained from the
Zoological Survey of Pakistan, Islamabad and Arid Agriculture University,
Rawalpindi from 2007-2015. The collected data was arranged and
tabulated in Microsoft Excel 15 and SPSS 22 and were anal...

Qasim Ali1, Mudssar Ali1*, Muhammad Awais Ahmad1, Asif Sajjad2 and Shafqat Saeed

...xamination of pollinator diversity and abundance, as well as their foraging behavior, including the time spent and rate of visits. Additionally, diverse pollination treatments were compared, pitting instances of unguided insect visits against scenarios where insects were excluded. This comparison encompassed both physical attributes (such as fruit dimensions, weight, pulp content, and seed count per fruit) and biochemical parameters (including Total Soluble So...

Shakirat Bolatito Ibrahim1, Raheem Olatunji Aminu1,2*, Aisha Olushola Arowolo1 and Adams Sanusi Musa1

...ood security and dietary diversity among agricultural households in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected cross-sectionally from 208 households containing 1546 individuals. The results show that 73% of farmers owned the cultivated land, while 26% had rights over the cultivated land. The average distance of the sampled households to public and private hospitals in the study area is 2.33km and 0.88km. Most households consume cereals, roots, and tubers. As ind...

Romaan Hayat Khattak1, Liwei Teng1,2*, Naimat Ullah Khan3, Aamir Ali3, Abdul Hadi4 and Zhensheng Liu1,2*

...is ecosystem has rich biodiversity, providing plenty of resources for the survival of yellow-throated marten. However, keeping in view the diet ecology of yellow-throated marten we assume that it may have some negative impacts on the ongoing ungulates captive breeding programs with in the park. Therefore, detailed studies are needed to be carried out to investigate the population trend and habitat ranges of this species in the park and adjacent areas.

...

Jaweria Iqbal1, Muhammad Tanveer Altaf2, Muhammad Faheem Jan3, Waqas Raza4*, Waqas Liaqat5, Ikram ul Haq6, Amna Jamil7, Sameer Ahmed1, Amjad Ali2 and Arif Mehmood8

...iven the limited genetic diversity in cotton breeding. The study showed that Bt cotton genotypes share a high genetic similarity, emphasizing the need for introducing diverse or exotic genotypes into breeding programs to enrich genetic diversity. Additionally, marker-discriminating indices can aid in selecting effective markers to assess genetic variation, facilitating the development of improved cotton varieties with desire...

Erkinjon B. Shakarboev1*, Abat S. Berdibaev2

...om Nematoda. The highest diversity of helminth species among the studied predators was recorded in the Fox – 40 species. It was followed by the Jungle Cat – 27 species, Golden Jackal – 25, Wolf – 22, Domestic Dog – 20 and Badger – 16 species. 4 species from the class Cestoda – Joyeuxiella pasqualei Diamare, 1893, Taenia ovis Cobbold, 1869, Hydatigera krepkogorski Schulz et Landa, 1934 and Multiceps skrjabini Popov, 193...

Salma Sharif1, Rana Arsalan Javaid2*, Abid Majeed2, Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed2, Qurat ul Ain Sani2, Faiza Siddique2, Muhammad Arshad3 and Niaz Ali

Mahmoud M.A. Youssef1, Wafaa M.A. El-Nagdi1*, Hassan Abd- El-Khair2, Usama S. Elkelany1, Mahfouz M.M. Abd-Elgawad1 and Mona G. Dawood3

...he tested materials. The diversity and community of aerobic bacteria, spore-forming bacteria and fungi and frequency% of fungi in potato rhizosphere varied among different treatments.

...

I Nyoman Sumerta Miwada1*, I Nyoman Sutarpa Sutama1, Agus Susilo2

...used one-way analysis of diversity (at p<0.05) and continued with the Duncan test using the SPSS version 25 system. The results showed that increasing the level of Moringa leaf extract had no effect on pH, water content, and fat but significantly affected protein and ash content (p<0.05). In the color aspect, the L* and a* values ​​significantly decreased (p<0.05), but the b* values ​​significantly increased. Texture profile analysis showed a ...

Tanvir Hussain1,2*, Kafeel Ahmad2, Muhammad Bilal Zia1, Hammad Uddin1, Khalid Hussain1, Muhammad Inamulla Khan3 and Said Akhtar Khan1

...t to explore the genetic diversity both within and across the populations of Himalayan Spruce growing in the dry temperate and moist temperate forests of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan using random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) DNA method. Five study sites were selected and 20 samples (needles) from each site were collected. Six RAPD markers produced 92 amplicons with sizes range 250-2000bp. Among all studied populations 100% polymorphism was observed. The h...

Waqas Ahmad*, Muhammad Naeem

...entification and genetic diversity is important to explore biodiversity and conservation of species. Here we identified a commercially important fish Notopterus notopterus and analysed its genetic diversity. For the purpose of identification 15 specimens of N. notopterus were collected from Satluj, Ravi, Indus, Jehlum and Chenab rivers of Pakistan and barcoded with mitochondrial COI gene. ...

Fatemeh Beheshti1, Maliheh Safavi2, Mohammad Reza Akbari Eidgahi1,3, Parviz Kokhaei4, Mehdi Vazirian5 and  Ali Akbar Shabani1,3*

...ea leaves contain a wide diversity of chemicals. Findings from this research revealed that I. purpurea leaves contain chemicals with excellent antioxidant and biological capabilities, which might be attributed to the existence of bioactive molecules and provide additional data for future research.

...

Adeel Kazam1, Safdar Sidra2, Zulfiqar Ali1*, Rida Ahmad1,3, Ahmad Bilal1 and Aliza Batool1,3

...le in the survival of biodiversity. The recent study aimed to evaluate diversity, abundance and threats to birds of an important Ramsar site, Uchalli Wetland Complex, along with Ahmedabad lake. Data were collected by direct (point count) as well as indirect method (interviews) from December 2020 to May 2021. In total, 139 avian species of 27,450 individuals were recorded at study sites. Results revealed that the species rich...

Yu Song1*, Yueping Wei2 and Peng Wang3

...e community composition, diversity and functional potentialities of the rhizosphere bacterial in the coupled rice-crab system were investigated through 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that, a total of 444,882 sequences from 12 samples were obtained, and 6637 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% sequence similarity were identified. The rhizosphere bacterial communities were more influenced by growth stages of rice t...

Hualong Jiang1, Tao Li2,3*, Jing Xiang3, Hanqing Yang3 and Maolin He3

...vely low levels of alpha diversity and high levels of beta diversity were observed in samples influenced by bridge construction (group EG). The decreased abundance of Chloroplastida and increased abundance of Animalia in group EG suggested that engineering activities induced environmental disturbance, which impaired the ecosystem balance. LEfSe and SIMPER approaches revealed a significant abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi i...

Mubashar Hussain*, Habiba Razaq, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Kiran Aftab, Jaweria Riaz and Somia Liaqat

...e range of habitats. The diversity of carabid beetles in Pakistan has not yet been studied extensively, despite their diversified ecological roles. In the present study, the ground beetle communities from three subdivisions of district Mandi Bahauddin (Phalia, Malakwal and Mandi Bahauddin) were sampled by handpicking and placing pitfall traps from August 2020 to July 2021. A total of 4008 specimens were collected which belonged to 18 species, 11 genera, nine t...

Khalid Ali Khan1,2,3* and Hamed A. Ghramh1,2,4

...ntry-specific vegetative diversity has a great ecological and economic impact on the conservation of local fauna. It has huge potential for the sustainable beekeeping industry if properly exploited. Beekeeping in Pakistan is mainly focused in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, central and northern regions of Punjab provinces but nowadays it is growing rapidly across the country. Three native species of honey bees including Apis dorsata, A. florea, and A. cerana whereas one e...
Suneela, Sajida Mushtaq*, Sadia Maalik, Asma Waheed Qureshi and Moazama Batool
...be Caslon Pro";">Biodiversity is defined as the variety of life. In agricultural system, biodiversity refers to estimation of number of species that are present in that ecosystem. In an interrelated ecosystem, different species of insects perform different functions; act as pollinators, recycle nutrients, water and energy in many ways. In this kind of mutually dependent systems, the loss of even single species can affec...

Wang Teng1,2,3,4, Li Chunhou1,2,3,4, Liu Yong1,2,3,4* and Zhu Ren5*

...bu Gulf is one of the biodiversity hotspots in the global marine ecosystem, and an important fishing ground of East Asia. In the past several decade years, multiple pressures including overfishing, habitats destruction, pollution and eutrophication, and non-native species have seriously threaten the biodiversity of fish in the Beibu Gulf. However, the information about fish fauna in this region is very poorly which limiting ...
Budi Utomo1*, Amaq Fadholly2,3, Endang Tri Margawati2, Alek Ibrahim2, Ristaqul Husna Belgania1, Muhammad Fajar Amrullah1, Rimayanti1 and Hermin Ratnani1
... the kinship and genetic diversity between Limousin and Madrasin cattle based on the sex determining region-Y (SRY) gene. SRY gene is used in the analysis of genetic diversity for sex determination based on the paternal pathway (Y chromosome). The DNA samples used for this study were 10 frozen straw of Limousin cattle and 10 samples of Madrasin cattle. The method used in this research was a descriptive analysis by duplex pol...

M. Azalou1,3*, C. C. Kpomasse1, A. S. Assani3,4, I. T. Alkoiret3,4, Wéré Pitala1,2  

...ore family-based, with a diversity in the activities of the goose farmers, the type of farming, and the diet. The results of this study will contribute to the implementation of programs to improve goose farming in Benin. 

...
Omaima Khamiss
...ble degree of structural diversity. However, some sequenced baculovirus genomes from closely related viruses are structurally very similar and share overall nucleotide sequence identities in excess of 95%. This work focuses on the comparative essential basis studies to better know complex interactions between baculoviruses infecting the pest in question (Spodoptera littoralis) in relation to stability or mechanism of infection in the same host multiple ...

Hemeida, A. A., Osman, M., El-Shahat, Mohamed, Hashem, Medhat H., Mahmoud, Amal and Dahi, Hosni

...p B were studied for the diversity and sequence variations. Sequencing of 223 nucleotide of 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) was performed. In the phylogenetic analysis, the three sequences and 80 sequences of HCV different genotypes from GenBank were used. Nucleotide variations were found in 7 (3.14%) of the 223 nucleotide positions analyzed. The variations were observed in the nucleotides (74, 92, 112, 113, 133, 172, and 180). Nucleotide insertion was seen in...

Sofyl *, A.R.; Soliman , A.M.; Mousal, A.A. and El-Dougdoug , Kh.A.

...EG. Finally, the genetic diversity and evaluation of entropy power for the Egyptian cifrus gummy bark agent and HSVd-citrus populations registered in GenBank, were viewed against the phylogenetic backgound of CVd-II variants including the noncachexia (CVd-IIa) and the causal agents of severe (CVd-IIb, CVd-IIc), more moderate (Ca903) and mild (Ca909).
...

A-New-Whitefly-Transmitted-Geminivirus

...bia isolate. The genetic diversity at the molecular level for the two isolates showed that the coat protein and the replicase genes of putative TYMV-QaIubia are not identical to TYLCV resembled genes, at least at the flanking regions of each gene. According to the results obtained from the PCR products and indicator host plants, it can be concluded that they are two different Geminiviruses. Based on host range and symptomatology, the TYMV-QaIubia appeared to c...

M.R. Abd-El Wahab l, H.A. Hussein2, T.M. Asfourl and M.A. Shalaby2

...s the continuous genetic diversity of BVDV and exalts the possibility that BVDV in camel may have a distinct group varied from those reported in bovine and ovine populations. 

...
Saliha Bashir*, Muhammad Shafique, Muhammad Shahzad, Muhammad Sohail Anjum and Ahmad Ali Shahid
...s to discover phenotypic diversity and correlations of pigmented traits and iris surface features in Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Pakistan. Digital images of eyes and skin were examined by investigators to determine color using Fitzpatrick Phototype Scale. Similarly, iris patterns were characterized by Edward iris feature software and association studies were conducted through SPSS program. Intermediate eye color was frequent in KPK (44%) wh...

Sukhpreet Kaur Sidhu1*, Gurkirat Singh Sekhon1, Sachin Kumar1, Tejdeep Kaur Kler1 and Anureet Kaur Chandi2

...fy;">Ponds constitute biodiversity hotspots within a region or landscape. The objective of this investigation was to assess the diversity of avian species of insectivorous feeding guild and their foraging activities at ponds surrounded by wheat and rice crop fields. Three ponds were selected and surveyed during April 2020 to March 2021 in village Mukrabpur, district Rupnagar (pond I), village Gopalpur, district Ludhiana (pon...

Faisal Alsaaq

...us of coral reef fish biodiversity in the Al-Wajh region, focusing on both near shore and offshore areas. A comprehensive survey was conducted at 30 different stations, encompassing coastal and offshore locations. A total of 117 fish species belonging to 31 families were identified during the survey, with an overall abundance of 20,810 individuals observed. The fish assemblages in the area exhibited a balanced representation by all functional groups across dif...

Taleeha Roheen1, Shagufta Kamal1*, Shazia Anwer Bukhari1, Ghulam Mustafa1 and Saima Rehman2

...n the present study, the diversity of two functional microbial communities; methanogenic archaea and soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) producing methanotrophic bacteria from rice paddy soil of different regions of Punjab, Pakistan were studied using phylogenetic analysis. Morphological and biochemical analysis showing the presence of different species of novel methanogenic archaea and sMMO-producing methanotrophic bacteria in rice paddy soil samples. The ev...

Tinda Afriani1*, Jaswandi1, Yurnalis1, Putri Oktavially1, I Made Merdana2 

...on results regarding the diversity of the GH gene found 14 point mutations, including six transversions, namely, C>G 1343 bp, T>G 1376 bp, C>A 1438 bp, G>C 1570 bp, A>C 1720 bp, and G>A 1744 bp. Additionally, seven transitional mutations were detected, including G>A 1359 bp, T>C 1409 bp A>G 1454 bp, G>A 1485 bp, G>A 1506 bp, G>A 1538 bp, C>T 1659 bp, and one insertion C 1838 pb. This study found two alleles and three geno...
Rahmat Ullah Khan*1, Karim Gabol1, Abbas Khan1, Asif Sadam2, Waheed Ali Panhwar3, Hamid Ullah5, Muhsin Ali4, Gul Bacha Khan4 and Habib Ul Hassan1
...was carried out on avian diversity and main ecological factors occurring at Gharo Creek, district Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan, from April 2020 to March 2021. Data were collected both early in the morning (7:00-10:00 am) and in the evening (3:00 to 6:00 pm) by using the point count method in three main selected habitat types. A total of 112 bird species belonging to 15 orders, 40 families, and 71 genera occurring in the study area. Among the three habitat types, th...

Henny Leondro1*, Peni Wahyu Prihandini2, Yuli Arif Tribudi3, Aju Tjatur Nugroho Krisnaningsih1, Dimas Pratidina Puriastuti Hadiani1, Agung Kusuma Wijaya4, Dyah Tuwi Ramsiati2, Mochammad Chanafi2, Wahyuni Indah Wulansari2

...lign: justify;">The high diversity of herbaceous legumes in Indonesia has the potential to be developed as a source of animal feed. This research aims to identify eight herbaceous legumes’ productivity and nutritional value. The material used in this research was herbaceous legumes consisting of Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Centrosema pubescent, Dolichos lablab, Pueraria javanica, Macroptilium bracteatum, Vigna and Stylosanthes guainensis....
Yongtao Xu1, Dandan Wang1, Xiaolong Hu1, Minling Li1, Ming Tang1, Wuhua Liu2, Jianwen Zhan2 and Weiwei Zhang1*
...and 110 genera. An alpha diversity analysis showed that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). The NMDS analysis found considerable overlap at the three sampling sites, and the niche breadths of SS (Fir forests), MP (The nursery base), and NJS (Nie Jiashan) were 9.593, 9.426, and 9.419, respectively. High-throughput sequencing and metabarcoding trnL could provide higher taxonomic resolution, identify more food items, and can simultaneously analyze ...

Jiaojiao Wang, Wei Liu, Qingqian Lin and Jianhua Hou*

...ies, the composition and diversity of airport bird communities on flight and non-flight days were investigated using a line transect sampling method at the eastern airport of Hebei Province from June to August, 2019. In total, 36 species belonging to 11 orders and 22 families of birds were recorded. Disturbances such as noise from aircraft flights affected the number of species and the individual density and diversity of bir...

Phoebe Lyndia Tolentino Llantada1,2*, Midori Umekawa2, Shuichi Karita2

...differences in bacterial diversity, density, and banding patterns along the gut of buffaloes. Higher bacterial diversity, density, and banding patterns were observed in the foregut and hindgut as compared with the midgut. PCR-DGGE fingerprints further revealed that samples from the foregut and hindgut shared similar banding patterns. Although the midgut was the least diverse segment, there were unique bands that can be furth...

Abdul Haseeb1, Yasir Iftikhar1, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan1*, Safdar Ali2, Rana Binyamin3, Salman Ghuffar4 and Muhammad Usman Ghani5,6

Yaseen1, Asad Ullah2*, Imad Khan2, Maryam Begum3, Sumbal Bibi3, Umber3, Namra3, Abbas Khan4, Shumaila Gul5 and Raheela Taj6

...rsely affect the rich biodiversity found in aquatic systems of Pakistan. This review discusses research over past decades regarding toxic effects of pesticides induced in edible freshwater fishes of Pakistan and future considerations.

...

Shahid Iqbal1, Arshad Khan, Ali Hazrat1*, Gul Rahim, Mohammad Ihsan1, Umar Zad Gul1, Maryam Bibi1, Khadija Bibi1 and Muhammad Mukhtiar2

Perinçek Seçkinozan Seker

...elatively low nucleotide diversity and high haplotype diversity. A total of two haplotypes were identified for cyt b, while three haplotypes were identified for COI. Of the haplotypes detected, two cyt b and two COI haplotypes were specific to Turkey. Molecular phylogenetic analyses; Maximum Likelihood (ML), Bayesian Inference (BI), and Network revealed topologies and evolutionary networks which were not definitely resolved....

ATEEQUE RAHMAN KHOOHARO* & PIRZADA JAMALUDDIN A. SIDDIQUI

...r the distribution & diversity of invertebrate communities on a rocky intertidal shore at Tak Bay, Ormara along the Balochistan coast of Pakistan. Quadrat techniques were used to establish abundance of species. Overall, 49 species of invertebrates were recorded. Two of these species were annelids, 35 molluscs (Polyplacophora 1, gastropods 30, bivalves 4), 9 arthropods (cirripediae 2, malacostraca 7) & 3 echinoderms (stelleroids 3). The Highest

SEHRISH MUSHTAQ1, MUHAMMAD SHAFIQ1, MUHAMMAD ASHFAQ*1 FAIZA KHAN1, SOHAIB AFZAAL1, UMMAD HUSSAIN1, MUBASSHIR HUSSAIN1, RASHID MUKHTAR BALAL2 & MUHAMMAD SALEEM HAIDER1

...to their hosts and their diversity of geographical distribution. In this study, bacterial endophytes were isolated from the leaf midrib of different varieties of citrus cultivated in the Sargodha region of Punjab Pakistan. The endophytic bacterial community associated with citrus was characterized and screened for antifungal activity against Alternaria solani which causes losses to crops. A total of twelve strains were identified based on morphological and bio...

Naveed Ahmed* and Amjad Usman

...about the Megachilid bee diversity from Pakistan. In this context, a study primarily focused on Genus Megachile Latreille 1802 from grassland and meadows of coniferous forests of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province was conducted. Eight species were recorded, two species (Megachile albifrons, Smith 1853, Megachile pseudodisjuncta, Kumari 2018) are new record to Pakistan, whereas all the eight species are new record to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Brief description toge...

Mubashar Hussain*, Takhmina Nazir and Muhammad Faheem Malik

...y. Here, we explored the diversity of ladybird beetles in croplands alongside the river Chenab at Wazirabad. We collected coccinellid beetles from seven sampling sites (Behram, Wazirabad City, Khanki, Burj Cheema, Tahli da Kot, Rasool Nagar and Kot Har Auddin) by handpicking and sweeping aerial net fortnightly during 2016-2017. A total of 4589 individuals were recorded that belonged to 13 species representing six genera, three tribes and three subfamilies. The...

Ali Hassan1, Javaria Ashraf1*, Salman Wahid1, Kamran Alyas1, Samaria Nisar1, Sadia Kanwal2, Nadia Hussain Ahmad2, Amna Bibi2 and Rameen Nawaz3

... the presence of genetic diversity. For several traits including plant height, number of nodes per plant, number of bolls, boll weight, yield per plant, percentage of ginning outturn (GOT%), fiber length, micronaire value and fiber strength, the ratio of general combining ability (GCA) variance to specific combining ability (SCA) variance (2 GCA/2 SCA) indicated the prevalence of non-additive gene action. In addition, lines FH-152, CIM-632 and BS-20 showed a s...

Shishir Sharma1*, Suk Bahadur Gurung2, Ritesh Kumar Yadav1, Bibek Phulara1 and Laxmi Prasad Joshi1

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

March

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol.40, Iss. 1, Pages 01-262

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