Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology
... 

...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...reaks of avian influenza viruses (AIV) of subtype H5N1 in poultry since 2008. Since then, these viruses continue to evolve. In 2006-2008, outbreaks were reported mostly during the winter season, but in 2009-2012 they occurred year round. H5N1 AIV succeeded in infecting not only domesticated birds but also many other avian species and mammals. Infections of humans were accompanied by mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protei...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

... H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses. Multiple H9N2 AIV genotypes have been identified from various species, including birds and mammals. H9N2 AIVs could spread through water, air, and live bird markets. Since the first isolate from 1994 in China, H9N2 AIVs have been prevalent over 20 areas of China, especially in South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, and Fujian provinces. Vaccination is the predominant strategy to prevent and control H9N2 AIVs. There are three...

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...rch for studies of human viruses and other human diseases.

...

Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

...a is a disease caused by viruses of the genus Pestivirus in cattle worldwide. Herein, we present the current status of the disease in Brazil showing its nation-wide distribution. In Brazil, BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and ‘HoBi’-like viruses are frequently reported whereas BVDV-2 has a higher frequency when compared with other continents. It is important to reinforce that currently Brazil has no official control program for B...

Weili Kong1, Guangpeng Ma2 and Jinhua Liu1*

...ferent subtype influenza viruses. CTT functions in several ways to defeat the cellular innate immune responses. Here, we discuss those different effects of CTT truncation or elongation of NS1 protein in different genetic backgrounds of influenza experimentations. Conclusively, it can be stated that CTT confers a positive role during the infection of influenza A viruses. However, this regulation is contributed by multiple fac...

Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

...n compared with virulent viruses of other genotypes. Therefore, severe pathology in immune organs, caused by genotype VIId of NDV, is associated with high levels of virus replication and an intense innate immune response.

...

Hai-Bo Wang, Qiu-Hua Mo, Ze Yang*

...ion of diarrhoea related viruses. This mini review overviewed the basic principle of RT-NASBA and discussed the significance of these new findings.

...

Huaichang Sun

...lign: justify;">Many RNA viruses undergo rapid mutations which compromises the immune protection of conventional vaccines. RNA interference (RNAi) has becoming a feasible strategy against various virus infections. Recently, a significant advance in RNAi technology is the use of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) to fight virus infections. However, different strategies are needed to prevent virus variation or mutation escape. This review is intended to present the ...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...is E virus is one of the viruses that causes acute and self-limiting infection with a high risk of developing chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised individuals usually leading to liver cirrhosis. Individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus have a greater risk to the virus due to their impaired immunity. The study was carried out to determine the sero- prevalence of Hepatitis E among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Ogbomoso. The blo...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...cause they are enveloped viruses. Disinfection against avian influenza viruses at the poultry farms would significantly reduce and/or limit the chance for its transmission and outbreaks. Many disinfectants have been evaluated for their inactivation ability, but there is still a need for their evaluation under different conditions and in different ways. In the present study, representative disinfectants from ch...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

Tomas Jinnerot1*, Karin Malm1, Erik Eriksson1 and Jonas Johansson Wensman2

E-mail | Tomas.Jinnerot@sva.se

...various respiratory viruses and co-infection can exacerbate the clinical signs. CIRD is highly contagious and can spread rapidly, especially among dogs in close quarters. Fast and accurate diagnostics enables the selection of proper management. Our objective was to develop a sensitive and specific real-time PCR for detection of B. bronchiseptica in samples from dogs with respiratory signs. A genome comparison program was used ...

Mohammed M. Islam1, 3 *, Damian F. J. Purcell2 and George Kannourakis1,3

...icient identification of viruses is paramount to not only define the cause of uncharacterized infections but also to estimate the dynamics of viral population in the infected hosts. Several recent methodologies and chemistries have been proposed for viral diagnostics with variable outcomes and successes. In this review, we discuss a novel approach to identify the least transcripts of viral genomes using suppression subtractive hybridization that can be adapted...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...f such circulating field viruses is essential to underpin the endemic potential of PPRV and its possible spread to the susceptible wild or domestic small ruminants.

...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...sary. Like other Morbilliviruses, PPRV induces a suppression of the immune system during the acute disease, which favours the establishment and exacerbates the progression of secondary infections. This review gives an overview of the known immunosuppressive strategies of PPRV, among the Paramyxoviruses, as well as the strategies developed by this virus to evade the immune system, focusing on the newly identified factors invo...

Giselle R.R. Ayres* and Brandão P.E

...Nidovirales order. Coronaviruses have a single-stranded positive RNA genome, corresponding to the largest known RNA genome, with about 27kb for AvCoV. The first 5’ two thirds of this genome, correspondent to a wide ORF1 (also called replicase gene), code for non-structural proteins (nsps) that are enrolled in viral transcription, replication and pathogenesis. The last 3’ one-third of the genome codes the four structural and accessory proteins. Nsps...

Hira Akhter1, Bilal Aslam2*, Naveed Shahzad3, Tanzeela Farooq4, Muhammad Umer5 and Muhammad Hidayat Rasool2

...s against H9N2 influenza viruses and its molecular detections in asymptomatic commercial layers from Faisalabad district of Punjab, Pakistan. Overall 120 blood samples, 24 tissue samples from each organ (trachea, lung and intestine) were collected from the 12 commercial layer flocks selected randomly at the age of 35-50 weeks without any direct clinical manifestation of avian influenza. Serum collected from 120 birds was tested for antibodies against H9N2 by u...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole, Oloke Julius Kola and Awoyelu Hilda Elukunbi

...s one of the most common viruses in humans. It is the best known cause of infectious mononucleosis. In acquired immuno-deficient Syndrome patients, several distinct and additional EBV-associated diseases may occur and some forms of malignancies. This study was designed to determine the incidence of EBV in Human immune-deficient virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Two hundred and seventy eight HIV-infected individuals were screened...
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
...ototype of Avian Paramyxoviruses (APMV-1), have been reported previously both in chicken and feral birds (natural reservoirs) in Pakistan; however, their molecular characterization is largely inadequate and requires continuous evaluation. In this study, sequencing and molecular analysis of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (HN) genes of NDV strain isolated from an outbreak in a peacock flock was undertaken. Proteolytic cleavage site of F0 showed a cleava...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
... are threatened by plant viruses worldwide as they hack the host machinery for their reproduction. Plants have undergone continuous evolution and have equipped themselves with counter defense and tolerant strategies against viral infections. In the 21st century, considerable progress has been made in understanding the available natural resistance in plants against viral threats. The review aims to explain the molecular mechanisms involved in trigger...
... of books on the mononegaviruses of veterinary importance. The rebranding of the journal is a part of the journal’s re-structuring process to expand the avenue from regional to global audiences. With heavy contributions from authors around the world, we aim to publish quality publications, both critical reviewers and cutting-edge research, in coming issues of the Hosts and Viruses.
...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...e the detection of plant viruses from plant species containing various forms of PCR amplification inhibitors. In current study, IC-PCR was used for the detection of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) from plant extracts of Nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated with ToLCNDV. To immunocapture the ToLCNDV, two antisera raised against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-coat protein (TYLCV-CP) and African cassava mosaic virus-coat protein (ACMV-C...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
...ed by various avian retroviruses which induce a variety of benign and malignant neoplasm in domestic chickens with subsequent economic losses to poultry industry. Effected birds show lymphocyte tumor, abnormal proliferation and series of tumors in connective tissues and other visceral organs. To evaluate the status of lymphoid leukosis virussubgroup A (ALV-A) infection in free-range chickens in five different cities of Anhui province, a total of 732 serum samp...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...thogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) subtype H9N2 are highly prevalent in the Middle East and are causing economic losses in the commercial poultry production sectors. Due to potential of H9N2 infections in human, LPAI H9N2 poses serious public health risk. Therefore, development of new potent and cost-effective influenza vaccines is urgently needed to safeguard poultry and to contain zoonosis. The primary goal of this study was to develop H9 plasmid-based...

Waqar Islam

...farmers know about plant viruses, what is their perception about yield losses by virus diseases and what management strategies they choose to apply against viruses. We further added our suggestions that how plant viruses can be managed effectively through simple and credible efforts.

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Urooj Fatima1, Arslan Mehboob2, Muhammad Abid3, Muti-ur-rehman Khan4 and Tahir Yaqub4*

 

...n: justify;">Canine parvoviruses (CPV) are posing significant threats to the dog population, around the globe. To ascertain the current situation and genetics of CPVs in Pakistan, a total of fifty samples from sick dogs suspected for parvovirus infection were collected from different geographic areas of the country. Samples were screened for positivity and verified for CPV using PCR. From a 30% positive samples for hemagglutination, nineteen (38.4%) samples we...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...on and identification of viruses has been a challenge since the advent of the discipline of plant virology over a century ago.Agreat variety of methods have been developed that permit differentiation of viral pathogens.These methods, initially based solely on identifying the distinct biological characteristics of different viruses, were soon supplemented with methods based on light or electron microscopy and serology and sub...

Shams Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif and Abdul Mateen 

 

Soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Pakistan
... on important soil-borne viruses of potato were conducted in Hazara and Malakand Divi-sions during potato growing seasons in 2011-12. Incidence and distribution of Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV) and Tobacco rattle tobra virus (TRV) was reported on the basis of characteristic symptoms expression, bait test, infectivity assays and double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Both the viruses were pr...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

...NDV) and avian influenza viruses (AIVs) H5N1 are endemic in Egypt and extensive vaccinations are being applied for chicken flocks, which have maternal derived antibodies (MDA) for these viruses. To understand the interference of maternal derived immunity impact of maternal derived immunity interference in vaccination regimen in poultry, a total of one hundred day old commercial broiler chicks were vaccinated with LaSota. A g...

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...al routes. Since capripoxviruses are serologically identical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. In this study, we analysed the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) genes of two LSDV isolates from Ixodid (hard) ticks (Amblyomma hebraeum) in Egypt. Multiple alignments of the nucleotide sequences revealed that both isolates had nine nucleotide mutations in comparison with the local reference strain, LSDV-Egypt/...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...lance of avian influenza viruses in Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan was carried out from April 2013 through September 2014. Pooled morbid material and fecal samples from 600 different locations across the region were analyzed for isolation. Isolation was carried out on embryonated chicken eggs. Identification of H protein was undertaken through hem agglutination Inhibition (HI) test while N typing was done using reverse transcriptase polymerase ch...

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

...bsp;H9N2 avian influenza viruses are currently endemic in Pakistan and outbreaks are continuously being reported with high morbidity, drop in egg production and reduced weight gain. Besides economic losses to the poultry industry, these viruses pose a significant threat to public health. Owing to significant involvements of neuraminidase (NA) gene in virus pathobiology by mediating virus entry and release, the present study ...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...dy revealed that PPR-FMD viruses were circulating in the region and warrants proper control measures. 
...

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

...align: justify;">Several viruses are associated with enteric diseases in avian species, causing decreased growth performance and mortality. In this study, 59 pools of intestinal content of layers, broilers, and breeders were investigated from different Brazilian regions for the presence of rotavirus (RVA, RVD, and RVF), avian coronavirus (ACoV), and avian astrovirus (AAstV), using PCR reactions followed by nucleotide sequencing and analysis. Twenty-nine pools ...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...primary entry points for viruses into host cells. Amongst these, respiratory tract is prone to direct and continuous exposure to viral infection. Respiratory viruses including influenza virus, coronaviruses and herpes viruses are important pathogens that cause significant losses in the poultry industry. However, successful establishment of infection in t...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
... is a vector to 16 plant viruses. The study presents data referring to the external morphological characteristics, to the biometrical measurements and to the life cycle of Aphis nasturtii. The researches have been carried out for a period of four years on the potato and for a period of two years on the orchards from Romania. At the Aphis nasturtii species the smallest length of the body found for aphids captured in Romania was 1.10 mm, while the ...

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool*, Abuzar Muhammad Afzal*, Abu Baker Siddique*, Waseem Akram**, Muhammad Saqalein*, Madiha Basit* and Muhammad Farooq Tahir***

ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF VIRO CARE GZ-08 AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN POULTRY AND ITS IN-VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY
...rfaces against different viruses in general and NDV in particular. However, in-vivo use of GZ-08™ in poultry against NDV is recommended only as pre-treatment with ND vaccines as it significantly reduced morbidity and mortality as compared to the use of vaccines alone. However, further work is recommended in future on GZ-08™ for its use as post-treatment of ND as well as on other antiviral compounds of natural origin to develop a novel antiviral dru...

 S. Talat Gilani*, Shahid Hameed* and Hussain Shah* 

OCCURANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POTY VIRUSES INFECTING GARLIC IN PAKISTAN
...distribution of the poty viruses causing diseases in garlic (Allium sativum) from major garlic growing areas of Pakistan. The yellow stripes, mosaic and chlorotic spot symptoms of the disease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. Altogether 690 samples were collected from 29 locations of Punjab and 40 locations of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa to determine the prevalence of Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV) and Leek Yellow Stripe Virus (LYSV)....
Dildar Hussain Kalhoro1,2,, Shan Liang1, Muhammad Saleem Kalhoro2, Shoaib Ahmed Pirzado2, Nasir Rajput2, Muhammad Naeem2, Fahmida Parveen2 andYongjie Liu1*
... (above 98%) to the H3N2 viruses from dogs in China. On the comparison of gene sequence four unique mutations were found in the amino acid of HA (A144T, R158K, D291N, L383F) and NA (T19A, V33L, V82A, S336N). The HA and NA genetic evolution analysis revealed that one isolate was most similar to the newly isolated H3N2 viruses from dogs in China and had the same evolutionary branching. The result provided a foundation for furt...
Ahmad Farooq1, Usman Waheed2,3, Hasan Abbas Zaheer2,3, Abdul Rauf4, Abida Arshad5, and Muhammad Arshad1,*
Sherin Reda Rouby
...virus (SPPV) are Capripoxviruses that are considered as an emerging hazard to cattle, sheep and goat. Diseases caused by capripoxviruses are transboundary in nature and are regularly spread into neighboring, non-endemic regions with significant economic implication. Capripoxvirus isolates are extremely conserved with genome identities of at least 96% between SPPV, GTPV and LSDV. The LSDV is similar in antigenicity and i...
Ligia Neves Scuarcialupi, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra, Julia Rosas Hochheim, Rodrigo Martins Soares, Fabio Gregori*
...in Brazil.
...

Osama Elshazly1, AbdelSatar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2, Ismaeil M. Reda2 and Hussein A. Hussein2*

...div>...

Fatma Abdallah1*, Ola Hassnain2, Elsayed Attar3, Haytham Ali3,5, Mohamed Megahed1 and Venugopal Nair

...with the Eurasian origin viruses in an independent taxonomic unit distant from the North American strain.  

...
Abdul Wajid1,*, Asma Basharat2, Muhammad Akbar Shahid3, Sidra Tul Muntaha1, Abdul Basit4, Tanveer Hussain5, Muhammad Farooq Tahir6, Muhammad Azhar7, Masroor Ellahi Babar1 and Shafqat Fatima Rehmani2
...r belonging to fowl adenoviruses C species and serotype FAdV-4. The similar viruses have been commonly isolated since late 1980s from the poultry flocks. In addition, seven genetically related FAdV isolates were from fowl adenovirus type 11 in D species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of FAdV-11 strains identified in poultry production facilities in Pakistan. This study reveals the presence of two distinct groups...
Sukirno Sukirno1,2, Muhammad Tufail1,3,*, Khawaja Ghulam Rasool1Said El Salamouny1, 4, Koko Dwi Sutanto1 and Abdulrahman Saad Aldawood1
...rmyworm.
...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...in contrast to other pox viruses and also produce localized skin lesions in humans who are in contact with infected animals and their products. Unique and specific virulence genes located at termini of ORFV genome with their encoded products are attributed to host immune evasion, short-term immunity both in natural infection post-vaccination in target species and repeated host susceptibility. However, these genes are variable among ORFV isolates/strains as the...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2, Sumaira Maqsood3, Ishita Ahuja4 and Atle M. Bones4
...itura nucleopolyhedroviruses (SltNPV) were collected from infected larvae fed on natural cotton crops. The NPV was isolated from the larvae and viral occlusion bodies (VOBs) were detected using a light microscope. The toxicity of native isolates against S. litura also studied by testing different concentrations (1 x 102 POB (Polyhedral occlusion bodies) mL-1- 1 x 1010 POB mL-1) from the occlusion bodies pr...
Ejaz Mahmood Ahmad Qureshi1,*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Seemal Vehra3 and Atif Yaqub4
...l transmission of dengue viruses is a crucial phenomenon responsible for persistence of the viruses during inter-epidemic period (s) of the disease. In the present study, distribution and seasonality of horizontally transmitted dengue viruses in Aedes mosquitoes was investigated in the metropolitan city Lahore, Pakistan during 2011, 2012 and 2013. Adult Aedes aegypti, were ca...
Ghulam Ali1,3, Wopke van der Werf2 and Just M. Vlak1,
...>Insect-pathogenic baculoviruses have established potential as biological insect pest control agents. However, slow speed of kill relative to chemicals and continued feeding following application limit their effectiveness in preventing crop losses. Here we studied the food consumption and weight gain of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura following application of two viral doses of Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (Pakistan isolate SpltNPV-Pak-B...

Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Syed Burhan-ud-Din2, Muhammad Fahad Khan1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Naila Ilyas1

...itefly transmitted Begomoviruses diseases have appeared as irresistible problem in different crops of Pakistan. The research was carried out to estimate the probable role of induced systemic acquired resistance in mungbean against Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) disease. Exogenous use of Salicylic acid (SA) and Benzothiadiazole (BTH) as elicitors enhanced the resistance in mungbean plants by triggering the SA pathway. Induced resistance was assessed by eva...

Ahmed Samy1*, Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba2, Gamelat Kotb Farag3 and Ahmed Abd El Halim1 

...ype VI Newcastle disease viruses (NDV), that designated pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (PPMV1) commonly isolated from pigeons (family Columbidae). PPMV1 not only represent a potential threat to pigeon but also it can infect chickens and its virulence enhanced upon passaging in chickens causing clinical signs and deaths. In the present study brain samples were collected from twelve pigeon flocks exhibiting signs of nervousness and diarrhea in a live bird market (LVM) i...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

... to mention here that no viruses or any bacteria has been reported from a singly tree in whole of the Indian sub-continent. Although the involvement of the insect’s species has been recorded and authenticated by various scientists reporting that these acts as the carrier of the fungal spores and produce tunnels in the bark of the trees. Since, many extensive filed surveys of forests, avenues, road sides and canal banks has been made to calculate the tota...

Ragia S. Mohamed1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mamdouh. M. Hamoud1, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shimaa A.E. Nasr1, Manal M. Zaki1, ElShaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...y farms to eliminate the viruses along with the use of effective disinfectants.  

...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...vealed that genotype VII viruses of class II NDV are circulating in Egypt. Furthermore, genotype II-based vaccines seem to be not efficient in stopping or controlling NDV infections among Egyptian poultry farms. On the other hand, the vaccination strategy depending on such vaccines may lead to the emergence of new variants and, consequently, the emergence of a different evolutionary pattern of NDV in Egypt. Therefore, it is necessary to test if genotype II-bas...

Mehboob Arslan* and Xin Yang 

... order to succumb hosts, viruses have evolved strategies to manipulate specific cellular metabolic pathways that aid the production of viral particles. Viruses need to breach a complex network of metabolic intrinsic factors and microenvironment established within the host cells. The pressure exerted by invading pathogen disrupts the internal balance and dictate the host-pathogen niches. For absolute survival, proliferation, ...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosad, Fatema Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali Abdel Maged, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

... of circulating Egyptian viruses are belonging to the Middle East G1- like viruses in group B that were closely related to each other and scattered phylogenetically in different subgroups with the presence of variant viruses in the quail during 2015. 

...

Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba1, Naglaa Fathy Saeed Awad1*, Gamelat Kotb Farag Kotb2, Amany Adel3 

...ous bursal disease (IBD) viruses circulating in Egypt during the period of 2017 - 2018. Sixteen pooled bursal tissue samples were collected from IBD suspected (9 Egyptian balady and 7 broiler) chicken flocks located in different localities at Sharkia governorate, Egypt. These samples were subjected for direct detection of a 620 bp hypervariable region in the VP2 gene using Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The nucleotide and deduce...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosaad, Fatma Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan  

...Hemagglutinin (HA) of 38 viruses circulating Egyptian viruses during 2015 and 2016 were belonging to the Middle East G1- like viruses and scattered phylogenetically in different subgroups with the presence of variant viruses in the quail during 2015.  

...
Xuefeng Cao1, Guangneng Peng1, Xiaobin Gu1, Changliang He1, Guizhou Yue2, Jun Shi3,* and Zhijun Zhong1,*
...pidly detect canine parvoviruses (CPV) or canine distemper virus (CDV) without nuclear acid extraction, we established a direct amplification TaqMan real-time (RT)-PCR method (DARPM) to detect CPV and CDV in clinical samples. We compared this new method against real-time PCR/(RT)-PCR and it showed no cross-reactivity with other pathogens. Sensitivity testing showed the minimum detection limits of real-time (RT)-PCR were 7.44×101 copies·...

Ali Mahmoud Zanaty, Naglaa Mohammed Hagag, Neveen Rabie, Mahmoud Saied, Karim Selim, Saad A. Mousa, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Abdel-Sattar Arafa and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

... for selected 5 virulent viruses reveals velogenic features with high pathogenicity index (1.60 to 1.74). 

...

Wesam Mady*, Nahed Yehia, Mohammed Hassan Elhussieny, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Moataz Mohamed El Sayed, Neveen Rabie Bakry, Asmaa Shaaban, Abdel Satar Arafa, Afaf Abdel Baset Mahmoud and Wafaa Mohammed Hassan 

...ealed that our sequenced viruses were clustered together in group B Russian like reassortant H5N8 viruses of clade 2.3.4.4.  

...
Aqsa Javaid and Nageen Hussain*
... the most severe endemic viruses that advance around the world in a deadly manner. It is a serious issue in Pakistan as well and so far 130,000 HIV cases in Pakistan have been identified by the National AIDS Control Programme. Nuclear transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) gene is involved in tolerance mechanism so failure of tolerance can lead to mutations in this gene. The main objective of this project was to analyze the possible mutation espec...
Nida Zia1, *, Ayesha Maqbool2, Muhammad Safdar3, Umm-I-Habiba1, Altaf Mehmood4, Muhammad Usman5, Zahid Iqbal6, Javed Iqbal6, Shahid Mehmood6, Amanullah Khan7 and Sajid Umar8
...ry every year. Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) associated with HHS could disturb growth, viability and immunity in commercial broilers. The main aim of the present study was to detect and characterize FAdVs. Liver tissues were collected from poultry flocks showing clinical signs of HHS and investigated using PCR assay for FAdVs. The FAdVs were detected in 8 samples collected from different flocks. Positive PCR amplicons were sequenced to genetically identify the FAd...
Irfan Irshad1, Asim Aslam1,*, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Kamran Ashraf2, Beenish Zahid3 and Abdul Wajid4
...nic H9N2 avian influenza viruses are presently endemic in Pakistan and repeated outbreaks are continuously being reported with high mortality in poultry and non-poultry avian species. In this study, five AAvV-1s have been pathotyped and genetically characterized from vaccinated birds collected between 2013-14. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to sub-genotype VIIi with high similarity of 97.9 to 99.8% with similar

Faleye Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas1,2*, Adewumi Moses Olubusuyi1, Olayinka Olaitan Titilola3 and Adeniji Johnson Adekunle1,3 

...creened for Enteric Adenoviruses (EAVs) and group A Rotavirus (GARV) using a rapid immunochromatographic test kit. Subsequently, they were passaged in HEp-2 cell line. All isolates were subjected to RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, three (5l-UTR, VP1 and EV Species C [EV-C]) different PCR assays and sequencing of amplicons. EVs were further subjected to [‘]Illumina sequencing. All CCS were negative for EAVs and GARVs. Four CCS produced R-CPE in HEp-2 cell...

Adewumi Moses Olubusuyi1, Ogunsakin Temitope Rachael1, Ogunrombi Sefiu Babatunde1, Ojeamiren Iduda1, Olawole Alaba Samuel1, Faleye Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas1,2* and Adeniji Johnson Adekunle1,3 

...likely presence of enteroviruses in supernatants of cytopathic effect (CPE) negative RD and L20B cell culture tubes in which faecal suspension from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases were cultured. Samples analyzed were collected in 2017 as part of the AFP surveillance program in Nigeria and declared negative for enteroviruses because they did not produce CPE in RD and L20B cell lines. In all, 120 cell culture supernatants ...
Muhammad Furqan Shahid1*, Tahir Yaqub1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu2, Asim Aslam2, Saima Yaqub1, Aziz-ul-Rahman3, Muzaffar Ali1
...ntigens, suggesting H9N2 viruses are circulating with different antigenic characteristics. Sero-biochemical analysis of blood collected at 7th DPI revealed an increase in aspartate amino transaminase (246-308 U/L), alanine amino transferase (31-58 U/L) and blood urea nitrogen (11.21-22.58 mg/dl). 
...

Khaled Kaboudi* 

...ed that the most of H9N2 viruses circulating in North Africa were among the G1-lineage group. The presence of mammalian and human genetic markers were reported in several H9N2 strains, indicating possible risk for public health. Control of LPAI H9N2 subtype infection is currently based on biosecurity and the implementation of vaccination in some countries. Regional control strategy needs to be performed. Creation of regional surveillance network is highly reco...

Naglaa M. Hagag1*, Mervat E. Hamdy1, Mary A. Sargious1, Sara M. Elnomrosy1, Nahed A. Ahmed1, Ayman A. Hamed1, Ahmed R. Habashi1, Essam I. Ibrahiem1, Mahmoud A. Abdel-Hakim2 and Momtaz A. Shahein

...ating FMDV serotype SAT2 viruses were homogeneous and related to Topotype VII. Importantly, the newly emerged viruses were closely related to strains isolated from Libya in 2012 (Topotype VII, lineage 3), with 92–93% amino acid identity, and were clearly separated from SAT2/GVII/Gharbia/Egy/2012 and SAT2/GVII/Alex/Egy/2012 (Topotype VII, lineage 2), indicating a new introduction of FMDV serotypeSAT2 in Egypt. Moreover,...

Hamoudi Naoual1, Alloui Nadir2*, Barberis Abdelhak2 and Boudaoud Amine2 

...culating avian influenza viruses in these wild birds will help assess the potential for spread of these viruses in poultry farms. 

...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2*Mubasher Ahmad Malik1, Mujahid Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir2,  Zubair Aslam4, Sumaira Maqsood5, Ishita Ahuja3 and Atle M. Bones3

Adewumi Olubusuyi Moses1,2*, Faleye Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas,1,3, Ope-Ewe Oludayo Oluwaseyi1, Ibitoye Ibipeju Henrietta1, Arowosaye Abiola Opeyemi1, Adelowo Oluwatosin Deji1 and Adeniji Johnson Adekunle1,2,4 

Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Asim Aslam1*, Muhammad Yasin2, Tahir Yaqoob2 and Beenish Zahid3
...enged with either of the viruses alone. Notably, moderate clinical infections raised concerns vaccine efficacies. The current study concluded that the commercially available vaccines may not provide enough protection particularly in the case of co-infection with NDV and IBV. Therefore, here is need to conduct further studies on production of vaccines with current prevailing strains in disease endemic countries such as Pakistan.
...

Hassan Boulahyaoui1,2*, Sanaa Alaoui Amine1,3, Marouane Melloul4, Farida Hilali5, Elmostafa El-Fahime1,3, Saad Mrani1,2 and Nadia Touil1,5* 

... and domestic animal rotaviruses. Continuous surveillance in the post vaccine era appears to be necessary in order to identify unusual rotavirus strains that might not be fully contrasted by current vaccines. 

...

Olotu Titilayo Mabel*, Adeosun Idowu Jesulayomi, Kaka Mary Oluwatosin and Oladipo Elijah Kolawole 

...plication-competent retroviruses, and the pol gene is very unique encoding the enzymes for replication. Our objective is to describe the relatedness of these HIV-1 pol genes with each other and its antiviral drug susceptibility which will provide more information on its sensitivity and resistivity to each antiviral drug. Seventeen partial genome sequences of HIV-1 Pol gene from some West African countries were retrieved from NCBI database. Evolutionary relatio...
Muhammad Rizwan1*, Bilal Atta1, Ana Maria Marino de Remes Lenicov2, Roxana Mariani2, Arshed Makhdoom Sabir1, Muhammad Tahir3, Misbah Rizwan4, Muhammad Sabar1, Ch. Muhammad Rafique1, Muhammad Afzal5
... primarily vector of the viruses, whereas Cixiids are vectors of phytoplasmas, mycoplasmas and prokaryotes-like associated to the class Mollicutes. Specimens of planthoppers were collected from the rice fields and surrounding weeds. A list of Fulgoromorpha is provided, with distributional and biological records as well. Records are extracted primarily from field data and specialized reference sources. Seven species from two different families of Fulgoromorpha ...

Arifa Khan1*, Danish Anwar2, Shazia Erum3, Naveeda Riaz1, Shahid Riaz4, Tariq Rafique3 and Zafer Iqbal2

Screening of Exotic Potato Germplasm against Potato Virus PVX, PVY and PLRV through Biological and Serological Test (ELISA)
...-align: justify;">Potato viruses like PVX (Potex virus X), PVY (Poty virus Y) and PLRV (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) cause significant yield loss of potato crop in the world including Pakistan. In this regard, 30 exotic potato genotypes were screened against the PVX, PVY and PLRV in field conditions during two seasons 2015-2016. Results showed that all the genotypes had resistance against PVX and PLRV however four genotypes (CIP-3, CIP-9, CIP-11 and...

Md. Sahidur Rahman

Origin and Spillover of Coronaviruses: Prospects of One Health Action
...t-align: justify;">Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses causing diseases in mammals, including humans and birds. Bat and rodents act as a reservoir of alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus whereas, gamacoronavirus and deltacoronavirus originate in avian species. Domestic animals also play a critical role in disease transmission as they are found seropositive against different coronaviruses

Christian Marco Hadi Nugroho1 and Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan2,3,4*

Production of Antibody for Direct Fluorescence Antibody Assay against Avian Influenza H9N2
...y;">The H9N2 influenza A viruses are endemic in some countries for many years and had caused economic losses in poultry industries. Infection with this virus decreases egg production and increases chicken mortality. In human health, cases of this zoonotic agent are being reported and some cases showed fatal infection. The H9N2 is highly contagious, and transmission can occur from chicken to chicken, chicken to humans through the air, or sometimes from humans t...
Ye Ge1,2,3, Qiucheng Yao1, Hongliang Chai3, Yuping Hua3* and Guohua Deng2*
... birds, as reservoirs of viruses, play active roles in influenza virus transmission and reassortment. To further evaluate the potential infection risk of H6 AIVs from wild birds, we inoculated these viruses into A549 cells, which showed that these wild bird H6 AIVs have acquired the ability to cross interspecific barriers and have the potential to infect mammals. We analysed the level of cytokine expression in response to fo...
Ayesha Alam1,* and Labeeb Ali2
... small;">The presence of viruses in treated and untreated sewage water is a serious issue in the agricultural sector as it is highly dependent on recycled water for irrigation purposes due to the shortage of fresh water resources. In this study viruses in untreated and treatedwastewater has been reviewed to evaluate the health threats to the people. It has been cited that viruses such as R...

Muhammad Shahid1*, Unsar Naeem-Ullah1, Waheed S. Khan2, Shafqat Saeed1 and Kashif Razzaq3

Application of Nanotechnology for Insect Pests Management: A Review
... i.e. polymer, bacteria, viruses, plant extracts, fungi, and protein. This review article climaxes the latest mileposts accomplished for the production and imminent perspective of nanoparticles for the controlling of insect pests. 

...
Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khalid Munir1, Ghulam Abbas1’*, Isra Munir1Mumtaz Ahmad Khan1, Asif Iqbal1, Munsoor ud Din Ahmad1, Muhammad Arshad Javid2, Zareen Fatima1 and Maria Arshad1
...mandeathsworldwide.Coronavirusesaresingle-strandedpositive sense RNA viruses which mainly in past were considered responsible for high percentage of (around 30%) of common cold/flu cases. Viruses causing SARS, MERS and COVID-19 are members of family Coronavirdae. World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the novel Cov-19 virus infection was first diagnosed in Wuhan, Hubei Provin...
Saad A. Moussa1, Mohammed Ahmed Mahmoud Abdullah2*, Mahmoud Saied1, Mustafa Saleh1, Mohamed A. Soliman2 and Ali Mahmoud Zanaty2
... genotype VII. Eight NDV viruses were isolated from vaccinated commercial broiler flocks showing respiratory manifestation in Menofia governorate, Egypt during 2019. Those viruses showing deaths and haemorages of inoculated SPF ECE eggs, harvested allantoic fluids showed haemagglutination activity by using 1% RBCs and also haemagglutination inhibition in case of using NDV reference antiserum, As well as realtime polymerase c...

Hosts and Viruses

December

Vol. 7, Iss. 6, Pages 129-146

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