Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1


Life Sciences International Journal Issue 7 Volume 1
...olates. The O/PAK Lahore vaccine was at two mutations from central node, while HE647819 and HE647820 were clustered into a separate single taxon at eightieth (80) mutations from central node. Taken together, these findings highlight the continuous circulation of serotype O of FMD in the region.



Sehrish Kanwal, Ali Saeed, Muhammad Munir, Memoona Arshad


British Journal of Virology
...olates. The O/PAK Lahore vaccine was at two mutations from central node, while HE647819 and HE647820 were clustered into a separate single taxon at eightieth (80) mutations from central node. Taken together, these findings highlight the continuous circulation of serotype O of FMD in the region.



Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology
... genes are important for vaccine development or judging the efficacy of existing RVA vaccines, they do not always provide conclusive information on the overall and complex genetic makeup of RVAs, as the remaining 9 RVA gene segments are also susceptible to the forces governing RVA genetic diversity. Whole genomic analysis of RVAs has revolutionized the study of RVA genomics, providing a plethora of conclusive and vital data ...

Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

British Journal of Virology
...olates. The O/PAK Lahore vaccine was at two mutations from central node, while HE647819 and HE647820 were clustered into a separate single taxon at eightieth (80) mutations from central node. Taken together, these findings highlight the continuous circulation of serotype O of FMD in the region.


El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3* are three inactivated vaccines of H9N2 AIVs have been used in domestic poultry in China. But H9N2 AIVs occurred frequently and caused severe economic losses to the poultry industries. H9N2 AIVs can evade the pressure of vaccination by genetic evolution and antigen variation. Moreover, the ratio of L226 in the haemagglutin (HA) receptor binding site has increased, which indicates that the H9N2 virus has the increasing potential to infection and cause human e...

Ye Liu2, Yulong Cong2, Yiming Shao1*

...ortant immunogen for HIV vaccine candidates for a long time. However, HIV Tat also plays immunoregulation roles in improving immune responses of vaccines. Herein, we review recent developments of HIV Tat as immunoregulator using for optimizing the efficacy of vaccines. By highlighting preclinical/clinical applications of Tat and its working mechanisms, this review exhibits the superior pot...

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...immune responses and for vaccine evaluations. These are the basis for the successful establishment of the infection and disease models for human rotavirus, human norovirus and human enterovirus 71 using neonatal gnotobiotic pigs. The differences between germ-free and normal animals in the maturation status of immune systems caused by the lack of gut microbiota can be minimized by establishing human-gut-microbiota transplanted gnotobiotic pig models. Given the ...

James Ayukepi Ayukekbong1,2

E-mail | currently no licensed vaccines or specific therapeutics. The virus and its vector are widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics regions of the world. Dengue and malaria are endemic in Nigeria. Two independent studies among febrile patients revealed dengue IgG seroprevalence of 73% and malaria prevalence of 80% in some areas of the country. The diagnosis of the disease is further complicated by the fact that, dengue fever mimics malaria fever ...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...ment of novel protective vaccines. In this review, we discuss the innate immune responses against HP-PRRSV infection and suggest new areas of investigation into this important interface between pathogen and host.


Huaichang Sun

...otection of conventional vaccines. RNA interference (RNAi) has becoming a feasible strategy against various virus infections. Recently, a significant advance in RNAi technology is the use of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) to fight virus infections. However, different strategies are needed to prevent virus variation or mutation escape. This review is intended to present the current situation of antiviral roles of amiRNAs, against variable RNA viruses in particu...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3


...ovements and inactivated vaccines were devised to combat the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1. HPAIV are highly susceptible to all disinfectants because they are enveloped viruses. Disinfection against avian influenza viruses at the poultry farms would significantly reduce and/or limit the chance for its transmission and outbreaks. Many disinfectants have been evaluated for their inactivation ability, but there is st...

Muhammad Arif Zafar1, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1*, Aayesha Riaz1, Asim Shamim2, Muhammad Farooq Iqbal1 and Arfan Yousaf

E-mail |

...utic value of autogenous vaccine along with immune-modulators and to compare its efficacy with autogenous vaccine alone and partial excision of the lesions. To this end, nine animals were selected clinical and sporadic papillomas different body parts. These animals were divided into three groups; Group A animals were operated for partial excision of the lesions, Group B were inoculated with autogenous

Kang-Seuk Choi

... promising approaches to vaccine development and are an alternative to inactivated IBD vaccines. In addition, VLP technology has many applications. This paper reviews the potential of VLPs as an alternative to IBD vaccines, along with their specific applications in the field.


Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

...g diagnostic methods and vaccines for classical swine fever.


Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

...o commercially available vaccine for this disease. It is recommended that the disease can be controlled by adopting preventive measures such as avoiding of tick bites and contact with blood of the suspected animal. 


Moustafa Kardjadj

...quent replacement of the vaccine strains. The present review summarizes the knowledge generated in epidemiology, diagnosis and surveillance of the disease in the Maghreb countries.


Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

... to the effectiveness of vaccine, timely vaccination, circulation of a single lineage virus and most importantly effective planning and implementation of the vaccination programme. Sharing the experiences on the PPR control strategies adopted by some of the states in India may motivate other Indian states or other countries of similar socio-economic and small ruminant rearing pattern to vaccinate and control PPR.


Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...equate supply of quality vaccines and the problem of delivery to maintain cold chain, there is need for a very strong regional coordination for effective and sustainable control of PPR in Africa. The African continent is currently divided into 57 countries (or independent territories), many of which rely heavily on livestock for fuel, motor power and sustenance with many also endemic to the disease. PPRV continues to decimate the small ruminant populations acr...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...s for the development of vaccines and diagnostics for differentiating infected and vaccinated animals. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, recombinant protein based vaccines and/or diagnostics are being tested in various heterologous systems across the globe for development of vaccines and/or diagnostic antigens. The recombinant viral proteins, virus like particle based
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
...h genotype including the vaccine strains (genotype II and III). Interestingly, some of these mutations were found exclusive to the study isolate. Not only do these prime findings improve our understanding about currently circulating strains of NDVs but they also help us to envisage potential efforts to avoid future outbreaks in wild birds, as well as in commercial and backyard poultry.

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns


... potentially applied for vaccine production, better vaccination protocols and infection control in the future.


Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

...he efficacy of live IBDV vaccines on broilers. A total of 120 broilers were randomly divided into six groups (20 birds in each) were coded A, B, C, D, E and F; vaccinated with various combinations of IBD through different routes. Results showed that the birds of different groups received different maternal antibodies did not induce any antibodies as recorded in all groups received vaccines at days 1, 9 or 12 exhibited simila...
Uzma Farid Durrani1,*,Sagar Mal Goyal2, Asim Khalid Mahmood1,Cathleen Hanlon3, Susan Moore3, Muhammad Waqas1 and Raheela Akhtar4
...ality inactivated rabies vaccines. Rapid Fluorescence Focus Inhibition Technique (RFFIT) revealed mRVNA titer (>0.5 IU/mL) in 29 puppies while 48 puppies showed mRVNA titer less than minimum protective level (0.2-0.4 IU/mL). RFFIT did not reveal mRVNA in 23 puppies that were declared lacking maternal rabies immunity. One basis of findings of this study it was concluded that puppies population lacking maternal rabies immunity is one of the responsible factor...

John G. Bruno

...lso serve as rickettsial vaccines, if fully developed. The top five highest affinity R. rickettsii and top five R. typhi anti-Fab aptamers as assessed by enzyme-linked aptamer sorbent assay (ELASA) screening were shown to specifically bind their cognate antibodies when captured by their Fc tails on the surface of Protein A-conjugated magnetic beads. While no clear similarities in the partial or complete primary DNA sequences or secondary stem-loop structures o...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...cost-effective influenza vaccines is urgently needed to safeguard poultry and to contain zoonosis. The primary goal of this study was to develop H9 plasmid-based DNA vaccine against the currently circulating AIV subtype H9N2 targeting HA gene of the virus A/Turkey/Egypt/1341V/2013(H9N2). The full length sequence of HA gene was codon optimized to the chicken biased codons and subcloned into the pCAGGS plasmid vector under the...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

... (H5 and ND) inactivated vaccine via subcutaneous route. Birds (n=20) were then either challenged with 106 EID50 using Egyptian avian influenza H5N1 and Newcastle disease genotype VII. Comparative blood profiling in vaccinated and challenged, non-vaccinated and non-challenged and non-vaccinated and challenged indicated that MDA for H5N1 gradually decreased from 5.1 to 0.4 log2 and disappeared with in a month. While MDA for NDV remained 2.1 log2 until 28th day ...
Madiha Hashmi1, Abid Hussain1, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Farida Ahmed2, Shahbaz Aslam3,Nadeem Afzal4 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
...t 2.4 million people get vaccine for allergy from Allergy Centre, National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad. Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) genes are located on the short arm of the chromosome number 6 and position 21 and the allele frequency is associated with allergy. The study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the aero-allergens and the frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 and HLA-DRB1*12 allele in aeroallergen sensitized in...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...Egy-H5 plasmid DNA-based vaccine against a currently circulating avian influenza virus H5N1 strain in Egypt targeting the HA gene. The HA gene of AIV Egyptian strain H5N1 was codon optimized for chicken biased codon and sub-cloned into pCAGGS mammalian expression vector under the control of chicken β-actin promoter. The construct was transfected into 293T HEK (Human Embryonic Kidney) cell line for in vitro expression of the recombinant plasmid DNA. The co...

Lucas Pedroso Colvero1, Paulo Eduardo Brandão2*, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales2, Hanny Swam3 and Laura Yaneth Buitrago Villarreal1 


...Inactivated water-in-oil vaccines are widely used to control viral diseases in poultry, however, the interference of physico-chemical properties of the emulsions are overlooked when compared to antigenic properties. This study was designed to assess the effect of two different commercial inactivated water-in-oil multivalent vaccines; vaccine A contains IBV (Massachusetts M41 and D274 strai...
Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Atif Prince3, Naimat Ullah Khan1 and Mumtaz Ali Khan1
...alves against FMD and HS vaccine. Thirty-five pregnant cattle were selected and seven groups were made consisting five cattle. Group A was controls: Animals in Group B and C were at 45 days prepartum with and without VES: animals in D and E were at day 60 prepartum with and without VES: animals in F and G were at 75 days prepartum stage with and without VES: respectively. At day 0 of experimental trial VES was given to animals in group C, E and G. All groups w...
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
...t fertile eggs for virus vaccine production.
Saba Rafique1,2,*, Khalid Naeem1, Naila Siddique1, Muhammad Athar Abbas1, Aamer Ali Shah2, Akbar Ali1, Abdul Rahim1 and Farooq Rashid1
...ern from other known IBV vaccine strains, the isolate was named as KU145467_NARC/786_Pakistan_2013 (also named as Pak-786) was subjected to Spike gene sequencing covering the amino-terminus region of 01 to 974 base pairs. The S protein sequence was submitted to the GenBank with accession number KU145467. Phylogenetic grouping and maximum nucleotide sequence identity values were used to identify the isolate that looked to be derived from recombination. It showe...
Muhammad Rasool1,*, Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Ismail Khan1, Qadeem Khan2 and Khalid Khan1
... reduces the efficacy of vaccines prepared to a particular clone of HBV isolates.

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool*, Abuzar Muhammad Afzal*, Abu Baker Siddique*, Waseem Akram**, Muhammad Saqalein*, Madiha Basit* and Muhammad Farooq Tahir***

ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF VIRO CARE GZ-08 AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN POULTRY AND ITS IN-VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY pre-treatment with ND vaccines as it significantly reduced morbidity and mortality as compared to the use of vaccines alone. However, further work is recommended in future on GZ-08™ for its use as post-treatment of ND as well as on other antiviral compounds of natural origin to develop a novel antiviral drug against NDV in poultry.

Lotta Wahldén1, 3, Ulf Emanuelson1, Torsten Møller2 and Jonas Johansson Wensman1*
...animals, live attenuated vaccines have been suggested to provide protective immunity in the African wild dog; however, their use has been hampered by the fear of vaccine-induced disease. Kolmården Wildlife Park in Sweden has used a live attenuated vaccine without any apparent cases of vaccine-induced disease, but no studies to evaluate immune respo...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
... was to prepare a toxoid vaccine from the prevailing pathogenic strains of Type D Clostridiumperfringens strains and evaluate its immune responses in rabbits, goats and sheep. C. perfringens were isolated from enterotoxaemia suspected sheep and goats from the endemic areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan during 2016. The isolates were initially identified through colony characters, Gram staining and biochemical tests. The identifi...
Abdul Wajid1,*, Asma Basharat2, Muhammad Akbar Shahid3, Sidra Tul Muntaha1, Abdul Basit4, Tanveer Hussain5, Muhammad Farooq Tahir6, Muhammad Azhar7, Masroor Ellahi Babar1 and Shafqat Fatima Rehmani2
...ak and the adaptation of vaccine strategies. In spite of appropriate administration of vaccination, FAdV outbreaks have been reported and caused significant losses in poultry flocks throughout Pakistan in recent years. To identify the serotype and gain a better understanding of the genetic properties of the FAdV strains responsible for recent outbreaks, the sequence analysis of hexon gene of 10 isolates associated with IBH and HPS was determined. Sequence alig...
Fangxiao Dong1,2, Xuan Luo1,2, Delu Yuan1,2, Aixin Liang1,2* and Liguo Yang1,2*
...iv>Somatostatin (SS) DNA vaccine has been used to improve the growth and lactation of animals, however, the immune response is still unsatisfactory, especially in large animals. The present study aimed to investigate whether tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) could be applied as signal peptide for enhancing the effect of somatostatin DNA vaccine. A novel recombinant plasmid pEGS/2SS-tPA encoding two copies of somatost...
Hanif Ur Rahman1, Umer Saddique1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Kamal Shah1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Farhan Anwar Khan1Fazli Rabbani2, Muhammad Asif Hussain2, Attaur-Rahman2, Irshad Ahmad3,4 and Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*
... in the epidemiology and vaccine strategy against CCPP infection in small ruminants in the Northern region of Pakistan and therefore, a comprehensive country wide surveillance should further investigate the overall prevalence of members of MM cluster in suspected cases of CCPP in small ruminants.

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar that has been used as vaccine candidate for small pox infection in humans. This virus causes contagious form of disease, mainly but not limited to sheep and goats, which lead to high economic impact in developing countries including India. The causative agent, Orf virus (ORFV) belong to the genus Parapoxvirus (PPV) of the family poxviridae produces a typical papillomatous, cauliflower like external growth around mouth regions and rarely the lesions are foun...
Yan-Guo Han1, Xiao-Li Peng1, Kai Li1, Yu-He-Tian Zhao1, Xun-Ping Jiang2, Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Jun-Hua Ye3, Li Xu3, Qin-Tao Zhao3 and Yong-Fu Huang1,*
...nd somatostatin (SS) DNA vaccine can enhance the effect of the vaccine and promote the growth of animals. This study investigated the enhancing effect of the fusion type of CpG motifs on SS DNA vaccine and growth of ram lambs. In this study, we constructed the ptS/2SS-asd plasmid, pCpG plasmid and the CpG-SS fusion type recombinant plasmid named ptCS/2SS-asd. Twelve ram lambs were r...

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

...ous biological controls, vaccines and local medicinal plants are being explored to control the parasitic worms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic potential of two local plants, Albizia lebbeck L. and Camellia sinensis L against H. contortus using Adult Motility Assay (AMA). Crude Ethanolic Extracts (CEE)of dried leaves of A. lebbeck L. and whole plant of C. sinensis L. were prepared by cold ma...

Omer Baris Ince* 

... performed with inactive vaccines of suitable serotype and measures are taken in order to reduce the prevalence of the disease. In this study, blood samples were collected from clinically healthy sheep and bovine in the surrounding region of the southeast of Konya province that were classified as non-vaccinated, single-vaccinated, multiple vaccinated, aged 0-1 and 1-3 and male and female starting from the third month following the vaccination. In the study aim...

Ahmed Samy1*, Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba2, Gamelat Kotb Farag3 and Ahmed Abd El Halim1 

...ide the development of a vaccine may be required to reduce the risk of PPMV1 outbreaks. 


Ragia S. Mohamed1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mamdouh. M. Hamoud1, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shimaa A.E. Nasr1, Manal M. Zaki1, ElShaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

... Newcastle disease virus vaccines can provide various levels of protection against challenge with different NDV genotypes, raising the importance of the relationship between vaccines and field strains. The aim of the current work is to evaluate the effect of moisture percentage and pH on the persistence of velogenic NDV genotype VII in the poultry manure which considers a major threat to the Egyptian poultry industry since 2...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

... homologous/heterologous vaccines especially the live ones. The aim of the current work is to estimate the persistence time for velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype VII in poultry manure in compare to LaSota vaccine strain as a model of genotype II. Velogenic NDV of genotype VII are a major threat to the Egyptian poultry industry since 2011 onwards with continuous evolution and diversity. In the present study,...
Yan-Guo Han1,2, Jun-Hua Ye1, Qin-Tao Zhao1, Yong-Jie Huang2, Kai Li2, Yong-Fu Huang2 and Li Xu1,*
...tin 28 (SS-28)DNA vaccines in promoting lactation of rats. Fifteen female SD rats were randomly divided into three groups and were orally vaccinated, respectively SS-14 (Group T1) and SS-28 (Group T2) DNA vaccines fused tPA signal peptide and CpG adjuvant and delivered by attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis at weeks 0, 3 and 6 of the study, and rats in control group (Group C) w...

Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba1, Naglaa Fathy Saeed Awad1*, Gamelat Kotb Farag Kotb2, Amany Adel3 

...racterized reference and vaccine strains worldwide. The IBD virus was detected in 9 out of 16 (56.25 %) investigated chicken flocks. Sequence analysis revealed that the analyzed Egyptian isolates identified as very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV). The identity between these Egyptian isolates and the vaccine strains is ranged from 89.5%-95.6% and 88.1%-97.8% -at the nucleotide and amino acid sequence levels,...
Rana Waqas Arshad1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Kamran Ashraf2 and Raheela Akhtar1,*
...e commercially available vaccines of infectious bursal disease (IBD). Three experimental groups, each having 100 broiler birds were placed in the same environmentally controlled house. Samples of blood and bursa of Fabricius were collected from slaughtered birds after every 7 days till the end of experiment (35 days). The size of bursas and the bursa/body weight ratios were significantly greater in live vector vaccine group ...

Ali Mahmoud Zanaty, Naglaa Mohammed Hagag, Neveen Rabie, Mahmoud Saied, Karim Selim, Saad A. Mousa, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Abdel-Sattar Arafa and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...class II of genotype II (vaccine strain) and 1 sample was phylogenetically related to NDV class II of genotype I with 98% identity. Furthermore, the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) for selected 5 virulent viruses reveals velogenic features with high pathogenicity index (1.60 to 1.74). 

Gul Afshan1,2,*, Soumble Zulfiqar2, Sumaira Mehboob2, Muhammad Tahir Javed Khan1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,*
...iv>Currently a number of vaccines are under development against hepatitis C, though an effective hepatitis C vaccine is yet to come. The present study is focused on the development of recombinant vaccine against HCV by utilizing HCV3a envelope glycoprotein E2. HCV3a E2 gene was amplified and cloned first in cloning vector pTG19 and subcloned in expression vector pET21a. E2 protein, ...

Mustasim Famous*, Obaidul Islam, Shameema Khatun, Mohammed Mustafizur Rahman and Tania Ferdoushi 

... only new-castle disease vaccine. Most of the turkey farmers rear turkey in small scale semi-intensive system (50%) was generally practiced by the rural farmers. They have very little idea about breed and variety of turkey and prevention of diseases of turkey. But farmers have very little knowledge about turkey management procedure. There is no specific feeding standard for turkey. Farmers used to feed their turkey according to broiler and layer feeding manual...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1,*, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shakoor Ahmad2, Irshad Ahmad3, Ikramul Haq4, Kashif Prince1, Asad Ullah5, Muhammad Shoaib2, Shahid Zaman6, Amjad Islam Aqib7, Ghazunfar Rashid1, Mahboob Ali1, Imdad Ullah Khan4,Imad Khan5, Naimat Ullah4 and Muhammad Shahid8
...ated with enterotoxaemia vaccine. Group C was kept as negative control in both rabbits and goats. The immune titer against C. perfringens type D was evaluated on 0, 7, 14, 28th and 60th day of vaccination with indirect haemagglutination test (IHA). The results showed significantly higher (P< 0.05) immune titer in vitamin E supplemented animals groups against C. perfringens type D epsilon toxin.
Rais Ahmed1,2,*, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor1,2, Iftikhar Hussain1, Muhammad Saqib3, Muhammad Hammad Hussain4, Amjad Islam Aqib5, Haleema Sadia6, Javed Muhammad7, Asma Irshad8, Kashif Prince5, Muhammad Zain Saleem9 and Abdul Whab Manzoor10
...isolation of MAP to make vaccine against paratuberculosis using local isolates.
Muhammad Siddique1, Muhammad Shafique2,*,Abdul Mateen3, Naveed Shahzad4, Bilal Aslam2, Nasir Ahmad1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar2
...y due to the lack of HCV vaccine. HCV genotypes are helpful for analyzing disease severity and start of therapy. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the genotyping of clinically isolated HCV from a Liver Center Faisalabad, Pakistan. A total of 3200 clinical samples were screened for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies by ICT method. Among positive samples, confirmation was carried out by RT-PCR and clustered into four groups (acute, chronic, cirrho...
Umm-i-Habiba1,*, Ayesha Maqbool2, Muhammad Safdar3, Nida Zia1Altaf Mehmood4, Muhammad Usman5, Mehwish Sharif6, Amanullah Khan7 and Sajid Umar8
...homology with attenuated vaccine strains. Our study revealed exclusive circulation of vvIBDV and these evidences emphasize the need of further detailed and more systemic approaches to study IBDV distribution for the implementation of effective control measures.

Naglaa M. Hagag1*, Mervat E. Hamdy1, Mary A. Sargious1, Sara M. Elnomrosy1, Nahed A. Ahmed1, Ayman A. Hamed1, Ahmed R. Habashi1, Essam I. Ibrahiem1, Mahmoud A. Abdel-Hakim2 and Momtaz A. Shahein

...vaccination. Because the vaccine strains should match those strains circulating in the field, an updated vaccine is required to control the disease. Monitoring of FMDV in neighboring countries is essential to predict those strains that might escape into Egypt.  

Yan-Guo Han, Yu-Qing Han, Jia-Yuan Wu, Jia Guo, Ri-Su Na, Yan Zeng, Guang-Xin E, Yong-Ju Zhao and Yong-Fu Huang*
...of somatostatin (SS) DNA vaccine in maternal animals on serum related hormones in offspring. In this study, ten ewes with two newborn lambs were randomly divided into SS DNA vaccine group (Group T) and empty vector group (Group C), and these vaccines were given orally into the ewes at weeks 0, 3 and 6 of the research. Blood samples of ewes or offspring lambs were collected at week 6 or 9 o...

Anand Kushwaha, Amit Kumar, Aparna Madhavan, Durga Goswami, Golmei Poulinlu and Gnanavel Venkatesan* 

...ssays and also effective vaccine candidates which are vital elements in control and eradication of any infectious disease from an endemic country. In this review, we describe different structures of mature pox virion with reference to vaccinia virus (VACV), list of immunogenic candidate genes presents in CaPV genome and their potential use in diagnostic/vaccine developments. 

Housh Muhammad Solangi1, Javaid Ali Gadahi1*, Mansoor Tariq2, Bachal Bhutto1Zubair Ahmed Laghari1, Jamila Soomro3, Taufeeq Ahhmed Khosa1 and Abdullah G Arijo1
...unity and can be used as vaccine against the infection. However the results of FECRT indicated that HcCP produced partial immunity against the infection.
Yan-Guo Han, Jia-Yuan Wu, Ri-Su Na, Wei-Jiang Si, Yu-Qin Han, Yan Zeng, Yong-Ju Zhao and Yong-Fu Huang*
...njected KISS1 DNA vaccines on immunocastration and in inhibiting mutton odour of male goats. In this study, 20 male goats aged eight weeks were randomly divided into the oral and plasmid-injected KISS1. DNA vaccine groups (groups T1 and T2) and the empty vector groups (groups C1 and C2) for immunisation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 10 and 14 weeks after primary immunisation for the detection of kis...

Adewumi Olubusuyi Moses1,2*, Faleye Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas,1,3, Ope-Ewe Oludayo Oluwaseyi1, Ibitoye Ibipeju Henrietta1, Arowosaye Abiola Opeyemi1, Adelowo Oluwatosin Deji1 and Adeniji Johnson Adekunle1,2,4 

Ke Zhang1, Shuai Liu2, Qiu Chen1, Yu Wang1, Li Liu1, Bingjie Li1, Kai Ma1, Xiaoya Wei1, Aijun Li3 and Junyan Li2*
...ted as antigens and even vaccine candidate proteins in ticks or other pathogens but not in H. longicornis. Few reports have described dual specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP-3) in parasites as an antigen. We successfully screened four potential antigens and found that DUSP-3 is a potential novel antigen for ticks.
Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Asim Aslam1*, Muhammad Yasin2, Tahir Yaqoob2 and Beenish Zahid3
...>Despite the presence of vaccines, Newcastle disease (ND) and Infectious Bronchitis (IB) outbreaks are not uncommon in endemic countries. Therefore, the current study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of commercially available vaccines against each virus alone as well as co-infections with NDV and IBV in commercial poultry. For assessment of vaccine efficacy, commercial chickens we...

Hasaan Aziz*, Fariha Altaaf, Attia Bashir, Abdul Basit, Syed Anam Masood Gardazi and Farah Haider 

...the use of modified live vaccine to dogs, occurrence of disease is not uncommon. Here, we sequenced and phylogenetically analysed the complete hemagglutinin gene of CDV from a male dog (14 months old) exhibiting clinically suggestive symptoms. With a characteristic amino acid residue for dog at Y549, sequence analysis showed geographically distinct pattern clustering the study strain to clade Asia-2 but clearly distinct from vaccine

Hassan Boulahyaoui1,2*, Sanaa Alaoui Amine1,3, Marouane Melloul4, Farida Hilali5, Elmostafa El-Fahime1,3, Saad Mrani1,2 and Nadia Touil1,5* 

... VP8* were compared with vaccine and field strains. Here we show that the VP4 gene of the P[14] strains detected in this study exhibited close identity with zoonotic Moroccan goat and bovine strains. The amino acid sequences of the antigenic regions inside VP8* proteins showed high conservation between the amino acid sequences of human and animal strains bearing P[14] proteins, and revealed several changes with respect to the RotaTeq™ and Rotarix™ ...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1 and Onyemocho Audu2 

...tment and development of vaccine. Among the routes of HCV transmission; intravenous drug addiction or injection drug use accounts for the majority of many cases apart from hemodialysis patients, unprotected sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and vertical transmission. Therefore, there is a need for government commitment for HCV elimination program through making the DAAs available and its affordability to general population to curb the catastrophic cost of ...

Hafiz Muhammad Imran Javed* and Mushtaq Ahmed 

...t genetic markers of the vaccine and field strains originating from the field outbreaks for phylogenetic analysis, nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analyses, and a comparison of three-dimensional protein structures. The N gene ORF was 1578 nucleotide long with a single open reading frame encoding 526 amino acids. Similarly, the ORF of F gene was 1641 nucleotide long which encoded 547 amino acids. Upon phylogenetic analysis of the country isolates wit...

 Muhammad Shahzad1, Arif Iqbal Umar1, Syed Hamad Shirazi1, Muhammad Tariq Pervez2*, Zakir Khan1, Waqas Yousaf1

... drug designing and vaccine development.


Parakriti Gupta1, Kapil Goyal2 and Mini Pritam Singh3*

Hepatitis E Virus and Zoonosis
... one serotype, univalent vaccine can provide protection against all HEV genotypes. Two vaccine candidates have been evaluated in clinical trials. Among these two vaccine candidates, one has been developed by Glaxosmithkline and another HEV 239 (Hecolin) has been developed by Innovax (China) and is in use in China since 2012. Considering the expanding clinical spectrum of HEV, it is an emer...
Rabia Riaz1, Khushi Muhammad1*, Masood Rabbani1, Muhammad Amjad Iqbal2, Aamir Riaz Khan2, Sadia Sarfaraz1, Mudassar Naseer3 and Khalid Majeed1
... birds to inactivated MG vaccine is poor. On 7th day of age (broilers: n=40) each bird of group A, B, C and D (n=8) was vaccinated (subcutaneous: 0.3ml) with G-MG, O-MG, G-MG+NDV (New castle Disease Virus) and O-MG vaccines, respectively. Serum samples were collected on 21, 28 and 35 days post vaccination for anti-MG-ELISA antibody titer. Cumulative mean anti-MG-ELISA antibody titer of birds to G-MG, O-MG, G-MG+NDV, O-MG+NDV...
Faheem Ahmed Khan1*, Sarzamin Khan2, Qurat-ul-Ain3, Saqib Ishaq1Muhammad Salman1, Abdul Rehman1, Ikram Ullah4, Kalsoom5 and Johar Jamil5

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Jennifer Ifeoma Okpara1, James Mogoret Dabol1, Joshua Adetunji1, David Adeniyi2, David O. Amanyi3, Otobo I. Ujah4, Veronica David1, Patience Omaiye5 and Onyemocho Audu6

...he use of HBV prevention vaccine. Also, it is important to screen chronic HBV patients for HDV for early detection to avert subsequent development of end stage liver disease. Furthermore, larger studies are needed to gain better understanding of the HDV infection among chronic hepatitis B patients in endemic regions and other high-risk populations.


Md. Mukthar Mia1 and Mahamudul Hasan2

...ed treatment procedures, vaccine progressions, and public awareness efforts, which can be a baseline for the policymaker, veterinarians and pet owner to limit further outbreaks.



Walaa ,S. Shabanaa;Bakr, A. Abdallaa; Eman, M. ELShalamia; I.M. Redab; M. A. Shalabyb

...ined FMD/RVF
vaccine was tested in sheep and compares it with single vaccines either FMD or RFV alone.The
mean of antibody titers continued with the protective level till the 32 to 36th week post vaccination,
In single vaccination either FMD or RFV alone while till to 40th WPV in combined FMD/RVF
vaccine.In the final we can conclude that the ...

Hiam M. Fakhry and Assem A.A.

... and mouth disease (FMD) vaccine in sheep. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zeolite (Zeolith UF) as an adjuvant using inactivated trivalent foot and mouth disease virus, to induce protection against foot and mouth disease. This study was conducted in three sheep groups ; the first group was vaccinated intramuscularly (I/M) with trivalent foot and mouth disease zeolite (1 μg/dose) vaccine, The se...
RehamM. El-Bakrey1, Shimaa M.G. Mansour2, Mohammed A. El Sisi1 AndAmal A.M. Eid1
... commercially applied AI vaccine regimens against challenge with three H5N1 HPAI viruses isolated from chickens, Egypt during 2009-2011. Both inactivated and recombinant fowlpox virus expressing H5 (rFP-AI-H5) vaccines were measured. Vaccine efficacy was evaluated by percentage of protection from mortality, morbidity and reduction in virus shedding from respiratory and/orintestinal tracts....

Yasser F. Elnaker 1, Mohamed El-Tholoth 2, Sahar Saber 3, Amira A- Elsaid4, Mohamed A. Saad 3, Emad E. Younis 5

...tion with sheep poxvirus vaccine (Kenyan strain). The diseased calves showed localized or generalized skin nodules with or without fever. Skin lesions were collected from clinically diseased calves for virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs for three passages followed by ten successive passages in Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) and identification of isolated virus was done by indirect immunofluorescence test. The serum antibody titers were determined by...

Walaa Abd El-Fatah S. Metwally1, Ismail M. Reda2, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2, Mohamed Abd El-Khalek Ali2

...fluenza (AI) inactivated vaccine was prepared with Montanide ISA70VG which has been added as adjuvant using reassortant AI strain H5N1. The prepared vaccines with Montanide ISA70VG varied in the HA units per dose and also differed in the ratios between two reassortant strains (Chicken and duck strains) of AI. The results of testing humoral immunity revealed that the prepared vaccines with ...

Afaf. A. Khedr*, Ekram Salama*, A. A. Samy**, Abdella, Y.A.*** and Suzan. K. Tolba***

...inactivated oil adjuvant vaccines against infectious coryza and infectious bronchitis diseases were prepared, one adjuvanted with mineral oil and the other with Montanide ISA-70. Evaluation of both vaccines were done by challenge test, haemagglutination inhibition test, ELISA test for Avibacterium Paragallinarum, and ELISA test, indirect haemagglutination inhibition test and ciliostasis score for infectious Bronchitis virus ...

1Mona A. El-Manzalawy, 2Abeer A. Boseila , 3Hanan M. El Zahed

...op a new inactivated RVF vaccine Formulation adjuvanted by Peppermint oil (PMO) with Aluminum hydroxide gel (Alum gel) or without Alum gel, then ensure the safety and sterility of these vaccines and compare between them with the local RVF vaccine with Alum gel alone in sheep. This peppermint formulation including Alum gel adjuvant was the best of choice as it induced higher immunological e...

Aya El-Turkey1, A. K. El-Attar1, A. E. Aboulata1, B. Othman2 and K. A. El-dougdoug2

...velopment of plant based vaccine production systems against HSV-2.


Sherif .M. Ibrahim*, Abd El-Razek. B. Abd El-Razek*. Hanan. M. El-Zahed Amal. A. Fatouh* and Ayatollah. I. Ibrahim*

...FPV and PPV isolates and vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis for the amplified P4p product revealed close similarity of the FPV isolate (FPLH) and fowl pox vaccine (FPVV) with the published sequences for FPV in the Genebank. Unexpectedly, PPV isolates (PPLA, PPLR) and PPV vaccine (PPVV) showed high similarity to the published FPVs-P4b sequence in gene bank and distributed under genogrou...

Abd El-Hamid, M.I1; Seham, A. ElZeedy1; El-Sanousi A.A2, Reda, I.M2, Nehal, S. Saleh1., Abbas, A.M1

...etions. Extensive use of vaccines has not eliminated EHV infections, and the worldwide annual financial burden from these equine pathogens is immense. Clinical signs may occur despite the presence of a virus-specific immune response in the horse. The current study focus on outbreak recorded in El Zahraa Stud for Arabian horses during 2014 and recorded officially for the first time by OIE in Egypt by the notification presented by Chairman, General Organization ...

Amir M. Walaa1 ; Ausama Yousif1; Walid H. Kilany2; Magdy El-Sayed1; Ahmed A. El-Sanousi1

...ined inactivated NDV+IBV vaccines and investigate its ability to protect experimental broiler chickens against challenge with wild ND and IB viruses. Two hundred and eighty commercial one-day-old broiler saso chicks were divided into 8 groups (35 birds each). Groups 2, 3, 4&5 were vaccinated at one-day-old with live hitchner + IB Primer. Then all groups at 7 days old were boosted with inactivated combined NDV+IBV vaccine...

Hanan M. El-Zahed, Hanaa A. Mostafa, Nermeen M. El Sayed and Lamiaa M. Omar

...icken anemia virus (CAV) vaccines. One was vaccinated with 26 P4 strain vaccine subcutaneously and the other was vaccinated with Cux strain vaccine through drinking water (DW). Then the inactivated avian influenza (AI) H5N1 vaccine was inoculated intra-muscularly either at the 1st, 2nd or 3rd WPV with CAV vaccine formi...

Manar F. Seioudy1, Magda M. Sayed1, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2 and M. A. Shalaby2

...s. A live attenuated PPR vaccine has been produced in Veterinary Serum and Vaccines Research Institute (VSVRI), Abbasia. It has and still been utilized to control PPR disease in endemic areas of the Arabian Gulf. In this study, the identity of four batches of PPR vaccines was tested as per the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) guidelines and Couacy-Hymann et al., 2002 using RT-PCR ...

Nashwa M. Helmy1, Ahmed S. Ahmed2, and Zeinab3 Y. Mohamed

...tenuated sheep pox virus vaccine located in Sharkia and Fayoum governorates. Methods: Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) was isolated from skin biopsies collected from clinically infected cattle. The virus was isolated on MDBK cell line and identified by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) using specific hyper immune serum against LSDV. Further identifications were carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) an...

Lamya A. F. Ateya1 , Said. A .Ahmed2, Khamees K.S. Ashraf3, Heba A. Abdel-Hady4

...y local and imported FMD vaccines in cattle sera in Kalubeya Governorate. Methods: 220 serum samples were tested for FMD NSP by 3ABC Trapping ELISA.20 serum samples were used as control (no vaccination),100 serum samples collected from animals received local vaccine and 100 serum samples from animals received imported vaccine. Results: 34/220(15.5%) were +ve and 186/220(84.5%)were –v...

Ola Youssef 1; EL-Deeb A.H.2 Nassif S.A.1 and Ahmed A. El-Sanousi 2.

...combinant H5
vaccines had been established yet so, these vaccines are evaluated by applying the conventional QC
tests such as identity, safety, purity, potency and efficacy that were not satisfactory in vaccine
Objective: The present study was conducted to standardize a protocol for quality control and
evaluation of th...

Ehab M. El-Nahas1, Hemat S. El-Sayed2, Sawsan S. El-Basuni3, Gabr F. El-Bagoury1 the commonly used IBV vaccine Massachusetts strains H120 and M41 respectively. Egypt/Qal/014p had a unique amino acid substitution at residues 39 (Serine), 40 (Tyrosine), 41 (Lysine), 64 (Glutamate) and 69 (Valine) of the S1 proteins from H120 and M41.The cross-neutralization test revealed antigenic relatedness of Egypt/Qal/014p with Massachusetts serotypes. The commercial H120 vaccine conferred partial protection against...

Manar F. Seioudy1, Magda M. Sayed1, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2 and Mohammed A. Shalaby2

...s petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine is a matter of concern to ensure
releasing of safe, effective and potent product.
Objective: To use of some molecular techniques as conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase
chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR in identity test of PPR vaccine.
Methods: Four batches of PPR vaccines that produced in ...

Naglaa F.S. Awad1, Gamelat K.F. Kotb2 with
the vaccine strain and isolate UT01 within genotype 6 RHDVa. Molecular analysis of antigenic
regions of VP60 (part of E and F regions) revealed neither detection of recombination points nor sites
under positive selection.
Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that non-hemagglutinating RHDVa G6 variant viruses are
currently circulating in Sharkia with the ability to infect both young and a...

Lamiaa M. Omar, Mohamed A. Abdrabo, Dali M. Omar, Nermeen A. Marden

...vaccinated birds with AI vaccines under strictly controlled condition with
virulent HPAI virus may also be used to predict flock response to AI infection. The reduction in
challenge virus replication can be quantified using classical virus isolation (VI) and titration methods
in (ECE) or by molecular assay for detection AI virus specific nucleic acids such as (rRT-PCR).
Methods: Titration of the HPAI virus for in...

Maha A. El-Abhar1, Moustafa A. Elkady1, Khaled M. Ghanem2, Hussieny A. Bosila3

adjuvant in FMD vaccine for cattle.

Dina A. Abdulrahman1, Ayman H. EL-Deeb2, Momtaz A. Shaheen1 & Hussein A. Hussein2

...ains and update the used vaccine accordingly.
Methods: Twelve epithelial samples were collected from cattle showing signs suspecting of FMD.
The samples were tested by real time RT-PCR using universal primers for detection of all seven
serotypes of FMDV. The positive-resulted samples were then tested using conventional PCR and pan
FMD primers. The same samples were tested again using serotype-specific primers to ...
Maha M. Khedr1, Reem A. Suliman1, Marwa F. Mohamed1, Mounir D. El Safty1, Hussein A.
...inated with the prepared vaccine; group 4, 5 and 6 were
vaccinated with one of the imported reassortant H5N1 containing 300 HAU at 1, 5 and 10 days of age;
respectively. Groups 7 and 8 were positive and negative groups for the challenge trial. Blood samples
were collected weekly for 4 weeks of age and tested by HI test. Post challenge, tracheal and cloacal swabs
were collected at 3, 5, 7, and 10 days and tested b...
Hussein A. Hussein, Maha Khedr, Reem A. Suliman, Marwa F. Mohamed, Mounir D. El
...luenza virus
vaccines is urgent to reach protective antibody titers and reduce virus shedding.
Methods: Groups of one-day old commercial broiler chicks were divided in to 8 groups 1, 2 and 3 were
vaccinated with a prepared vaccine contain 500HAU of H5N1 reassortant antigen; while group 4, 5 and 6
were vaccinated with an imported reassortant vaccine
Dalia M. Omar1, Nermeen A. Marden1, Lamiaa M. Gaafar1, Elham A. El-ebiary1, Khalid El-Dougdoug2, Badawi Othman2, Abd Elsattar Arafa3, Hussein A. Hussein4
...o be
used in vaccine quality control in Egypt.
Methods: The newly isolated virus was identified and subtyped antigenically by serological test as
Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) using standard AI antisera for H5 antigen and genetically by RTPCR
using specific primer for H5 gene and it was confirmed to be H5N1 and grouped according to the
year of isolation as 2016 isolate strain.

Nermeen A. Marden1, Lamiaa M. Gaafar1, Hussein A. Hussein2

...uation methods of the AI vaccines are very important
for controlling the license of the bad vaccines. Comparative studies between the invitro and invivo
methods for 8 types of AI vaccines (5 batches for each) to evaluate their efficacies were done.
Methods: The invivo method, was done through the vaccination-challenge pathway of SPF chickens
Sahar Mubashar*, Tariq Mukhtar and Nasir Ahmad Khan
...staff. Unfortunately, no vaccine is available yet so the only management strategy is the prevention of infection by wearing masks and following social distancing. Cleanliness, hygiene and quarantine measures are the key to stop any epidemic to pandemic and is known to human being throughout the history and it becomes more critical when global travelling is a norm.

Akram I. Aboelkhair1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Momtaz A. Shahin1 and Hussein A. Hussein2

...out using sheep poxvirus vaccine. Last year (2016-2017) revealed
many cases of LSD in sheep pox vaccinated cattle in Egypt.
Objective: In this study LSDV was isolated from sheep pox vaccinated cattle showing LSD signs to
confirm LSD viral infection even in sheep pox vaccinated cattle.
Methods: 130 Nodular samples were collected from 150 vaccinated cattle showing signs of LSD,
Then Molecular detection ...

Hanaa A. Elsamadony1, Laila A. Tantawy1, Sabry E. Omar2 and Heba A. Abd Alah1

... their relationship with vaccine
used in the field and other reference strains. Then to observe microscopic lesions and to detect CAV
antigens by immunohistochemically in thymus and bone marrow tissues of SPF chicks infected with
Methods: In this study, 30 layer farms of age 40 to 100-days-old from different governorates
(Alexandria, Gharbia, Giza and Qalubia) were examined for CAV with real-time...

Rana A. Rabiea1, Mohamed Fawzy2, Mohamed H. Khodeir3 and MokhtarM. EL-Tarabili2

and safe vaccines.
Aim: The present study investigated the effect of simultaneous administration of inactivated AI
vaccine and live attenuated TRT vaccine on the immune response of turkey chickens.
Methods: Four groups of bronzy turkey chickens were used in this study; group-1 received live
attenuated TRT

Aml S. El-Saadany1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2 and Hussien A. Hussien2

...assical IBDV
vaccines and demonstrated IBD characteristic lesions.
Objective: In present study the aim was to molecular characterize IBDV field strains detected in flocks
located in 4 governorates. Also, a phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence of the hyper variable
region of VP2 gene was carried out.
Methods: Forty field bursa samples were collected from different localities. IBDV was detected u...

Mohamed F. ElKersh1, Fatma M. Abdalla2, Gamilat K. Farg2, Soad A. Nasef3, Ahmed A. Ali2

... develop the recommended vaccines. Objective: Our study aimed for Molecular Diagnosis of Avian influenza virus (AIV) from Different Avian Species that would be useful to detect the current strains present in Egypt to use it in vaccination program. Methods:In this study, we collected 122 sample representing 12 different area in Egypt and seven different species of poultry produced and traded in Egypt. These samples were isolated on SPF eggs, detected for AIV in...
Hanan Sayed1, Mohamed S. Madkour1, Hussein A. Hussein2, Mounir Mohamed Elsaft 3,
Marwa F. El saied3, Ahmed A El-Sanousi2
...LaSota, M41 and Var2 IB) vaccine based mainly on repetition of challenge.
Methods: We prepared formalin inactivated combined vaccine for Avian Influenza (H9N2N),
Newcastle (La), and IB (M41 and Var 2) by using montanide 71 adjuvant. The prepared vaccine was
injected intramuscularly in specific pathogen free and commercial layer chicken, the injection was...

Hanan Sayed 1, Mohamed S. Madkour 1, Hussein A. Hussein 2, Ahmed A El-Sanousi 2

...LaSota, M41 and Var2 IB) vaccine based on laboratory tests and
repetition of challenge test.
Methods: We prepared formalin inactivated combined vaccine for Avian Influenza (H9N2N),
Newcastle (La), and IB (M41 and Var 2) by using montanide 71 adjuvant. The prepared vaccine was
injected intramuscularly in specific pathogen free and commercial l...

Youssef A. Elgharbawy1, Mervat M. Ali1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Mohamed A. Shalaby2

...duce live attenuated LSD vaccine but it has stopped due to the seriousness of the disease's return to its virulence and the post vaccinal reaction of the vaccine so we prepare inactivated LSD virus(LSDV) vaccine to immunize the cattle with safe vaccine .Ismailia isolate of LSD was propagated and titrated on Madin Darby Bovine Kidney Cells (MDBK) till rea...

Abdelaziz A. Yassin, Ayman H. El Deeb, Abeer E. Mansour, Hussein A. Hussein

...nactivated trivalent FMD vaccine. Expression of Th1 and Th2 was determined using quantitative ELISA. Results reveled peaks of IL-4 at 7th day, IFN-γ at 14th day and IL-2 at 21st day post vaccination. Lymphocytic proliferation assays demonstrated the continuous response of lymphocytes started at the 3rd day till reaches peak at 28th day post vaccination then start to decline. Whereas the peak titers for antibodies were reported at the 28th day post vaccin...

Wesley D. Nafarnda, Japhet H. Baraya, Olatunde H. Olabode, Malang K. Simon (dusa) as alternative vaccine carrier in five
Local Government Areas (LGA) in Adamawa state, Nigeria.
Method: Structured questionnaire on general knowledge, practice and productivity indicators was
administered thrice to participating household poultry farmers alongside administration of feed based
V4 thermostable ND vaccination in chickens. Sera obtained from forty (40) chickens per LGA during
Hadeer M. Mossa, Ausama A. Yousif, Emad A. Aboelsoud, Mahmoud El Gamal, Ahmed El-
...y heterologous sheep pox vaccine
(SPPV) giving un-satisfiable results and incomplete protection in vaccinated cattle, since that it was a
must to produce a homologues vaccine for LSDV.
Methods: A local isolate of LSDV strain was propagated on MDBK cell line and CPE was appeared
after 72 hours as cell rounding, cell aggregation and cell degeneration with titer of 105.5TCID50/ml,...
Ahmed A. ElWakil1, Ausama A. Yousif2 , Adel A. Fayed3, Ibrahim M. elsabagh2, Mahmoud
El Gamal2, Omnia H. Refaei3
...gyptian sheep pox (SPPV) vaccine, apparently healthy cattle in
contact with the diseased cattle, and one healthy animal located in a previously infected zone. LSDVspecific
PCR was used to detect LSDV in sampled ticks. PCR-positive tick samples were subject to a
modified RT-PCR assay to detect the polyadenylated LSDV DNA polymerase mRNA. Metagenomics
analysis using MinIon technology was used to generate LSDV seque...

Mohamed M. Mashaly1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Momtaz A. Shahein1, Hussein A. Hussein2

... current live attenuated vaccines against CaPVs. The virus isolation,
identification, and vaccine or other diagnostic preparations mainly depend on the proper culture used.
Objective: Our aim was to study the growth kinetic of recent LSDV isolate to determine the culture
properties of recent LSDV isolated from skin nodule that could be useful in the attempts to develop
more eff...
Soad, E. Elsayed 1, Mohammed A. Shalaby2, Ausama A. Yousef2, Abu bakr A. Agor1,
Sherouk E. Aly1
...>livestock with a potent vaccine.
Objective: Process development of the current formulations and generating new ones is crucial.
Currently, Montanide ISA 206 is the adjuvant used in FMDV vaccine produced in Egypt which is
w/o/w microemulsion.
Methods: We aimed to increase the efficacy of the conventional formulation by converting the
microemulsion to Bio-compatible ...
Shourok E. Aly 1, Karim Zaki1, Soad E. Elsayed2, M. Elgamal2, Ausama A. Yousef1, Mohamed A. Shalaby1
fever virus (RVFV) vaccine.
Objective: Herein, we aimed to enhance the immunogenicity of the conventional vaccine by
developing a smaller particle size vaccine formulation through ultrasonic dispersion of aluminum
hydroxide adjuvant.
Methods: This was achieved by ultrasonication of aluminum hydroxide gel in the presence of
Karim M. Selim1, Abdullah A. Selim1, abdelsattar Arafa1, Hussein A. Hussein2, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2
...rld. Currently, the used vaccine strains (mainly genotypes I and II) are
three to seven decades old and are genetically distant from the currently circulating virulent
Newcastle disease virus (NDV).
Objectives: In this study we compared two vaccination programs against NDV in chickens,
one using genotype VII inactivated and live NDV vaccine are available in the market and
Arsalan Khan1*, Navid Anjum2, Muhammad Shuaib Khan3, Shakeeb Ullah3
Ali Zaman3, Kamran Safdar3, Khalid Muhammad3, Ambrina Tariq4
Muhammad Inam Malik3, Muhammad Kamal Shah3, Atiq ur Rehman3 
and Hamza Maris3
...and its application as a vaccine against hard ticks of the cattle. For this purpose, ticks were collected from cattle and crude extract of ticks was prepared using standard procedures i.e. mixed with formalin, antibiotic and vegetable oil to prepare the vaccine. This vaccine was administered thrice (at weekly interval) in 15 cattle @ 1ml/50 Kg of the body weight of each animal accor...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Vol. 53, Iss. 5, Pages 1603-2000


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