Ruse, Michael, The Gaia Hypothesis: Science on a Pagan Planet, The University of Chicago Press, 2013, 251 pp, $26.00, ISBN 978-0-226-73170-4

 

Science, Religion and Culture

Tom Gilson & Carson Weitnauer (eds), True Reason: Confronting the Irrationality of the New Atheism (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2013), 315pp, US$17.99 (paperback), ISBN 978-0-8254-4338-1

Reviewed by Gregory W. Dawes, Associate Professor of Philosophy

Science, Religion and Culture
...blems posed by religious diversity, the so-called “naturalism” of the modern sciences, the relations between faith and reason and religion and science, the role of religion in supporting our moral convictions, the reliability of the biblical accounts of Jesus’ life, and the problems posed by biblical endorsements of slavery and genocide. No review could do justice to so wide a range of issues, so my aim here is simply to offer some general re...

Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology
...h studies on the genetic diversity of the antigenically important RVA VP7- and VP4- protein encoding genes are important for vaccine development or judging the efficacy of existing RVA vaccines, they do not always provide conclusive information on the overall and complex genetic makeup of RVAs, as the remaining 9 RVA gene segments are also susceptible to the forces governing RVA genetic diversity. Whole genomic analysis of R...

Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
...s faced with an enormous diversity of options in virtually every area of human life, end up making important decisions simply on the basis of momentary personal preference. In this article, I first review the classical philosophical understanding of the relation between the One and Many in which the One is conceived as ontologically prior to the Many as their necessary principle of unity and intelligibility. I then propose a new paradigm for the relation betwe...

Yanina Panzera1*, Nicolas Sarute1, Lucia Carrau1, Jaime Aldaz2, Ruben Perez1

... analysis of the genetic diversity, evolution, and epidemiology of the virus in several countries. Our study allowed us to establish the presence of four genetic lineages in South America, being the continent with more lineages described to date, underscoring the high genetic diversity of the circulating strains.

...

Shahid Iqbal Awan1*, Syed Dilnawaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Amjad Ali3, Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed1, Aurangzeb Rao1

...s was used to assess the diversity in 176 wheat genotypes for morpho-physiological traits. Simple correlation coefficients indicated that grain weight had a significant positive relationship with residual transpiration, osmotic adjustment, cell membrane stability, flag leaf weight, specific flag leaf weight, while negatively correlated with specific flag leaf area. These results indicated the importance of physiological traits and their positive influence on g...

Neil Levy

...when there is sufficient diversity among the deliberators. This fact will give AIs a reason to value our continued flourishing, so that we are able to contribute to valuable epistemic diversity

...

Neil Levy

...when there is sufficient diversity among the deliberators. This fact will give AIs a reason to value our continued flourishing, so that we are able to contribute to valuable epistemic diversity

...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

...pon knowledge of genetic diversity between species’ population. Two species were studied: Glossina palpalis palpalis and Glossina morsitans submorsitans using two mitochondrial DNA fragment primers- Cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and Cytochrome b (CytB). Twelve samples of laboratory-reared population of each species were used for the study. Sequencing data were used to calculate haplotype, haplotype diversity<...

Halide Nihal Açikgöz1*, Serdal Kenan Köse2 and Ali Açikgöz3

 

 

...s were used to determine diversity (Shannon-Wiener [H’], Simpson Dominance [Sd], Simpson Diversity [S], Margalef Species Richness Indices, Pielou’s Evenness [EH], and Simpson Resiprocal Indices). Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Lucilia richardsi (Collin) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were identified. C. vicina was found in whole year in 2012 and 201...

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

...ants and the ground. Ant diversity in fire ant-infested plots was significantly reduced compared with in fire ant-free plots. Compared with in the no-ant plots, the colony growth rate of mealybug significantly increased, and the parasitism of mealybug was obviously decreased, both in fire ant-infested plots and in fire ant-free plots. Colony growth rate of mealybug in fire ant-infested plots was greater than fire ant-free plots. These results suggest that S. i...

Haji Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal* and Saira Saleemi

... sites to ascertain fish diversity and their distribution pattern. A total 2249 fish specimen were collected using a variety of fish nets and identifications of these fishes were made by using standard taxanomic keys on the basis of morphometric characters. Seventy species belonging to 43 genera and 17 families were recorded from the study area of Indus River. Thirty two species were commercially important. Alpha Diversity I...

Süleyman Kök1*, Sertaç Atalay1, Hasan Semih Eken2 and Mustafa Savaşçi3

...e for preserving genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to reveal the genotype profile of indigenous types for TGC breed. In order to characterize TGC population, two polymorphic loci in cattle Calpain gene (CAPN1) and one polymorphic locus in Calpastatin gene CAST were studied. In order to sort the allele variants (G/C), PCR products, the ones in CAST with RsaI enzyme, was cut using RFLP method. The allele variants (G/C) of CAPN1 316 and (C/T) of CAPN1 ...

Atta ur Rehman1, Sher Ali2 and Sajid Malik2*

...collected. Absolute gene diversity, gene differentiation and genetic diversity were estimated to be 0.01, 0.019 and 0.515, respectively. There were the highest affinities between the samples obtained from Lakki Marwat and Tank districts, whereas the least affinities were evident between Karak and South Waziristan Agency populations. Collectively, these results show the presence of sub-populations in lower KPK which may sugge...

Ibrar Khan1,2,3,*, Sadia Qayyum2, Shehzad Ahmed2, Kashif Syed Haleem2, Mujaddad-ur-Rehman1, Guang-Lei Liu3 and Zhen-Ming Chi3

...w Sea is one of the mega diversity centers of the world and contains vast amount of flora and fauna. The Penicillium species belongs to one of the most common and economically significant group of marine micro-fungi family. The study comprised isolation, microscopic observations and ribotyping, allowed discrimination of the marine fungal isolates as Penicillium viticola F1, Penicillium restrictum F2, Penicillium rubens F8, Penicillium implicatum F10, Penicilli...

Fukuan Du1,2, Yan Li2, Zhixin Wen1, Ruguo Chen1 and Pao Xu2*

...ng investigating genetic diversity, constructing genetic maps, and marker assisted selection.

...

Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed and Dilnawaz Ahmed Gardezi

...l evaluation, phenotypic diversity analysis and their flowering behavior sugarcane under local conditions. Two year data revealed that genotype HSF-242 showed maximum mean values for, internodes length, brix percentage and reducing sugar while S-08-FSD-19 showed maximum values for number of tillers and stem girth, whereas S-05-FSD-307 revealed maximum values for plant height and number of nodes. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences for ...
Waheed Anwar*, Muhammad S. Haider, Ahmad A. Shahid, Hamid Mushtaq, Usman Hameed, Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman and Muhammad Javed Iqbal
...t is not enough to score diversity within species and isolates. Additionally pathogenicity of isolated Fusarium species was evaluated against nymph and adult of Bemisia tabaci. Under controlled conditions different species of Fusarium restrained the growth of B. tabaci as compared with control.
...
Ahmad Kamran Khan1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1,*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Nazir Javed2
...ning the soil health. Biodiversity of Mesostigmata can be used to access the soil health within a geographical region. Family richness, diversity, abundance and evenness of soil inhabiting Mesostigmata mites in cultivated and undisturbed soil were estimated from five different localities of Punjab, Pakistan in 2014. Family richness, abundance and Shannon diversity indexes were higher in un...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Zhong-Yuan Zhang1, Yan-Guo Han1, Wei-Wei Ni1, Ming-Xing Chu2, Yue-Hui Ma2, Jian-Ning He3, Huai-Zhi Jiang4, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Yan Zeng1, Ri-Su Na1, Gao-Fu Wang5, Hang-Xing Ren5 and Yong-Fu Huang1*
...heep. We estimated their diversity and population structure in three high fecundity goats (Jianzhou big ear goat, Jining grey goat, Dazu black goat) and three low fecundity goats (Boer goat, Nubian goat, Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat). The results revealed a high diversity of those markers in the goat populations. The population structure did not diverge significantly between high fecundity goats and low fecundity populations...

Sadiq Ali* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...ting in loss of local biodiversity. Field survey of district Swabi (Peshawar Valley) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, was carried out during May-June, 2013-14 to study the distribution of Parthenium weed. Five villages were selected and thirty locations were randomly selected from each village. The data revealed that the flora is predominated by parthenium weed with the highest relative density of 63.4% among all weeds, followed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Cannabis ...
Tianzhu Chao, Huiqiang Cai, Yuxun Zhou, Kai Li* and Junhua Xiao
...subspecies distribution, diversity and differentiation of the house mouse Mus musculus provide insights into past dispersal events in natural populations of this species. We investigated the molecular phylogenetics of Chinese house mice based on 466 DNA sequences from mitochondrial D-loop fragments. Our analyses revealed that Mus musculus musculus and M. m. castaneus are older colonized subspecies with broad distributions in East China, wh...

M.A. Pendse, P.P. Karwande and M.N. Limaye

Past, present and future of nematophagous fungi as bio-agent to control plant parasitic nematodes
...y various workers on the diversity, morphology ecology, physiology of nutrition, trap formation and mechanism of nematode capture as well as probable causes of death. The review traces the shift in the areas of research as well as ups and downs in the interest shown by the researchers. Guide lines for organized, coordinated research to i) screen different strains of NF that are tolerant to antagonism by other fungi, and ii) develop a bioagent based on nematoph...

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
...dy the molecular genetic diversity in major root knot and cyst nematode species of India to assist the breeding program for developing resistant varieties and other purposes like regulatory and nematode diagnostics. Attempts have also been to made to understand the molecular signaling events during compatible plant nematode interactions by identifying the genes during the transition from preparasitic to parasitic stage in ear cockle nematode and molya disease ...
Ghulam Abbas1,Asif Nadeem1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Muhammad Sajid Tahir3, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3, Muhammad Tayyab1 and Maryam Javed1
...nt role in phylogeny and diversity analysis. In Pakistan hog deer (Axis porcinus) is an important wild species belongs to the family Cervidae. The hog deer is one of the least studied species at molecular level in Pakistan. The present study was planned to investigate its molecular phylogeny and diversity analysisusing mitochondrial cytochrome b, cytochrome c and d-loop region. Samples werecollect...
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
...red to explore molecular diversity of the pathogens together with sero-conversion in animals and humans.
...
Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Fatima Sellami3 and Muhammad Afzal1
...lity represented highest diversity indices of Shannon-Weiner’s (1.65), Margalef’s (1.40) and Simpson’s (0.75).
...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

...d close to the center of diversity of P. striiformis f.sp. tritici. Around 1600 wheat fields were sampled covering a geographical area of little less than 5000 acres in the southern, central and northern zones located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. Yellow rust occurrence was distributed over an area of 463 acres in all three wheat production zones. Maximum yellow rust impact values (estimated by Field Impact Factor (FIF) of 121, 201 and 328 were rec...
Wanchao Zhu1, Qinguo Wei1, Shuyu Xue1, Huanxin Zhang2, Tianshu Lv1 and Honghai Zhang1,
... to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure for the conservation and management of sables (Martes zibellina), we developed six microsatellite markers using a method of fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) from them in this study. The primers designed by Primer Premier 5.0 based on conservative regions were tested on 22 individuals. Our results demonstrated that the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to...
Rabia Arif*, Shahar Bano, Muhammad Ishfaq and Muhammad Saleem
..., to examine genetic diversity. Strains were taken from two contrasting environments (Natural and Harsh) from the south facing and north facing slopes of Evolution Canyon, Israel. Sequenced amplicons were introduced to the NCBI database as a query in BLASTN. The query revealed >100% resemblance with the Ascomycota genus Sordaria and the topmost species in this investigation was fimicola. Circular Phylogram showed close relatedness among th...

Attaullah Ansari* and Nasreen Memon 

...s richness, evenness and diversity index were also calculated. The highest and lowest degrees of population size, richness and evenness and diversity were recorded in agriculture crops and fodder crops, respectively. 

...
Mubashir Hussain1,Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Ijaz Ahmad2*, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3 and Sohail Latif4
...2, seed frequency, diversity of weed species and relative importance value. The input and output data was also collected to find out the socioeconomic feasibility of the techniques. The comparative analysis of seed bank extraction methods revealed higher weed seeds density, weed frequency with more diversity of weed species under sieving method in comparison to seedling emergence method. Therefore, sieving method was c...
Farid S. Ataya,1,2,* Dalia Fouad,3,4 Ajamaluddin Malik,1 Nikolaos E. Labrou,5 Mohamed S. Daoud1,6 and Hesham M. Saeed7
...urther insights into the diversity and complex enzymatic functions of GST superfamily.
...
Saswati Roy1, Rakesh Pashi2, S. Dey3 and Shantanu Jha
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Muhammad Shahzad2, Xiaokang Wu3, Chaofeng Ma4 and Jiru Xu1,*
...ration in similarity and diversity of gut microbial composition with comparison of healthy controls. Fecal samples from fifteen patients and five healthy individuals were collected. PCR-DGGE, by using universal primers focusing V3 region of 16S rRNA gene, was performed for characterization of gut microbial composition. Sequencing of most dominant excised gel bands was done. Real-time PCR was performed to evaluate the copy numbers of dominant bacteria of gut mi...
Telat Yanik1,* and Irfan Aslan2
... and deforestation on biodiversity, it is imperative to investigate the global warming on aquaculture welfare and productivity. Our current understandings on impacts of altered climate dictate a weak relationship between global warming and naturally occurring migrations. However, several models have been presented that elucidate the negative impact of global warming on the aquatic biodiversity. While impact of global warming...
Qingying Jia1, Hui Wang1, Tianhong Wang1, Na Dong1, Shuguang Ren1,2, Xiaolong Yang1, Jingze Liu1,* and Zhijun Yu1,3,*
...and can transmit a great diversity of pathogens. The current study investigated the effects of temperature on reproductive fitness of the engorged H. longicornis, results indicated that the engorged H. longicornis could survive all treatments at 0°C and 4°C, and pre-ovipositon periods were prolonged after 0°C, 4°C and 40°C treatment, whereas it was shortened after 37°C stress (P<0.05). The oviposition periods were varie...

 Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal*, Mehedi Hasan Kanon, Mohammad Amzad Hossain, Abul Hossain, Shamima Nasren, Md. Jahidul Islam, Md. Arifur Rahman

...2000. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found highest (3.12) in June and lowest (2.9) in January. Margalef richness index was found highest (3.02) in July and lowest (2.70) in December. On the other hand, Pielou’s evenness index was lowest (0.82) in three successive months i.e., in October, November and January and highest (0.88) in April. The fish species of Konoskhaihaor found to be evenly distributed. Simpson dominance index were found to be high...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

...time of fruits trees, biodiversity and livestock’s. Respondents were selected randomly but priority was given to elders and those possess land and practice agriculture. The study reveals that majority of the respondents are well aware of climate change and its effects on cropping calendar, crop variety, crop yield, crop diseases as well as an earlier blossoming of fruit trees. The respondents in all the fifteen villages unanimously agreed that sowing and...

Muhammad Zamin* and Abdul Mateen Khattak 

... existing variations and diversity of Sporobolus spicatus and its suitability as turf grass needed to be assessed for conservation and to combat salinity problem. For this purpose, various ecotypes of Sporobolus spicatus were investigated by conducting mowing tests in the year 2013 under UAE climatic conditions. Fifty ecotypes of Sporobolus spicatus were cut at various heights, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm. Significant differences were found among various ecotypes...
Shahid Mehmood1,*, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Hassan Raza1, Rida Ahmad1, Azhar Muhammad3, Zulfiqar Ali2, Farhan Abid1, Fehmeeda Bibi4 and Syed Maviz Ahmed5
... year round bird species diversity from October 2014 to September 2015 at Safari Zoo Lahore (31°2257 N, 74° 12 47 E and elevation 208m) located in district Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. In total, 5456 birds belonging to 71 species, 40 families and 12 orders were recorded. Bird species distribution was: year round residents 50 (70.4%), winter migrants 12 (16.9%), summer breeders eight (8) (11.3%) and passage migrant one (...

Syed Asif Imran Shah1*, Shah Jehan Khan2, Kalim Ullah1 and Obaid Ullah Sayal

Tasleem Akhtar*, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Sheraz Ahmedand Imran Bodlah
...ring 2015 to compare the diversity and abundance of different insect pollinators on canola (Brassica napus L. Var. Chakwal Sarsoon) crops along with managed Apis mellifera. Thirty five insect species belonging to twenty families under five orders were recorded on canola. Among the hymenopterans, abundance of managed A. mellifera was maximum (87.76%) followed by Apis florea (1.11%) and Apis dorsata (0.98%). Peak activity of th...

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

...cient tool for screening diversity of rust genes in wheat germplasm and can facilitate the integration of multiple genes into wheat by pyramiding and transformation. This review discusses information regarding rust disease and resistance in wheat to tackle the disease through resistance breeding. 

...
Bashir Ahmad1, Muhammad Idrees1,*, Kafeel Ahmad1, Dawood Ahmad2, Sajid Ali3 and Shumaila Bashir4
...ned to study the genetic diversity in the M. tuberculosis isolates isolated from clinical samples. In the current study total 794 patients were tested for suspected tuberculosis by fluorescence microscopy and GeneXpert system during the study period (2015-2016) at the Provincial TB Reference Laboratory, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Among the 794 patients studied, 170 samples gave positive results. Fifty-two Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MT...

Aslam Memon, A. M. Khushk* and Umer Farooq**

...ted to increase varietal diversity on their farms to avoid any risk of complete crop failure due to any reason. Sugar mills in all three provinces are suggested to take serious note of status of adoption of different sugarcane varieties through a collective action in their respective provinces. Activities like planting demonstration plots of promising varieties on farmers’ fields, launching special sugarcane varietal promotion campaigns for spreading des...

 Aly Khan* and S. Shahid Shaukat**

...ogyne incognita. Species diversity (H’) was highest in Wadh while lowest in Ali Dasht. Equitability (J’) component of diversity was highest in Kork and lowest in Ali Dasht, while species richness (d’) component was highest in Alat. The soils associated with Pomegranate orchards were coarse-structured, alkaline with low maximum water holding capacity. In most cases similarities were low between localities.

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah, Shahid Masood** and Muhammad Irfan Khan*

.... Due to greater genetic diversity in Ocimum germplasm and its suitability for commercial cultivation even in the area under small holdings, the investigation suggest its genetic as well as biochemical investigation for the production of commercial varieties and exploitation of the plant for economic benefits of the local communities.

...

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

...rmation on the molecular diversity of CCoV in many parts of the world. In this study, canine fecal samples from diverse States of Brazil were screened by PCRs for CCoV and positive samples were subjected to partial sequencing for the membrane (M), spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) and non-structural protein 3b genes. Out of the samples collected, 40.17% were positive for CCoV; 57.45% of CCoV-infected animals showed enteritis and most of these (76%) were younger than...
Haixia Liu, Yuwei Ye, Yang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Dongmei Xiong* and Lixin Wang
...o rivers and the genetic diversity of wild population, 11 microsatellite loci were firstly used to evaluate the genetic characterization using 120 samples from 2 tributaries (ZZ and LX populations) of the Weihe river and 2 tributaries (YX and TB population) of Hanjiang river. A total of 59 alleles were found and the number of alleles in each locus ranged from 3 to 8, with an average of 5.4. There were 6 highly polymorphic loci and 4 moderately polymorphic loci...

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah and Shahid Masood**

Corresponding author: shazia_rm@yahoo.com

PHENOTYPIC VARIATION AMONG MENTHA SPP.
...tigate the morphological diversity and relationship within 17 genotypes of mentha species. Different species of Mentha were collected from different ecological zones of the world. Great variation was observed in stem length with the coefficient of variation of 198.7% and standard deviation of 14.1. Among the 17 mint collection, nine special aromas was smelled including mint gum, strong camphoraceous, mint like, spicy, lemon, pungent, musky and acrid due to the...

 Ayesha Tahir* and Zafar Altaf**

DETERMINANTS OF INCOME FROM VEGETABLES PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NORMAL AND OFF-SEASON VEGETABLES IN ABBOTTABAD
...essed with wide climatic diversity which offers opportunities for growing variety of vegetables throughout the year. The promotion of vegetables in Pakistan is necessary not only for increasing farmer's income and production diversity concerns, but also for increasing the intake of micronutrients in human diet through increased vegetable consumption. The spectrum of year round availability of vegetables could be further exte...

 Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Muhammad Yasin Mirza*, Muhammad Amjad*, Nazakat Nawaz*, Malik Shah Nawaz* and Doulat Baig*

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN GERMPLASM OF LINSEED ( L.)
...tence of greater genetic diversity in the accessions for these traits. Dendrogram based on Euclidean distance coefficient using 10 quantitative traits, grouped all the linseed accessions into 13 clusters. Cluster II was the biggest and had 33 accessions followed by Cluster I having 11 accessions. For the development of high yielding varieties, best performing accessions of Clusters I and II could be used in hybridization programme by crossing with accessions o...

 Md. Nazirul Islam*, A. K. Azad**, Leon O. Namuco***, Teresita H. Borromeo***, Maria Lourdes O. Cedo*** and Edna A. Aguilar***

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF A MAKAPUNO COCONUT POPULATION IN U.P. LOS BANOS
...bsp;

...

 Said Salman*, Shah Jehan Khan*, Javed Khan**, Rehmat Ullah Khan*** and Imran Khan****

GENETIC VARIABILITY STUDIES IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) ACCESSIONS
...ferent clusters. Maximum diversity was found in cluster 1 and cluster 4. This maximum diversity explains the better parental selection for future breeding programme.

...

 Md. Nazirul Islam*, M. Z. Rahman**, R. Ali***, A. K. Azad**** and M. K. Sultan**

DIVERSITY ANALYSIS AND ESTABLISHMENT OF CORE SUBSETS OF HYACINTH BEAN COLLECTION OF BANGLADESH
...revealed high phenotypic diversity in vine and pod characters. High diversities were estimated in quantitative characters of inflorescence and pod characters. Considering a core collection strategy, the accessions were stratified into two groups based on vine colors: green and purple. Maximum genotypes of the collection were of green vine. Each of two subgroups were divided into three groups according to colors of pod i.e., green, white and red. Each group aga...

 Frasat Saeed*, Jehanzeb Farooq*, Abid Mahmood**, Tassawar Hussain***, Muhammad Riaz* and Saghir Ahmad****

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN UPLAND COTTON FOR COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE, EARLINESS AND FIBER QUALITY
...or estimation of genetic diversity regarding CLCuD tolerance, fiber quality and some yield contributing traits, 101 cotton genotypes imported from USA were evaluated. Different statistical procedures like cluster, principle components (PC) and correlation analysis were employed to identify the suitable genotypes that can be further exploited in breeding programme. Significant associations were found between yield contributing trait, boll weight and fiber relat...

 Rashid Minhas*, Iftikhar Ahmad Khan**, Faisal Saeed Awan**, Lal Hussain Akhtar*, Syed Awais Sajid Shah* and M. Shahjhan Bukhari* 

ESTIMATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND HYBRID IDENTIFICATION IN AMERICAN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) BY PCR BASED RAPD ANALYSIS
...es to estimate 1 genetic diversity and hybrid identification. Out of the 26 RAPD primers used for DNA amplification, 14 primers produced polymorphic bands, while 12 produced monomorphic bands. These 14 primers yielded total 96 RAPD markers, out of which only 40 were found polymorphic which resulted in 41.66% polymorphism among the genotypes studied. The number of RAPD markers produced ranged from 4 to 12. Average number of 6.40 bands per primer was observed. O...

 Israr Ali*, Naushad Ali*, Riffat Tahira**, Sardar Ali*, Izhar Hussain* and Sher Aslam Khan*

GENETIC DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT IN BRASSICA GERMPLASM BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES
... justify;"> Genetic diversity of 28 Brassica genotypes was studied using different morphological attributes. Data were recorded on days to maturity (DM), -1 -1 plant height (PH), primary branches plant (PBPP), pod length (PL), seed pod (SP), -1 1000-seed weight (1000-SW), yield plant (YPP) and oil (%). Three checks (Pakola, CM and TA), were used to check the performance of collected materials with already available brassica varieties. Significant statisti...

 Muhammad Mohsin Raza*, Muhammad Aslam Khan*, Irfan Ahmad**, Ali Ahsan Bajwa***, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam*, Badar Ahsan Ullah****, and Kashif Riaz*

FOREST PATHOGENS AND DISEASES UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE -A REVIEW
...ating, planning, genetic diversity and facilitated migration, genetic protection and breeding for disease resistance and relating results to forest policy, planning as well as decision making, the suspicions innate to climate change effects can be minimized.

...

 Raja Zoq-ul-Arfeen*, Aamir Saleem*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Muhammad Akmal**, Hafiz Muhammad Tayyab* and Obaid Afzal***

BIODIVERSITY AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM RIPARIAN AREAS OF PAKISTAN: SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TAUNSA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY AND KETI SHAH FORESTS
...ition of riverine floral diversity in low riparian zone of River Indus. The data was collected from Keti Shah forest and Taunsa wildlife sanctuary. Total 14259 plants/individuals were recorded, which belong to 54 plant species with 18 different families. In Taunsa pre-monsoon survey, total 30 plant species were found with 4476 plants from 16 different families. In Taunsa post-monsoon survey total 3348 individuals were recorded from 20 plant species and 9 famil...

 Abdul Haq*, Anjum Shehzad**, Muhammad Ilyas**, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**, Abdul Rauf Bhatti** and Mian Inayatullah*

DIVERSITY AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF CITRUS POLLINATORS IN DISTRICT HARIPUR, PAKISTAN
...All calculated values of diversity indices except Shannon-H does not show significant difference. Shannon's diversity shows that Naseem Town is most diverse locality then Nikrian B with relative values of 2.213 and 1.136.

...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2,*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza2, Muhammad Afzal2,Hafiz Salah-ud-Din2, Imtiaz Sarwar2, Muhammad Yahya2 and Khurram Shehzad3
...t of soil belowground biodiversity and play a significant role in soil biological functioning and sustained productivity. As these fauna readily respond to biotic and abiotic perturbations in soil profiles, different land-use systems have different community assemblages of macroinvertebrates. This study was conducted to determine the impact of different land-use types viz. natural (grassland, forest/silviculture, barren) and agricultural (lemon, guava, ...
Grace Chinenye Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie, Joseph O. Okoro, Christopher Didigwu Nwani*, Ngozi Ezenwaji, Ndubisi Stanley Oluah and Fabian C. Okafor
...he snails assessed using diversity indices accorded A. balteata highest values for Shannon-Wiener (1.03) and Brillouin (0.90) indices with the 3 species harboured being very abundant (Reciprocal Simpson index = 2.80). A thorough understanding of the snails helminthes parasite life cycles, associated host morbidity, and direct and indirect cost of such parasitism to human is important, first for human health and welfare, secondly for sustainable snail fa...
Sana Zahra
...veals widespread lineage diversity and mutational specificity of a population. This study reports p.Y556C mutation as a recurring mutation in Punjabi population of Pakistan. A detailed genetic evaluation of four unrelated but ethnically similar families from Punjab province was performed.Linkage to SLC26A4 locus was confirmed through linkage analysis using Short Tandem Repeat Markers (D7S2420, D7S2459 and D7S2456). p.Y556C was identified as causative mu...
Mubashar Hussain, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Sehreen Siddique, Muhammad Umar, Tamkeen Zainab, Fatima Zafar
...n order to assess the biodiversity and distribution of coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), sampleswere collected from rainfed and irrigated fields of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan during 2015-2016. Adult specimens were collected fortnightly from crops, weeds and shrubs from randomly selected locations i.e. Dolat Nagar, Lala Musa, Jalalpur Jatan, Guliyana, Fateh Pur and Kunjah. Analysis of specimens indicated a representation of 14 species, 6 genera and...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
... habitats. To enrich the diversity of isolated bacteria that produce pectinase, samples were collected from the soil, water, fruits and vegetables wastes. Initial screening of pectinase producing bacteria was carried out on pectin containing agar plates of pH 7 incubated at 37ºC. Among isolated thirty-seven strains, a total of thirteen strains showed satisfactory pectinase productivity. Pectinase production of the thirteen strains was then determined qual...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
... habitats. To enrich the diversity of isolated bacteria that produce pectinase, samples were collected from the soil, water, fruits and vegetables wastes. Initial screening of pectinase producing bacteria was carried out on pectin containing agar plates of pH 7 incubated at 37ºC. Among isolated thirty-seven strains, a total of thirteen strains showed satisfactory pectinase productivity. Pectinase production of the thirteen strains was then determined qual...
Muhammad Arshad,1* Sajjad Ahmad1, Muhammad Sufyan1, Zain-ul Abdin1 and Sumaira Maqsood2
... the wheat aphids’ diversity and their predators association with strip intercropping (brassica, alfalfa, berseem and garlic) and wheat monoculture. Results showed that the first aphid was seen in the last week of January while the predator population was first recorded during the first week of March. Aphid population was maximum on wheat monoculture when 130 specimens were recorded per tiller. Among strip cropping garlic showed maximum population (113 p...
Waqas Ali1,*, Arshad Javid1, Syed Mohsin Bhukhari1, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Hira Rafique1
...o record data related to diversity, distribution and habitat preferences of amphibians and reptiles in any particular ecosystem. During past few years, a decline in amphibian and reptilian species attracted attention of the conservation biologists worldwide to monitor herpetofunal diversity for effective conservation planning and management. Different sampling techniques are applied during herpetofaunal surveys and some of t...
Archana Naithani, Pongthep Suwanwaree* and Bartosz Nadolski
...t the average of species diversity index of the avian community (H’)during the study period was 3.88. Using the Berger-Parker dominance value, we found the most abundant species was House sparrow (Passer domesticus), followed byOriental turtle dove(Streptopelia orientalis), Peaceful Dove (Geopelia striata), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis)and Red collared dove(Streptopelia tranquebarica).The threatened status of birds...
Nanjing Zeng1, Guanhua Liu1, Sibiao Wen1 and Feiyun Tu2,*
... to investigate the bird diversity and avifauna of PLNNR, complete species checklist was strictly checked according to systematic analyses of species records from multisource. Fifty-seven species were newly recorded based on the previous study of 330 bird species. Six previously reported species were removed. We finally recorded 381 bird species, belonging to 18 orders 64 families, accounting for 27.8% of bird species in China; 205 species (53.8%) are Palearct...
Huma Ayub1,Iftikhar Ahmad2, Syed Lal Shah3,*, Muhammad Zafarullah Bhatti4, Nuzhat Shafi5 and Mazhar Qayyum1
...ifera and cladocera. The diversity of the zooplankton species in the lake was determined by richness and evenness indices, which were found as follows; Margalef Index 1.30 to 3.87, Shannon’s Index 2.54 to 3.68, Simpson Index 0.92 to 0.97, Simpson’s Reciprocal Index 12.25 to 37.69 and Pielou’s Evenness Index 0.94 to 1.0. The zooplankton community was found abundant in summer as compared to winter. The copepods were found dominant followed by r...
Muhammad Mohsin Ahsan1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2,*, Khizar Samiullah3
...a of Pakistan is rich in diversity and applicability. However, limited information is available on these animals especially in Punjab province of Pakistan. Furthermore, distributional pattern and habitat structure of known species is also ambiguous. In this study, we report the scorpion Androctonus finitimus (Pocock, 1897) from several areas of Punjab, Pakistan. This scorpion species has not been previously documented from this part of the country, high...
Zeqin Fu, Yunfang Tian, Yingying Ye*, Pengzhi Qi and Changwen Wu
... for researching genetic diversity and population structure and provide more in-depth understanding of Mytilus coruscus.
...
Tariq Mahmood1,*, Shafqat Rasool1, Faraz Akrim1, Shaista Andleeb1, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2 and Fiaz Nadeem3
...o May 2015 for recording diversity of owl species inhabiting Margalla Hills National Park, Islamabad (MHNP). Three owl species viz., Spotted Owlet (Athene brama), Little owlet (Athene noctua) and the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) were recorded from the park at five different sampling sites, at elevations ranging from 615 m to 655 m above sea level. Only one of the three species Tawny owl  was previously known from the park while the ...
Nadeem Munawar, Iftikhar Hussain and Tariq Mahmood*
...mportant component of biodiversity of the agricultural lands and have been identified as destructive mammalian pests of agricultural crops at global level. They cause severe damage to various crops, directly and indirectly, by gnawing, spoilage, contamination and hoarding activities. The current study investigated the occurrence of different rodent species inside the crop fields and at field edges, associated with four major crops (wheat, groundnut, millet and...
Danyu Zhang1, Ying Liu1, Qinxin Shi1, Zhiwei Peng1, Yan Hua1 and Zhijun Hou1,2,*
...a of the sable have more diversity than Siberian tiger, panda, horse, and human, and it may originate from the more divertible diet of the sable.
...
Qaisar Jamal1, Muhammad Idrees1, Saif Ullah2, Muhammad Adnan1, Farrah Zaidi1, Qaiser Zaman1,3 and Syed Basit Rasheed1,*
...tiles shows that maximum diversity (26 species) has been observed at an altitude range of 550-1000 meters which decreased gradually reaching to occurrence of only four species at 2500-2900 meters above sea level. District Dir lower, primarily sub-tropical, was found more diverse regarding squamate species than the mountainous, temperate Upper Dir.
...

Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Muhammad Rizwan2*, Muhammad Akram1, Jaffar Hussain1 and Fiaz Ahmad1 

... yielding genotypes. The diversity analysis categorized fifty-eight genotypes into four clusters. Clustering pattern did not show any relation to the geographic origin. Cluster-I with three genotypes (Thailand: 2; Sri Lanka: 1) and Cluster-II with seventeen genotypes (Thailand: 12, Pakistan: 3, India: 2) showed the highest values for yield and yield contributing traits. Three distant genotypes were identified;a genotype, VC3012B was found high yielding, NIMB-1...
Tanveer Hussain1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar1, Marcos De Donato2, Abdul Wajid1, Asif Nadeem3, Zahoor Ahmad3, Waqas Ahmad Khan4, Sunday O. Peters5 and Ikhide G. Imumorin6
...d the origin and genetic diversity of native cattle breeds (Bos indicus) in Pakistan, partial sequencing of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b (339 bp) was done in 136 individuals from 10 different breeds. Analysis of the Cyt b gene showed high conservation in Pakistani cattle as expected, with only 26 individuals showing nucleotide changes. Only 5 point mutations were present in multiple individuals (SNP), but one was specific for indicine cattle. Two...
Wang-Dui Basang1, Tian-Wu An2, Luo-Bu Danjiu3, Yan-Bin Zhu1, Shi-Cheng He3, Xiao-Lin Luo2, Wei-Wei Ni4, Xiao Wang4, Shu-Zhu Cheng4, Jian Wang4 and Guang-Xin E4,*
...udy, we investigated the diversity and phylogeography of four geographic ecotype populations of the Naqu yak (133 individuals) using an 811-bp mitochondrial DNA D-loop region sequence. In total, 57 polymorphic sites, including 54 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 3 single-nucleotide copy number variants, and 59 haplotypes were detected. The number of haplotypes within the population ranged from 17 (SN and JL) to 28 (DX). The haplotype <...
Riaz Aziz Minhas1,*, Muhammad Nasim Khan1, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Basharat Ahmad1, Syda Shaista Bibi1, Mohsin Hanif1 and Afsar Mian2
...sed the level of genetic diversity and genetic isolation of different langur populations using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) genetic markers. We collected 86 different samples (feces 64, hair 13, blood 5, tissues 4) from 5 geographic langur populations of Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) and succeeded in extraction of DNA from 23 samples, which were used for further genetic analysis. RAPD makers (n=8) produced 245 bands (30.62±2.87 ...
Ai Guo1,2,3, Jiaguang Xiao4, Binbin Shan4, Tianxiang Gao5 and Yongdong Zhou3,*
...r understand the genetic diversity and phylogeny of Coilia, the complete mitochondrial genomes of two lineages in Coilia mystus were compared. They were all typical circular double stranded DNA molecule with 17075 bp in C. mystus N and 16964 bp in C. mystus S, respectively, containing the standard metazoan set of 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and non-coding regions. The mitogenomes of C. my...
Gokhan Sahin1, Ecevit Eyduran2,*, Mete Turkoglu3 and Fatma Sahin2
...o improve for further biodiversity investigations. To determine the predictive quality of the MARS algorithm, goodness of fit criteria viz. coefficient of determination (0.994 and 0.996 R2 for Hd and Hm), Generalized Cross Validation (0.000038 and 0.024024 GCV for Hd and Hm), Cross-Validation R2 (0.974 and 0.967 CVR2 for Hd and Hm), Residual Sum of Squares (0.00046 and 0.28829 RSS for Hd and Hm) and Standard Deviation Ra...
Amtur Rafeh, Rana Manzoor Ahmad, Ayesha Iqbal, Abdul Majid Khan*
...Gazella has great diversity from Middle Miocene to Pliocene from Africa to Eurasia. The morphological characteristics indicate this genus as a conservative bovid with simple morphology. 
...
Haozhen Liu1, Xiangfu Li2, Yinong Wang1,*, Xun Liu3,4, Li Wang1, Dong Liu1, Chen Chen1, Jinjing Li1, Haifeng Jiao5 and Zhongjie You1,5
... knowledge of abundance, diversity and multivariate structure of macrobenthos in the East China Sea of Xiangshan and elucidate main environmental variables that shape their spatial patterns. The environment of the study area has significant spatial heterogeneity. Environmental variables of sediment and water column were studied to provide models for spatial patterns of macrobenthic assemblages. Result showed that most of variation in macrobenthic spatial patte...
Qiang Li1,2, Guo Qiao2, Li Wang1, Jipeng Zhang1, Ruijun Li1, Ping Ni1, Yi Guo1 and Shigen Ye1,*
...vestigated the bacterial diversity and Vibrio harveyi distribution associated with diseased fugu (Takifugu rubripes) in northeastern China from January to December in 2014. The main clinical signs included fin ulceration, skin darkness, hepatohemia and intestinal hydrops. Totally, 104 diseased live fish were collected and 70 strains isolated from naturally diseased T. rubripes. Most isolates were obtained in May, September and December. Th...
Yuan Li1, Liyan Zhang2, Karhoe Loh3, Ji Feng1, Xinqing Zheng1, Puqing Song1 and Longshan Lin1,*
...nd Malaysia. The genetic diversity of all P. minor populations was moderate, and two major haplotype lineages were detected that were differentiated approximately 0.3 million years ago. These two haplotype lineages differed significantly in frequency distribution of Chinese and Malaysian populations, showing an imperfect geographical pedigree structure. Results of AMOVA also showed that the genetic differentiation was mainly among populations. According...
Fehmeeda Fatima, Asif Nadeem* and Maryam Javed
...344 bp) to study genetic diversity and evolutionary characteristics of Sindh ibex. In this research, samples of Sindh ibex were collected from Kirthar National Park, Sindh, Pakistan, the gene of interest was amplified, PCR products were sequenced and data was analyzed. The results of genetic diversity indicated that Parsimony informative sites were found to be 11 while Singleton variable sites were not detected. The total nu...
Mouslim Bara1,2,* and Luciano N. Segura3
...dance and two ecological diversity indices (Shannon and Shannon E). Significant inter-annual fluctuations in bird abundance were recorded. Maximum values were always recorded during autumn. Water depth correlated positively with bird abundance and Shannon index. Field samplings indicated that bird abundance was frequently higher than 1000 individuals, which suggests that this site is an important refuge of water birds in the Guerbes-Sanhadja wetlands complex. ...

 Abbas Ali1, Muhammad Altaf2*, Muhammad Samar Hussain Khan3

Winter survey of birds at Keti Bunder, district Thatha, Pakistan
...sment
of avifauna diversity and also noted the threats to the birds of Keti Bunder. To know the avian dominance and
diversity of Keti Bunder; we carried out at dawn and dusk in winter season (November, 2015 to February, 2016),
using direct and indirect methods. During the survey, total of 49 winter season bird species belonging to 33 genera
and 21 families were recorded. A total of 4280 birds were...

 Zafar Iqbal*, Hafiza Madhia Imtiaz

Parasites of double tail goldfish, Carassius auratus L. imported to Pakistan
... to protect the local biodiversity of
Pakistan.

...

 Abdul Majid Khan*

Review report on mammalian dental defect (enamel hypoplasia) in different groups of mammals
...als. It also depicts the diversity in feeding habitat of
mammals having positive results for occurrence of this tooth malady. The present
review correlates the research studies that have been conducted in deciduous as
well as permanent dental material of modern, archeological and palaeontological
animals belongs to multiple orders of class Mammalia and also provides a road
map for comparative analysis of dental health in diff...
Aiguo Zhou1,3,4, Shaolin Xie1,4, Zhenlu Wang1, Lanfen Fan1, Yanfeng Chen2, QiaoYe1, Fang Zeng1 and Jixing Zou1,*

 

...elationships and genetic diversity of two color morphs of northern snakehead. For the Chnannidae family, the average genetic distances of Cyt b gene was 0.171 (ranged 0.000 to 0.248) with the inter-species genetic distances. The intra-species genetic distance ranged from 0.000 to 0.002. For the haplotypes of two color morphs of Channa argus, the mean pair-wise genetic distances were estimated as 0.002, which were within the intra-species genetic ...
Faiz Muhammad1,2, Canfeng Dou1, Zhen-ming Lü1,*, Li Gong1, Xun Du1 and Muhammad Shafi3
...type and nucleotide diversity observed. The data was further tested with AMOVA that validates 91.24% variation among populations and 8.76% within population. Genetic fixation index was also calculated as 0.91243*. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis revealed three lineages. The Dongshan population distinctly has shown separate lineage. The haplotype networking has shown that Hap1 contributed 48.051% and appeared in six populations whereas, Hap6, Ha...

Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Nazakat Nawaz, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan, Tahira, Doulat Baig, Ihsan Ullah Khan and Shamim ul Sibtain Shah 

... a wide range of genetic diversity in this set of sesame germplasm which could be utilized for crop improvement. It is further recommended that for making improvement in sesame crop, identified superior sesame lines viz. SG-115, SG-103, SG-78, SG-79, SG-31, SG-117, SG-108, SG-41 and SG-1 could be used in breeding program and further by making selections in segregating generations. This will help to increase sesame crop yield in the country. 

...
Abderraouf Chouaib Rebbah1, Mohcen Menaa2,*, Salah Telailia3,Menouar Saheb1 and Mohamed Cherif Maazi2
...ies richness and species diversity were significantly higher in pure pine woodlands than in mixed oak-pine and oak forests. According to PERMANOVA and ANOSIM tests, and the NMDS plot, the avian assemblages of Sidi Reghis Mountain varied significantly between different habitats. Further, SIMPER test indicated that six of the seven species were responsible for the mean of 50% of dissimilarity between sampled habitats. The dissimilarity between pine woodlands an...

Amara Amjad Hashmi1,2,*, Maqbool Hussain Sial3, Waqar Akram4 and Maaida Hussain Hashmi5,6

...measures; one is dietary diversity score and second one is share of staple food in total calories consumed by household, suggest that households dietary diversity score is good on average that is 9 out of 10 food groups and on the whole it is slightly improved from (8.8 %) to (9%) in previous 10 years. Interestingly, when we analyze the share of staple food in total calories, results suggest that major portion of a household...

Muhamad Jawad*, Shahid Riaz Malik, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar, Muhammad Asadullah, Israr Hussain and Rabia Khalid 

... to evaluate the genetic diversity among 36 lentil genotypes for mechanized harvesting. Analysis of variance for qualitative and quantitative traits showed significant variability among the genotypes. Correlation analysis indicates negative correlation of yield with lowest pod height and highly significant correlation between lowest pod height and plant height. Cluster analysis performed for qualitative and quantitative traits separately. It was observed that ...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Nosheen Fatima1, Raheel Babar3 and Ikramul Haq4  

...nown as ecosystem and biodiversity. Any disruption in this balance may result catastrophic effect on the environment including impact on plant, animal and human life. Hence, efforts to maintain a healthy biodiversity through conservation are needed. Since the life is passing through the time of global warming and climate variation, new issues for farming community are on the rise. These issues are related to protection of na...
Hamidullah1,*, Arshad Javid2, Basit Rasheed1,Jehan Zeb3, Abidullah1 and Muhammad Iftikhar Khan1
...explored for chiropteran diversity prior to the present study. Five congeners namely common Pipistrelle Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Javan Pipistrelle P. javanicus, Coromandel Pipistrelle P. coromandra, least Pipistrelle P. tenuis and Kelaart’sPipistrelle P. ceylonicus were recorded for the first time from the study area. Average forearm length of P. pipistrellus, P. javanicus, P. coromandra, P. te...
Liyan Zhang1,2, Zhidong Zhou1,3, Haiping Li1,2, Yanlong Qiao4, 5 and Yueping Zhang1,3,*
.... The results of genetic diversity and genetic structure analysis of S. japonicus showed that these four populations exhibited moderate genetic diversity across the sampled geographical range of the species. However, no phylogenetic structure corresponding to geographic location was observed from the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree and haplotype network analyses, and gene flow and exact P test results revealed that ...
Zhen-Yang Wu1, Guang-Xin E2,*, Hui Ran1, Da-Hui Wang1 and Tian-You Yang1
...study, we determined the diversity and phylogeography of 10 geographic populations (252 individuals) from Tongren, Guizhou Province using 516-bp sequences of the mitochondrial D-Loop region. In total, 63 polymorphic sites, including four single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 59 parsimony-informative sites, and 18 haplotypes were detected. The number of haplotypes within populations ranged from one (WS and DJ) to six (JK). Haplotype diver...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

... Indian sub-continent. A diversity of plant pathogenic fungi has been identified and isolated from the various affected sheesham trees from Indian sub-continent, yet the actual cause of the diseases is still controversial. It is pertinent to mention here that no viruses or any bacteria has been reported from a singly tree in whole of the Indian sub-continent. Although the involvement of the insect’s species has been recorded and authenticated by various ...

Huma Khalil1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Sajjad Khalil1, Farghama Khalil2 and Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel1 

...estigate the seasonal biodiversity of braconid parasitoids in citrus orchards of Sargodha, Pakistan. Surveys were done during January 2014 to December 2015 from various citrus growing localities. A total of 3,176 parasitoids belonging to five subfamilies (Alysiinae, Aphidiinae, Braconinae, Microgastrinae and Opiinae), 12 genera and 16 species were collected. Out of them, two genera and 12 species were recorded for the first time from this area. Aphidiinae cont...
Iram Maqsood1,2,3 and Ke Rong *1,2
...art of this ecosystem biodiversity in perspective future. China contributed greatly to conserve ecological and cultural roles of Chinese alligators and its sustainable utilization.

...

 Tazeen Jamil, Saba Ijaz, Rabia Arif*, Faiza Akram and Muhammad Saleem

...itable source of genetic diversity due to their abundance in eukaryotic genomes and their insertion in coding regions leads to altered gene expression. We examined the diversity of retroelements in four consecutive generations of different strains of Sordaria fimicola. The parental strains werecollected from two contrasting environments of Evolution Canyon i.e. harsh South facing slope and neutral North facing ...
Faiz-ul Hassan1,*, Muhammad Sajjad Khan1, Muhammad Saif-ur-Rehman1, Syed Muhammad Raihan Dilshad2 and Muhammad Amjad Ali3
...ces.

...
Zhaochao Deng1, Na Song2, Yongzhen Li3, Tianxiang Gao1 and Zhiqiang Han1,*
...ic structure and genetic diversity of L. olivaceus, a 495 bp segment of mitochondrial DNA control region was sequenced. We collected a total of 65 individuals from three archipelagos (Xisha, Zhongsha and Nansha) in the South China Sea and 107 polymorphic sites were obtained defining 39 haplotypes. Based on the NJ tree, two distinct lineages were detected, with strong frequency differences in the geographical distribution. Both lineages were found in Xis...
Ashfaque Ahmed Nahiyoon1,*, Shahina Fayyaz2 and Nasira Kazi2
...udy was to determine the diversity of plant parasitic and soil nematodes associated with cotton plants in Sindh. During 2017–2018 extensive surveys were conducted at the time of cropping and at harvesting and soil root samples were collected from different fields in the cotton producing regions of five districts of Sindh viz., Sanghar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Mityari and Tando Allahyar. The analysis of samples resulted in the identification of one ne...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...continuous evolution and diversity. In the present study, manure from specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks was contaminated with allantoic fluid of NDV and kept at room temperature ranged from 20 to 25oc which is nearly the same as poultry farms on different coupon surfaces (metal, plastic and cooling pads). Daily examination of poultry manure for the persistence of NDV was conducted on the basis of virus isolation followed by haemagglutination assay (HA) which...
Bushra Siddique1,*, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Naeem1 and Muhammad Ali2
...es help to correspond in diversity of associations between prey and host plant species. Recent studies exhibited that the use of natural enemy is an ecofriendly measure to control pests. The Seven spotted ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata play a prominent role in aphid management. It exploits several different cues released by plants to increase the efficiency of foraging. Aphid endoparasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh) (Hymenoptera:...
Bingbing Gao1, Na Song1, Zhonglu Li2, Tianxiang Gao3 and Liqin Liu3,*
...terized by low haplotype diversity (0.39–0.59) and low nucleotide diversity (0.00038–0.00073). The result of AMOVA and pairwise Fst values indicated weak or no genetic differentiation among different populations. Haplotype network and NJ phylogenetic trees revealed that there was no distinctly geographical distribution pattern among the haplotypes. Furthermore, the mismatch distribution of pairw...

Tahira Jatt1, Ghulam Sarwar Markhand1, Lane Rayburn2, Ray Ming3, Mushtaque Ahmed Jatoi1 and Ameer Ahmed Mirbahar1,4* 

...Sindh is known as the biodiversity center of date palm. Investigations were carried on the chromosome number and karyotype one of the seven indigenous commercial date palm varieties and four wild type date palm of Sindh province, Pakistan by using the traditional Fuelgen squash method. Results indicated that all seven commercial varieties and four wild types of date palm are diploid in nature and having 2n=36 chromosomes. First time detailed karyotype of these...
Zhimin Yuan1, Yan Yu2, Yanmei Wang1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...to explore the microbial diversity of the gastrointestinal tract of H. alaschanicus and to estimate the risk to humans caused by the hosted pathogenic bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene V1−V2 regions were sequenced using MiSeq high-throughput sequencing platform to study the bacterial community of both the stomach and the intestine of H. alaschanicus. A total of 21, 336 and 34, 188 high quality reads of microbiota were obtained from the sto...
Mohammed Anas Chowdhury1, Md. Abdul Karim1, Md. Tayfur Rahman1, Shoaibe Hossain Talukder Shefat1, Ashikur Rahman1, Mohammad Amzad Hossain2*
...t status of fish species diversity of Surma River at Sylhet Sadar, Northeast Bangladesh. A total of 51 fish species belonging to 16 taxonomic families has been identified. The most abundant family was recorded as Cyprinidae covering 36%, while the least abundant family was Gobidae and Plotosidae comprising 1%. A Shannon-Weaver diversity index was fluctuated between 2 to 2.5 with mean value 2.30±0.14, which reveals exp...
Mohsen M. El-Sherbiny1,2,*, Reny P. Devassy1, Erinn M. Muller3, Abdulmohsin A. Al-Sofyani1 and Ali M. Al-Aidaroos1
...hytoplankton biomass and diversity as well as the diel variability of the major mesozooplankton taxon, Copepoda was studied with respect to the prevailing hydrographic conditions along the coastal waters of Gulf of Aqaba, Saudi Arabia during the summer period. Conspicuous stratification was evident in the water column while nutrient distribution highlighted the oligotrophic nature of the region. Nitrate showed a notable increase in the deeper layers of almost ...
Jie Zhang1,2,*, Baradi Waryani3,4 and Qihai Zhou2,*
...bet Plantae. The genetic diversity and molecular invasive mechanism are urgently needed for both native and invasive populations. Present investigation details 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci and 12 to 26 alleles per locus denoted. Whereas, d expected and observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.902 to 0.972 and 0.750 to 0.958, respectively. Moreover, the polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.869 to 0.949. The cross-species amplific...
Yan-Bin Zhu1, Wang-Dui Basang1, Zhan-Dui Pingcuo1, Yang-Ji Cidan1, Sang Luo1, Dun-Zhu Luosang1, Yang-La Dawa1 and Guang-Xin E2,3,* 
...y was to perform genetic diversity and population structure estimation on 382 individuals from seven Chinese Tibetan ecotype yak population using twenty-one microsatellites. The results revealed that the HO ranged from 0.4854±0.0194 in NNV to 0.6086±0.0267 in YRY, and the NA ranged from 3.86±1.98 in XMY to 6.05±3.37 in NNV. The least number of markers which deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within the population was W, and la...
Jae-Kang Lee, Hyun-Su Hwang, Tae-Kyung Eom and Shin-Jae Rhim*
...forest management and biodiversity conservation. 
...
Joyce Osarogie Odigie*
...ed to statistical and biodiversity analysis with the extracted data for water quality analyzed via Weighted Arithmetic Index and pollution tolerance Index via pollution sensitive group. The dominant benthos group was Chironomidae: making up 20.99%, 18.47% and 16.65% of the benthic community. The results of WQI calculated across the three study stations were above the 100 benchmark. However, the PTI values recorded at the three study stations were less than 10,...
Yacheng Hu1,2, Xueqing Liu1,2, Jing Yang1,2, Kan Xiao1,2, Binzhong Wang1,2 and Hejun Du1,2,*
...ool to study the genetic diversity of Dabry’s sturgeon.
...
Min Li1,2, Jingjing Wang3, Suxian Hu3, Philip Stott4, Baoqing Lin5, Lianshan Li5, Hui Liu1, Heng Bao1, Duoying Cui6 and Guangshun Jiang1,* 
...ess, and Shannon’s diversity using a stepwise linear regression model and regressions of proportions of cover types at different spatial scales. We recorded 109,026 sightings comprising 94 species, and found that avian diversity indices were positively influenced by the presence of open water, farmland, and alkaline marsh, and negatively by human settlement; and in addition, these relationships were only apparent when ...
Shanshan Cai1, Tianxiang Gao2, Binlun Yan3, Aiyi Zhu1 and Xiumei Zhang1,2,*
...also showed high genetic diversity and a certain degree of heterozygote deficiency of natural swimming crab populations. The advancing technology and its unique advantages will make molecular markers as novel and highly-efficient approaches for assessment of stock enhancement.
...
Tasleem Akhtar1,2,Ghazanfar Ali1,*, Nuzhat Shafi2 and Abdul Rauf2
...observed, with haplotype diversity (Hd) 0.5323±0.080. Among 5 haplotypes, 2, 2 and 1 haplotype were detected in S. plagiostomus, S. niger and S. esocinus, respectively. Haplotype diversity was lowest and same in S. esocinus, S. niger and S. progastus (0.0001) and highest in S. plagiostomus (0.5436). Average number of nucleotide differences of 4 species (Kt) was 0.737 and total nucleo...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Imtiaz Sarwar1, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Rehan Khalid1, Muhammad Yahya1 and Khurram Shehzad2
... the soil.
...

Muneer Abbas1*, Muhammad Ramzan1, Niaz Hussain1, Abdul Ghaffar1, Khalid Hussain1, Sohail Abbas2 and Ali Raza3 

...apturing, killing and biodiversity studies of nocturnal insect population. Funnel shaped light traps were used in mungbean and gram crops throughout the year. Effects of light traps were assessed by daily night collections in relation with abiotic factors based on marginal cost benefit ratio. Results indicated that total 32415 insect’s captures were made with >26 insect species including 4 species of bio control agents. Helicoverpa armigera, Spodopter...

Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research

September

Vol. 32, Iss. 3, Pages 416-561

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