Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
...o the Many as their necessary principle of unity and intelligibility. I then propose a new paradigm for the relation between the One and the Many in which the Many by their dynamic interrelation from moment to moment initially co-create and then sustain the One not as a higher-order individual entity but as their conjoint energy-source and ongoing field of activity. The One can then be readily integrated into a hierarchical ordered system of fields within fiel...

James Ayukepi Ayukekbong1,2

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... fever is therefore necessary to initiate the appropriate clinical care. Despite the endemicity of dengue in Nigeria, the disease is not a reportable disease and routine diagnosis is neglected. Here I undertake an exhaustive assembly of known records of dengue prevalence in Nigeria and provide a focus for public health intervention.


Dallin D. Oaks


... have assumed to be necessary for the current diversification of languages.



Hayat Badshah1*, Farman Ullah1, Abid Farid2, Ahmad-U-Rahman Saljoqi1, Sajjad Ahmad3

...e Laboratory, it is necessary to know the development capacity of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae), on different host plants. Such studies would identify the best host plant for its efficient rearing. The present study investigated some basic life table parameters i.e. female life span, adult female weight, longevity and reproductive potential of P. solenopsis on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.), brinjal (...

Jonathan Jong

...n, or specifies the necessary and sufficient conditions for counting as religious. Rather, there are causally and phenomenologically distinct phenomena—such as the belief in supernatural agents, participation in rituals, formation of non-kin groups, obedience to moral codes, and so forth—that variously co-occur in packages we intuitively label as particular religions. Furthermore, these distinct phenomena are also present among ostensibly nonreligi...

Rick Repetti

...hoices are lawfully necessary consequences of prior events, then they are unfree; Derk Pereboom’s two arguments for hard incompatibilism: the manipulation argument, which asserts that manipulated choices are unfree, determinism is functionally equivalent to manipulation, and thus determined choices are unfree; and the randomness argument, which asserts that we cannot claim authorship
over random neural events; and Galen Strawson&rsq...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth


...Subsequently, it is necessary to either decrease the amount of host nucleic acids or increase the amount of pathogen nucleic acids, to allow for detection via metagenomic NGS. This minireview is revising our developed TUViD-VM protocol and selected other approaches regarding their suitability in metagenomics. We provide an overview on the difficulties, challenges and opportunities that developed alongside metagenomic virus discovery. The field of metagenomics ...

Nazish Huma Khan*, Mohammad Nafees and Adila Bashir

...n soil and crops is necessary.  


Muhammad Jurial Baloch1*, Ghulam Murtaza Channa2, Wajid Ali Jatoi2, Abdul Wahid Baloch1, Imdad Hussain Rind1, Muhammad Ahmed Arain1 and Ayaz Ali Keerio1

 Aqila Shaheen

...k, Guliana, Rajar, Balkassar, Rawalpindi, Chakwal and Satwal) in tehsil Gujar Khan of Rawalpindi district. Amongst the soil characteristics of selected fields, pH ranged from 7.36-7.94 for surface soil (0-15 cm) and 7.49-7.94 for subsoil (30-45 cm), EC1:1 was 0.22-0.38 dSm-1  in surface soil and 0.21-0.28 dSm-1    in subsoil, CaCO3 was 1.0-9.22% in top soil and 0.28-9.67% in the subsoil and soil organic matter (OM) was 0.89-1.25% in surface soil...

 Arif Khan, Abdur Rahman, Shoail Akhtar, Siraj Uddin, Zahid Ullah and Nazir Ahmad

...(WHC) and tenderness and sarcomere lenth of the two buffalo breed beef samples were investigated. A two x three factorial design was used to analyze the beef quality characteristic data in Genstat software. Breed and animal age had significant and their interaction has significant (P < 0.05) effects on marbling. Animal age group and their (breed x age) interaction had significant effect on the Water holding capacity (WHC). Breed effect on WHC was found not ...

Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

...nfectious agents is necessary. Identification of the genes, and their variants, involved in innate immune responses is essential for the understanding of this inflammatory disease and to identify potential genetic markers for resistance to mastitis. This article presents a systematic integration of complex biological interactions of 226 mammary gland genes to uncover underlying regulatory networks. Data were collected from various databases after having an exh...

Tayiba Latif Gulraiz1, Arshad Javid1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Muhammad Shahbaz3, Irfan3 and Sharoon Daud4

... Four fungal (Candida, Fusarium, Penicillium and Saccharomyces) and two bacterial genera (Klebsiella and Nocardia) were isolated from bolus only, three fungal (Cryptococcus, Histoplasma and Trichophoton) and six bacterial (Acaligenes, Azotobacter, Bartonella, Nitrsomonas, Pseudomonas and Salmonella) genera were isolated from guano while five fungal (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chrysosporium, Exophilaand Scopulariopsis) and four bacterial (Bacillus, Corynebacteriu...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...for the disease are necessary. Like other Morbilliviruses, PPRV induces a suppression of the immune system during the acute disease, which favours the establishment and exacerbates the progression of secondary infections. This review gives an overview of the known immunosuppressive strategies of PPRV, among the Paramyxoviruses, as well as the strategies developed by this virus to evade the immune system, focusing on the newly identified factors involved. In th...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

...dantly used species were sardine (Dussumieria acuta), mullet (Liza carinata, L. subviridis), herring (Chirocentrus dorab), elongated sole (Solia elongate), black fin sea bream (Acanthopagrus berda), grunts (Pomadasys hasta), croaker (Otolithus ruber), silver sillago (Sillago sihama), sea perch (Lates calcarifer) and jaw fish (Johnius goma). In majority of processing units, traditional methods were applied causing quality problem. Finally, it was concluded that...

Abdul Baset1, Qun Liu1,*, Muhammad Tariq Hanif1, 2, Baochao Liao1, Aamir Mahmood Memon1,3 and Muhammad Mohsin1

...ield (MSY) of Indian oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps (Valenciennes, 1847, Family: Clupeidae), fishery resources from Pakistani waters. The catch and effort data (1994 – 2009) were analyzed by CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) consists of Fox, Schaefer and Pella Tomlinson models and ASPIC (a surplus production model incorporating covariates) contain Fox and Logistic models. The average annual landings of S. longiceps stocks were 38 353 t while the h...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...gus and bacteria, i.e. Fusarium oxysporum (87.50 ± 0.11% inhibition), Xanthomonas campestris (67.00 ± 0.46% inhibition) and Clavibacter michiganensis (72.00 ± 1.02% inhibition). The A. flavus was grown on two different media, i.e. Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) and Glucose Nutrient Broth (GNB) media for active secondary metabolites. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of PDB medium gave significant results against selected phytopathogens compared t...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...nd species level is necessary for effective antifungal therapy, and can also facilitate control of infections. A total of 50 isolates were isolated from 60 swab samples collected from two poultry processing plants represented broiler carcasses swabs and worker (hand swabs and nail scrapings). Phenotype-based methods for identifying yeast especially Candida species are often difficult, time-consuming and not enough to identify most yeast species. . Molecular bi...
Waheed Anwar*, Muhammad S. Haider, Ahmad A. Shahid, Hamid Mushtaq, Usman Hameed, Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman and Muhammad Javed Iqbal
... zones of Pakistan. Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium solani, Fusarium incarnatum and Fusarium sp. along with other fungi were isolated and characterized morphologically as well as genetically by amplifying internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). Variability among Fusarium species based o...
Zafrullah Khan1, Shah Alam Khan1*, Hamayoon Khan2, Naeem Khan3, Khwaja Junaid1 and Inamullah Khan1
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
... Future studies are necessary, and the main goal should be focused on sex ratio, mortality and sex ratio at birth.

Zahir Shah, Ahmed Nawaz Tunio, Shakoor Ahmad, Ijaz Ahmad, Javid Ali, Sher Bhader Khan

...urs was subjected for caesarean section at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan. The surgery was performed under paravertebral anesthesia at T13, L1-3 using xylocaine 2% in standing position after proper sedation. The operated site was prepared for aseptic surgical procedure. A vertical incision was given in middle of the left flank region. Tw...

Sitansu Pan, Surojit Khalko and Amrita Das

Effect of some fungicides on seed mycoflora, germination, viability and their persistence in treated seeds
...usilazole 40EC reduced Fusarium mungbean seed than untreated control.Amarked reduction in population of A. brassicae by difenoconazole 25EC and flusilazole 40EC was observed in mustard seeds. Inhibitory effect of fungicides on seed germination of all tested seeds was observed with prochloraz 45EC and flusilazole 40EC. There was increase in the plumule length of mungbean seeds with prochloraz 45EC and difenoconazole 25EC over untreated control, whereas sh...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...gnita and wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato in laboratory and pot culture experiment. All the isolates were isolated by serial dilution and cultured in liquid protein supplemented broth medium and culture filtrates (CF) were prepared. In in-vitro test single eggmasses of uniform size were kept in 5ml CF in 5cm diameter Petri plates. Antifungal activity was tested by dual culture of wilt fungus with antagonist fungus and bacteria isol...

Debjani Chowdhury, P. C. Paul and B. Dasgupta

Management of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola

S.K. Sahoo

Incidence and management of mustard aphid (Lipaphis ery-simi Kaltenbach) in West Bengal
... the aphid on the yellow sarson variety, Binoy (B-9) was observed from 52nd standard week, with the peak population on 6th standard week and the aphid disappeared after 10th standard week. Among the different chemical insecticides evaluated for their bio-efficacy against L. erysimi, Dimethoate 30EC and Oxydemeton-methyl 25EC were proved to be more effective. The plots treated with Dimethoate and Oxydemeton-methyl recorded minimum aphid infestation in most of t...

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...ant pathogens, namely, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Padw.) Matuo. and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Efficacy in plant growth promoting activity of all the isolates was also tested on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis L.), chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with culture filtrate of biocontrol agents and found both positive and negative effect on seed germination, plant growth and vigour. Maximum increase in...

Manidipa Chowdhury 

Incidence of saw fly, Athalia lugens proxima Klug. as influenced by level of irrigation and fertilizers on mustard
...a campestris var. yellow sarson. Highest saw fly population (0.26 larvae/plant) was recorded on the crop grown without irrigation and medium level of fertilizers (60:30:30 Kg NPK ha-1) while lowest population level (0.10 larvae/plant) was observed at highest level of irrigation (three) coupled with medium level of fertilizers (60:30:30 kg NPK ha-1) and two irrigations coupled with lowest level of fertilizers (40:20:20 Kg NPK ha-1).

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

...urvularia tuberculata, Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium sp. and Gibbago trianthemae were isolated by inoculation of parasitized weed propagules like infected leaves, stems, root and floral parts on different fungal growth media. The diagnostic characteristic features of each isolate were critically studied using relevant literature. The pathogenicity of the isolates was examined to select biocontrol agent against host weed. 
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

... that is considered necessary in order to deal with farmers where a wide range of variations exists in their personalities and habits. A significant difference was reported in required and possessed competencies of preparing training schedules regarding crops followed by timely appointment and issuance of duties to junior staff for effective and efficient work. Results of the study reported that there is utmost need of training in competencies regarding identi...
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Fatima Sellami3 and Muhammad Afzal1

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3


Omar S.O. Amer1,3,*, Mohamed I. Waly2,4 andSaeed A. Al-Zahrani1
... region, KSA. It is necessary to update the epidemiologic survey of the parasitic infection at regular intervals using different statistical methods to develop effective prevention and control strategies.

Muhammad Amin1*, Khalid Mahmood2, Imran Bodlah3, Muhammad Rahim Khan2 

... Ris Lambers, Myzaphis rosarum (Kaltenbach) and Myzaphis turanica Nevsky are new records for the country. New locality records are presented, in the country, for Macrosiphum rosae (Linnaeus) Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Rhodobium porosum (Sanderson), Myzaphus bucktoni Jacob and Wahlgreneilla nervata (Gillete) on Rosa species. Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) was recorded on new host plant, Rosa species, in Pakistan. Distinguishing characters, morphometric d...
Nosheen Rafiq1, Asmatullah Kakar2,*, Arshad Ghani3, Asim Iqbal2, Wali Mohammad Achakzai2, Shagufta Sadozai2, Mohammad Shafiq4 and Mohammad Alam Mengal5 
Saba Manzoor1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Abdul Wajid1, Sehrish Firyal1, Muhammad Tayyab1, Muhammad Mansha2, Asim Khalid Mahmood3, Abu Saeed Hashmi1 and Muhammad Wasim1,*
... and 100% in soft tissue sarcoma) and feline (60% in mammary adenocarcinoma and 100% in soft tissue sarcoma) tumors studied. These findings might support the established role of c-Myc in tumor pathogenesis but how this transcription factor affects the downstream targets to achieve the goal remains unanswered. Therefore, further research is desperately needed to understand the mechanism of tumor pathogenesis in animals in ord...
Muhammad Khaled Siddiq1, Ayesha Riaz2, Muhammad Akbar Khan1, Muhammad Adeeb Babar1, Khalid Mahmood1,* and Muhammad Akhtar1
Shumaila Ashfaq1, Liaqat Ali2*, Muhammad Ashraf Zia2, Rizwan Ahmad Khan2 and Mehtash Butt3
...ant female undergoing caesarean section due to its safety than general anaesthesia. Post dural puncture headache (PDPH) is commonly occurring problem associated with spinal anaesthesia and causes a considerable morbidity. PDPH depends on several factor and various methods have been used to reduce and treat the pain of PDPH. We evaluated effects of hydrocortisone on the treatment of PDPH in obstetrical patient.To compare mean decrease in Visual Analogue Scalepa...
Rana Fartab Shoukat1, Shoaib Freed1,*, Kanwar Waqas Ahmad1 and Ateeq-ur-Rehman2
... Ma-11.1, Ma-2.4)and Isaria fumosorosea (isolates If-2.3, If-02) and chemical insecticides i.e., bifenthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, triazophos, spinosad, pyriproxyfen and nitrinpyrum, as larvicides against C. pipiens. Highest larval percent mortality (73.3 ± 4.7) was observed after application of Ma-11.1(LC40) + nitenpyram (LC40) mixtures under laboratory and field conditions (71.5 ± 7.4). The...
Ghazala Saeed1, Rabia Wajid1* and Ayesha Yousaf Dar2
...ternal mortality after cesarean section versus vaginal delivery among eclampsiapatients.It is a descriptive case series conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lady Willingdon Hospital, from December 2014 to June 2015. In our study, 62.86 % (n=88) patients were between18-25 years of age and 37.14 % (n=52) were between 26-35 years of age. The mean+SD was calculated as 25.12+4.53 years. Frequency ofvaginal delivery in patients with eclampsia was 30...
Yakut Gevrekçi* and Çiğdem Takma
...on tree analysis is necessary to provide preliminary information in breeding programs to be performed. 
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 
...udy after obtaining necessary permissions from the ethical board of the hospital. COPD was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms and a post bronchodilator values of FEV1/FVC<0.70 on spirometry. Frequent exacerbator’s were defined as patients experiencing 2 or more exacerbation episodes per year, which merited visited to the hospital. Average number of hospital visits for exacerbations per year, smoking history, family history of smoking related ...

Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Khawar Hussain1, Zilakat Khan Malik2 and Noor Jehan1 

Noreen Rasul1*, Madeeha Rashid2, Aqeela Abbas1 and Rubina Sohail

...were 52.2% (3372) and caesarean sections were 47.7% (3087). In 55.4%neonate’s(both preterm and term)early essential newborn care was practiced.Total preterm were 290 (4.5%), out of them 121 (2%) neonates were kept in Kangaroo Mother Care position and 129 (44%) were shifted to neonatal intensive care unit. 14% parents refused for KMC position and discharged. Mortality in preterm newborn in neonatal unit was 29.4% (without KMC) but no mortality occurred af...

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid weight and rate of caesarean section in young Primigravida. It was a cross sectional study, conducted in the department of Gynae & Obstetric unit 5 King Edward Medical University Lahore during a period of one year from May2013 April 2014. All primigravida young 15-24years with anemia enrolled for the study. Anemia is defined as hemoglobin<10.5g/dl (WHO Criteria), Iron deficiency Anemia is defined as serum ferritin level less than 12 micro gram per ml...

Golam Moula* and Sayedur Rahman**

...inated seedlings is necessary to explore its viable potentiality at the field level.


 Ghulam Shabbir*, Muhammad Aftab, Abid Mahmood** Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah* and Nasir Mahmood Cheema***

Umair Riaz*1, Zafar Abbas1, Qamar uz Zaman2, Muhammad Mubashir1, Mahwish Jabeen2, Syed Ali Zulqadar1, Zeenat Javeed1, Saeed-ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Ashraf1 and Muhammad Javid Qamar1
...lerant crops. It is necessary to manage the soil structure on sustainable basis for obtaining optimum crop yield. 

  Farhat Ullah Khan, Nowshad Khan and Zaibunnisa Abdullah*

Corresponding author: (This is part of Ph.D. work of senior author)


 Safdar Ali, Sahiba, M. Azim Malik, Fayyaz-ul-Hassan and M. Ansar*


 Arshad Ali, Muhammad Arshadullah, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Imdad Ali Mahmood and Badar-uz-Zaman*


 Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Muhammad Arshadullah, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*


 Arshad Ali, Imdad Ali Mahmood, Muhammad Salim, Muhammad Arshadullah* and Abdul Rasool Naseem**


 Ayesha Tahir* and Zafar Altaf**

...bles in Pakistan is necessary not only for increasing farmer's income and production diversity concerns, but also for increasing the intake of micronutrients in human diet through increased vegetable consumption. The spectrum of year round availability of vegetables could be further extended. The off-season vegetable production offers a promising opportunity in this direction. The study is based on comparison of income obtained from production both in normal a...

 Muhammad Arshadullah, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*


 Naheed Zahra*, Muhammad Zubair Anwar*, Sonila Hassan** and Irfan Mehmood**

...ural income. It is neccessary that government should practice the credit policy to protect the interest of small and medium farmers by providing them loans on easy terms and to facilitate them against any natural hazards and disaster.


 Muhammad Shahzad*, Akhter Ali**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi**, Naveed Jehan*, Imran Ullah* and Majid Khan*

...nel of the plum was necessary for the stake holders to make informed decision about harvest and post harvest practices. This study was conducted in Swat district in 2012 to quantify these losses at different levels using four different questionnaires. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used for the collection of data from different categories of respondents and tehsils. Post harvest losses were estimated through percentage method. The most ...

 Shahid Ali*, Anjum Shehzad*, Muhammad Ather Rafi* and Ahmed Zia*


 Tabinda Qaiser*, Ayesha Tahir*, Sajida Taj* and Murad Ali*

BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS OF APICULTURE ENTERPRISE: A CASE STUDY IN DISTRICT CHAKWAL, PAKISTAN for getting the necessary data to determine the costs and return of beekeeping and assess the scope of beekeeping. The benefit cost ratio of beekeeping was 1.4709 which showed that this business was profitable. It will be a great source of employment creation for the rural poor people to reduce the poverty. There is a great prospect of beekeeping in Pakistan on the basis of the socioeconomic context of the country and some special features of the enterpris...

 Nosheen Zahra*, Ghulam Sarwar* and Sher Muhammad**

..., 3 plants per pot. Necessary N, P and K fertilizers were applied at the recommended rate. After crop harvest, soil samples were taken for analysis of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of soil. All the amendments when used alone or in combination with each other improved the chemical parameters of soil. All levels of gy...

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool*, Abuzar Muhammad Afzal*, Abu Baker Siddique*, Waseem Akram**, Muhammad Saqalein*, Madiha Basit* and Muhammad Farooq Tahir***

...ontrol measures are necessary to prevent ND outbreaks. Natural resources have been exploited to obtain antiviral compounds in several latest studies. In this study, the antiviral activity of Viro Care GZ-08™ was checked up invitro, in-ovo and in-vivo. The cytotoxicity assay of the product was performed using Vero cell line. All the trials revealed that the stock solution and 1:2 dilution of GZ-08™ had some antiviral activity as well as were cytotox...

 Imdad Ali Mahmood*, Arshad Ali**, Armghan Shahzad**, Muhammad Asif Masud Ghumman***, Muhammad Arshad Ullah**, Tariq Sultan** and Badar-u-Zaman**


 Azhar Usman Ali*, Ghulam Sarwar*, Muhammad Aftab* and Sher Muhammad**


 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

...ver all the aspects necessary for the markets to function efficiently. It is, therefore, recommended that the proper marketing system and physical infrastructure for live camels should be developed to benefit the poor camel farmers.


Sumia Bint Zaman*, Waqas Farooq*, Sidra Majeed*, Hasnain Shah*, and Abdul Majid**

... concluded that the necessary condition has been fulfilled for water conservation. However, for assessing the impact of these skills towards water conservation technologies needs to be investigated in short and long term scenarios. Therefore, for fulfilling the sufficient condition realizing the real benefits from these trained ASPs further follow up by the concerned technical institutes is recommended.


Basharat Hussain Shah*, F. S. Hamid*, Shams ul Islam*, Fayaz Ahmad*, Sohail Aslam*, and Noorullah Khan*


 Asif ullah Khan*, Faizan Ullah*, Sultan Mehmood*, Muhammad Irshad* and Farhat Ullah Khan**

...n. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the interaction of not only with crop plants but also with weed species before its introduction into agroforestry systems. During present investigation, allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous extract was investigated on seed germination and seedling development of L. Extracts were applied at 25%, 20%, 15%, 10% and 5% as seed soaking for 8 hours prior to sowing. Phenolics compounds were found in aqueous extracts and ...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Arshad1, Rashid Mahmood2,* and Ziyad Abdul Qadir2
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2,*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza2, Muhammad Afzal2,Hafiz Salah-ud-Din2, Imtiaz Sarwar2, Muhammad Yahya2 and Khurram Shehzad3

Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Abdul Malik2*, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak2, Naveedullah1, Naeem Ijaz3 and Ishaq Ahmad4 

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khuram Sharjeel1, Raheel Babar2, Muhammad Junaid1, Qamar Iqbal3, Rabia Rasheed1 and Nosheen Fatima1 

María Magdalena Crosby-Galván1, Bernardino Espinoza-Velasco1 and Mónica Ramirez-Mella2,*
...ivo studies are necessary to evaluate the potential of chihua pumpkin´s residue in the productive performance of ruminants. It would also be appropriate to evaluate the intake behavior, productive performance and nutritional status of animals fed with different forms of processed residue of chihua pumpkin.
Tariq Mukhtar,1,* Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Usman Raja1 and Humayun Javed2

Muhammad Waqar Yasin*, Mobushir Riaz Khan and Muhammad Amin 

... be trained to take necessary precautions while looking after their crops at different stages of crop cycle regarding these climatic variables i.e. temperature and rainfall. 


Imran Khan1, Zahir Shah2, Wiqar Ahmad3*, Farmanullah Khan2 and Muhammad Sharif

...t, unless otherwise necessary, deep tillage in alkaline calcareous soil should be avoided, preventing lime resurfacing from depth and keeping the applied amendments concentrated in surface layer. 

Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar1,*, Hummaira Iqbal1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Haseena Ghulam Muhammad1 and Muhammad Irfan1

Muhammad Suhaib1*, Ijaz Ahmad2, Masooma Munir3, Badar-Uz-Zaman1, Bushra Atta4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

Ali Zaman1,*, Abdul Haleem1, Sajjad Ur Rahman2, Adnan Amin3 Asma Saeed1, Sana Ullah4 and Naimat Ullah4
...ts of the province. Necessary measures are required to overcome the situation and improve vaccination and hygiene.
Abdul Wajid1,*, Asma Basharat2, Muhammad Akbar Shahid3, Sidra Tul Muntaha1, Abdul Basit4, Tanveer Hussain5, Muhammad Farooq Tahir6, Muhammad Azhar7, Masroor Ellahi Babar1 and Shafqat Fatima Rehmani2
...ection measures are necessary and we propose the continuous epidemiological surveillance to support the prevention of the viruses spread into non-epidemic areas.
Ayesha Iftikhar1,*, Muhammad Asif Aziz1, Muhammad Naeem1, Munir Ahmad1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...d predation rate is necessary to predict the population dynamics of this beetle against cotton mealy bug. Age-stage, two sex life tables of zigzag beetle were constructed at three different temperature regimes: 24 ± 0.5 °C and 27 ± 0.5 °C with 60-70% R.H. and ambient condition (32 ± 4 °C; 16-50% R.H.) with 14:10 h (L:D) photoperiod using cotton mealy bug as a host. According to the results, the immature duration and adult longe...

Muhammad Fiaz1*, Muhammad Afzal1 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2 of spirotetramat and Isaria fumosorosea formulations was assessed in spring 2016 and 2017 against Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, one of the economic insect pests of citrus plants and a putative vector of Huanglongbing worldwide. Treatments were comprised of label-recommended (FD) and its half (HD) dose rates of spirotetramat and I. fumosorosea formulations. Both treatments were applied either alone or in binary combinations. There was a significant ...
Muhammad Kashif Munir1*, Sana Rehman1, Rizwan Iqbal1, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Muhammad Aasim1
... of tuberculosis is necessary for timely control of the disease. GeneXpert test has already been implemented by World Health Organization to diagnose the infection on urgent basis.
Objectives: This study was designed to apply GeneXpert MTB/RIF assays for the detection of rifampicin resistant tuberculosis and validation of assays by comparing with conventional standard drug proportion method. Additionally, to explore whether the assay can be ...

Abdur Rehman and Zahir Shah 

...f both Mo and Fe is necessary for pea crop enhanced nodulation, N2 fixation, yield, nutrient uptake and for improved soil fertility 


G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...loping world, it is necessary to prevent and control the infection using latest molecular diagnostics and effective vaccine along with anti-viral therapeutics. This short commentary deals with current knowledge and opportunities on ORFV and future challenges as control perspectives in India. 


Dilshad Ahmad1*, Muhammad Irfan Chani1 and Muhammad Afzal2 

...lative measures are necessary for the smooth flow of increasing agriculture output and overcoming financial constraints. 


Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2 and Mujahid Iqbal3  

Muhammad Faheem Jan1*, Asad Ali Khan1, Waqas Liaqat1, Haseeb Ahmad1, Muhammad Dawood Ahmadzai1 and Wazir Rehan

...anic fertilizers is necessary for sustainable crop productivity. Field trial was performed at Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar during summer 2016. Two factors were studied i.e. hybrids (DK-Garanon, Pioneer-3025, WS-666, and Pioneer-3164) and potassium ratios (Organic vs inorganic). The organic source includes poultry manure (PM) while inorganic source includes sulphate of potash (SOP). Potassium (K) was applied to field in such ...
Haroon Rashid1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Tasleem Ghori2, Mamoona Chaudhry3, Hamad Bin Rashid2, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir1, Muhammad Hamid Chaudhary4, Muhammad Asad Ali1, Mian Muhammad Khubaib Sattar5, Javed Muhammad1 and Bhushan Jayarao6

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Bushra Hassan2, Nadeem Anwar2, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel3 and Shafique-ur-Rehman

Muhammad Asam Riaz1, Javeria Choudhary1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Sohail Ahmed2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khalil

Amar Razzaq1, Abdur Rehman4*, Abdul Hassan Qureshi2, Iqbal Javed3, Raheel Saqib5 and Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal6 

Zulqarnain and Zafar Iqbal* 

..."text-align: justify;">Fusarium wilt of tomato is a devastating fungal disease with several infectious strategies leading to the complete death of plant. None of the strategies in controlling the wilt have shown fruitful results. Dual culture assay was employed is this study to identify the fungal species with their potent antifungal activity against the Fusarium wilt of tomato. Six distinct fungal species including Penicill...

Muhammad Luqman1, Raheel Saqib2*, Mujahid Karim1, Khalid Nawab2, Abdur Rehman3 and Muhammad Yaseen1 

Saeed Ahmad Shah Chishti1, Mudassar Iqbal1*, Nusrat Parveen1, Kashif Nadeem1, Muhammad Iqbal1, Umbreen Shahzad2, Rana Husnain Shabbir1 and Muhammad Najeebullah1 

Sabahat Noor*1, Shaukat Ali1, Hafeez-ur-Rahman1, Farhatullah2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali1 

...inity have the most adversarial effect on wheat production. In this study the T2 transgenic (At-DREB1A) and non-transgenic line of lasani-08 from single transformation event was exposed to 15 days drought and different levels of salt concentrations separately. Four parameters i.e. sugar contents, proline contents, chlorophyll contents and relative water contents were recorded and compared in transformed and non-transformed plants. It was observed that under dr...
Mehwish Aftab, Tariq Mahmud*, Muhammad Asim Raza Basra, Aqsa Gulzar, Sumaira Basharat and H.M. Junaid
...crophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum. The metal (III) complexes are highly active under permissible limits.
Shagufta Naz*, Saima Sharif, Hafsa Badar, Syeda Fareeha Tauheed
...rneal grafting) are necessary for the restoration of optimal vision and should be done to avoid the severe outcomes caused by MCD.
Ghazunfar Rashid1, Muhammad Avais1, Syed Saleem Ahmad1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Rais Ahmed3,*, Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Naveed-ul-Haque4, Mehtab Ahmad5Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Naimat Ullah Khan6
Tevfik Ceyhan1,*, Osman Samsun2 and Okan Akyol1
...agement measures is necessary.

Muhammad Mohsin1, Dai Guilin1,*, Chen Zhuo1, Yin Hengbin1 and Muhammad Noman2
... in Pakistan, it is necessary to evaluate fishery status and their economic implications of major commercially hunted fish species. In this study maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of Carangoides fishery from Sindh, Pakistan is estimated by using catch and effort data. For data analysis, two specialized fishery software CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) and ASPIC (a stock production model incorporating covariates) were employed. Three surplus production model...
Zafar Iqbal*, Farah Ansar, Zil-e-Huma
...Rhizopus and Fusarium. Ten bacterial genera were also isolated; Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Moraxella, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus,. Carnobacterium. There has not been a single case of topically acquired infection among students, laboratory staff and the author throughout the whole period due to contact with these fish. One reason for this is the use of safety measures and precautions by ...

 Tanzeela Riaz*†, Farah Rauf Shakoori, Syed Shahid Ali

Toxicity of phosphine against tolerant and susceptible populations of Trogoderma granarium collected from Punjab, Pakistan

 Mian Azhar Ahmad1†*, Nawab Mohammad Khan2, Asmatullah3

Anatomical variations of hepatobiliary triangle in patients operated laparoscopically for gallbladder diseases from Lahore and Sahiwal
...cholecystectomy was necessary; the most common cause was unclear anatomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy pivots around hepatobiliary triangle. Current study was aimed to assess anatomy of hepatobiliary triangle and its variations in the patients using a laparoscope. It was a descriptive prospective cross-sectional study. Random sampling technique was employed to record the relevant information data. During the course of this study evaluation of 2500 patients, in...

Muddasir Hassan Abbasi1, 2, Noor Fatima1, Syed Shahid Imran Bukhari1, Asma Rashid khan3, Nadeem Sheikh2*

Variations in proteins and transaminases following experimental induction of Bisphenol A in mice
... of its toxicity is necessary in order to consider it safe.


 Saima Naz*, Adil Ali Rajpar, Abdul Hameed Chandio

New Records of some Phthiraptera (chewing lice) of birds from urban areas of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan
...wls; Brueelia saliemi (Ansari, 1957), Colpocephalum fregili (Denny, 1842)
and Myrsidea splendenticola (Klockenhoff, 1973) on house crow; Anaticola crassicornis (Scopoli, 1763) from wild
goose; Brueelia nebulosa (Burmeister, 1838) and M. eurysternus (Burmeister, 1838) from common myna and bank
myna; Neopsittaconirmus lybartota (Ansari, 1947) from Indian Parakeet; Degeeriella regalis (Giebel, 1866) from bl...

 Waqas Ali, Arshad Javid, Ali Hussain, Syed Mohsin Bukhari

Public attitude towards amphibian and reptiles in district Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan
...s mindset lead to unnecessary killing of species. Among all the
herpetiles, snakes are most disliked taxa and killed by the locales. Conservation
education and awareness campaigns are recommended to avoid unnecessary
killing of the amphibians and reptiles of the study area.


Saman Fatima* and Shazia Iram 

...iodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium sp. After sequencing of DNA the pathogen species identified includes fungal Colletotrichum sp. These pathogens are involved in deterioration the skin of Citrus reticulate. They can either attack the healthy fruit leading to various infections or they can enter through various lesions caused by physical stress and worsen the condition. 


Zakiullah1, Muhammad Farid Khan1*, Muhammad Mohibullah3, Muhammad Iqbal2, Irfanullah3, Faheemullah3, Madiha Urooj1 and Uzma Arif1 

Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Saleem Haider1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Ashfaq1, Muhammad A. Aqueel2 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah2

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Nosheen Fatima1, Raheel Babar3 and Ikramul Haq4  

Aisha Siddiqua1*, Munir Ahmad1 and Nusrat Habib2 

...t this might be the necessary requirement to sustain wheat growth in Pakistan in future. Farmers are expected to receive significant positive benefits from the adaptation of the combination of strategies. Farmer’s adaptive capacity, farm size, access to credit and sources of information on climate change are significant drivers of adaptation to climate change. 

Ayesha Chaudhary1, Fouzia Mumtaz1, Muhammad Yaseen2* and Muhammad Younis Afzal3 

Sabi-Ur-Rehman1, Anwar Khalid2, Qazi Najam Us Saqib3, Farooq Ahmad1, Shaheed-Ur-Rehman4, Neelam Zaman3, Ayeza Mehmood5 and Abdul Samad6*  

Ayesha Khan*, Zubair Ahmad Khan, Urooba Pervaiz And Mehmood Iqbal recommended that necessary inputs on subsidised rates should be provided to extension agents to make extension services more farmers friendly 


Zafrullah Khan* and Shah Alam Khan 

 Jennifer Mei Sze Ang

Huma Khalil1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Sajjad Khalil1, Farghama Khalil2 and Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel1 

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...t. Therefore, it is necessary to test if genotype II-based vaccines apply unique selective pressures on NDV glycoproteins and their role in changing the NDV evolution in Egypt. 


Javed Asghar Tariq1*, Bashir Ahmed2, Manzoor Ali Abro2, Muhammad Ismail1, Muhammad Usman Asif1 and Raza Muhammad1 

...istic activity against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. alium cepa. They all were found to inhibit fungus showing inhibition zone 4.09 -74.97%. Hence, on the basis of these studies, it can be concluded that these bacteria can be used as a biocontrol agent to manage other fungal diseases of agricultural crops also. 


Muhammad Yasin1, Romana Shahzadi1, Muhammad Riaz2, Mahideen Afridi2, Wajya Ajmal3, Obaid Ur Rehman2, Nazia Rehman3, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1,3, Muhammad Ramzan Khan1,2,3* 

Waqas Raza*, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar and Muhammad Imran Hamid 

Naheed Ikram and Nafisa Shoaib*
...cillium sp. and Fusarium sp. from 14 different genera of commercially important marine fishes Acanthopagrus sp. Parastromateus niger, Nemipterus sp., Pampus argenteusIlisha sp., Alepes djedabaEpinephelus sp., Teraponjarbua, Terapon puta, Scomberomorus koreanus, Epinephelus coioides, Lutjanus sp., Pomadasys sp. and Lutjanus johnii procuredfrom ...

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar, Muhammad Imran Hamid, Mubashar Raza, Waqas Raza*, Misbah Iqbal Qamar 

...tans (late blight) and Fusarium oxysporum (wilt) of tomato on different compost including carbon rich compost, nitrogen rich compost and nutrient enriched compost. The species of Trichoderma includes T. harzianum and T. asperellum isolated from rhizosphere of tomato from different localities of district Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan which were recognized morphologically. Three isolates of T. harzianum HM, HK, HC and one isolate of T. asperellum TH were evaluated ...

Muhammad Noman, Yong Tong Mu*, Muhammad Mohsin, Aamir Mahmood Memon and Muhammad Talib Kalhoro

...n. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate fisheries resources prior to harvest. In this study, two specialized fishery software’s viz. CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) and ASPIC (a stock production model incorporating covariates) are used to analyze the fishery output (FO) and fishery input (FI) data of Scomberomorus spp. to evaluate their fishery stock status in Pakistani marine waters from Balochistan coastline.Three surplus p...
Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Shahid Yousaf1, Salman Khurshid1*, Qurrat Ul Ain Akbar1, Saqib Arif1, Nasreen Fatima2 and Ali Murad Rahoo3
...r, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Alternaria alternata have been identified in citrus samples. However, major incidence was recorded for Aspergillus niger (41.6%) followed by Fusarium oxysporum (27.7%). Infected samples (5.9) had high pH as compared to the healthy samples (3.1). Total soluble solids were decreased from 14 to 8.5% due to fungal infection. Whilst, the i...

Zara Ahmad1*, Fazli Rabbi2, Muhammad Zamin3, Bushra Kiran2, Tariq Shah2 and Shahzad Kouser4 

...e provided with the necessary requirements for off-season vegetable production to enhance farmer income and improve their socioeconomic status. 


Muhammad Ilyas* and Fida Mohammad 

Zijuan Li1,2, Rong Ma2, Muhammad Khan3*, Chenchen Liu2, Xiaolin Cui2 and Yongming Li1,2*
...iceatannol in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Cell proliferation was measured using CCK-8 assay and colony forming assay. Flow cytometry was used to determine apoptosis and cell cycle profile. Western blot was used to measure the expression of various proteins. The data demonstrated that piceatannol inhibited growth and induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Further studies showed that piceatannol induces mitochondrial apoptosis as shown by Bcl-2 family prote...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Khalid Usman2*, Shahid Hameed Khan Khalil3, Abdul Mateen Khattak4, Muhammad Ehsan Elahi1, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik2 and Amir Hamza2
...were 32 and 50% in Gol Basara and Zahidi, respectively. Maximum and minimum length observed were 5.2 cm and 2.5 cm in Dhakki and Gol Basra, respectively. Economic analysis revealed that processing of fresh dates fetched more money than dry dates for most of the popular varieties. However, Dhakki date being more preferred due to its unique taste and the highest fruit yield and the biggest fruit size; needs curing under controlled conditions. 
Muhammad Khaled Siddiq1, Fatima Yousuf Dar1,M. Akbar Khan1, Muhammad Adeeb Babar1,*, Sayyed Ghyour Abbas1, Asra Ghaus1, Musdassir Iqbal1 and Muhammad Akhtar2
Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Umar Mumtaz1, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan3 and Abdul Naveed4

Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Rashid Mahmood2, Ziyad Abdul Qadir2, Muhammad Arshad1 and Mubasshir Sohail3 

Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Imtiaz Sarwar1, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Rehan Khalid1, Muhammad Yahya1 and Khurram Shehzad2
Abdul Majeed1*, Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq2, Abid Niaz3, Abid Mahmood4, Naeem Ahmad1 and Hafiz Muhammad Walyat Ali Khan1
Muhammad Nisar* and Muhammad Idress
... gardening study is necessary not only due to its social, food security and economic contribution, but its consideration’s negligence in development agendas. Home gardening data provide complete agricultural input in a nation’s domestic treasure. Therefore, the current study was carried out with the objective to assess small farmers’ involvement in home gardening at district Tank, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa- Pakistan. Three hundred and twenty (320) s...

Muhammad Naeem Khan* and Asad Jan 

...hindered the growth of Fusarium oxysporum effectively, causing 19.3±0.41 mm zone of inhibition, while the activity of other solvent was moderate. 


Tanveer Ahmad1*, Muhammad Mujtaba Rafiq1, Waqas Ahmed Dogar2, Abid Mahmood Alvi3, Qumer Iqbal4, Muhammad Azam5 and Arshad Ali Khan6 

...ot only helpful but necessarily required for fruit quality and optimum yield of phalsa. 


Fazle Akbar and Sahib Alam* on total fungal and Fusarium counts and mycotoxins zearalenone (ZON), trichothecenes type-A (i.e. T-2 and HT-2) and trichothecenes type-B (i.e. DON, 3-ac DON, 15-ac DON) production in maize grains. Water activity of the grains was adjusted to 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw and the samples were stored at 25°C for 45 days. The control samples were kept without any aw modification. At 15 days interval, the samples were analyzed for the aforesaid parameters. The da...
Fizza Anwar1, Muddassar Zafar1*, Zahid Anwar1, Raja Tahir Mehmood2
...Aflatrem, Monacolin K, Fusarubin and Tautomycetin. Different fermentation parameters were optimized to produce antimicrobial agents using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and best results were obtained at 45°C temperature, 5.5 pH, 5 mL inoculum concentration, 1.5 mL banana peel as substrate and 20 days incubation time. The antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites was tested against Streptococcus aglactaie, Streptococcus pyogene, ...
Syed Maaz Nadeem1*, Muti ur Rehman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh1, Arfan Ahmad1* and Muhammad Anees2
...sis to intervene in necessary strategies to avoid future outbreaks in commercial poultry.
Khursheed Ahmed, Shoaib Freed*, Rana Fartab Shoukat and Kanwar Waqas Ahmad
...m anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea and six synthetic insecticides i.e., triazophos, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, nitenpyram, pyreproxifin and lambda cyhalothrin against O. hyalinipennis. The efficacy of these microbial agents could be enhanced by applying in combination with insecticides. Five concentrations i.e., 1×106, 1×107, 1×108, 2×108 and 3×108

Muhammad Israr1*, Helen Ross2, Shakeel Ahmad3, Nafess Ahmad4 and Urooba Pervaiz5

...ure development are necessary to overcome the situation and improve the likelihood of achieving the targets of the SDGs. 

Haroon1,2, Yu-Feng Meng1, Zahid Khan1, Farzana Perveen2, Muhammad Ather Rafi3, Sayed Waqar Shah4, Xiao-Hong Su1 and Lianxi Xing1,*
...ngi (1/D= 0.41) and UC Hisara Nehri (1/D= 0.31). The maximum individuals were collected from UC Koaz Bahram Dheri (n=144/506), followed by UC Mandani (n=73/506), while the minimum species individuals collected from UC Shodagh (n=32/506) followed by UC Tangi (n=35/506). The present biodiversity study showed that the study area is rich in butterfly species with a different verity of species. More contemplations are rendering urban reserves imperative for worldwi...
Bhandari Jyoti1,2, Yasen Shali3, Zhang Zehua4, Yao Xiaoho5, Deng Jiang3, Zhang Yaling5, Wang Cuiling5, Li Yang5, Lei Xueping5, Wang Wenfeng5, Mohammad Farooque Hassan6 and Li Can1,*
...e species traits is necessary. In this study, the population dynamics, life history and spatial distribution pattern of L. m. tibetensis Chen were explored on meadow and farmland of the Tibetan plateau during 2012. The first objective of this study was to investigate the population dynamic and life history of this pest on their outbreak sites. The second objective was to analyze the spatial distribution pattern of L. m. tibetensis Chenon both mea...

Muhammad Rasheed*, Tayyaba Naseer, Asma Hassan, Fayaz ul Hassan, Rifat Hayat, Ghulam Jilani, Samman Gul Vaseer and Muhammad Bilal Ali 

... the rhizosphere is necessary that improves the nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of legume crops. The experiment was conducted to access the effect of isolated bacteria from nodules on growth and nodulation of the lentil cultivars. Different cultivars were used in this experiment; Markaz 2009, Masoor 2009 and NIA 2005 treatments were used viz BS0 (control), (Pseudomonas stutzeri), BS2 (Lysinibacillus pakistanensis) and BS3 (Pseudomonas stutzeri + P2O5@40kg/h...
Ahmet Ozer Sehirli1,2, Serkan Sayiner3*, Ayliz Velioglu-Ogunc4, Nedime Serakinci5, Emel Eksioglu-Demiralp6, Berrak Yegen7, Feriha Ercan8 andGoksel Sener2
...sin receptor blocker, Valsartan, were evaluated in the treatment of chronic renal failure (CRF) with and without the presence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The renal mass of Wistar albino rats was reduced at a rate of 5/6. Captopril, Valsartan and NAC were applied intra-peritoneal alone or in combination. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored at weekly intervals over a period of six weeks. Serum creatinine, blood urea ni...
Muhammad Yahya1, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Imtiaz Sarwar1, Khurram Shehzad2, Muhammad Luqman3 and 
Sher Muhammad Shahzad2
Xuhui Zhang1, Zhiyuan Sun2, Jinfeng Cai1, Guibin Wang1, Zunling Zhu1, Linguo Zhao3 and Fuliang Cao1,* of the abdominal fat, sarcous fat and lactic acid (LD) for FR groups were significantly decreased. Birds had significantly higher water holding capacity (WHC) when they were provided with the FR3 diet. Moreover, serum glutathione (GSH) and α-tocopherol (α-TOH) contents in the FR groups were increased, while, levels of total cholesterol (TC), malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in FR groups were significa...

Noor-us-Sabah1*, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Sher Muhammad

Waqas Ahmad Shams1*, Gauhar Rehman1, Khurshaid Khan1, Ibrar Ahmad1, Saima Bibi1, Saif Ul Islam2, Dawood Safi1, Saba Gul Ayaz1 on crabs are necessary and an improved understanding of localities are necessary to prevent biodiversity degradation and loss in this area.  

Asad Ullah1*, Umar Sadique2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2 and Farhan Anwar Khan

...nce of Pakistan is necessary because of the continual unrestricted movement of infected animals and the use of unpasteurized milk which might result in an increased spread of bTB to human population. 

Quratulain1, Ata-ul-Mohsin1, Muhammad Naeem1, Ghulam Shabir1, Muhammad Khalid Rafique2 and Rashid Mahmood2*
...b red, Swat-1, Hazara, Nasarpuri, Red imposta, VRIO-7, VRIO-8 were evaluated during rabi season of 2017-18 at Chak Shahzad, Islamabad (33o 40 N and 73o 08 E), for their susceptibility to onion thripsunder field conditions. Seeds of different onion varieties were obtained from Ayub Agriculture Research Institute Faisalabad (AARI), National Agriculture Research Center Islamabad (NARC) and BARC Quetta. Experiments were planned as Rand...
Saeed Fatima1, Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Usman Atique2,3*, Arshad Javid4, Noor Khan2, Sonia Iqbal2, Hamid Majeed5, Hamda Azmat2, Bakhat Yawar Ali Khan6, Irfan7, Muhammad Tausif Shahid1, Gulnaz Afzal1
... rita and Sperata sarwari. The results divulged the pattern of metals concentration in fish in the order of Cd > As > Hg. However, R. rita, O. niloticus and C. idella showed higher accumulation of the metals that clearly alluded to species-linked metal bioaccumulation, which might be due to their unique feeding mood. Cadmium presence ranged between 0.04 – 1.12 ppm while As and Hg fluctuated between 0.01 – 0.04 ...

Muhammad Safdar Hussain1*, Muhammad Farrakh Nawaz2, Muhammad Ayyoub Tanvir2 and Noor-E-Hira

...y, research work is necessary to study Eucalyptus camaldulensis genetically and physiologically to bring modification in this plant that can make it less water demanding to conserve water. 


Khalid Khan* and Guo Xiangyu 

... to provide all the necessary training and consultation to the farmers to improve the technical efficiency of the rice producers in the district. 


Ghulam Akbar1*, Muhammad Anjum Zia1, Ali Ahmad2, Neha Arooj1 and Shahneela Nusrat

...use. However, it is necessary to truncate antigenic regions present in the SK gene for the removal of streptokinase antigenicity. The basic goal of this research work is to highlight antigenic regions founded in streptokinase molecule and to give strategy to remove these antigenic sites. 

Ambrin1*, Ghulam Dastagir1, Jehan Bakht2 and Muhammad Adil1
... was lowest for Fusarium solani and Penicillium notatum. Phytochemical screening of Z. mauritiana var. spontanea and O. biennis revealed the presence of amino acids, reducing sugar, proteins, triterpenoids, gums and mucilages, fats, steroids, phenols and phytosterol.

Ahmad Kiani1*, Shapour Zarifian1, Hosein Kouhestani1 and Hosein Karimzadeh

...r weight, So, it is necessary to develop transportation to streamline access to market and also the industries need investors to be flourishing; Accordingly, both governmental and non-governmental organizations could take part to improve industrial sector. Moreover, the output of research shows some geographical factors like climate and geology have the least importance as to development and establishment of industries in the rural areas, and they are not para...

Muhammad Salim1*, Ayhan Gökçe1, Muhammad Nadir Naqqash1 and Orkun Ersoy

...weevils, it will be necessary to expand the present study based on life table to get a comprehensive understanding and to determine the effect DE has on granary weevils and other grain pests when it is combined with plant extracts. 


Gulnaz Parveen1*, Salma Gul2, Muhammad Ather Rafi3, Ashfaq Ali Khattak4 and Hikmatullah Jan

...ll test fungi included Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani was significantly controlled by leaf powder (LP) and shoot powder (ShP) when applied alone and with combination. While combinations of 3% LP + 3% ShP, 3% LP + 5% ShP, 5% LP + 1% ShP, 5% LP + 3% ShP, 5% LP + 5% ShP completely controlled the infection of Macrophomina phaseolina. Similarly combination of 5% LP + 5% ShP com...
Majeeda Rasheed1*, Tanveer Akhtar1, Nadia Mukhtar2, Muhammad Furqan Shahid2, Muhammad Imran3, Saima Yaqub2
... Future studies are necessary to further ascertain the study outcomes and elucidate the molecular epidemiology of prevalent strains in the said geographical locations for better disease control and management interventions. 

Hasaan Aziz*, Fariha Altaaf, Attia Bashir, Abdul Basit, Syed Anam Masood Gardazi and Farah Haider studies are much necessary to ascertain genetic characteristics of CDVs over a wide geographical area of the country together exploring the potential reasons of vaccine failure.  


Hassan Boulahyaoui1,2*, Sanaa Alaoui Amine1,3, Marouane Melloul4, Farida Hilali5, Elmostafa El-Fahime1,3, Saad Mrani1,2 and Nadia Touil1,5* 

...e era appears to be necessary in order to identify unusual rotavirus strains that might not be fully contrasted by current vaccines. 


 K. Abbasi 1 , R. Wick2† and D. Zafari1

Chitinase activity of biocontrol fungi cultured from the golden potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis
...the most potential and Fusarium solani was the least based on the number of parasitized juveniles and eggs in water-agar. Greenhouse trials showed T. atroviridae and B. bassiana had the highest dry root weight and tuber yield.


K. Osei1† , A. I. Adama1 , E. C. Tagoe2 and J. Sackey-Asante1


Biochar effect on nematodes and insects population density, soil improvement and yield of okra
...nts to okra production (Asare-Bediako et al., 2014b). The attack of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) has been reported as the most serious, widespread and alarming which causes tremendous yield losses (Hussain et al., 2011; Kayani et al., 2013; Barros et al., 2014). Flea beetle (Podagrica spp.) is the most important insect pest of okra in Ghana and Nigeria (Obeng-Ofori & Sackey, 2003; AsareBediako et al., 2014a, Mo...

Zulfiqar Ali Soomro1* 

... is used framed for necessary modeling. The estimation
of perturbations for the movement by wheels and velocity of train in lateral and yaw phases are enumerated.
Here dual bucy kalman estimator is implemented to decrease the influence of the noise caused due improper ratio
of adhesion level upon track. One estimator reduces the overshoot of noise and other to minimize it at lower level
of level of error. Further the behavior of lat...

Daulat Khan1*, Khizar Azam2, Noor Muhammad Khan1, Muhammad Israr1, Naeem Ejaz3 


Salman Saeed*, Akhtar Naeem Khan**, Rashid Rehan*, Sikandar Hayat Sajid**, Muhammad Sagheer Aslam*, Khan Shahzada** 

are not necessarily competing factors. Relationships for slab thickness and girder spacing are presented that result
in optimal performance and cost of the bridge superstructure. 


Sahib Khan*, Abdur Rehman*, Nasir Ahmad**, Muhammad Naeem*** 


Imran Shehzad1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1, Sher Muhammad2 and Ghulam Murtaza

Ihsan Rabbi*, Sehat Ullah**, Aftab Alam**

...eal world object is necessary. The registration
is needed for tracking video camera pose (position and orientation) with respect to the real world objects. In
existing vision-based augmented reality systems, marker-based technique is widely used approach to track the video
camera pose. In this paper, we present an analysis of marker-based tracking using ARToolKit. We investigate the
effect of marker size, distanc...

Syed Farasat Ali Shah*, Amjad Naseer**, Rashid Rehan**

...e. Therefore, it is necessary to reuse these rubber wastes to reduce environmental pollution. Rubber wastes can be used in concrete as a partial replacement of aggregates resulting in lightweight concrete. Using rubber wastes in concrete enhances the impact resistance, thermal insulation and sound insulation at affordable strength. This paper reviews the viable use of rubber wastes in concrete industry to address the problem of disposal of such wastes.
Sumaira, Ali Mujtaba Shah*, Ghulam Asghar Solangi, Ifra Anwar, Qudratullah Kalwar 
...ctions. Thus, it is necessary to illuminate the beneficial impact of camel milk and its composition. 

Asadullah Saleem* and Nadeem Ehsan*

...performance drivers necessary for achieving long term goals.

Rafi Javed Qureshi* and Iftikhar Hussain**

...austive approach is necessary to explore the adequacy of factors in question. The three methods relevant to categorical data analysis (CDA) in this paper highlights the enabling role of the exploratory factors in understanding the relationship with SME’s exporting. Categorical regression overcomes the limitations of both contingency table method and binary logistic regression in exploring this relationship, and provides substantive sp...

Ghulam Murtaza1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Ashraf Malik2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1 and Sher Muhammad3 

Zakeer Ahmed Khan Abbasi* and Allah Nawaz 

...e responses are not necessarily identical in scale and forms . In developed countries, climate change awareness is much advanced therefore, their climate change adaptations are also far better than those employed by farmers in the developing countries like Pakistan. The climate change awareness obviously determines the nature, quality and strength of climate change adaptations. The current study measures the impact of climate change awareness on climate change...

Amar Iqbal Saqib1, Khalil Ahmed1*, Abdul Rasul Naseem1, Ghulam Qadir1, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1, Muhammad Khalid2, Imtiaz Ahmad Warraich3 and Muhammad Arif

Khalil Ahmed1*, Amar Iqbal Saqib1, Abdul Rasul Naseem1, Ghulam Qadir1, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1, Muhammad Khalid2, Imtiaz Ahmad Warraich3 and Muhammad Arif4

Use of Hyacinth Compost in Salt-Affected Soils

Muhammad Jawad1*, Shahid Riaz Malik1, Rana Muhammad Atif2, Haris Ahmed2 and Muhammad Shahzad Afzal3

Species Identification of Gram Wilt Complex through ITS Region by PCR-RFLP Analysis
...luding diverse type of Fusarium species. Molecular approach is a useful technique for the identification of wilt complex pathogens. The study conducted to identify the polygenetic association of the pathogens of chickpea wilt complex. Universal Rice Primers based diversity analysis indicates high polymorphism within the collected wilt isolates. Primers ITS 1 and ITS 4 generated internal transcribed spacer fragments that were restricted four restriction enzymes...
Tabassum Yaseen1*, Shehzad Ahmad1, Khushnood Ur Rehman2, Fayaz Asad1, Abdul Waheed1, Rani Gul3, Hussain Gulab4 and Naveed Akhtar2
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Spore Density and Root Colonization in Weeds of Carrot field at Charsadda, Pakistan
...ectively. It is not necessary that the plants having high spore density will have high root colonization the host growth stage of plant influences the diversity and population of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Our study revealed that the AMF spore density and root infection is closely related to the soil physicochemical characteristics.

Mohammad Javad Golmohammadi1, Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust Chamanabad1*, Bijan Yaghoubi2 and Mostafa Oveisi3

GIS Applications in Surveying and Mapping of Rice Weeds in Guilan Province, Iran
...nce. The Langarud and Rudsar regions each with 47 species and Anzali and Shaft with 25 species (with 71.2 and 37.9 percent, respectively) had the highest and lowest species diversities, species diversity in 2015 was more than 2014 and 2016 years. The frequency of weed species in Guilan rice farms in 2014-2016 was 3.38, 3.87 and 4.82percent, respectively. Cyperus esculentus and P. distichum were the most abundant species with 9 and 8 plants/m2, respectively. Ec...

Shahzad Khan*, Munir Khan, Inayatullah Jan, Mahfooz Khan and Fida Muhammad Khan

Determinants of Sugarcane Yield in District Charsadda, Pakistan
Ateeq Ahmad1, Umar Hayat2, Shahid Ali2*, Hazrat Bilal3, Naveed Ali2, Khan Mir Khan4 and Khalid Khan4
Descriptive Analysis of Water Resources in Pakistan: A Perspective of Climate Change
...on of new dames are necessary for future requirement of the country.


Malik Abdul Rehman1, Shafqat Ali1, Muhammad Babar Shahzad Afzal1, Muhammad Nawaz Khan1 and Mujahid Ali2*

Efficacy of Chemicals and Botanical Extracts to Control Citrus Canker on Kinnow in Sargodha Region

Md. Sahidur Rahman

Origin and Spillover of Coronaviruses: Prospects of One Health Action
Hassam Ud Din1*, Huma Rizwana1, Rameez Raja Kaleri2, Kaleem Ullah2 and Muhammad Din2
Evaluation of Production Performance and Marketing of Small Ruminants in District Dukki, Balochistan
... Nana Sahib, Sadar and Nasar Abad of district Dukki of Balochistan. The sample size was composed by producer (50), wholesalers (50) and retailer (50) for convenient sampling contribution of each selected producer involved in the business area. The result showed that in the study area (60.00%, 24.00% and 16.00%) farmers have kacha, pacca and semi pacca housing type. flock size in average was 193.33 in Vialla Dukki, 241.42 in Thal, 390.00 in Nana Sahib, 493.33 i...
Amir Aziz1*, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-us-Sabah1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Sher Muhammad2
Effect of Rice and Wheat Straw and K-Silicate Application on Maize Growth

Malik Abdul Rehman1*, Hafiz Muhammad Ehsan2, Tehseen Ashraf2, Zulfiqar Ali Gurmani3, Sajjad Khan3 and Mujahid Ali2

Effect of Growing Media on Plant Growth of Rough Lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) and Poncirus (Citrus trifoliata)

Muhammad Yaseen1*, Muhammad Luqman1*, Zahoor Hussain2, Usman Saleem3, Asif Nawaz1, Tahir Munir Butt4 and Muhammad Umer Mehmood1

Assessment of Knowledge Level and Information Sources of Vegetable Growers regarding Tunnel Farming in District Sargodha
Taqiur Rahman1, Tabassum Yaseen1*, Ali Mujtaba Shah2, Samiullah3, Ghulam Jelani3, Gul Nawaz1,Qudratullah Kalwar2
Kui Zhang1,2, Ping Geng1, Sher Khan Panhwar3, Khadim Hussain Memon4 and Zuozhi Chen1,2,*
...d. Therefore, it is necessary to intensify the management of the fish resources, and take effective measures to control the fishing effort and catches in Pakistani waters. Moreover, we recommended developing the pelagic fishery resources, such as purpleback flying squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis in the Arabian Sea.
Muhammad Mohsin1, Yin Hengbin2,* and Zhang Luyao3
...ndition, it becomes necessary to estimate stock status of fishery resources particularly having commercial importance. Thus, this study is the first time attempt to know whether Spanish mackerel, a major landed fishery resource in Shandong, China, is experiencing overexploitation or not by estimating its stock status. For this purpose, long data series, 2006-2016, comprised of catch and effort figures was statistically analyzed to know maximum sustainable yiel...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Muhammad Ehetisham ul Haq1*, Muhammad Kamran1, Muhammad Idrees1, Shahid Nazir2, Ihsan Ullah3, Sumera Naz1, Shaukat Ali1 and Muhammad Zafar Iqbal2

Morpho-Molecular Characterization of Xanthomonas Axonopodis Pv. Citri Associated with Kinnow (Mandarin) and its Management

Amjed Ali1, Rafi Qamar1*, Muhammad Ehsan Safdar1, Salman Saleem2, Sami Ullah3, Muhammad Arshad Javed4 and Syed Wasim Hasan5

Development and Growth: Influence of Sowing Dates on Performance of Cotton Cultivars
Q. Sun1, Q. Liu1, R. Di1, Y. Wang1, S. Gan2, S. Liu2, X. Wang1, W. Hu1, X. Cao1, Zh. Pan1, X. Guo1, Y. Yang3, H.E. Rushdi4* and M. Chu1*
Saima Yaqub1, Tahir Yaqub1*, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir2, Asif Nadeem3Aziz-Ul-Rahman1, Muhammad Furqan Shahid1, Zarfishan Tahir4 and Nadia Mukhtar4
...evise and implement necessary interventions to control disease in developing countries like Pakistan. A total of 201 plasma samples were collected from IDUs. Samples were first screened using HIV-1 Ag/Ab Combo test and then antigen positive samples were amplified for HIV-1 pol gene (1084 bp) and analyzed. Initial screening showed a total of 49 HIV samples positive (24.37%; 95% CI: 18.96-30.76). A substantial association of HIV incidence was observed in individ...

Zohaib Ahmad Hassan1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Muhammad Aftab2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Usman Saleem3, Ayesha Zafar1, Imran Shehzad1, Aneela Riaz4, Khurshid Ahmad Mufti5 and Aamer Sattar2

Toxic Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on Growth and Yield of Rice
Qianbao Wang, Zhengyang Huang, Shoufeng Li, Huayun Huang, Chunmiao Li and Zhenhua Zhao*
...sexual maturity was necessary to optimize reproductive performance. In fertility trial, a significantly higher embryonic mortality (8.65%) and significantly lower hatchability (90.48%) was found in males fed with 135.5g/d diet than other two groups (p<0.05). Taken together, feed allocation of 125.5 g/d under ME 2770 kcal/kg and CP 15.4% was recommended to broiler breeder males of genetically modified F line after sexual maturity. 

Sabina Noor1*, Fatimah Abang1 and Hamady Dieng2

Biology of an Exotic Butterfly Acraea terpsicore (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae), in a Newly Invaded Region, Sarawak, Borneo

Hafiz Muhammad Wasim1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Muhammad Aftab2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1, Imran Shehzad1, Aneela Riaz3, Abid Niaz2, Khurshid Ahmad Mufti4 and Muhammad Arif2

Deleterious Impact of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Toxicity on Chemical Properties of Soil and Ionic Composition of Rice

Inam Ul Haq1*, Humara Umar2, Naeem Akhtar3, Muhammad Azhar Iqbal2 and Muhammad Ijaz1

Techniques for Micropropagation of Olive (Olea europaea L.): A Systematic Review
... infrastructure and necessary facilities. Therefore, authors planned to document different critical stages of olive micropropagation like; media preparation, culture establishment, shoot and root proliferation and acclimatization which would be applied for micropropagation of olives at Barani Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Chakwal. Resultantly, olive expansion through micropropagation can be predicted in near future for sustainability of olive sector ...

Hafiz Hammad Ahmad1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1*, Noor-us-Sabah1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Sher Muhammad2, Muhammad Aftab3, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1 and Aneela Riaz4

Growth and Yield Response of Sunflower to Organic Amendments in Aridisol
Ashara Sajid1, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Saeed Rauf 2, Zahoor Hussain3, Salman Ahmad1 and Yasir Iftikhar1,*
Imran Haider1, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza1*, Rashid Iqbal1, Salman Ahmad1,2, Muhammad Usman Aslam1, Muhammad Israr3, Umair Riaz4, Maliha Sarfraz5, Nasir Abbas6, Salman Haidar Abbasi7, Zafar Abbas8 and Muhammad Aamer9
...antly mitigated the adversarial effect of drought on the wheat as compared to the treatments in which drought was imposed without the application of yeast and amino acid. However, yeast more effectively moderated drought effects than amino acids. Maximum spike length (15.73 cm), spike number (18.75), grains per spike number (54.50), 1000 grain weight (44.08g) seed yield (5.445 tons), sugars, proline, total phenols, amino acids, and carbohydrates were recorded ...
Jia Shi
...patitis patients is necessary as they are vulnerable to developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study was aimed to evaluate the response rate of treatment by Peginterferon alfa-2a. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a review of articles evaluating response rate to Peginterferon alfa-2a was done through the databases of Scopus, Google Scholar, Pubmed (inception - 2019). Fourteen studies reporting the response rate of HBeAg negat...
Faheem Ahmed Khan1*, Sarzamin Khan2, Qurat-ul-Ain3, Saqib Ishaq1Muhammad Salman1, Abdul Rehman1, Ikram Ullah4, Kalsoom5 and Johar Jamil5
...this problem, it is necessary to explore alternate methods for production of non-conventional proteins utilizing the available cheap sources. The indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from different fruit samples, identified by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were characterized for production of single cell microbial protein (SCMP). Out of 60 different fruit samples, a total number of confirmed S. cerevisiae isolates ...
Muneer Abbas1*, Dilbar Hussain2, Muhammad Saleem2, Abdul Ghaffar2Sohail Abbas3, Niaz Hussain1 and Abdul Ghaffar1
Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khalid Munir1, Ghulam Abbas1’*, Isra Munir1Mumtaz Ahmad Khan1, Asif Iqbal1, Munsoor ud Din Ahmad1, Muhammad Arshad Javid2, Zareen Fatima1 and Maria Arshad1
...thsworldwide.Coronavirusesaresingle-strandedpositive sense RNA viruses which mainly in past were considered responsible for high percentage of (around 30%) of common cold/flu cases. Viruses causing SARS, MERS and COVID-19 are members of family Coronavirdae. World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the novel Cov-19 virus infection was first diagnosed in Wuhan, Hubei Province, Ch...
Saba Shabeer1, Riffat Tahira2 and Atif Jamal3*
...pathogenic fungi is Fusarium spp. Fusarium species are very well-known soil-inhabiting fungi that cause many economically important diseases of crops.Many species are included in the Fusarium genus, which are not only pathogenic to plants but also cause different diseases in humans and livestock.Apart from diseases, one of the most dangerous characteristics o...
Hafiz Hammad1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-Us-Sabah1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Muhammad Aftab2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Aneela Riaz3, Abid Niaz4 and Muhammad Arif4
Muhammad Tariq Chaudhary1, Saleem Ashraf 2, Muhammad Yaseen3 and Muhammad Luqman3

Muhammad Yaseen1, Xu Shiwei2, Yu Wen2, Muhammad Luqman1*, Raheel Saqib3, Muhammad Ameen4, Sadia Hassan5 and Tahir Munir Butt6

... latest information necessary for agricultural productivity. This study aimed to explore the patterns of farmers to access and receive information from different sources. A well-structured and expert reviewed interview schedule was used to collect data from farmers from Huailai county. A total of 122 interviews were conducted for the collection of data. Data were recorded using EpiData software program and a logistic regression model was applied using the comp...
Tariq Ali Mastoi1, Zulfiqar Ali Mastoi2*, Zahoor Ahmed Khetran3, Ghulam Hussain Alizai2, Binish Baig4, Mitha Khan2 and Syed Jahangir Shah1
...ewed personally and necessary data were collected through structured questionnaire. The research revealed that majority of the respondents i.e. 50% were in the age limit between 31-40 years. Almost 36.25% respondents had elementary level education. Further, it is reported that 28.75% respondents had 30 acres landholding, while 28.75% of the farmers having upto 20 acres landholding. Land tenure system of the respondents were examined and found that most samples...
Hafiz Tassawar Abbas1*, Tamoor Khan1, Ghulam Khaliq2, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3, Muhammad Rashid4, Intazar Ali5, Muhammad Abuzar Jaffar2, Ghulam Ali Bugti6 and Muhammad Waseem4

A.E.S. Patrick1,*, S. Kuganathan2 and U. Edirisinghe3
...lettinus, Puntius sarana and Heteropneustes fossilis. Only Channa striata (b= 2.996, p=0.396) and females of Puntius dorsalis (b= 3.076, p=0.234) appeared in the catch throughout the study period and showed a strong correlation between length and weight. Combined sexes of, Glossogobius giuris (b= 3.178, p=0.216), Labeo dussumieri (b= 2.752, p=0.069) and females of Mystus keletius ...
Haris Setiawan1, Aris Winaya1,*, Herwintono Herwintono1, Mulyoto Pangestu2 and Yayuk Kholifah3

...58]) collected from Singosari Artificial Insemination Center, Indonesia and commercial SFE. Semen from the same bull were collected and processed according to the protocol at Singosari AI Centre. Semen extender were supplemented with SFE, G0 = 0 % SFE, G1 = 2 % SFE, G2 = 4 % SFE, G3 = 6 % SFE and G4 = 8 % SFE. Each of the treatments was repeated three times. The sperm mortality and motility datafrom SFE treatments were analy...

Salma Javed and Samreen Khan*

...A). Two fungal species Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger were examined for their aptitude to assist the population rate of the said species. Nematodes were collected from soil around the rhizospheres of sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrical L.) field in the vicinity of National Nematological Research Centre, University of Karachi and further processed by Cobb’s sieving and Baermann’s funnel techniques. Specimens were killed, fixed and identified u...

Muhammad Musa1*, Muhammad Riaz Gondal2, Aaqib Riaz3, Sikander Hayat2 and Iftikhar Haider1

Saleem Maseeh Bhatti1*, Muhammad Aslam Panhwar1, Zohaib ur Rehman Bughio1, Muhammad Saleem Sarki1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi1, and Niaz Ahmed Wahocho2

...nanassa cv. Silder) at Nasarpur, Sindh, Pakistan during 2015-16. The foliar rates comprised of 33, 66, and 99 mg Zn L-1 (equivalent to 100, 200 and 300 mg ZnSO4 L-1) and distilled water (control treatment) and sprayed to strawberry plants before flower initiation. A continual increase in number of leaves, number and weight of berries, fresh weight of strawberry plants, and Zn concentration in strawberry fruit was observed as a function of foliar application of...
Arsalan Rasheed1, Tahir Usman2,*, Sadaf Niaz1, Irfan Khattak2, Saira Gul2, Nawab Ali1,Naimat Ullah Khan2, Hazrat Ali2, and Mian Saeed Sarwar2

Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Hamid Bashir2, Shah Najaf Mukhtar1, Muhammad Arshad1, Nimra Altaf1

Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-Us-Sabah1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Muhammad Aftab2, Abdul Moeez1, Humaira Ramzan1, Mudassar Hafeez1, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Aneela Riaz3, Sher Muhammad4 and Muhammad Latif4

Muhammad Shakil Ahmad1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Sylvain Nafiba Ouedraogo2 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1

Amjed Ali1, Kamran Arooj1, Bilal Ahmad Khan1*, Muhammad Ather Nadeem1­, Muhammad Imran1,2, Muhammad Ehsan Safdar1, Muhammad Mohsin Amin1, Amir Aziz3 and Muhammad Fraz Ali4

Amar Iqbal Saqib, Khalil Ahmed*, Muhammad Khalid Bhatti, Ghulam Qadir, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz, Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum, Abdul Rasul Naseem, Aftab Ahmad Sheikh and Belqees Akhter

Muhammad Sarfraz1*, Muhammad Amjad Qureshi2, Muhammad Arshad Ullah3, Shahzada Munawar Mehdi4, Abdul Rasool Naseem1, Sarfraz Hussain1, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1 and Muhammad Rizwan1

Gulnaz Parveen1*, Naila Mukhtar2, Shumaila Irum3 and Nain Bukhari4

...ium, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium moniliforme, Drechslera, Penicillium, and Geotrichum candidum were identified among various vegetables including potato, carrot, okra, eggplant, turnip, cucumber, round gourd, cauliflower, and chilli. These losses result in about a 30% reduction in the yield of these vegetables. By reducing the post-harvest losses, it could be possible to overcome the need of food as the world population is in dare need of research relating to c...
Muhammad Mohsin1, Yin Hengbin2*, Qian Chong3 and Bohyun Kim4
... regime, it becomes necessary to estimate overexploitation risk and understand ongoing economic implications of particularly important fishery resources. Thus, this study is the first-time attempt to evaluate very important fishery resource, i.e., Penaeus shrimps of Pakistan by considering these aspects. A long catch and effort (CE) data series, 1971-2009, were used in this study. CE data was statistically analyzed by using non-equilibrium surplus produ...

Fahrauk Faramayuda1,2*, Totik Sri Mariani3, Elfahmi1,4 and Sukrasno1

...tablished, so it is necessary to produce its active compounds abundantly and to propagate purple and white-purple varieties of O. aristatus. A strategy that can be adopted  to achieve plant tissue culture (callus induction). This research aim is to identify secondary metabolite in callus using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The profiling of ethanol extracts of callus of two varieties O. aristatus were carried out using solvent system toluene-ethyl aceta...

Shahzad Khan1*, Munir Khan1, Arif Alam2, Ikram Shah2, Mahfooz Khan1 and Fida Muhammad Khan1

RehamM. El-Bakrey1, Shimaa M.G. Mansour2, Mohammed A. El Sisi1 AndAmal A.M. Eid1
...luenza (HPAI) H5N1 virusesare now endemic in Egypt inducing economic losses in poultry industry and subsequent risk of human infection. Vaccination is an effective method for controlling avian influenza virus infections.This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the commercially applied AI vaccine regimens against challenge with three H5N1 HPAI viruses isolated from chickens, Egypt during 2009-2011. Both inactivated and recombinant fowlpox virus expr...

Maryam Yousaf1, Salman Ahmad1*, Romana Anjum2 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed3

...sease caused by fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). Two months old tomato seedlings were grown under normal conditions in green house and were artificially inoculated with FOL conidial suspension of 1×106 conidia/mL by drenching method. Untreated plants served as control. First disease symptoms appeared after seven days of inoculation and seedlings became wilted within 30 days post inoculation. Stems from wilted as well as control seedlin...

Shahida Sabir1, Anwar Ali Shad1, Tariq Masood1*, Zafar Ali Shah1, Nasiruddin2, Yaseen Ahmad1 and Syed Sartaj Alam3 

...Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium sp.). Methanolic extract of P. eryngii showed increasing % mortality against red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) in methanolic extract with increasing concentration after 24 and 48 h exposure time. Maximum mortality (100%) was noticed at 300 mg/L after 40 h exposure time. Hence, methanolic extract of P. eryngii can be used as a natural pesticide, especially in stored grains. 


Mohsen M. Elsharkawy1, Salem H. Homayed1, Mohamed M. Elsawy2 and Amr A. Khedr1

...owth promoting fungus, Fusarium equiseti GF 19-1, as novel and safe management strategies
against the invasion of CMV in cucumber plants.
Methods: The fan was operated two times per day (8:00 am and 18:00 pm, each time for 30 min).
Moreover, cucumber plants were treated with cell free filtrate (CF) of GF 19-1 at 1 day before virus
Results: The wind velocity (2.6 m/s) resulted in decreased...

Mohsen M. Elsharkawy1, Sara E. Hanbal2, Samir A. Sidaros1, Mohamed M. Elsawy2, Ali H. Hamed2

... simplicissmum GP17-2, Fusarium equiseti GF19-1 and Trichoderma asperellum SKT1 as a sustainable method to control the invasion of BYMV in faba bean plants.
Methods: Faba bean plants were treated with PGPF isolates at 2 days prior to BYMV inoculation. Disease severity and virus titer were estimated at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after virus inoculation. The transcription profile related to defense genes was evaluated at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after BYMV inoculation...

Muhammad Ehsan Safdar1*, Samra Ammara1, Muhammad Sikander Hayyat1, Shahbaz Hussain2, Muhammad Mansoor Javaid1, Abdul Rehman1 and Amjed Ali1

Nadeem Anwar1, Muhammad Luqman2*, Shaoib Nasir3, Moazzam Sabir1, Hafiz Bashir Ahmad4 and Saleem Ashraf5

Ameer Hamza1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor Us-Sabah1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Muhammad Luqman2,*

Song Jiang1,2,3, Xianbin Mo1,2, Falin Zhou2,3, Jianhua Huang2,3, Qibin Yang2,3, Lishi Yang2,3 and Shigui Jiang2,3*
...erefore, it was not necessary to establish different breeding lines for different feed conditions in the range of 10% - 30% protein level of feed fish meal.
Wenjuan Yan1, Qunlan Zhou2, Bo Liu2,3*, Cunxin Sun2, Huimin Zhang3 and Changyou Song2
...igate the effects of Isaria cicadae Miquel (I. cicadae) on growth performance and meat quality of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The prawns were fed with five isonitrogenous (40.54% crude protein) and isolipid (6.16% crude lipid) diets with different I. cicadae levels (0, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg Kg-1). Results revealed that I. cicadae significantly increased specific growth ratio (SGR) and pr...
Muhammad Khaled Siddiq1, Muhammad Adeeb Babar1,2*, Muhammad Akbar Khan1, Muhammad Umar Ijaz3,Sayyed Ghyour Abbas1, Muhammad Asim1Asif Mahmood Qureshi4, Mahboob Iqbal4 and Muhammad Akhtar4

Muhammad Madni Afzal1*, Shahbaz Talib Sahi1, Amer Habib1, Waqas Ashraf2, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan3, Muhammad Raheel2 and Qaiser Shakeel2

...its yield and quality. Fusarium oxysporum is a very common soil-borne fungus that causes basal rot onion and it has the ability to survive in the soil for many years without having a host. Many fungicides are available in the market to control the basal rot of onion which contain hazardous material that continuously destroys the environment and human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the fungicidal efficacy of desert plant extracts aga...

Ghulam Muhiyuddin Kaloi1* and Mehrunisa Memon

Iram Liaqat1,*, Safdar Ali Mirza2, Sumera Sajjad3, Shaukat Ali1,*, Muhammad Faiz Qamar4 and Ikram Ul Haq5
...d design principles necessary to understand protein secretion systems.

Fahima Khatun1, Abdullah-Al-Maruf2, Md. Mizanur Rahman2, Afroja Yasmin1, Mohammad Ali Zinnah3, Md. Aminul Islam4 and Mohammad Shah Alam5*

...itic infections and necessary steps for prevention and control measures against them.


Usman Khalique*, Muhammad Zahid, Noor Fatima, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah

...ams. Further, it is necessary to identify the resistant genes in these varieties that could be incorporated in future wheat cultivars.


Muhammad Yaseen*, Muhammad Adnan, Muhammad Luqman, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed and Muhammad Umer Mehmood

Jialiang Han1, Guohou Liu1*, Wenke Bai2,3, Qixian Zou4, Ye Cao5, Caiquan Zhou2,3*, and Guy Michael Williams6
Madiha Nawaz and Shoaib Freed

...Ma-11.1, Ma-2.1) and Isaria fumosorosea (isolates If-2.3, If-02) showed percent mortalities of (61.0%, 85.0%), (78.0%, 56.0%) and (52.0%, 54.0%) with LC50 values of (4.25×108, 2.54×108 spores/ml), (3.26×108, 5.08×108 spores/ml) and (6.22×108, 7.20×108 spores/ml) with LT50 (6.43, 4.80), (5.43, 6.74) and (6.66, 6.69) days at highest ...

Yonis Abukar Mohamed1, Shafii Abdullahi Mohamed1,2, Abdiaziz Idiris Mohamud1,3*, Abdiaziz Ahmed Mohamud1,3, Kassim Abdullahi Jimale1,2 and Said Ali Ibrahim2

Muhammad Hamza Tariq1, Mahjabeen Akram2 and Yasir Sharif3*
...pting SwissADME and ADMETsar online servers. The compounds namely Morin, Curcumin, Apigenin, Cedronolactone A and Matairesinol showed acceptable drug-like properties therefore these compounds can be proposed as effective inhibitors, disrupting the S-protein- ACE2 interaction. This study might help in the development of a natural and cost-effective drug against COVID-19. Further, in vivo and in vitro examinations are required to validate our resul...
Junli Liu1, Tongfang Yang2 and Lisheng Wu3*
...on and apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells through long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) LINC00857/microRNA (miR) -340. U2OS of osteosarcoma cells was treated with harringtonine at a concentration of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 μg/ml. P21 and cysteine-containing aspartic protease 3 (Caspase-3) protein expression in U2OS cells were detected by western blot, thiazole blue (MTT) and plate cloning experiments to determine cell survival and colony ...

Asad Ullah1*, Umar Sadique2, Ibadullah Jan2, Imad Khan1, Raheela Taj3, Mumtaz Ali Khan4, Salah-ud-din4, Naimat Ullah Khan1

...ovince, Pakistan is necessary because of the continual unrestricted movement of the animals which might result in an increased spread of bTB to humans.


Ijaz Rasool Noorka1,2*, Bilal Ahmad Khan3*, Kafeel Ahmad4, Zafar Iqbal Khan4, Muhammad Ather Nadeem3, Amer Nawaz2, Tasneem Ahmad5 and Humayun Bashir4

Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research


Vol. 34, Iss. 4, Pages 672-912


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