Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

... showing its nation-wide distribution. In Brazil, BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and ‘HoBi’-like viruses are frequently reported whereas BVDV-2 has a higher frequency when compared with other continents. It is important to reinforce that currently Brazil has no official control program for BVDV. The significance of cattle production losses or the potential implementations of commercial barrier by other countries can possibly reason the placement of governmental ve...

Chun-Yi Lin1, Meng-Ling Wu2, Tang-Long Shen1, Hsin-Hung Yeh3, Ting-Hsuan Hung1*

 

... common in field. Uneven distributions of both viroids also occurred in different tissues of citrus. Two multiplex molecular detection methods provide the understanding of the genetic diversities among viroid isolates and quantify viroids in citrus host. Our field survey can help clarify citrus-viroid relationships and develop proper prevention strategies in the near future.

 

...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...icola. Collectively, the distribution patterns and emergence of BT can be predicted by the abundance of the Culicoides species in a specified locality so that control measures
can be implemented well in time to contain the disease spread.

...

Ashley C. Banyard1* and Satya Parida2

...ated an expansion of the distribution of the disease. Having been in the shadow of rinderpest virus for decades little is understood regarding factors that influence the outcome of infection with both viral and host genetics being thought to influence the outcome of disease. Following the successful global eradication of rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus has also been targeted for global eradication by the OIE. Whilst the tools are...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...se severity patterns and distribution might be due to the effectiveness of vaccine, timely vaccination, circulation of a single lineage virus and most importantly effective planning and implementation of the vaccination programme. Sharing the experiences on the PPR control strategies adopted by some of the states in India may motivate other Indian states or other countries of similar socio-economic and small ruminant rearing pattern to vaccinate and control PP...

Murad Ali Khan and Mohammad Akmal 

...rception and assimilates distribution within the plant parts to yield the best healthy grains.   

...

 Mukhtiar Ahmed, Jana Pickova, Taufiq Ahmad, Muhammad Liaquat, Abid Farid, Muhammad Jahangir

... manufacturing, storage, distribution and final preparation of foods. Lipid oxidation products are omnipresent in foods, although much variation exists in their kind and levels present. Although levels of these compounds are generally low, the problem of lipid oxidation severely compromises the quality of some food products and limits the shelf-life of others. Oxidative changes can cause rancidity such as off flavours, loss of colour, altered nutrient value, a...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

...ender-based family labor distribution during past 30 years shows that herding labor (male and female) of age 14 to 60 significantly (P<0.01) reduced during past 30 years and partly shifted to cropping. The male herding labour reduced 40.2% in semi-nomadic pastoralists and 8% in nomadic pastoralists. Similarly the female herding labour reduced 54.3% in semi-nomadic and 32.2 in nomadic pastoralists. This reduction is highly observed in herding labour of semi-...

Zuhao Huang1, Feiyun Tu2 and Dianhua Ke1*

...opidae with a very large distribution. The complete mitochondrial genome of Blue-throated Bee-eater M. viridis was determined. The mitogenome is a circular DNA molecule of 18,295 bp and comprises of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and two control regions CR and CCR, which was first reported in the order Coraciiformes. The overall A+T content for the mitogenome is 52%, and the GC and AT skews are -0.400 and 0.108. Unlike to many ot...

Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar*

...spider with cosmopolitan distribution but has not been much studied in Pakistan. Two new species, Oxyopes chenabensis new species, and Oxyopes bidentata new species are being reported from Punjab.

...

Haji Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal* and Saira Saleemi

...fish diversity and their distribution pattern. A total 2249 fish specimen were collected using a variety of fish nets and identifications of these fishes were made by using standard taxanomic keys on the basis of morphometric characters. Seventy species belonging to 43 genera and 17 families were recorded from the study area of Indus River. Thirty two species were commercially important. Alpha Diversity Indices study showed that fish diversity of the River was...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...based information on the distribution of the infection and transmission determinants for urban Leptospirosis in developing countries. This study aims to source dynamic ecological and epidemiological field parameters to describe a slum household-based pathogenic Leptospira population dynamics simulation model. The model will be analyzed to assess the role of slum-based biotic (human and animal) and abiotic (soil, water and weather) habitats in Leptospira propag...

Pan-pan Guo1, Wei Liu2, Yan Li2, Rui-yu Ma2, Wang Zaigui1*, Kai Zhan2*, Jun-ying Li2 and Sheng-nan Liu2 

... AC) and their frequency distributions were estimated using the phase program. Haplotypes combinations constructed on these two SNPs of HTT gene were associated with some reproduction traits. In particular, diplotype H1H1 had positive effect on reproduction traits, diplotype H2H4 had negative effect of reproduction traits. In conclusion, our study showed that polymorphisms of the HTT gene were significantly associated with egg production traits in two Anhui lo...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

...ther vertebrates. Tissue distribution of C. nasus SS1 mRNA was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which demonstrated high expression level in the brain. During embryogenesis, SS1 mRNA was detected during early-stage embryonic development, decreased during subsequent developmental stages then increased gradually from the stage of midgastrula onward. This study provides some basic evidence that SS1 may play a role in growth, development and m...

Süleyman Kök1*, Sertaç Atalay1, Hasan Semih Eken2 and Mustafa Savaşçi3

... respectively, while the distributions of the marker genotypes, except for CAPN1 4751 were found to be significant (P<0.05). The positive alleles of SNPs in Calpain and Calpastatin genes and all of their genotype combinations, were also found to be carried by TGC.

...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...le was estimated and the distribution of FMD according to different factors was evaluated. Both retrospective and prospective FMD clinical cases were included considering clinical signs and drugs used for treatment during 13 January to 15 March 2015. A total of 131 cattle was investigated and 16.8% cattle cattle were recorded as FMD. The proportionate prevalence of FMD in different study areas were 4.5-18.2%. The occurrence of FMD was higher in February (23.3%...

Abdul Aziz Khan1,*, Waseem Ahmad Khan2, Waseem Ahmad Khan3 and Najam-ul-Huda Khan4

...ent study indicated that distribution of Mus booduga was abundant in thorn-scrub habitat around five lakes in the Salt Range.

...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

...eld. Though the rate and distribution of rainfall during the cropping season were the main contributing factors in the varied performance across years, however, the grain yield of synthetic derived wheat lines across different environments was not significantly disturbed within each year and hence, are suitable for areas of prolonged drought. Some lines of synthetic derived wheat especially those carrying blood from T. tauschii germplasm were equivalent in per...
Önder Duysak*andKübra Azdural
... season and stations.The distribution of heavy metals in P. caerulea followed in their muscular tissues in order; Çevlik > Kaleköy> Payas > Arsuz > Dörtyol > Konacık > Yumurtalık > İskenderun for spring and Kaleköy > Payas > İskenderun > Arsuz > Dörtyol > Yumurtalık > Konacık > Çevlik for autumn.It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals at ...
Syed Fazal Baqi Kakakhel*, Asad Ullah and Abdur Rashid
...ut on the population and distribution of ‘Near Threatened’ Markhor sub species Flare-horned Markhor (Capra falconeri falconeri Wagner 1839) in District Swat covering an area of 5337 km² in 2013. The population survey was conducted in two phases i.e. December 21-24 in Kalam and December 26-29 in Mankial valleys. Vintage point count surveys revealed that the Markhor preferred habitats in Kalam and Mankial valleys in District Swat. ...
Md. Yeamin Hossain1,*, Md. Alomgir Hossen1, Md. Nasir Uddin Pramanik1, Fairuz Nawer1, Md. Mosaddequr Rahman2, Suraiya Sharmin1, Dalia Khatun1, A. H. Bahkali3, Abdallah M. Elgorban3 and Khairun Yahya4
... ratio, length-frequency distributions (LFDs), length-weight relationships (LWRs), length-length relationships (LLRs), condition factors (allometric, KA; Fulton’s, KF; relative, KR), relative weight (WR), form factor (a3.0), size at first sexual maturity (Lm) and natural mortality (MW) in the Ganges River, northwestern (NW) Bangladesh. S...
Muhammad Luqman Sohail1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor2, Omer Naseer1 and Muhammad Usman Saleem3
...tes, monocytes, red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were increased significantly (P < 0.05) which indicated hemolytic anemia. While, serum biochemistry showed significant elevation in alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine which indicate renal and liver damage. Concentration of Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Cu and zinc in serum were significantly ...
Faiz Muhammad,1, 2,*, Zhang Zhi-Feng,1, Shao Ming-Yu1 and Muhammad Shafi3
... β- strands. Tissue distribution of the LvCypA after real time analysis revealed that expression is in order of muscle, gill, lymphoid organ and hepatopancrease. 
...
K.N. ArulJothi1, M. Abinaya1, B. Suruthi Abirami1, Melvin George2, S. Elangovan3 and A. Devi1*
...rophoresis. The genotype distribution in the population was found to be consistent with Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Through logistic regression analysis, it was observed that, in Tamil population the CC and CT genotype carriers have higher odds of developing myocardial infarction (OR – 1.64 and  2.04 respectively) and for developing hypercholesterolemia (OR – 2.02 and 2.13 respectively). In the total population, the CC genotype carriers have s...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
...r ALV-A with the further distribution of 2.91% (95% CI 1.0-6.7), 3.70% (95% CI 1.5-7.5), 2.48% (95% CI 0.5-7.1), 3.13% (95% CI 0.6-8.9) and 1.30% (95% CI 0.2-4.6) in Anhui province of Huaibei, Suzhou, Bozhou, Bengbu and Fuyang, respectively. The present survey showed that free-ranging chickens of Anhui province have been exposed to lymphoid leukosis virus subgroup A, indicating a high risk factor for poultry industry.
...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...had a more circumscribed distribution. Resistance to Methicillin, Penicillin, Erythromycin and Oxacillin was 100% for all the serotypes while Gentamicin had the lowest resistance (5.9%).This is one of few studies on the occurrence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Salmonella in poultry slaughter slab (processing plants) in Nigeria. The relatively high prevalence rate documented in this study may be attributed to the generally poor infrastructure, lack of...

Sadiq Ali* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...ne, 2013-14 to study the distribution of Parthenium weed. Five villages were selected and thirty locations were randomly selected from each village. The data revealed that the flora is predominated by parthenium weed with the highest relative density of 63.4% among all weeds, followed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Cannabis sativa L. and Chenopodium album L. with relative density of 11.37, 10.86 and 7.31%, respectively. Moreover, at different locations, the p...
Tianzhu Chao, Huiqiang Cai, Yuxun Zhou, Kai Li* and Junhua Xiao
...e patterns of subspecies distribution, diversity and differentiation of the house mouse Mus musculus provide insights into past dispersal events in natural populations of this species. We investigated the molecular phylogenetics of Chinese house mice based on 466 DNA sequences from mitochondrial D-loop fragments. Our analyses revealed that Mus musculus musculus and M. m. castaneus are older colonized subspecies with broad

Wazha Mugabe1,2, Lawrence Akanyang1, Mackenzie Nsinamwa1, Batanani Moatswi1, Naledi Matthews1, Kealeboga Dipheko1, Imtiaz Ahmed Ujjan3 and Assar Ali Shah2*

...bited random patterns of distribution along grazing gradients in both grazing gradients. The composition for fodder trees was composed mainly of low value species of which most were encroaching species which have spread and established throughout the gradients.

...

S. Subharani, S. S. Thorat, N. Abem, L. Amit Kumar and T. K. Singh 

A database on parasitoid of insect pests of crops in Manipur, India
...characters, geographical distribution, period of activity, parasitoid behavior and its biology etc. Image of the parasitoid species are also provided for helping in easy identification of the species. Keywords: Database, insect-pest, parasitoids, Manipur
 

...

Shams Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif and Abdul Mateen 

 

Soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Pakistan
...n 2011-12. Incidence and distribution of Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV) and Tobacco rattle tobra virus (TRV) was reported on the basis of characteristic symptoms expression, bait test, infectivity assays and double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Both the viruses were prevalent in Hazara and Malakand divisions. The average symptoms based incidence in Hazara divi-sion for PMTV was 8.83% and TRV was 6.80% while in Malakand divis...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...on intensity and spatial distribution. Often it ends up in reducing the quantum of a pesticide threatened with withdrawal. We understand Appropriate PA (Appropriate Precision Agriculture, APA) as Site-Specific Appropriate Precision Agriculture (SSAPA) applied to cropping system management with geoinformatics and agriinformatics as may be available of land, soil, including its nutrient content and availability of requisite water, meteorology, agrometeorology an...
Bao-Ming Ge* Dai-Zhen Zhang, Qiu-Ning Liu, Sen-Hao Jiang, Jun Cui, Chun-Lin Zhou and Bo-Ping Tang
...he effect of dike age on distribution of pill bug (Armadillidium vulgare Latreille, 1804) in the forests was studied at a reclaimed coast in Yancheng, China. The aggregated distribution of A. vulgare population was found by Taylor’s power law and Iowa’s patchiness regression methods in each season (P< 0.001). The abundances were markedly affected by habitat type (F5,120 = 49.409, P <...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi2
...t body weights. The most distribution of gonad wet weights and total wet weights were generally less than 10 g and 80 g, respectively. The females were heavier than the males (~1.77x). The heavier females had more gonads (direct relation, r=0.45) while the lighter males had more gonads (inverse relation, r=-0.52). The males’ total dry weights were < 20 g and > 40 g but females’ were between 10 to 40 g. The total wet weight was > ~2x (femal...
Jia-xiang Wang1,2,* and Peng Li1,2
...ittle is known about its distribution in the pancreas ofthe African ostrich. In the present study, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the African ostrich pancreas were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that the pancreas is divided into twosections: the exocrine and endocrine portion.The exocrine portionis comprised of peripheral gland cells and ce...
Baohua Chen1,2, Wenzhu Peng3, Jian Xu2, Jingyan Feng1,2, Chuanju Dong1,2 and Peng Xu2,3,*
...with a wide phylogenetic distribution. They are multifunctional enzymes that play a crucial role in cellular detoxification and oxidative stress tolerance. Comparing with that in mammals, investigation of GSTs is more complicated in teleosts because of the greater pressure they suffer in aquatic environment. In this study, we identified a set of 27 GSTs including 8 classes of members in common carp genome. Both sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis exh...
Huseyin Sasi1* and Gulcin G. Ozay2
...per Akcay River. The age distribution for both females and males of S. cephalus populationwas betweenI-VII, and the second age group was found at maximum rate of 30.60%. Their fork lengths and weights ranged between 6.0-22.8 cm and 3.7-134.62 g for females; 6.1-22.1 cm and 2.7-110 g for males, respectively.The growth parameters of the von Bertalanffy equation were found as Lt=34.71 [1-e–0.116(t+0.867)] for females and Lt=32.87 [1-e...
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
... project, prevalence and distribution of soil borne Brucella species in nine districts of Punjab including Lahore, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura, Sargodha, D.G. Khan, Chakwal, Sahiwal, Gujranwala and Attock were determined. By using grid based sampling strategy, soil samples (n= 1280) were collected from villages (n=256, 5 samples/village) of the nine districts. Brucella genus specific DNA (bcsp31) was detected using Real Time PCR and prevalence...
Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Fatima Sellami3 and Muhammad Afzal1
...the species richness and distribution of coccinellid beetles in seven selected regions (Bhera, Bhalwal, Kot Momin, Sahiwal, Sargodha, Shahpur and Silanwali). A total of 1,470 coccinellid specimens were collected from all types of vegetation and were identified up to species level by means of external morphology, published descriptions and male genitalia micrometry. Nine species were identified belonging to 9 genera and 4 subfamilies occurring along with 10 tro...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

... yellow rust occurrence, distribution and impact on wheat landscape was carried out along with recent deployment status of cultivars during 2012 in northwest Pakistan located close to the center of diversity of P. striiformis f.sp. tritici. Around 1600 wheat fields were sampled covering a geographical area of little less than 5000 acres in the southern, central and northern zones located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. Yellow rust occurrence was dist...

Muhammad Amin1*, Khalid Mahmood2, Imran Bodlah3, Muhammad Rahim Khan2 

...metric data, biology and distribution of the studied species are provided herewith.  

...
Shabana1,*, Farah Ehsan1 and Shahida Hasnain1,2
...t difference in genotype distribution was observed between cases (Gly/Gly, 66.9%; Gly/Ser, 20.17%; Ser/Ser, 12.8%) and controls (Gly/Gly, 67.4%; Gly/Ser, 28.5%; Ser/Ser, 4.00%) (p = 0.013). The cases showed significantly higher frequency of the Ser allele compared to the controls (22.9% vs. 18.3%; OR: 1.32, CI: 0.95–1.83, p=0.013). The minor allele (Ser) showed a significant association with weight, BMI, fasting plasma glucose, total choles...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4

Ghani Akbar1, Steven Raine2, Allen David McHugh3, Greg Hamilton4 and Qurban Hussain5 

...uarter (AE lq) 71%, 87%, distribution uniformity of low quarter (DU lq) 70%, 80% and adequacy of low quarter (AD lq) 100 %, 90% for NB and WB, respectively. Majority (67%) of WB irrigations monitored were under irrigated while large number (50%) of NB irrigation were over irrigated. Simulation modelling showed that achievement of above 90% Potential Application Efficiency (PAE) is possible by improving operation (inflow rate and time to irrigation cut-off) ...
Carolina A. Bonin1,2, Eric A. Lewallen2,3, Andre J. van Wijnen3, Marta Jussara Cremer4 and Paulo C. Simões-Lopes5*
... in other parts of their distribution.
...
Minmin Chen1, Xiaoke Zhang1, Kexiong Wang2, Zhigang Liu1, An Wan3, Daoping Yu1,*, Hong Ji3 and Fangzhen Peng1
...cal spatial and temporal distribution dynamics can help establish better conservation strategies. In order to understand the characteristics of habitat chosen, a continuous 15 months observation on the distribution patterns of the Yangtze finless porpoise at the confluence of Yangtze and Wanhe rivers was conducted. The results showed that the distribution of the porpoise changed seasonally...
Saba Khalid*, Muhammad Saddique Awan, Riaz Aziz Minhas, Nasra Ashraf, Khawaja Basharat Ahmed, Nuzhat Shafi and Sajid Abassi
LX Ye1,2, JX Wang1,2,*, P Li1,2 and XT Zhang1,2 
...s little known about its distribution in the testes of the African ostrich. In the present study, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the testes of African ostrich were investigated using immunohistochemistry. The testes of African ostrich consisted of a capsule and parenchyma. The capsule was divided into three annular layers, and the parenchyma consisted of tub...
Quang Minh Dinh
...ased on length-frequency distribution analysis of 1,527 individuals. The male to female T. vagina ratio was not significantly different within and between seasons, and the parameters of the von Bertalanffy curve of this fish were given as L= 24.15 cm, K = 0.53 yr-1 and t0 = –0.03 yr-1. The longevity (tmax) and the growth performance (Φ’) were...
Pan Hong, Ruonan Li, Yumeng Li, Hainan Lan* and Xin Zheng*
...lization and subcellular distribution of growth hormone (GH) from humans and rats have been extensively reported. However, to date, there are no descriptions of the cell behaviour of porcine GH in domestic animals. Thus, freshly isolated porcine hepatocytes were used as a somatic cell model to study the internalization and subcellular localization of porcine growth hormone (pGH), and the results showed that pGH could be internalized into porcine hepatocytes in...
Xiaoting Zhang1,2, Jiaxiang Wang1,2,*, Peng Li1,2,* and Lixun Ye1,2
...ittle is known about its distribution in the lung of the African ostrich. To provide the morphological basis of ghrelin function in the African ostrich lung, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-ip cells were investigated using immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the lung of African ostrich was composed of interstitial tissue and parenchyma. The interstitial tissue formed a layer of seros...
Bian Xunguang1,2, Li Jiancheng1, Xu Chu1 and Yang Li2,3,4,*
...by H&E staining. The distribution of AR in the cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of AR mRNA was found in the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina of the oviduct. The expression of the AR mRNA in infundibulum was the strongest, and the vaginal expression was weak. The immunohistochemical results was consistent with the molecular expression of AR mRNA, the positive reaction in the infundibulum, ist...
Muhammad Nabeel,1,* Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...nformation regarding its distribution is lacking therefore, its incidence and prevalence was determined in seven major maize growing districts of Punjab during 2016. The maximum overall incidence of maize borer (12%) was recorded in Khanewal district followed by Multan (6%) while it was the minimum (1%) in district Okara. On the other hand, maximum prevalence of maize borer was observed in district Vehari (100%) followed by districts of Khanewal and Multan (73...

Phong Huy Pham1 and Hoa Thi Dang2

...iology, description, and distributional notes are also provided.

...
Tariq Mahmood1,*, Fakhra Fazal1, Faraz Akrim1, Hira Fatima1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...c in many areas of their distribution range in the Potohar Plateau. Morphologically, the two species differ in their body size, so there could be substantial anatomical differences between them, not yet documented. The current study compared morphological and anatomical characteristics of the two species inhabiting the Potohar Plateau. Results showed marked morphological and anatomical differences between two mongoose species studied. External morphometrical c...
Abu ul Hassan Faiz1,*, Fakhar-i-Abbas2 and Lariab Zahra Faiz2
... of soil types on rodent distribution and abundance in North Punjab. The survey was conducted from February to December, 2015 using snap traps by applying line transect technique in wild area by using over 3840 trap nights in eight type of soil (sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, sandy clay loam, loam, clay loam, silt loam, silty clay loam). A total of 1571 animals were captured belonging to species of Nesokia indica, Mus musculus, Mus budooga, Millardia meltada...

 Addishiwot Fekdu, Afework Bekele and Demeke Datiko*

...ctes macrocephalus). The distribution and abundance of species varied between exclosure and control sites, and between seasons. Livestock grazing in the area was the major problem encountered affecting the rodent population. As a result, proper conservation measures have to be implemented to solve the problems and safeguard the endemic wildlife in the Park.

...
RuiHua Zhang, YongFang Jia, TingTing Liang, QianWen Yang, QiYan Du and ZhongJie Chang*
...s in vertebrates. Tissue distribution analyses by Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that CcSoxD genes were abundant in the brain, showed sexual dimorphism, and were inconsistently expressed during embryogenesis. These results indicated that CcSoxD plays an important role in the development of the nervous system and may be involved in sexual development in carp. And they provide a foundation for further study of the function of C...
Shahid Mehmood1,*, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Hassan Raza1, Rida Ahmad1, Azhar Muhammad3, Zulfiqar Ali2, Farhan Abid1, Fehmeeda Bibi4 and Syed Maviz Ahmed5
...e recorded. Bird species distribution was: year round residents 50 (70.4%), winter migrants 12 (16.9%), summer breeders eight (8) (11.3%) and passage migrant one (1) (1.4%). More birds were observed in winter season compared to summer season. The most dominant species were house crow, Corvus splendens (n=2518), house sparrow, Passer domesticus (n=772), common myna, Acridotheres tristis (n=327), black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nyct...
Muhammad Abubakar,1,2,* Aamer Bin Zahur,1,3 Khalid Naeem1,3, Muhammad Azeem Khan1,3 and Subhan Qureshi
...ent lineage of Asia. The distribution of Pakistani strains of PPRV was more dispersed as the isolate collected from Taxilla was clustered slightly distinct compared to rest of the isolates collected from Pakistan. Our findings are indicative of PPR endemic state of the country.
...
Yanjie Guo1, Weini Wu1, Hongmei Wang2, Xiao Guo2 and Yongping Xu2,*
...etect the expression and distribution of IL-18Rα in the inferior mesenteric ganglion of the female goat. Our results showed that IL-18Rα mRNA and proteins are expressed in the IMG, which provides molecular evidence for the study of immune and neuro-modulation in the female reproductive system.
...

 Muhammad Asim, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Munir* and Muhammad Aslam**

...y;"> The uptake and distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) were studied in inoculated and uninoculated plants of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from the time of inoculation to root-nodule initiation (192 hours after inoculation). 3H-ABA was applied to the leaves of two soybean cultivars: cv. Williams-82 and its hypernodulating mutant, NODI-3. There was a significant difference in the percent uptake of 3H-ABA between the two varieties both in inoculated and...

 Nadeem Akmal, Hassnain Shah*, Muhammad Azam Niazi** and Waqar Akhtar*

..., after one year of buck distribution. Data were collected from a sample of 38 buck holders and 31 beneficiary farmers using a structured pretested questionnaire. The main influencing factor in keeping bucks was goat breed improvement. All the sample respondents were convinced of the benefits of crosses with Beetal buck and reported that the offsprings Beetal were of higher body weight (40% higher), good looking and well built. Regarding the suitability of Bee...
Naveed Akhtar,1,* Riaz Muhammad2, Kausar Saeed2, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Muzaffar Shah3, Jehan Zeb2, Shahid Ahmad2, Azam Jan Afridi4 and  Aftab Hussain5

 Muhammad Tariq*, Raja Muhammad Omer**, Muhammad Ashraf Mian*, Obaid Ur Rehman***, Amjad Tahir Virk and Kazim Abbass**

PROMOTING CERTIFIED SEED AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON YIELD IN RAINFED AREAS
...fied seed production and distribution in rainfed District Chakwal under joint venture of a study on comparison of seed source(Certified vs. Farmer's seed) contribution towards wheat yield at six sites in the District. All the agronomic practices were the same in both -2 treatments. The number of fertile tillers m were significantly higher in certified seed source than the farmer's own seed that resulted in significant increase in grain yield. Other yield contr...

 Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure-Camphor* and Mohammad Irshad**

SURVEY OF MANAGED F. (APIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) POPULATION IN GALIAT, MURREE AND ISLAMABAD
...this bee. It reveals the distribution and strength of population of in mainly hilly areas of Pakistan. The objective of this study is not only useful to upscale honey production by this hill bee but also for pollination purpose. People interviewed were of the opinion that there is still some potential for these bees. Abbottabad area was having comparatively more population of than other areas.

...

 Md. Nazirul Islam*, M. Z. Rahman**, R. Ali***, A. K. Azad**** and M. K. Sultan**

DIVERSITY ANALYSIS AND ESTABLISHMENT OF CORE SUBSETS OF HYACINTH BEAN COLLECTION OF BANGLADESH

 Muhammad Aamir Khan*, Abdul Saboor*, Rauf-i-Azam**, Abdul Qayyum Mohsin* and Fayyaz-ul-Hassan***

IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE LIBERALIZATION ON INCOME INEQUALITY IN PAKISTAN
...gation allows to analyze distributional impacts and to implement policy scenarios that target particular households. The economy wise results showed that agricultural trade liberalization increases income inequality and somewhat detrimental to the rural household types, who guage most of their income from agricultural business. Trade policy must be pursued keeping derivation and distributional narration in view. 

...

 S. Talat Gilani*, Shahid Hameed* and Hussain Shah* 

OCCURANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POTY VIRUSES INFECTING GARLIC IN PAKISTAN
...revalence, incidence and distribution of the poty viruses causing diseases in garlic (Allium sativum) from major garlic growing areas of Pakistan. The yellow stripes, mosaic and chlorotic spot symptoms of the disease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. Altogether 690 samples were collected from 29 locations of Punjab and 40 locations of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa to determine the prevalence of Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV) and Leek Ye...

 Zafar Islam*, Abdul Ghafoor Mangrio*, Muhammad Munir Ahmad*, Ghani Akber*, Sher Muhammad**, Muhammad Umair*** and Yaskina****

APPLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF IRRIGATION WATER UNDER VARIOUS SIZES OF CENTER PIVOT SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
... systems for their water distribution, uniformity and tendency to recommend changes in system maintenance or repair. The main objective of this study was to evaluate existing central pivot sprinkler irrigation systems under field conditions at different locations in the country. The study was carried out to evaluate water distribution under central pivot irrigation systems at three locations; National Agricultural Research C...
Youbao Zhong1, Xianlai Zhang1, Xiaofen Hu1 and Yong Li1, 2,*
... intestine and mast cell distribution by conventional HE and modified toluidine blue staining, respectively. Despite its similarity to the general mammal small intestine microstructure, the present results indicated that the hedgehog duodenum contained fewer Brunner’s glands, and that the Paneth cells were lacking in the crypt. The connective tissue was denser in the jejunal submucosa, but the muscularis was thicker. The intestinal glands were greatly de...
Zheng Quan Jiang1,2, Feng Shan Li3, Jiang Hong Ran1,*, Chen Hao Zhao1, Man Zhang1 and Hua Li4
...ine crane species, whose distribution is restricted to the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau and the adjacent high altitude areas of China, Bhutan, Pakistan, and India. Study on nest type and size is useful for understanding the life history, evolution and adaptation of birds. A survey was conducted on nest size and the underlying regulatory factors of Black-necked Cranes from 25 March to 31 July in 2013 and 2014 at Ruoergai Internationally Important Wetland and its sur...
Hao Zhang,1,2,3,* Hai Tao Nie,3 Tie Wei Ma,3 Zi Yu Wang3 and Feng Wang3
...neral concentrations and distributions in the main body tissues and the net requirements for maintenance and growth of F1Dorper × Hu ewe lambs. Thirty-five ewe lambs averaging 33.52±0.56 kg body weight (BW) were used. Seven ewe lambs were randomly chosen and slaughtered at 34.93 ± 0.37 kg BW as the baseline group for measuring initial body composition. Another seven lambs were also randomly chosen and offered a pelleted mixed die...
Mubashar Hussain, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Sehreen Siddique, Muhammad Umar, Tamkeen Zainab, Fatima Zafar
...ess the biodiversity and distribution of coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), sampleswere collected from rainfed and irrigated fields of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan during 2015-2016. Adult specimens were collected fortnightly from crops, weeds and shrubs from randomly selected locations i.e. Dolat Nagar, Lala Musa, Jalalpur Jatan, Guliyana, Fateh Pur and Kunjah. Analysis of specimens indicated a representation of 14 species, 6 genera and 3 sub familie...
Tariq Mukhtar,1,* Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Usman Raja1 and Humayun Javed2
... to determine the latest distribution of wheat seed gall nematode Anguina tritici (Steinbuch) in Sargodha division of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The overall incidence of ear cockle of wheat in the division was found to be 1.2% while the overall prevalence was 27%. As regards districts, the maximum incidence was recorded in district Bhakkar followed by Khushab. Similarly, the maximum prevalence was observed in district Bhakkar followed by Sargodha ...
Mei Li1, Di Zhang2 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...vival, reproduction, and distribution of herbivores. In order to test the effects of plant secondary metabolite on energy metabolism and thermogenesis, changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and energy intake were measured in Eothenomys miletus fed diets containing 0, 3.3% and 6.6% tannic acid, respectively. The results showed that E. miletus fed the diets with 6.6% tannic acid increased RMR compared with contro...
Abdul Majid Ujjal2, Sharmin Akter1* and Suman Paul1 
...o determine the temporal distribution of important infectious diseases of buffalo like as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) at Upazila veterinary hospitals of Jaintapur, Gowainghat and Kanaighat upazilas of Sylhet district. From October, 2015 to September, 2017 a total of 1057 cases of buffalo diseases were recorded in the hospital record books. Among all diseases, the overall hospital prevalence of Helminthiasis in buffalo was hig...
Ligia Neves Scuarcialupi, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra, Julia Rosas Hochheim, Rodrigo Martins Soares, Fabio Gregori*
...derstanding of rotavirus distribution in Brazil.
...
Waqas Ali1,*, Arshad Javid1, Syed Mohsin Bhukhari1, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Hira Rafique1
...ta related to diversity, distribution and habitat preferences of amphibians and reptiles in any particular ecosystem. During past few years, a decline in amphibian and reptilian species attracted attention of the conservation biologists worldwide to monitor herpetofunal diversity for effective conservation planning and management. Different sampling techniques are applied during herpetofaunal surveys and some of them might be expensive, time intensive and thei...
Archana Naithani, Pongthep Suwanwaree* and Bartosz Nadolski
... avian community and its distribution in the Suranaree University of Technology, which is an important ecosystem for the conservation of avian biodiversity. Many other areas adjacent to the campus also require attention for the inventory of avian communities. Therefore, a long-term database on exhaustive and intensive study of the North East Thailand is required.
...
Huma Ayub1,Iftikhar Ahmad2, Syed Lal Shah3,*, Muhammad Zafarullah Bhatti4, Nuzhat Shafi5 and Mazhar Qayyum1
...the seasonal and spatial distribution of zooplankton species at Chashma Lake during June 2014 to May 2015. The samples were collected from three partially separated stations of the Chashma Lake on a monthly basis. A total 42 species of zooplankton were identified from the Chashma Lake belonging to three taxa viz.; copepoda, rotifera and cladocera. The diversity of the zooplankton species in the lake was determined by richness and evenness indices, which...
Liumeng Zheng1, Yanmei Wang1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yuanzhao Qin3, Yuming Guo3, Hongxing Niu1,* and Yanzhen Bu1,*
...he factors affecting the distribution of the crested ibis. We used a maximum entropy model with seven environmental variables to evaluate habitat suitability. Our results indicate that the current reserve may be too small to meet the crested ibises’ needs in the future, and we believe that more ibises will disperse outside the reserve as the population expands. The distribution of crested ibises in the Dongzhai Reserve...

Abdur Rehman1*, Wang Jian2, Noor Khan3 and Raheel Saqib

...ndicated that the normal distribution model is not appropriate used in evaluating the major crops market risk due to various degrees of market risk in various crops such as the cotton and soybean crops with higher levels of market risk, while the coarse grain rice with the medium risk level and finally the corn and wheat with lower levels of market risk. According to the results, the crops having similar characteristics belong to the same level of market risk....
Muhammad Mohsin Ahsan1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2,*, Khizar Samiullah3
...f Pakistan. Furthermore, distributional pattern and habitat structure of known species is also ambiguous. In this study, we report the scorpion Androctonus finitimus (Pocock, 1897) from several areas of Punjab, Pakistan. This scorpion species has not been previously documented from this part of the country, highlighting the wide distribution of this specie across the country. We identified that A. finitimus pre...
Qaisar Jamal1, Muhammad Idrees1, Saif Ullah2, Muhammad Adnan1, Farrah Zaidi1, Qaiser Zaman1,3 and Syed Basit Rasheed1,*
...inatus). Altitudinal distribution of reptiles shows that maximum diversity (26 species) has been observed at an altitude range of 550-1000 meters which decreased gradually reaching to occurrence of only four species at 2500-2900 meters above sea level. District Dir lower, primarily sub-tropical, was found more diverse regarding squamate species than the mountainous, temperate Upper Dir.
...
Masood Nizam Tabassum1*, Muhammad Ather Khan2, Saira Afzal3, Amir Gilani4, Abdul Wahab Gureja5, ShafaqTabassum6
...cases had almost similar distribution of age. There were 830(74.11%) cases those belonged to Lahore while 25.895% were from other cities. Approximately 48.96% males and 38.92% females were educated, 37.24% males and 52.79% females had monthly income 10,000 or less whereas 34.82% males and 25.04% females had monthly income between ten thousands and thirty thousands.38.75% males and 44.84% females belonged to lower class.1004 (89.64%) cases were relapsed and 116...
Taimoor Akram Khan1*, Anam Farooq2, Amna Farooq3, Muhammad Nasir1, Gohar Khan4 and Ali Akram Khan1
...er and organ system wise distribution of various diseases. Secondary data was collected from standard OPD register in which all patients that presented in the outpatient department of the facility during a period of 6 months from 1st January, 2017 to 30th June, 2017 were included and no patient was excluded.
Results: Out of total 2357 patients, 1024 (43.4%) were males and 1333 (56.6%) were females. Most of the patients ...
Quratul Ain Tahira1*, Sidrah Lodhi1 and Sajid Abaidullah2
...n the study with similar distribution among mTBL and LBL groups. The mean IRAT scores for LBL and mTBL groups were 41.03±17.79&44.17±19.54, respectively (p-value 0.272). The overall FT scores were 40.26±15.17 &48.02±17.57 for LBL and mTBL respectively (p-value 0.045). The FT scores in early domains were 34.81±14.93&56.12±15.1 for LBL and mTBL groups (p-value 0.000). The scores of advanced domains were 35.53...
Bo Wu1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,7, Yan Zhao1, Bin Jiang1, Chengjun Xue3, Muhammad Tariq Javed6, Fazul Nabi2, Zhaoqing Han5,* and Houqiang Luo4,*
...ibodies with the further distribution of 9.09% (95% CI 4.6–15.7), 6.90% (95% CI 2.6–14.4), 5.49%, (95% CI 1.8-12.4) and 4.35% (95% CI 0.9-12.2) from Wenzhou, Lishui, Jinhua and Ningbo counties, respectively. For the first time, we investigated the seroprevalence and the immunization schedule of FMD in pigs and our results indicated serious concern with an uneven seroprevalence of this infectious disease in studied region. The best immunization time...
Haroon Rashid1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Tasleem Ghori2, Mamoona Chaudhry3, Hamad Bin Rashid2, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir1, Muhammad Hamid Chaudhary4, Muhammad Asad Ali1, Mian Muhammad Khubaib Sattar5, Javed Muhammad1 and Bhushan Jayarao6
...study the prevalence and distribution of soil-borne B. anthracis in Punjab Province, Pakistan and to ascertain its public health significance. Using a grid-based sampling strategy, soil samples (n=1985) were collected from villages (n = 397, 5 samples/village) and examined for Bacillus anthracis, using real time PCR assays. Soil samples were found positive for plasmid DNA of Bacillus anthracis (CapB) in 3 villages (n= 3/1985, 0.15%), where...
Imran Taj1,*, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Kamran Taj1, Deedar Ahmad2, Zahoor Ahmed2, Ghulam Mohammad2, Ajaz-ul-Haq1, Farooq Shahzad1 and Sabiha Azam3
...ype D. The division wise distribution showed that Quetta, Zhob, Sibi and Kalat were more effected zones of the Balochistan province. Sheep were more effected (54.78 %) than goats (34.4 %). C. perfringens was identified through different biochemical tests and PCR. Based on length of synthesized fragments by PCR, toxin gens of alpha and epsilon types were detected. C. perfringens type D was sensitive to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, kana...
Haozhen Liu1, Xiangfu Li2, Yinong Wang1,*, Xun Liu3,4, Li Wang1, Dong Liu1, Chen Chen1, Jinjing Li1, Haifeng Jiao5 and Zhongjie You1,5
... have proved shaping the distribution of macrobenthic abundance, diversity and multivariate structure of the assemblages.
...
Qiang Li1,2, Guo Qiao2, Li Wang1, Jipeng Zhang1, Ruijun Li1, Ping Ni1, Yi Guo1 and Shigen Ye1,*
...nd Vibrio harveyi distribution associated with diseased fugu (Takifugu rubripes) in northeastern China from January to December in 2014. The main clinical signs included fin ulceration, skin darkness, hepatohemia and intestinal hydrops. Totally, 104 diseased live fish were collected and 70 strains isolated from naturally diseased T. rubripes. Most isolates were obtained in May, September and December. The isolates were identified through 1...
Merica Slišković1, Meta Povž2, Marina Piria3,*, Goran Jakšić4, Ana Gracanin5 andGorana Jelić Mrčelić1
...m the Mur River, and its distribution in Croatia and Slovenia. In 2009, the schooling of sichel were observed at a high-water level in the Mur River of Slovenia. In total, 14 specimens were sampled by fishermen using sport fishing techniques. The age, condition, length-weight relationship (LWR), 20 morphometric and four meristic traits, were analysed. Fulton condition coefficient and LWR value indicated that sichel specimens’ were well adapted to the env...
Yuan Li1, Liyan Zhang2, Karhoe Loh3, Ji Feng1, Xinqing Zheng1, Puqing Song1 and Longshan Lin1,*
...gnificantly in frequency distribution of Chinese and Malaysian populations, showing an imperfect geographical pedigree structure. Results of AMOVA also showed that the genetic differentiation was mainly among populations. According to the distribution of the haplotypes, an ancestral haplotype existed in both the Chinese population and the Malaysian population, further confirming that the Chinese and Malaysian P. minor...

Umair Riaz1*, Muhammad Ali Kharal2, Ghulam Murtaza3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Sana Javaid4, Hina Ahmed Malik3, Humera Aziz3 and Zafar Abbas1 

...iating the transport and distribution of different hormones. Caffeic acid is actively involved in plant physiology and mechanisms of stress tolerance primarily utilized by plants for the synthesis of lignin which ultimately thickened cell walls and plant become resistant to ion toxicity sodium and heavy metal stress. It also reconciles the absorption of high energy radiations in mesophyll cells under drought stress, mechanism involves the production of ferulic...
Ejaz Mahmood Ahmad Qureshi1,*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Seemal Vehra3 and Atif Yaqub4
...e. In the present study, distribution and seasonality of horizontally transmitted dengue viruses in Aedes mosquitoes was investigated in the metropolitan city Lahore, Pakistan during 2011, 2012 and 2013. Adult Aedes aegypti, were captured from nine towns and one Cantonment Board of the city using back-pack mechanical aspirator. Female mosquitoes were segregated and were pooled (7-9 individuals/pool) and subjected to NS1 Antigen test (ELISA). To d...
Tevfik Ceyhan1,*, Osman Samsun2 and Okan Akyol1
...a. The length and weight distribution of all garfish samples ranged from 28.8 to 51.6 cm TL and from 26.6 to 177.2 g, respectively. Female: male ratio was 0.3:1. The LWR parameters (a, b, r2) were computed as 0.0009 ± 0.50, 3.040 ± 0.32 and 0.902 ±0.40, respectively. The age of garfish was between 1 and 4 years. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters with standard errors were L= 55.74 ±26...

Mohammad Salim1, Arshad Javid2*, Ali Hussain2, Faiz-ur-Rahman3, FarmanUllah4, Hamidullah5

Distribution records of fruit bats Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaultii from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

 Zafar Iqbal1, Muhammad Farooq Nasir1, Imran Bodlah1*, Rahmatullah Qureshi2, Ayesha Aihetasham3

Notes on three morphs of Bulaea lichatschovii (Hummel) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Northern Pakistan
...th illustrations and new distributional
records.

...

Muhammad Asghar Hassan1, Imran Bodlah1* , Ayesha Aihetasham2 

First record of the oriental species, Saltella setigera Brunetti, 1909 (Diptera: Sepsidae) from Pakistan
... its photographs,
distributional notes and remarks are provided.

...

 Anber Naqvi1*#, Abdul Qadir1, Adeel Mahmood2, Mehvish Mumtaz3, Iqra Aslam1, Gan Zhang4

Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in maternal blood serum from selected districts of Punjab, Pakistan
...), respectively. Spatial distribution of PCB homolog reflected
the higher prevalence of lower chlorinated PCBs in urban population descending
towards rural population. The mean TEQ concentration of eight dioxins like PCBs
was recorded as 0.03 ng/g l.w. Analysis of Σ34PCBs and socio-demographic
parameters reflected significant results for milk intake. The study findings
suggested a need for regulating the continuous inte...
Abderraouf Chouaib Rebbah1, Mohcen Menaa2,*, Salah Telailia3,Menouar Saheb1 and Mohamed Cherif Maazi2
...d to analyze the spatial distribution among habitat types (oak woodlands, pine woodlands and oak-pine mixed woodlands). A total of 69 species were observed. One species was recorded only in mixed oak-pine forests, six were found exclusively in oak woodlands and 17 species were found only in pine woodlands. We noted 20 protected species, only one endangered species, and five endemic species to the Maghreb and/or to North Africa. The presence of these species wi...
Muhammad Saqib Shahzad1, Amina Arif1,*,Saeeda Kalsoom2, Javed Iqbal3, Shahnam Shafique2, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem4 and Rafique Ahmed5
Muhammad Furqan1, Usman Ali1,*, Anjum Ara1, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad2, Muhammad Siddique Awan3, Riaz Aziz Minhas3, Khawaja Basharat Ahmad3, Qamar Zaman Qamar4 and Naeem Iftikhar Dar5
....38).
...
Shamesa Maryam1, Ajaz Ahmad Sandhu1, Imran Bodlah2*, Muhammad Asif Aziz2, Ayesha Aihetasham3

 

...haracters, measurements, distribution and host plants have been given for all recorded species. The present study can be helpful for aphid management of different plants/crops in Gujranwala District.
...
Imran Bodlah1, Ammara Gull-E-Fareen1, Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1, Muhammad Amin2, Ayesha Aihetasham3
...vided here with notes on distributional range.
...
Liyan Zhang1,2, Zhidong Zhou1,3, Haiping Li1,2, Yanlong Qiao4, 5 and Yueping Zhang1,3,*
... The nucleotide mismatch distribution and neutrality test results indicated that the studied S. japonicus populations experienced a recent expansion event during the late Pleistocene. At present, S. japonicus resources show recessions and decreased mean ages due to overfishing, emphasizing the need to strengthen the management of corresponding fisheries and to develop and reasonably utilize S. japonicus resources to achieve sustainable dev...
Doğukan Ölmez1 and Gonca Alak2,*
...iles, molecular size and distribution changes of the obtained hydrolysates were calculated using SDS-PAGE and lipid profiles were calculated using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method. As a result of the analyses, it was observed that there were 9 protein bands in the muscle and 7 protein bands in the visceral organs, and the volume increases were observed in protein amounts in the hydrolysates depending on time. In addition, as the lipid ...

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Irshad Abbasi2, Himayatullah Khan1, Arjumand Nizami3, Abdul Hakeem4, Jawad Ali3 and Muhammad Jamal Khan

...g to historically agreed distribution patterns. Water availability vary from season to season. The objective of the instant study was to assess the glaciers/snow water dependence of agriculture activities which have implications for livelihood of the communities. The data collection including flow discharge measurement out of the watershed was regularly measured during September 2015 to November 2015 and March 2016 to September 2016. The results show that duri...

Tanweer Ahmed*, Kashif Saeed Khan and Mohammad Naeem 

...re sector, improved seed distribution has been estimated through various econometric approaches in the study. Pakistan’s agriculture growth has registered mixed trends from 1972 to 2014. Empirical evidence from developing countries suggests that public spending has a profoundly positive relationship with agricultural growth. Agriculture is the second largest sector of Pakistan’s economy, accounting for more than one-fifth of Gross Domestic Product ...
Luo Lei1, Xingxing Deng1, Dengyue Yuan2, Zonglin Zheng1, Chengke Zhu1, Hui Luo1, Baohai Li3, Hua Ye1,* and Chaowei Zhou1,3,*
...ined the npy mRNA distribution in 21 tissues and investigated the effect of its expression at different nutritional levels. Herein, we found that gibel carp npy has an Open Reading Frame (ORF) containing 291 bp. Moreover, the expression of npy was detected in all tested tissues, with the hypothalamus showing the highest expression in gibel carp. The npy mRNA expression in the hypothalamus significantly decreased 1 and 3 h after feed...

 Amna Younus1,3, Mariam Faiz2 and Abida Yasmeen1,*

...s. FokI genotypic distribution was significantly associated (P<0.001) with different Her2 status whereas TaqI SNP was not associated with Her2 status. The study concluded that FokI and TaqI SNPs were significantly associated (P<0.001) with different age groups, tumor grade and ER/PR status of women with breast cancer. 

...

 Muhammad Arshad Hussain1 and Tariq Mukhtar2,*

...tion is available on the distribution of root-knot nematodes in okra plantations, therefore, in the present studies surveys were conducted to record incidence, prevalence, and severity of root-knot nematode species associated with okra in the major vegetable growing districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The overall incidence of 39%, prevalence of 85% and severity of 4.1 in terms of the galling index was recorded throughout the province. Differences in ...
Zhaochao Deng1, Jingchen Chen1, Na Song2, Yongzhen Li3 and Zhiqiang Han1,*
...s has a cosmopolitan distribution and marked genetic structure. However, analysis of this structure has not included the South China Sea population. In the present study, we collected a total of 23 individuals from Xisha, and Nansha Islands in the South China Sea and a 503 bp segment of mitochondrial DNA control region was sequenced. 17 polymorphic sites were obtained defining 7 haplotypes in the South China Sea population. Contrary to heterogeneous expect...
Zhaochao Deng1, Na Song2, Yongzhen Li3, Tianxiang Gao1 and Zhiqiang Han1,*
...nces in the geographical distribution. Both lineages were found in Xisha and Zhongsha archipelagos, but only one lineage (lineage B) was detected in Nansha archipelago. Contrary to homogenization expectation, AMOVA and pairwise FST values showed that the genetic differences among three archipelagos were all significant. The pattern of population demography showed sudden expansion model in lineage A and stable model in lineage B. These results...
Tianlong Cai1, Falk Huettmann2, Kisup Lee3 and Yumin Guo1,*
..., we present the spatial distribution of the stopover habitats for hooded cranes in the East Asia. A machine learning modeling algorithm of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) weas applied and evaluated with Stochastic Gradient Boosting and Random Forests based on 115 every year used occurrence points (1990-2013) and 14 environmental layers as predictors. Results show that the Songnen Plain and Korea Peninsula are the most important stopover habitats. Four other major ar...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi* 

...idemiology, geographical distribution and strategies for the disease management viz., exploitation of host plant resistance, cultural, physical, chemical and biological control. Studies on pathogen variation have revealed that breeding with single major gene for resistance may be unsuccessful due to breakdown in resistance. Up to this extent, multi cropping using resistant varieties appears to be better option for the disease’s management. Evidence from ...
Farhat Iqbal1, Abdul Waheed2,*, Zil-e-Huma3 and Asim Faraz2
... obtained from posterior distributions. The overall goodness of fit of classical method was calculated; namely, Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE). Deviance information criterion (DIC) and the square of correlation (R2) between observed body weight and the predicted value’s marginal density means and RMSE were used as evaluatio...
Faraz Akrim1,2, Tariq Mahmood1,*, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem3, Siddiqa Qasim1, Shaista Andleeb1 and Hira Fatima1
...redator’s diet and distribution is vital for its conservation and management. We investigated dietary breadth of two carnivore species; Indian grey mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) and small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) occurring in the north-eastern Himalayan region (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) of Pakistan with a view to compute the niche overlap between the two species. The Indian grey mongoose was recorded at 15 different sampling sit...
Bingbing Gao1, Na Song1, Zhonglu Li2, Tianxiang Gao3 and Liqin Liu3,*
... distinctly geographical distribution pattern among the haplotypes. Furthermore, the mismatch distribution of pairwise nucleotide and the negatively selective neutrality test suggested that N. mannusella might have experienced a recent population expansion about 29, 000 years ago. The population expansion and coastal currents may be responsible for the homogeneity among the six populations.
...
Sher Bahadar Khan1,2,*, Zou Geng1, Cheng Yu-ting1, Asad Sultan3, Mumtaz Ali4,5, Irshad Ahmad6 and Rui Zhou1
Lichao Feng1,2, Shaoqing Zhang4, Dianyuan Chen2, Sina Adl3 and Donghui Wu1,4*
...s contributed to spatial distribution of insect in cropland landsacpe. The larva of click beetles (Agriotes fuscicollis Miwa) known as the wireworm is a serious underground pest in farmlands. The distribution of adults and larvae alternated between flower and corn growth stages in the field because food resources and foraging behaviors stimulated and restrained the acquisition of supplemental nutrients as a strategy f...
Xiaona Cao1,3-5, Yuanyuan Ren2-5, Xiaoteng Cui2-5, Baoxin Qian2-5, Chunyan Zhao 2-5, Jie Yang2-5, Chao Su2-5,* and Xingjie Gao2-5,*
... investigate the dynamic distribution of three nuclear proteins, including heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1), Hu Antigen R (HuR) and T cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1), in the SG aggregation and nucleus/cytoplasm localization under stress condition. We found that hnRNP A1, HuR and TIA1-containing SGs were aggregated in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells, and accompanies the alteration of nucleus/cytoplasm localization during arsenite induced-ox...
Bo Zhang1, Changbo Zhu1, Zihao Meng1,4, Baosuo Liu1, Lian Zhong3, Guiju Huang1, Jiaqi Su1, Sigang Fan1 and Dahui Yu1,2,*
...food. To investigate the distribution of carotenoids in P. fucata and establish a more efficient method to assess carotenoid contents, we measured the carotenoid levels in selectively bred P. fucata individuals of different colors and analyzed the correlations between TCC (total carotenoid content) and color parameters. The percentage of total carotenoids in the adductor, gill, mantle, and visceral mass was 6.50%, 10.79%, 15.11% and 67.61%, respe...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosad, Fatema Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali Abdel Maged, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...H9N2 showed a wide range distribution with high geo-prevalence rate in 2015/2016 (96.3%) as positive cases were recorded in 26 governorates., the positive samples were distributed in 783 farms with the highest prevalence rate (76.5%), Also, the most of positive cases were detected in chicken as the highest prevalence (90%) among all the examined species, Genetically, the genetic sequence for the Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) of circulating Egyptian...
Zhimin Yuan1, Yan Yu2, Yanmei Wang1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...nd has a wide geographic distribution in China, and people are in frequent contact with these bats. However, assessing the gut microbiota, especially the potential pathogens, is needed for public health. Thus, this study aimed to explore the microbial diversity of the gastrointestinal tract of H. alaschanicus and to estimate the risk to humans caused by the hosted pathogenic bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene V1−V2 regions were sequenced using MiS...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosaad, Fatma Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan  

...H9N2 showed a wide range distribution with high geo-prevalence rate in 2015/2016 (96.3%) as positive samples were recorded from 26 governorates. Totally, the positive samples were distributed in 783 farms with the highest prevalence rate (76.5%), then 167 live bird markets (LBM) (16.5%) and 76 households (7%), respectively. Also, the highest number of positive samples were detected in chicken with highest prevalence (90%) for H9N2 infection among all the exami...
Sehrish Ashraaf1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1, Muhammad Akram Qazi2, Shaukat Ali1*
... in nucleotide frequency distribution in cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) in spiders used as a marker to delimit species. Based on morphological identification and sequencing of CO1 gene, a total of 22 species of spiders belonging to five families were investigated and compared within each species and among families for nucleotide frequency distribution of all species collected. We had foun...
Mohsen M. El-Sherbiny1,2,*, Reny P. Devassy1, Erinn M. Muller3, Abdulmohsin A. Al-Sofyani1 and Ali M. Al-Aidaroos1
...er column while nutrient distribution highlighted the oligotrophic nature of the region. Nitrate showed a notable increase in the deeper layers of almost all the stations and towards the south. Chlorophyll a was low throughout (0.05-0.27 mg m-3) though a small peak was observed at a depth of 70m. Diatoms dominated the phytoplankton community in terms of both density and diversity followed by dinoflagellates. A total of 138 phytoplankton speci...
Jie Zhang1,2,*, Baradi Waryani3,4 and Qihai Zhou2,*
.... It has a wide range of distribution in Chinese waters including coastal waters, inland lakes, and outflowing rivers south of the Yangtze River and its delta. In order to maintain stable high production of salangids, fertilized eggs from native or introduced populations of icefish were frequently introduced to various types of water throughout China mainland except for Tibet Plantae. The genetic diversity and molecular invasive mechanism are urgently nee...

Usman Zubair1*, Anjum Shehzad2, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi3 and Khalid Mahmood1 

...is manuscript deals with distribution records presented for species of fruit flies from Poonch Division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Taxonomic issues with specimen are discussed. The specimens were collected from seven localities including Rawalakot, Banbake, Jandali, Pakhar, Kakuta, Mandhol and Bagh (Harighel) using McPhail traps during the years 2016-2017. Specimens were identified up-to species level using taxonomic key by Mahmood and Hassan (2005) and pictor...
Shujjah Haider1,*, Ayesha Maqbool1, Tariq Pervez1, Saima Parveen1, Arfan Ahmad2, Zahid Iqbal3, Javed Iqbal3, Shahid Mehmood3, Amanullah Khan4 and Sajid Umar5
...lisepticum (MG). The distribution pattern of MG in layer flocks is not known in Chakwal. Keeping this in mind, current study was designed to know about distribution of MG. The present study was conducted on 25 commercial layer flocks from different regions of district Chakwal, Pakistan. A total of 358 blood samples were collected from different regions of district Chakwal and subjected to serological tests including enzy...

Muhammad Amin1,2*, Khalid Mahmood2 and Imran Bodlah3 

...Systematics, host range, distribution of the related aphids and catalogue of host plant-tree species in the studied area from Pakistan are given herewith. 

...
Joyce Osarogie Odigie*
...water, which hampers the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates and may be hazardous to the health of the inhabitant that consumes it on a daily basis. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of WQI and PTI indexes as biomonitoring tools in river management. We studied Obueniyomo River to evaluate human influence on the river and aquatic biota from March 2016- February 2018. Three stations upstream, mid-stream and downstream were selected. T...
Muhammad Raza Khan1, Tariq Mahmood1,*, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim2, Shaista Andleeb1 and Abdul Hamid1
...t study, we investigated distribution and diet of grey wolf and the level of its human conflict in Mahoodand valley of Swat District. Results revealed the occurrence of grey wolf at an elevational range between 2332 m to 2926 m above mean sea level (amsl); a total of 7 dens, 30 pug marks and 33 scats of the species were recorded. A careful estimate gave a population density of 0.45 individuals/km2 in the study area. Scat analysis for diet compositio...
Po Bunnika, Khalid Khan and Guo Xiangyu*
... linked to technical and distribution efficiency. The cooperatives could increase their profits by upsurging sales performance instead of improving technical performance. These results also confirm that cooperatives managers should give greater importance to the effective use of capital and labor by increasing agricultural output.
...

Ahmed Zia1*, Iqtidar Hussain2, Sardar Azhar Mehmood2, Shabir Ahmad2, Muzaffar Shah3 and Abdul Rauf Bhatti1 

Umar Hayat1*, Shahid Ali1, Abdul Mateen2 and Hazrat Bilal

...yment and unequal income distribution. Although, Agricultural growth is considered an important instrument for alleviation in poverty, but still its proper measurement is scarce in studies. To examine and analyze the nexus between agricultural growth and poverty in Pakistan, the present study has been organized. Data on key variables including agricultural growth and poverty head count ratio are taken from different authentic sources, such as: Pakistan Economi...
Muhammad Asghar Hassan1, Imran Bodlah1*, Ayesha Aihetasham2,Muhammad Adnan Bodlah3, Khadim Hussain4
...at information, previous distribution and remarks are provided. 
...
Abu ul Hassan Faiz1,*, Fakhar-i-Abbas2, Mehboob ul Hassan3 and Lariab Zahra Faiz1
...as conducted to document distribution and abundance of vertebrate pests in District (Bagh), Azad Kashmir. The study was conducted in three areas (Harighel fields, Grid colony fields and Iqbal colony fields during mid April to mid December 2017 by selecting 5 model plots of maize. On each study site, line transect method for small mammalian pest, for large mammals spot light count and for birds point count methods were used to determine abundance of each specie...
Umm-i-Habiba1,*, Ayesha Maqbool2, Muhammad Safdar3, Nida Zia1Altaf Mehmood4, Muhammad Usman5, Mehwish Sharif6, Amanullah Khan7 and Sajid Umar8
...approaches to study IBDV distribution for the implementation of effective control measures.
...
Romaan Hayat Khattak1,3, Hussain Ali1, Ejaz Ur Rehman1 and 
Muhammad Ali Nawaz1, 2*
...al Asia. In Pakistan the distribution range of species is restricted to higher altitude areas of Northern Areas including Khunjerab and Shimshal. The present study was conducted from 25 September 2014 to 23 October 2014, to estimate the population size of blue sheep in Shimshal and Socterabad Community Controlled Hunting Areas, by employing recently developed double observer-based Capture Mark Recapture method (CMR). A population of 834 ±356 were estima...
Mustafa Koyun1*and Şenol Çelik2
...asured. In addition, the distribution of M. heteranchorus and U. pictorum in each lamella of the gills and the distribution of D. spathaceum in the right and left eye lenses were evaluated. Two different algorithms (MARS and CHAID) were examined to evaluate the total fish weight, fish size, sex, season, station and recorded ectoparasites variables in host fish. In the study, MARS algorithm was formed to ...

Muhammad Sohail Memon1*, Khadim Ullah1, Altaf Ali Siyal1,2, Naimatullah Leghari1, Ahmed Ali Tagar1, Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto1, Syed Tahir Ata-ul-karim3, Muhammad Tahir4 and Noreena Memon1 

...er conservation and salt distribution in profile with three testing treatments viz. T1 with raised bed size = 0.6 m, T2 with raised bed size = 0.8 m and T3 with raised bed size = 1.0 m. The soil samples were collected from depth desired depth to analysis the Physical chemical properties before and after the trial. Irrigation water was measured through cutthroat flume at each irrigation interval and the total water consumed by ridge ground was 500 mm. The solut...

Tariq Mahmood Khalil1,2*, Muhammad Ajmal2, Taj Ali Khan2, Zia Ul Haq2, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak2 and Abdul Malik2 

... rate, emitter exponent, distribution uniformity, emitter discharge coefficient of variation, and statistical uniformity of locally available drip emitters. These indices were compared with the manufacturer data and available technical standards. A test bench was developed to measures the flow of emitters at different operating pressures. Data was consequently used for evaluating the hydraulic flow characteristics. Nine types of emitters marked S1-S9 having sa...
Muhammad Asif Gondal, Qazal Waheed, Sana Tariq, Waseem Haider, Aisha Khan, Qudsia Rasib and Haroon Ahmed*
...ails are cosmopolitan in distribution and diversity of habitat to perform ecological performance is abosolute. The freshwater malacological information is sparse within Pakistan specifically in the foothills of Margalla hills. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the habitat preference of freshwater snails to environmental factors. However, only 3 species of snail were found from the 13 sites of Islamabad during the period of study. The presen...
Bhandari Jyoti1,2, Yasen Shali3, Zhang Zehua4, Yao Xiaoho5, Deng Jiang3, Zhang Yaling5, Wang Cuiling5, Li Yang5, Lei Xueping5, Wang Wenfeng5, Mohammad Farooque Hassan6 and Li Can1,*
...life history and spatial distribution pattern of L. m. tibetensis Chen were explored on meadow and farmland of the Tibetan plateau during 2012. The first objective of this study was to investigate the population dynamic and life history of this pest on their outbreak sites. The second objective was to analyze the spatial distribution pattern of L. m. tibetensis Chenon both meadow and farmland. The lowest and hi...

Stanley Uchenna Onwudike* and Vivian Chizoba Edoziem 

...ia and understanding its distributions in rhizosphere soils will help in its management. This investigation examined some variations in soil properties and inorganic phosphorus forms within the rhizosphere of three annual crops, viz groundnut (Arachis hypogea), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) on a loamy sand, typic haplustult soil. The work was sited at the research farm of the University during 2016 planting season and the region l...
Riffat Sultana1, Nuzhat Soomro1,*, Santosh Kumar2, Ahmed Ali Samejo1 and Samiullah Soomro1
...of eggs in each egg pod, distribution pattern and weight, length and width of eggs in the pods were also noted. Eggs pods of Oxya species were cylindrically elongated, large, slightly bent in the middle and rounded at ends while egg pods of Oxyina bidentata are bean shaped. The weight, width and length of freshly laid egg pods of Oxya species was46.82±5.28 mg, 15.56±9.56mm, and 7.20±0.78 mm, 43.39±4.31 mg, 15.3&...
Jiantong Feng, Xueping Wen, Yahong Guo, Yingying Ye*, Jiji Li and Baoying Guo
...mbined with the mismatch distribution indicated recent population expansion of M. lamarckii on large spatial scales in the period of late Pleistocene (0.1-0.12 Ma).
...

Ihsanullah Kakr1, Sarwar Khan2, Khalid Khan3* and Sajjad Ahmed

...climate and geographical distribution were selected. The questionnaire was developed for survey of Camel farmers and information regarding the age of respondent, experience, type of community, feeding/watering pattern of camels, prevailing camel diseases in the area, treatment facilities, traditional remedies used by them against various diseases in camels and economic losses were collected. A total of one thousand and forty (n=1040) camel owners/respondents f...
Peimin Yang*, Zongyun Hu, Yixin Liu, Guanghai Jin and Lei Wang
... neutrality and mismatch distribution tests suggested the species as a whole and all but Tieling population did not undergo a recent population expansion. The results obtained here suggested that Fuyuan, Baoqing and Neimeng populations should be protected and managed separately, and Panjin and Tieling populations should be considered as a genetic management unit.
...
Wenping Hu1, Xiangyu Wang1, Xiaodi Sun2, Ran Di1, Qiuyue Liu1, Zhangyuan Pan1, Xiaofei Guo1, Xiaohan Cao1, Jinyu Wang2, Yingjie Zhang3, Mei Jin4, Yuze Yang5 and Mingxing Chu1*
...of C327T/G1803A genotype distributions in five different sheep breeds, it did not relate with the year-round estrus. The relationship between these polymorphisms of TAC3 and the litter size of Small Tail Han sheep was not found.
...
Mubashar Hussain1*, Misbah Younas1,Muhammad Faheem Malik1, Muhammad Umar1, Maimoona Kanwal1, Moazama Batool2
...conducted to explore the distributional patterns of dung beetle assemblages on local scales. The sampling was accomplished by surveying grassy fields, croplands, old dung piles and fresh dung pats from selected localesofSialkot during 2016. Specimens were collected by hand picking and cattle dung baited pitfall traps. Sixteen species representing three guilds i.e. Paracoprid (10 species), Endocoprid (4 species) and Telecoprid (02 species) were recorded. Oni...
Maria Khalid1, Tanveer Hussain1*, Zahid Farooq2, Kamran Abbas1 and Masroor Ellahi Babar1  
...morphology, geographical distribution and chromosome number. In Pakistan the Chukar partridge (A.chukar)), is an important member of Phasianidae family, however a scarce molecular data is reported that urged us to investigate its genetic diversity and phylogeny using mitochondrial DNA, Cyt-b and Cox1 genes. A total of 749bp of Cox1 and 472 bp of Cyt-b complete coding regions of both genes were amplified by PCR followed by seq...

Muhammad Shakeel1,2*, Salik Nawaz2, Yasar Saleem3, Shazia Shafique2, Ateeq Tahir2 and Muhammad Riaz2

...its, telephone calls and distribution of the structured questionnaire. Information was collected from Punjab, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa (KPK) provinces, Kashmir and Islamabad. A total of 167 farmers and amateurs growers, engaged in the cultivation of high value or medicinal crops were contacted. Out of these, 68 found as broccoli growers and most probably due to shyness only 37 contributed in data collection process. In the perspectives of health-promot...
Lei Wang1, Lu Yang2, Lei Luo1, Yaqi Gao1*, Jian Gao1 and Ping Liu1
...ces in the regularity of distribution and the time of eclosion of the pupa were detected between the southern and the northern populations. We obtained 142.65 Gb of data from transcriptome sequencing and recovered 70,397 unigenes through a de novo assembly. In total, 2089, 2420, and 6286 differentially expressed genes were gained from comparing groups of male adults, female adults, and pupa of A. cinerarius, respectively. In addition, 27715 SSR m...

Riffat Sultana*, Nuzhat Soomro and Muhammad Saeed Wagan

... note on the ecology and distribution of both species is given. With the addition of O. kashmorensis and the new record of O. nitidula, the numbers of known species in genus Oxya is raised to 9 for Pakistan and 5 for Sindh. We further provide a key to the Oxya species from Sindh.
...
Xiuqing Hao1, Zhe Hong2, Huili Gao1, Fumin Tian1, Hongke Zhang3, Yu Zhou3, Yuming Guo3, Guang Yang1,* and Bingyao Chen1,*
... information of density, distribution pattern of seabird community, and seabird-fishery interactions in the oceans are still relatively rare in China. From November 2013 to January 2014, we utilized line-transect method to investigate the bird community and fishery vessel in Beihai and Shatian, northern Beibu Gulf, China, for obtaining the baseline knowledge. The best model generated the seabirds’ density of 11.47 (95% confidence interval 6.90-19.05) ind...

Abdur Rehman1*, Sajjad Ahmad1, Ahmed Zia2, Asad Ali3, Kiran Shahjeer4, Abdul Latif1 and Taimur Khan

...ion, collection date and distributional range for all recorded species are provided. 

...
Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1, Imran Bodlah1*, Ammara Gull e Fareen1,2, Muhammad Shakeel Khokhar1
...e provided with notes on distributional range.
 

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1 and Onyemocho Audu2 

...ran Africa HCV genotypes distribution are diverse, but genotype I is the most common. This review highlights the need for more robust surveillance studies with introduction of opt-in testing at all clinics for better epidemiology the HCV disease burden more accurately.  

...

M. Rufai1† , A. A.Wahab2 , Q. O. Adeshina1 , J. C. Umehokoh1 and O. O.Ologunro1

Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria
...enatorial zone. Nematode distribution and frequency was found to be related to soil pH (pH<4.5 to pH>7.2) and soil moisture. This is the first report of these nematodes from Osun State, Nigeria.

...

Waqas, A. Imtiaz1, Yousaf Khan1, Syed Waqar Shah2 

COST VERSUS RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF NEW TREE-BASED HYBRID PROTECTION ARCHITECTURE FOR OPTICAL CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS SYSTEM
...n at both feeder and the distribution level. This paper
focuses on design and analysis of a novel tree-based hybrid protection architecture for OCDMA system in order to
make it economical and reliable for deployment at the access domain. It is observed that the proposed protection
architecture provides desirable (5 nines) connection availability along with minimum cost as compared to existing
tree based protection architectures.&nbs...

Ghani Akbar1, Muhammad Munir Ahmad1, Abdul Ghafoor1, Matiullah Khan1, Zafar Islam1 

IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES POTENTIAL UNDER SURFACE IRRIGATED FARMS IN PAKISTAN
...(PAE), Adequacy (AD) and distribution uniformity (DU), of 17 irrigation events were evaluated and further potential
for improvement by optimising field sizes were identified using surface irrigation evaluation Model WinSRFR 4.1.3.
The study revealed poor irrigation efficiencies, AElq (41% to 82%), PAEmin (43% to 95%), ADlq (1.16 to 2.29)
and DUlq (80% to 99%), on farms. The average AElq on farm was in the order of; level basin (58%) < b...

Salman Saeed*, Akhtar Naeem Khan**, Rashid Rehan*, Sikandar Hayat Sajid**, Muhammad Sagheer Aslam*, Khan Shahzada** 

COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF PRECAST POST TENSIONED PRE-STRESSED GIRDER BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
...analysis and AASHTO LRFD distribution factors. The spread sheet also calculates the overall cost of the
bridge superstructure. This spreadsheet is then used to perform a parametric study by iterating through all design
parameters. It is shown that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the cost and performance of bridge superstructure
are not necessarily competing factors. Relationships for slab thickness and girder spacing are presented that r...

Parsa Riaz and Muhammad Naeem*

Digestive Enzymes Activity with Gut Morphometric Parameter of Carnivorous Fish Wallago attu (Siluridae, Siluriformes)
... determine the presence, distribution and levels of various digestive enzymes, such as lipases, proteases and amylases in the digestive tract of a wild, freshwater, carnivorous Wallago attu. Wallago attu is a fast growing catfish that belongs to family siluridae under the order siluriformes. It has good market demand as a food fish having high nutritional value, and high protein content in its flesh, Carnivorous in nature. Descriptive data of the studied trait...

Gul Rukh*, Iftikhar Khan* M. Naeem Arbab*, Uzma Nawaz*

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN EFFICIENT MICRO-HYDROELECTRIC SCHEME FOR LOW HEADS
...cost of transmission and distribution is high. The location where it has been installed and tested is village Kandar, Tehsil Mathra, Peshawar. The present project is compared with the existing and is much cost-effective and highly efficient.
...

M A Khalid*, A R Ghumman**, H. N. Hashmi**, E. Tanveer*

INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT OF LOWER BARI DOAB CANAL
...eters. Inequitable water distribution, Shortage of water during peak crop water requirements, tempering of insufficient funds for proper maintenance and high sediment loads in canals are worth mentioning issues. In this paper the performance of Lower Bari Doab Canal with emphasis on sediment transport analysis has been investigated using field data. The performance of canal has been discussed using delivery performance ratio (DPR) a well known performance indi...

Muhammad Imran Ahmad*, Nan Zhang**, Megan Jobson**, Muhammad Younas*, Kamran Ghani***

DELUMPING PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTION OF DISTRIBUTION OF PRODUCTS IN DISTILLATION USING A SHORT-CUT MODEL
...tion of detailed product distribution for distillation processes using short-cut calculations of distillation is developed in this work. The proposed delumping procedure is explained in this paper, and an illustrative example is presented to elucidate the application in modeling of distillation using short-cut calculation methods. The proposed methodology helps retain molecular information of composition of petroleum fractions and may help ...
Sitara Nawaz1, Shamaila Irum1, Haroon Ahmed2, Shazia Shamas1, Sadia Roshan1, Muhammad Ather Rafi4, Irfan Ullah5*, Gulnaz Parveen3*

 Shahid Hussain Abro

ROLE OF MN ATOMS ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF LIGHT WEIGHT CHQ STEEL
...aken and grain size distribution was calculated using matrox inspector and the results were plotted by using origin data software. The mean grain size of steel A at 850°C indicates the 13.10μm and that of the steel B is 33.10μm. Similarly the mean grain size at 1175°C for steel A is 9.02μm and 18.50μm for steel B. The mean grain size in steel A decreases from 13.10μm to 9.02μm at 850°C and mean grain size at 1175&de...

 Muhammad Shahzad1, Arif Iqbal Umar1, Syed Hamad Shirazi1, Muhammad Tariq Pervez2*, Zakir Khan1, Waqas Yousaf1

HCDP: HEPATITIS C DATA BANK OF PAKISTAN
... HCV prevalence and distribution in Pakistan. We proposed a Hepatitis C virus database for Pakistani community, Hepatitis C Data Bank of Pakistan (HCDP). HCDP will be the first database that will holds HCV sequences obtained from Pakistani strains and HCV research publication by Pakistani researchers. We proposed a Hepatitis C Data Bank of Pakistan (HCDP) with an online interface. In addition to provision of annotated HCV sequences of Pakis...

Markus I. Francis1*, Paul I. Ankeli2, Clara N. Kwanashie1, Jibril Adamu1, Lushaikyaa Allam1, Mashood A. Raji3, Godwin O. Egwu4, Flavio Sacchini5 and Massimo Scacchia5

Detection of Mycoplasma bovis from Cattle Presented for Slaughter in Adamawa and Taraba States, Northeastern Nigeria
... the true prevalence and distribution of M. bovis infection in cattle population in Nigeria are recommended.

...

Zahid Hassan Tarar1, Muhammad Salik Ali Khan2*, Shahzada Munawar Mehdi3, Raza Salim4, Irfan Ahmad Saleem1, Saima Nazar5, Munir David2, Tahir Majeed6, Muhammad Sufyan Mughal7, Muhammad Saleem8, Umer Iqbal9, Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal10 and Muhammad Khalid Shaheen

Guang-Hui Tan, Yi-Yu Zhang*, Yuan-Yu Qin, Lei Wu and Jie-Zhang Li
...genotypes. The genotypic distribution of CDS 216 A>G and CDS 681 T>A was not deviated and deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of CDS 216 A>G and CDS 681 T>A was 0.372 and 0.269, respectively, and both belonged to medium levels of genetic diversity. Association analysis revealed that two SNPs were significant association with at least four of seven lipid indexes. Allele A of CDS 21...
Waqar Majeed1, Naureen Rana1, Elmo Borges de Azevedo Koch2* and Shahla Nargis1
...mall;">The diversity and distribution of arthropods associated with seasons and environmental variables in two different wetlands sites was estimated and study was performed on monthly basis for a whole year. The arthropods were collected by sweep net, direct hand picking, forceps. For each sampling day in each month, 20 sweeps were randomly taken in each block. The insects at rest or on shrubs were manually collected. Overall, 5867 individuals were recorded p...
Muhammad Rizwan1*, Bilal Atta1, Ana Maria Marino de Remes Lenicov2, Roxana Mariani2, Arshed Makhdoom Sabir1, Muhammad Tahir3, Misbah Rizwan4, Muhammad Sabar1, Ch. Muhammad Rafique1, Muhammad Afzal5
...morpha is provided, with distributional and biological records as well. Records are extracted primarily from field data and specialized reference sources. Seven species from two different families of Fulgoromorpha were related to rice ecosystem (Cixiidae, one species and Delphacidae; six species). Three Delphacid species, whitebacked planthopper Sogatella furcifera, brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodel...
He Wenyun, Zhi Yijin and Shao Mingqin*
...ay be determined by food distribution and morphological structure.
...

Tao He1,2,3, Cheng-jing Chen4, Jian-guang Qin3, Yun Li1,2, Rong-hua Wu1,2 and Tian-xiang Gao4,*

...in the Bohai Sea. As the distribution zones of these five stocks are much overlapped, principal component analysis for otolith shape is not possible to distinguish L. haematocheilus stocks. Based on the Fourier coefficient, Fisher’s discriminant analysis accurately classified 76.2% specimens into correct stocks whereas the discriminant function of shape indices only correctly identified 62.8% specimens into right stocks. As the sagittae in ...
Fei Wang1, Xianlai Zhang1, Youbao Zhong2, Xiaoen Tang3, Xiaofen Hu1
ShanShan Yang1, Shengwei Zhong1, Zuohong Zhou1, Jin Liu1, Xu Yuan1 
and Yong Li1*
...within goblet cells. The distribution of VIP is stronger in the duodenum than in other parts, followed by the rectum, ileum, and jejunum. The lamina propria, muscular layer and serosa always contain VIP nerve fibers with deep staining. Unexpectedly, the results of RT-qPCR showed that the expression level is consistent with that of immunohistochemical detection. It is indicated VIP probably participate in the functional regulation of pigeon intestine as a key r...

Ummad ud Din Umar1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ishfaq Ahmed1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2, Sibghat Ullah3, Shah Pasand4, Zehri Khan3 and Abdur Rehman5

Prevalence and Serological Detection of Spiroplasma citri, a Cause of Citrus Stubborn Disease in Southern Punjab, Pakistan
...s organized to study the distribution of disease using the serological based detection methods by conducting a comprehensive survey in various districts of Southern Punjab. The results of the survey and serology of CSD showed that this destructive disease which causes symptoms mostly similar to citrus greening is present in all areas of South Punjab. Layyah, and Multan showed maximum incidence of CSD with “11.66” and “5.66%” respectivel...
Muhammad R. Khan1, Bushra A. Rakha1,* and Muhammad S. Ansari2
...drastic decline in their distribution range and within River Swat due to introduction of exotic salmons and overfishing.
...
Tabassum Yaseen1*, Shehzad Ahmad1, Khushnood Ur Rehman2, Fayaz Asad1, Abdul Waheed1, Rani Gul3, Hussain Gulab4 and Naveed Akhtar2
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Spore Density and Root Colonization in Weeds of Carrot field at Charsadda, Pakistan
...luate the occurrence and distributions of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizospheric soil of major weeds of District Charsadda. In the present study roots and rhizospheric soil of 15 weeds species belonging to 12 families were collected from Carrot field of District Charsadda and was investigated for the sporulation and root infections types. From the recorded results the highest spore density was found in Melilotus indica having spore number 276 which i...

Mohammad Javad Golmohammadi1, Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust Chamanabad1*, Bijan Yaghoubi2 and Mostafa Oveisi3

GIS Applications in Surveying and Mapping of Rice Weeds in Guilan Province, Iran
...nce for mapping and weed distribution using Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies for a period of three years (2014-2016). Echinochloa crussgalli was the more important species in 10 regions of Guilan province. The Langarud and Rudsar regions each with 47 species and Anzali and Shaft with 25 species (with 71.2 and 37.9 percent, respectively) had the highest and lowest species diversities, species diversity in 2015 was more than 2014 and 2016 years. ...

Yasir Arafat1*, Syeda Nabahat2, Hafiz Ullah3, Afaq Ali Muluk4 and Azra5

An Analysis of Energy Supply and Oil Price Shocks on Agricultural Productivity of Pakistan

Moazam Ali1, Wajid Ali2, Ayhan Ceyhan2 and Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta3*

Pigmentation Genome Influence in Animals and Human Interventions in its Course of Action
...amount, size, shape, and distribution control the color pigmentation of fiber, coat, and hairs in animals. Melanin production in an intricate course is under the control of Melanocortin 1 Receptor, alpha Melanocyte stimulating hormone and Agouti signaling gene. In most animals, three different alleles encoding melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor MC1R of extension (E) locus and ED allele determining the blackish coat color, a recessive e allele represented ...
Sri Nuryani Hidayah Utami*, Andin Muhammad Abduh, Eko Hanudin and Benito Heru Purwanto
Study on the NPK Uptake and Growth of Rice under Two different Cropping Systems with different Doses of Organic Fertilizer in the Imogiri Subdistrict, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia
...circulation and sunlight distribution needs to be further studied. This study examined the differences in NPK uptake and rice growth in organic farming using the grid system and the cropping system with longitudinal rows given space in between. The distance between plants within a row is 12.5 cm, and the distance between rows is 25 cm. A PFA of 50 cm is given for every two rows of rice plants. The before-mentioned cropping system is called Jarwo 2:1. The ferti...
Sher Bahadar Khan1, Mumtaz Ali Khan2,*, Hameed Ullah Khan3, Sher Ali Khan4, Shah Fahad5, Faheem Ahmad Khan6, Irshad Ahmad7, Nighat Nawaz8, Sidra Bibi9 and Muhammad Muneeb10
Ammara Gull-E-Fareen1, 3, Imran Bodlah1*, Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1, Yasir Niaz2, Muhammad Adnan Bodlah2, Muhammad Asif4 and Nasir M. Khokhar5
...host plants, their world distribution and comments on observed new associations have been given. New distribution records of ant’s species have also been provided. 
...

Kecheng Zhu1,2,3, Peiying He1, Baosuo Liu1,2,3, Huayang Guo1,2,3, Nan Zhang1,2,3, Liang Guo1,2,3, Shigui Jiang1,2,3 and Dianchang Zhang1,2,3,* 

... vertebrates. The tissue distribution pattern shows that Almyomaker is more highly expressed in white muscle than in other tissues. Furthermore, to explore whether two MyoDs are modulators of Almyomaker, a promoter analysis was performed using progressive deletion mutations of Almyomaker. The results of promoter activity assays show that Almyomaker expression is notably activated by two MyoDs. Transcriptional activity of the Almy...
Zhi Chen1, Toshifumi Minamoto2, Longshan Lin3 and Tianxiang Gao4,*
...l within ecology for the distribution or abundance study of aquatic species. DNA extracting was an indispensable process to employ this method. In eDNA extracting of macro-organisms, DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit was commonly used, but its price was about 80 RMB/sample, which was too expensive. Cheaper eDNA extraction kit was a potential aspect for improvement to expand further application of eDNA analysis. In order to examine some cheaper kits’ effectiven...
Saima Siddique1* and Zarrien Ayub2
...onship. Length-frequency distribution analysis was bimodal in different seasons with the exception of three modes in summer’2012 and one mode in autumn’2012. Estimated parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth functions include growth coeffient (K) = 0.48 year-1, theoretical asymptotic maximum size (TD∞) = 8.2 cm and hypothetical age at length zero (t0)= -0.55 year. The longevity was calculated to be 5.7 yea...

Muhammad Luqman1*, Roshan Hussain1, Muhammad Yaseen1, Muhammad Umer Mehmood1, Ijaz Asghar2 and Usman Saleem1

Comparative Analysis of Dietary Intake Patterns of Rural and Urban Communities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan
...y selected through equal distribution technique and interviewed by using structured interview schedule. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and the following key results were obtained. Most of the respondents from the study were above the 30 years of age (mature), illiteracy was high in rural area and most of the respondents were dependent upon business and farming as their livelihood source. Among rural communities, food group of ...

Numan Habib1*, Muftooh Ur Rehman Siddiqi1 and Riaz Muhammad2

Thermal Simulation of Grain During Selective Laser Melting Process in 3D Metal Printing
...investigated. A Gaussian distribution type laser having 100-watt power and 100 m spot size is used. Simulation is carried out on a single grain, directly exposed to the laser. The prime goal of this study is to investigate the effect of different process parameters on temperature distribution in grain and capability of the specified laser to melt and fuse above mentioned material powder grain. Three different 2D models of 1&...
Sukhpreet Kaur Sidhu*, Gurkirat Singh Sekhon, Randeep Kaur Aulakh and Tejdeep Kaur Kler
...n relation to vegetation distribution to understand their biodiversity. Four natural ponds and one man-made pond were surveyed at three locations viz. Ludhiana (location I), Ropar (location II) and Ferozpur (location III) falling in three agro climatic zones. A total of 51 bird species belonging to 31 families and 15 orders were recorded from studied locations. A diverse range of vegetation distribution was observed with 12 ...

Muhammad Rizwan1*, Jehanzeb Farooq1, Muhammad Farooq1,2, Aqeel Sarwar4, Abid Ali3, Farrukh Ilahi1, Muhammad Asif1 and Ghulam Sarwar1

Quantitative Studies in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using Multivariate Techniques
... 9 genotypes. The random distribution among genotypes showed that no parallelism exists amongst genetic and geographical diversity. First seven components in principal component analysis (PCA) having eigenvalue more than 1, showed 91.131 % the cumulative variance, while PC-1 alone showed 32.47 % variance. Hierarchical cluster analysis and PCA provided an opportunity to identify subgroups of clusters at different stages, so that every single subgroup may be ana...
Fangqing Liu1, Jared Atlas2, Chaohao Du1, Anoop Das3 and Longying Wen1*
...has facilitated the vast distribution of this species.
...
Muhammad Shoaib1, Imran Rashid1*, Haroon Akbar1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi3, Muhammad Asif3, Mumtaz Ali Khan4, Shakeel Mahmood5 and Farhan Anwar Khan6
...imals. Body regions wise distribution of tick infestation revealed that, external genitalia was the most favorite site for tick infestation (73.73%) followed by inner thighs (65%), dewlap (62.21%), neck and back (56.68%), tail (34.56%), around eyes (16.13%), legs (13.36%), ears (11.06%), and flank region (5.76%). This study concludes that Rhipicephalus is the most prevalent tick genus of the study districts. Furthermore, crossbred cattle, young and male...

Sabina Noor1*, Fatimah Abang1 and Hamady Dieng2

Biology of an Exotic Butterfly Acraea terpsicore (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae), in a Newly Invaded Region, Sarawak, Borneo
...ion and has expanded its distribution range southward through Southeast Asia and Australia. Currently establishing its population in Kalimantan, it was firstly detected in Sarawak in 2013. Comparative observations on the life-cycle were conducted in relation to the urbanization levels. Passiflora foetida was recorded as the primary host plant of this species. Fecundity in a single cohort varied from 30 to 85 eggs, whereas eggs were oriented on the underside ma...
Luka Anthony*, Olugbenga Omotayo Alabi, Elizabeth Samuel Ebukiba and Vandi Gamba
...ved inequality in income distribution among small-holder rural rice farmers was a reflection of inefficiency in the market structure for rice. The results of Double-Log Regression model revealed that quantity of rice output harvested was positively and significantly influenced by farm size (P<0.05), the quantity of seed planted (P<0.01), the volume of chemical applied (P<0.05), labour input (P<0.01), and contract farming (P<0.05). Quantity of fe...
Keke Liu, Yuanhao Ying, Yuxin Xiao, Jing Yan, Mengzhen Zhang and Yonghong Xiao*
...ated with photographs. A distribution map is also given.
...
Małgorzata Dzierzęcka1, Sławomir Paśko2, Marcin Komosa3, Karolina Barszcz1, Bartłomiej Jan Bartyzel1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska4*
...ective assessment of the distribution of angles between the coffin bone parietal surface and the ground, which had not been possible using other imaging methods. The angle between the coffin bone parietal surface and the ground was found to be correlated with age, with a 0.27 correlation coefficient at p=0.1, but not with body weight. The correlation coefficient for body weight was -0.08 at p=0.64.
...
Ammara Gull-e-Fareen1,2, Imran Bodlah1,*, Muhammad Adnan Bodlah3, Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1, Habib Ali4 and Muhammad Asif5
...has been provided. World distribution and distribution in Pakistan has been given using Arc GIS tools.
...
Rao Muhammad Ramiz1, Arfan Ahmad2*, Aamir Ghafoor2, Muhammad Avais3, Qurat-ul-Ain1 and Muhammad Zahid Iqbal3
...ukosis and has worldwide distribution. This is study reports presence and genetic diversity of BLV in cattle of two districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Blood samples (n=400) taken from local (n=200) and exotic (n=200) breeds of cattle were processed for complete blood count. Based on lymphocyte counts, samples were divided into two groups (A, lymphocytosis, B, normal lymphocytes) and tested through ELISA and nested PCR for serological investigations and molecular c...
Roland Eric Yessinou1*, Alain Richi Kamga Waladjo2, Nestor Noudeke1, Ignace Dramou3, Justin Adinsi1, Victorien Tamègnon Dougnon4, Elsie Yélognisê Sangnidjo5, Razack Osse5, Alfred Dansou6 and Souaïbou Farougou1
...edge of the geographical distribution and epidemiology may help disease control efforts and limit the risk of transmission, both locally and internationally. This study is also important in order to guide interventions, public health authorities and inform on the evolution of the disease.
...

 Amjad Ali1*, Pirzada Jamal Ahmad Siddiqui1, Naveed Ahmad2,Shabir Ali Amir3, Rafaqat Masroor3,Seema Shafique1 and Zaib-un-Nisa Burhan1

...tudy aimed to record the distribution and diversity of fishes from different coral habitats along the coast of Pakistan. Additionally, potential threats and conservation strategies were also discussed. SCUBA diving was conducted at 10 different dive sites along the coastline. Relative abundance of the fishes was determined using visual techniques. Sea water physiochemical parameters were determined. A total of 58 fish species in 33 genera and 24 families were ...

Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Badol Ashraf and Md. Mahmudul Alam*

...ed, and seasons. Similar distribution pattern was observed in all three Upazila. Most common surgical affections in calves were atresia ani, 30.82%, 32.64% and 31.75% followed by umbilical hernia 19.45%, 17.78% and 17.62%, navel ill 15.75%, 15.79% and 16.08%, umbilical abscess 14.38%, 15.28% and 14.27%, fracture 9.59%, 8.61% and 10.49%, myiasis 5.21%, 4.86% and 5.03%, dermoid cyst 2.47%, 2.78% and 2.66%, and knuckling of limb 2.33%, 2.36% and 2.10% in Fulbaria...

Manzoor Hussain Memon1, Khalid Khan2, Anjum Parvez3, Sarfaraz Ahmed Shaikh4, Khan Mir Khan2, Guo Xiangyu5*, Mohammad Nasrullah6 and Saima Liaqat7

...e unfair and unwarranted distribution of profits among producers, commission agent and retailers are the major impediment to the extension of the poultry industry in the district. The results of the study quantified that the commission agent obtain 37% of the abnormal profit which results in inflated consumer prices. At the same time none of the profit get invested back in the industry as producer keep struggling to meet financing requirements. Henceforth, to ...
Jing Yu1*, Jiangmei Mao1,2 and Dongliang Wang1,3
...sup>-1). The space distribution of PP decreased gradually from nearshore (greater than 1000 mg C·m-2·d-1) to offshore and outside (800~1000 mg C·m-2·d-1) of the bay. As one of the most significant influencing factors to PP, chlorophyll a (Chl-a) showed similar characteristics of spatiotemporal distribution. Comparing results of different estimation...

Aioub Sofizadeh1, Ehsan Allah Kalteh2, Shahin Saeedi3, Mulood Mohammadi Bavani4*

.... eupeus had the highest distribution and abundance in the region and was recognized as the leading cause of scorpion sting in the region. O. farzanpayi and M. caucasicus are new to the scorpion’s species of this province. M. eupeus is the most prevalent species in Golestan Province and is one of the dangerous the scorpion in the region. 

 
Novelty Statement | For the first time, we determined ...
Xuhai Wang1,2, Xin Li1, Fangyuan Yuan1, Chaocheng Li1, Bin Jia1* and Song Jiang1*
...the relationship and the distribution between miR-216b and IL2RB in the intestine tissue of kazakh sheep with resistant and non-resistant MHC haplotypes after oral infection with E. granulosus eggs. The results demonstrated that miR-216b negatively regulated IL2RB in the cystic echinococcosis intestinal tissues, and they were differentially expressed in the intestine tissue between the resistant sheep and non-resistant sheep, more widely distributed in ...

Talat Farid Ahmed1*, Shamim-ul-Sibtain Shah1, Ashfaq Ahmed Sheikh2, Hashim Nisar Hashmi3, Muhammad Atiqullah Khan1 and Muhammad Azeem Afzal1

...structures for equitable distribution in the Pachad area i.e. the plain area in the foot hills of Koh-e-Suleiman has been investigated. Management solution are proposed with design aspects without causing damages to prevailing infrastructure, without stoppage of Canal breaches, minimized damages to standing crops in command area, and will ensure improved irrigation supplies in the Koh e Suleman (Pachad) area, enhancement in economic condition of the area, stab...
Sadaf Aslam1*, Abdul Majid Khan1 and Muhammad Akhtar2
...diversity and geographic distribution of Siwalik Suids.
...

Wajid Habib1, Saira Rasul2* and Hafiza Sadaf Zahra3

...al and student’s t-distribution. Further, to explore the dynamics of conditional volatility for agriculture commodities vs food products prices and explain the diffusion between both products. Results of the study concluded that the volatility effect and mean of both interest plus exchange rate affects the selected commodities overall. Further, the volatility of wheat price significantly affects the price series of the rice. On the other hand, poultry pr...

Kiran Shahjeer1*, Gauhar Rehman1, Khurshaid Khan1 and Toheed Iqbal2

...la are reported as first distributional records from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Keys to the subfamilies of Family Formicidae and worker caste species of genus Lepisiota collected from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa along with its spatial distributional map for all species and a sub-species is provided. All the specimen are deposited at Insect Museum, Department of Zoology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan. From the study, it is conc...

Hassan Naveed1*, Kamran Sohail2, Gul Zamin Khan3 and Yalin Zhang2

...worldwide checklist with distribution for species of genus Parallygus Melichar is also provided.

...

Sagir Hussain*, Qamar Abbas, Abdur Razzaq and Sher Wali Khan

Arshad Khan1, Mohammad Ihsan1, Mohammad Nisar1, Ali Hazrat1*, Murad Ali3, Rashid Ul-Haq3, Khalid Khan2, Karishma Gul1 and Shah Faisal1 

...traits through frequency distribution. In quantitative traits maximum variation was found for plant height ranging from 36cm to 50cm, days to flowering range from 130 to 133 days), while 100 seed weight ranged from 36 to 86 g and plant biomass range from 50 to 199.5 g per plant. SDS-PAGE analyses of total seed storage protein resulted in a total of 18 polymorphic bands. Total genetic diversity on the basis of total seed storage protein analysis was 17.5%. In B...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

June

Vol. 37, Iss. 2, Pages 331-713

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