Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

...for 7 to 15 days at room temperature (20oC) and then applied to appropri- ate pots. The treatments of farm yard manure (FYM) @ 10 t ha-1, press mud @ 20 t ha-1, compost @ 0.7 t ha-1 and poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1 were applied with half of the recommended dose of NPK @ (75:60:30 kg ha-1) with or without EM. In 2009-10, the application of EM with Press mud @ 20 t ha-1 significantly enhanced spinach growth by exhibiting higher average spinach plant height (35 cm),...

Farhad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ashfaq

... of mean maximum average temperature at the time of maturity, ceteris paribus with one oC increase in temperature the average wheat yield increased by 56.64 kg per hectare in the study area. It was deduced from the economic variable that the level of input used was less than optimum. The negative coefficient of the location variables revealed that increasing the area virtually decreased the yield. It was concluded...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

... drought and low or high temperatures.

...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1, Faizah Abood2, Yusof Bin Ibrahim3

...gree correlation between temperature and B. bassiana infectivity was analysed. Beauveria bassiana infection was in range of 27-30ºC. Based on these findings, it is concluded that B. bassiana has promising potential as microbial control agent against A. sciodoxa and should be exploited under field conditions.

...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

... ocular discharges, high temperature, diarrhea and ulcerative lesions in the oral cavity. A total of eighteen goats from a herd of sixty, were affected and two goats succumbed within two weeks. Interestingly, the disease was exclusively observed in goats and all sheep kept in the same herd were serologically positive but did not show any clinical signs of PPR. The active PPR virus (PPRV) infection was confirmed by antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR in both swab ...

Muhammad Siddiq1* and Hamid Ullah Shah2

 

...amples stored at ambient temperature. Storage conditions increased PV from 218 to 27.82, FFA from 0.88 to 1.47, AV from 1.02 to 1.56, while decreased IV from 63.38 to 58.05, CI from 0.392 to 0.337 and BC from 27.87 to 3.46. It was concluded that olive:palm oils mixed at a level of 10:90% and 20:80% ratios have the best quality stricture, which are more acceptable and better than other blends when mixed together that will achieve better strength as well as fina...

Yingbin Wang*, Ting Ye, Xiaogang Wang and Congyu Zhou

... (RELE), and sea surface temperature (SST). The results showed that the interpretation ratio (IR) of the 6 factors reached 83.76%, within which the IR of the RELE is the largest (26.02%). The IRs of NMV and PTV also exceed 20% (20.21% and 20.10%, respectively). The IRs of SST, PMV and NTV are similar, and all are between 5.6% and 6%. The catch of P. trituberculatus positively correlated with the fishing efforts of main catch vessels, but showed negative correl...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

... orbital shaking at room temperature. The same procedure was performed for commercial dyes. The dye was removed due to the interaction with the polysaccharide starch and flocculation phenomenon. Chitosan starch based polymer composites can be used as an efficient and cost effective method to treat waste water polluted with carcinogenic dyes by coagulation-flocculation. Moreover this method is beneficial over other methods that employ toxic polymers or mineral ...

Wan-Long Zhu* and Gao Wenrong 

...ammals. Ambient cues, as temperature and photoperiod, play important roles in animals’ physiological adjustments. In order to determine the contributions of temperature and photoperiod to seasonal changes in body mass and thermogenesis in Apodemus chevrieri, we examined seasonal-acclimatized and lab-acclimated animals on several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical markers indicative of thermogenic capa...

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

...oasca spp. Furthermore, temperature had a significant positive correlation with B. tabaci, N. inconspicuous and Empoasca spp, suggested increased in temperature also increased their population. In conclusion, B. tabaci, Empoasca spp and N. inconspicuous are major pests of sunflower which should be controlled by exploiting of spiders and lady beetles.

...

Muhammad Raheel1,*, Nazir Javed2, Sajid Aleem Khan2, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3 and Sohail Ahmed4

...e influence of different temperature ranges on the reproductive potential of native and exotic species of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) was checked on Galleria mellonella larvae. The native species included Steinernema asiaticum and Heterorhabditis indica whereas exotic species were S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. G. mellonella larvae were exposed to 300 IJs of each species. After inoculation at different temperatures, ...

Wang Tian1, Huayong Zhang1,*, Jian Zhang2, Lei Zhao1, Mingsheng Miao3 and Hai Huang1

...CCA) revealed that water temperature, Secchi disk depth (SD), total phosphorus and phytoplankton biomass were the most significant factors that influenced zooplankton. Strong correlations between SD and Brachionus leydigi, Chrysophyta and Diaphanosoma leuchtenbergianum, Cryptophyta and Theopilium, Ascomorpha ovalis, Hexarthra mira were observed during the CCA. These zooplankton species may be used as indicators of relevant variables. Results in this resea...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...ared to WT, both at room temperature and at 42°C. The above results showed that HsfA1d positively regulates thermotolerance in tobacco plants and can be used as target gene for engineering thermotolerance in crops.  

...
Naime Zülâl Elekcioğlu*
...">The effect of constant temperatures on developmental time and parasitization rate of Citrostichus phyllocnistoides was evaluated on Phyllocnistis citrella at nine constant temperatures ranging from 15ºC±1 to 35ºC±1 in 2.5ºC increments in the laboratory. Developmental periods of immature stages ranged from 34.98 days at 15ºC to 9.15 days at 35ºC. The lower developmental t...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...oxygen (5.6 to 7.5ml/l), temperature (25°C to 28°C). pH (7.6-7.8), ammonia (NH4-N) and `nitrites (NO2-N) less than (0.001mg/l), Secchi’s disc visibility (8 cm to 46 cm). Higher percent weight gain (2665 g), specific growth rate (2.76±0.5 % day-1), best feed conversion ratio (0.14), condition factor (4.1), viscerosomatic index (7.1), hepatosomatic index (1.4) were significantly (P< 0.05)...
Jun Cui, Xiaoxu Zhou, Zhicheng Wang, Derong Kong, Xuemei Qiu, Hongdi Wang and Xiuli Wang*
...fy;">The Wap65 is a warm temperature acclimation-related protein, and it plays an important role in adapting temperature shock. But the research about Wap65 in crucian carp is very limited. In this study, the CDS of Wap65 was firstly cloned and characterized from crucian carp (Carassius carassius). This sequence is 1338bp that encodes a polypeptide of 445 amino acids. The calculated molecular weight of crucian ...
Mürşide Dartay*, Tuncay Atessahin and Erdal Duman
...nd multifilament), water temperature, and water depth. CPUE values were found to be higher at 24.5 °C water temperature and 13.7 m water depth with multi-monofilament gillnets with a result of 15.23 g/m, and the lowest was with multifilament gillnets with a result of 3.95 g/m (0.5); however, multi‑monofilament gillnets had a result of 23.28 g/m and multifilament gillnets 14.58 g/m (0.67) in July, respectively. Depe...
Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed
...logical factors, such as temperature, relative humidity and sunshine. The highest mean population of fruit fly remained at 499 in the month of August. It started to decline afterwards and remained at 348 in the month of September. The lowest population was recorded at 26, 3, 2 and 1 for November, December, January and February, respectively. The optimum monthly average temperature and relative humidity ranged from 26 to 35 &...
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
... range and daily minimum temperature may be related to energy requirements or prey activities. The average group size of the scaly-sided merganser was 3.91 ± 2.94 individuals, and extremely significant differences existed at different time of day (F = 25.540, df = 11, P < 0.01). The largest group size (5.22 ± 5 individuals) appeared at 16:00–17:00, and the smallest at 08:00–09:00 (2.6 ± 1.12 individuals), similar resu...
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
...y parameters remained as temperature (28.1±0.2°C), dissolved oxygen (6.10±0.1 ml/l), pH (6.6±0.1 ml/l) and ammonia (0.02±0.004 ml/l) throughout the study period. Taking into consideration the number of fertilized eggs and survival of fry data attained in the present study, a salinity level of 20% is suggested for red tilapia breeding in concrete tanks.
...
Syed Ishfaq Ali Shah1,*, Tassawar Hussain Malik2, Imran Rafi Khan1 and Zahid Hussain
...ies. Maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and wind velocity were negative and non-significantly correlated while, % relative humidity (%R.H) was found non-significantly and positively correlated both with USDA accessions and local varieties. On overall basis, during the course of the season, lowest number of jassid/leaf was recorded on USG-12-8 (1.7) followed by USG-12-44 (3.2) and USG-12-24 (3.3) while, number of whiteflies/leaf on USG-14-2460 (11.6) fo...
Muhammad Qadir Ahmad¹*, Farheen Ashraf Raza¹, Abdul Qayyum¹, Waqas Malik¹, Rao Wali Muhammad2, Muhammad Asif Saleem1, Amir Hamza2, Ahmad Baksh Mahar3
...s a balance between leaf temperature, leaf energy exchange and photosynthesis. The experiment was undertaken to study the association of leaf related traits i.e. leaf area (LA), leaf angle position (LP), number of lobes per leaf (NL), leaf chlorophyll contents (SV), relative water content (RWC), leaf hairiness (HL), leaf color (LC) and yield related traits i.e. boll weight (BW), number of seeds per boll (NS), number of locules per boll (NLB), seed index (SI) a...
Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3
...torage intervals at room temperature” was conducted at post harvest laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during the year 2015. The research work was conducted in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications and two factors i.e. guava varieties (Safeda and Karela) and storage intervals (0, 3, 6, and 9 days). The data was recorded onfirmness (kg/cm2), weight loss (%), moisture contents (%), ...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

...heric CO2, variations in temperature and precipitation are helping tools to forecast scenarios for the climate in an area. Changes in these tools from the past due to any unavoidable circumstances for today and in the future is refers to climate change (CC). Besides other living being, crops are either benefited or adversely affected by these changes in the climate of an area. Maize is one of the widely grown crops in the world and even in Pakistan has also in...

Zain-ul-Aabdin Abro1*, Naheed Baloch1, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2, Waseem Akbar Qazi2, Noor Abid Saeed3

...vely correlated with the temperature while negatively correlated with relative humidity.

...

Wajid Hasan1 and C. P. Singh2

Relationship between the population of mustard aphid,Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and weather parameters on different cultivars of Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.)
...with maximum and minimum temperature,rainfall, wind velocity, evaporation and positive with afternoon and morning relative humidity. The values of coefficient of determination (R ) were high (0.92 to 0.99), indicated that the population of L. erysimi governed significantly with the weather parameters. It concluded that the temperature (max. 18.7 and min. 5.0 C), relative humidity (morning 91.5 and afternoon 50.5 percent), ra...

M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal
...ation with max & min temperatures, min relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy days. Step down multiple regression analysis revealed that the forecasting of BLS could best be done from min temp, minimum relative humidity and number of rainy days.

...

1N. Johnson Singh, 2Amitava Konar and 3Palash Mondal

Incidence of aphids in different traps on potato in Gangetic plains of West Bengal
...he abiotic factors viz., temperature (maximum & minimum), relative humidity% (maximum & minimum) and bright sunshine hour had significant effect on aphid population. The same abiotic factors were quite different between the first and second year. This was due to the fact that the climatic conditions in second year varied distinctly from the first year.

...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
... days at an average room temperature of 28 ± 2ºC and 70-75% RH during September, 2009. Male mealybug has a short life span of 3.0 ± 0.21 days. Females live for nearly 80.7 ± 10.43 days with an oviposition period of approximately 21 days. This mealybug is capable of active movement throughout its adult life. The stripped mealy bug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) was found to infest the leaves of different ornamental plants in Rajshahi an...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...weather factors, such as temperature, total rainfall, number of rainy days and relative humidity on the development of diseases like canker (Pestalotia psidii), anthracnose and die back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), stem canker and dry fruit rot (Botryodiplodia theobromae) and Phytophtora fruit rot (Phytophthora nicotianae var parasitica) of guava were analysed for predictive purpose from regression equations. The simple correlation coefficient matrix show...

P. Barma and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal activity of fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq.) on pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) and weather relations
...h of maximum and minimum temperature had significant positive correlation (r = +0.386 and +0.501, respectively) on the population build up of the pest. The relative humidity % of morning hours had significantly negative correlation (r = -0.451) and that of evening slightly positive (r = +0.284). Rainfall had insignificantly positive (r = +0.195), soil temperature significantly positive (r = +0.555) and the bright sun shine h...

SK Fashi Alam, Atanu Seni and Ajoy K Sahoo

Biology of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) on sprouted potato and brinjal plant
... plant at 20-36.2° C temperature and 15.1±1 days and 18±0.82 days respectively on sprouted potato. The ratio of the male: female were 1:1.75 and 1:1.87. The duration from nymphs to adult female was 28 days on brinjal plant and 25 days on sprouted potato tubers. The pre-¬oviposition period was 6.37 ± 1.29 days and 6.89±0.84 days on brinjal and sprouted potato respectively. The average oviposition period was 5.89±0.89 d...

M. A. Al-Helal, K. N. Ahmed, N-E-P. Khanom, and S. Bulbul 

Observations on papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) damag-ing some crops in Bangladesh
... days at an average room temperature of 25 ± 1ºC and 67 ± 5 % RH. The adult life span for male and female were 29 and 27 days, respectively. P. marginatus is a devastating insect pest causing immense damage to the field crops, vegetables and ornamental plants of economic importance in Bangladesh perspectives.
 

 

...

A.A. Oyerinde, P.Z. Chuwang, P.Z. and G.T. Oyerinde

Evaluation of the effects of climate change on increased in-cidence of cowpea pests in Nigeria
...e to rise in atmospheric temperature and carbon dioxide differ from one region to the other. The latest assessment report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts an increment in mean atmospheric temperature from 1.1 to 6.4°C toward the year 2100 with equally increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Such climatic changes could profoundly affect insect’s population on essential crops. T...

S. Patra, V.W. Dhote, SK F. Alam, B.C. Das, M.L. Chatterjee and A. Samanta

Population dynamics of major insect pests and their natural enemies on cabbage under new alluvial zone of West Bengal
...Both maximum and minimum temperature had major role to build up the population of diamond back moth, C. plutellae and coccinellids beetle while aphid population was enhanced only by maximum temperature. Relative humidity and rainfall had negative influence on pests and natural enemies during the study period. 

...

Dinesh Kachhawa and Sahidur Rahman

Factors influencing incidence of red spider mite of tea, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) in Assam
...orological factors viz., temperature (maximum and minimum), relative humidity, total rainfall and bright sunshine hours were collected for the entire period of study from the Department of Agrometeorology, AAU, Jorhat.The incidence of red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae on tea leaves was maximum during month of April to May-June and September-October (2011). The minimum number of mites was recorded from July- August and November (2011) to February (2012). The...

Amitava Konar and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of aphids on various potato germplasms in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal
...and increasing effect of temperature. It is also concluded that K. Chandramukhi was susceptible to aphid, and K. Jyoti and K. Jawahar were tolerant to aphids while K. Chipsona-1, K. Chipsona-2 and Atlantic germplasms of potato were quite resistant. Therefore, it may be inferred that Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chopsona-2 and Atlantic needed only one or two insecticide application at 15 days interval during late January to protect the crop against the aphids while ...
Obaidullah1, Zafar Ali Shah1* and Sami Ullah2
...ater at pH of 7.6 having temperature 40 °C for 3 hours. Whereas, copper-Lapachol nanoparticle synthesis was performed by treating 1 mM copper acetate tetrahydrate (Cu (CH3COO)2. 4H2O) with 1 mM solution of Lapachol at pH of 7.8 having temperature 40°C for 5 hours. Both newly formulated silver and copper nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible, FT-IR spectroscopic techniques followed by SEM evaluation. The U...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...directly proportional to temperature, season and elevation.
...

Niamatullah Khan1*, Najeeb Ullah2, Inam Ullah2 and Asif Imran Shah1

... and boll formation when temperature was much cold that adversely affected cotton yield. The results further illustrated that, genotype DNH-105 ranked first for plant population, sympodia per plant, bolls per plant, weight per boll and seed cotton yield when sown on April 01. CIM-616 was the 2nd suitable variety under April 01 sowing. Earlier and later planting produced lower cotton yields due to unfavorable environment and shorter growth duration, respectivel...
Shuangye Wang1, Yunlin Zhao1, Zhenggang Xu1,2,*, Li Li3, Liang Wu1, Choucang Duan1 and Jiao Peng1

 

...iours were influenced by temperature.
...

Kamran A. Awan1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal3

...expected to decrease and temperature has to rise for wheat growth in Pakistan. Wheat crop is planted on more than 52% area as rainfed crop in the providence Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa (KP). The study, therefore, aims to plant wheat in season from early to late i.e. November 15 to December 25 with about 10 days intervals. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar in winter season 2015-16. Experiment was in a rando...
Hameeda Kalhoro1, Abdul Malik2,Ghulam Abbas2,*, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Sajjad Ali Shah4and Haleema Kalhoro3
...ater quality remained as temperature (25.2 ± 0.20 °C), dissolved oxygen (5.2 ± 0.11mg/L), pH (6.9 ± 0.15), ammonia (0.48 ± 0.02 1mg/L) and hardness (118 ± 2.4 mg/L). Our results indicated that better growth increment can be achieved on squid or pellet feed and so it is suggested that in similar culture conditions of Snakehead will be more profitable on pellet feed followed by squid feed.
...

Jawad Anwar* and Zafar Iqbal 

...flask culture, 25 °C temperature, media of pH 5 and light fermentation.The EtOAc extract exhibited the minimal value of MIC (10.41±4.50 µg/mL) against gram negative E. coli, while its acetonitrile fraction yielded (6.50±2.25 µg/mL) of MIC against S. aureus. Hence, it is revealed from the results that T. harzianumis a potential source of antibiotic drugs as it showed a wide range of bioactivity against both phyto and human pathogen...
Mushtaq Ahmad1,*, Mehboob Ahmed1,2 and Nasim Ahmad1
...in tampon either at room temperature or at 60oC, Protocol III (concentration of dye in staining solution); slides were stained with 1, 5, 200, 500, or 1000µg/mL solution. The slides were observed, intensity of staining and debris presence in samples. The debris presence was reduced (P<0.05) due to washing of semen sample. Intensity of staining increased (P<0.05) due to washing and heating during incubation in tampon solution. However, si...

Syed Tanveer Shah* and Muhammad Sajid 

... storage with an average temperature of 8±2°C and relative humidity of 50%, hence recommended for the grower of Peshawar valley.  

...
Muhammad Hannan Ahmed1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Abu Bakar M. Raza1, M. Afzal1, A. Khaliq1, Yasir Iftikhar2 and Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3
...ical factors (especially temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) also play vital role in the population dynamics of sucking insect pest complex like jassid, aphid, thrips and mites. The present study was conducted on six cotton cultivars (3 Bt and 3 non-Bt) to monitor the population dynamics of thrips in relation to abiotic climatic factors. Interaction effect was found significant in Bt varieties but not for non-Bt cultivars. ...
Furqan Sabir1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Bushra Muneer2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Sehrish Firyal1
...nzyme at a wide range of temperature and pH makes it a potential candidate to be used in the poultry feed industry.
...
Rana Muhammad Aadil1,2*, Xin-An Zeng1, Saqib Jabbar3, Akmal Nazir2, Abid Aslam Mann2, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan2, Abdullah2, Amna Ramzan2
..., 150, 200 and 250 MPa), temperature (40, 50 and 60 oC), for processing time of 3 minutes and thermal treatment was done in a water bath at 70 oC for 90 seconds. In HPP treatment (250 MPa/60 °C/3 min), significant reduction was observed in microorganisms, PME and PPO whereas improvement was observed in cloud value, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins, DPPH activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total flavonoids (TF) and total f...

Zahid Mehmood*, Alam Zeb and Muhammad Ayub 

... ) and stored at ambient temperature (22-320C). The jam was studied for physicochemical attributes (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid) and organoleptic characteristics (flavor, color, texture and overall acceptability). The results revealed decrease (P<0.05) in pH, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity while increase in acidity, total soluble solids during six months storage. Dec...

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

...to investigate impact of temperature and rainfall on wheat growers’ net-return in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan. Data for this purpose are collected from 255 wheat growers, selected from Southern, Central and Northern climatic zones of KP. Results from descriptive statistical analysis demonstrate that net-return per acre from wheat crop is highest in the Central zone because of conducive agro-climatic conditions. The estimated Cross-sectio...
Zia-ur-Rehaman1, Naila Chand1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Rifat Ullah Khan2,*
...al (TN) and high ambient temperature (HAT) on immune response and oxidative status of four broiler strains. Day old broiler chicks (n=242) of four different commercial strains (Ross, Hubbard, Cobb and Arber Acer) were placed in brooding room in first two weeks and then chicks were divided into two groups: TN and HAT zones. Chicks in TN group were housed at constant room temperature, while chicks in HAT zone were kept at...
Mahmood-Ul-Hassan*, Naeem Fiaz, Muhammad Akhlaq Mudassir and Muhammad Yasin
...p is essential since low temperature severely effects the sprouting of subsequent ratoon in cane growing areas. A field study was conducted on loamy soil during 2011-2013 at Sugarcane Research Institute (SRI), Faisalabad to explore the ratooning ability of five sugarcane varieties/clones under varying harvesting dates of plant crop using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangements. The cane genotypes viz. S2003-US-704, S2006-SP-...

Attaullah Ansari* and Nasreen Memon 

...n of hoverflies whereas; temperature had a strong negative and significant correlation with the abundance of hoverflies. Moreover relative humidity, rainfall and cloudiness were also negatively correlated with hoverfly population but their correlation was not significant. Habitat wise variation in average population size, species richness, evenness and diversity index were also calculated. The highest and lowest degrees of population size, richness and evennes...
Jiandong Wu, Miao Ye and Zaigui Wang*
...V·h-1; temperature was 25°C. For desorption, elution solvent ethanol-water (95%, v/v) solution was 4.5 BV; flow rate was 2.0 BV·h-1. Flavonoids with content of 68.3% were obtained with a flavonoid recovery of 93.7%. The results showed that AB-8 resin revealed a good ability to purify total flavonoids. Lastly, feeding experiments results indicated that flavonoids had significant anti-hyperlipidemic activities to rabbits b...
Liushuai Hua1,3, Shiping Gong1,*, Xiangjing Zhong2, Jun Tao2, Yu Chen2 and Jieming Deng2 
...; 0.01) when the ambient temperature is not cold enough for normal hibernation. These findings can provide technical guidance for safe overwintering of big-headed turtles in captivity, and will help facilitate conservation of this endangered freshwater turtle species.
...
Teresa Napiórkowska* and Julita Templin
...ed on the application of temperatures of 14 and 32°C changed every 12 h for the first ten days of spider embryogenesis.
...

 Bushra Mazhar1, Nusrat Jahan1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa andleeb2, Shaukat Ali2*

...hormaechei was 7 and the temperature was 30°C. Using optimum growth conditions and suitable fermentation medium, E. hormaechei can be used at an industrial level as producer of vanillin. Bioconversion of waste residues of rice bran oil to vanillin by bacterial strains is of greater interest nowadays. Bioproduction of vanillin is not only considered natural but also safe for human health.

...
Qingying Jia1, Hui Wang1, Tianhong Wang1, Na Dong1, Shuguang Ren1,2, Xiaolong Yang1, Jingze Liu1,* and Zhijun Yu1,3,*
...estigated the effects of temperature on reproductive fitness of the engorged H. longicornis, results indicated that the engorged H. longicornis could survive all treatments at 0°C and 4°C, and pre-ovipositon periods were prolonged after 0°C, 4°C and 40°C treatment, whereas it was shortened after 37°C stress (P<0.05). The oviposition periods were varied among different temperature trea...

Farah Rauf Shakoori, Momina Shokat, Faiza Saleem and Tanzeela Riaz

...gh stability at elevated temperatures and in alkaline conditions. The present study was aimed to isolate and screen xylanase producing bacteria and to optimize cultural conditions for maximum production of enzyme from locally isolated bacteria and to optimize the assay conditions under which enzyme possessed maximum activity. Two bacterial isolates XPB-GS02 and XPB-CW01 with maximum activity ratio showed 18.3 and 12.2 U/ml xylanase activity, respectively. Maxi...
Zia ur Rehman1, Naila Chand1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3
...strains in two different temperature zones i.e., thermoneutral zone (TN) and high ambient temperature zone (HAT) group. Day-old broiler chicks (n=242) of four different commercial strains (Ross, Hubbard, Cobb and Arber Acer) were placed in brooding room for the first two weeks and then chicks were divided into two groups: TN and HAT. Chicks in TN group were housed at constant room temperature<...
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
...ed in 1 hr and 10 min at temperatures 600C. It was also tested in hot water bath on same temperature. Results were same in both techniques. Results showed that LAMP was more sensitive for FMD strain O (positive reaction upto -4 dilution) than others strains A and Asia -1 (positive reaction upto -3 dilutions). Further studies will be conducted to develop LAMP PCR as field test that does not require RNA extraction.<...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4, Lorenzo Gallus4 and Syed Sajjad A. Shah2,3
...ermil;-15‰. Water temperature (28.02±0.12°C), dissolved oxygen (6.4±0.02 mg/L), pH (7.47±0.04) and ammonia (less than 0.022±0.001 mg/L) were monitored throughout the study period. Water quality parameters remained within the recommended range. Our results suggest that Nile tilapia, O. niloticus may give maximum eggs up to 15‰ salinity with 92% survival of fry.
...
Tasleem Akhtar*, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Sheraz Ahmedand Imran Bodlah
...c environmental factors, temperature had a strong, significant and positive correlation with the foraging activity of A. mellifera on B. napus (r= 0.766; P= 0.0037 **), whereas relative humidity and rainfall had significantly negative correlation (r= -0.759; P= 0.0041 **, r= -0.715; P= 0.0089 **).
...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Dastagir4, Sara Ferrando5, Lorenzo Gallus5, Asad Ali Muhammad1,6, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khalil-ur-Rehman2 
... for tilapia i.e. temperature 28.42±0.08°C, dissolved oxygen 7.48±0.06 mg/L, pH 7.64±0.04 and ammonia 0.022±0.004 mg/L. Relationship between log body weight and log total length of the the fish shows that Nile tilapia fingerlings reared from 10‰ - 20‰ was significantly (P <0.05) higher than 25% and 30% salinity levels. Present study suggests that Nile tilapia can be reared up to 20% salinity to get...

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

...ter adaptation to higher temperatures and countries closer to the equator. Crop damages can reach 50 - 100%, due to infected plants and shriveled grain. These problems can be overcome by knowledge about the disease, identifying resistance lines and subsequently develop resistant varieties with an aim to shorten the disease cycle. One of the quickest ways in this direction is the designing molecular markers for non-race-specific resistance genes. Use of molecul...

Bashir Ahmad1*, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Hayad Zada2, Shahid Sattar1, Toheed Iqbal3, Saddam Hussain1 and Muhammad Saeed4 

...nd observe the impact of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on population of Plutella xylostella (L.) in Cauliflower, Brassica oleracea crop at District Haripur of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Field studies results showed that the population of P. xylostella gradually increased from mid of July where the population was 2.1 and 2.0 larvae and pupae per plant in the year 2012 and 2013 respectively. The population increased in September to highest number of larva...

Fazal Ullah1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Syeda Leeda Gul2, Bibi Zainub1 and Maaz Khan

...water treated (Hot water temperature: 45 °C) sweet orange fruits can be stored commercially up to 60 days at room storage conditions (Storage Temperature: 12 ± 2 °C and RH: 70 - 80%). HWT can serve as a dynamic means of maintaining the postharvest quality of sweet orange fruits during long term storage with economic benefits. 

...
Alim-un-Nisa1*, Sajila Hina1, Sania Mazhar1, Imran Kalim1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Naseem Zahra1, Shahid Masood1, Muhammad Khalid Saeed1, Qurat-ul-Ain Syed1 and Maida Asif2
... concentration at higher temperatures i.e. 25oC and 45oC. The microbiological study of the extracted color and candies prepared in laboratory and dyed with T. erecta extract color showed that the color extracted from T.erecta itself do not promote microbial growth rather it has antibacterial activity. The lethal dose and toxicity determination of the color extracted from marigold showed that it is safe for consumption as no ...

Noreen Rasul1*, Madeeha Rashid2, Aqeela Abbas1 and Rubina Sohail

... and maintenance of body temperature at 37 degree centigrade is the discharge criteria. During the period of six months, total number of deliveries was 6459, out of them spontaneous vaginal deliveries were 52.2% (3372) and caesarean sections were 47.7% (3087). In 55.4%neonate’s(both preterm and term)early essential newborn care was practiced.Total preterm were 290 (4.5%), out of them 121 (2%) neonates were kept in Kangaroo Mother Care position and 129 (4...

Saeeda Raza, Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Amer Mumtaz, Nouman Siddiqui, Khalid Nasim and Muhammad Amjad*

...ethylene bags at ambient temperature (20-25 ºC).

...

 Muhammad Azeem Khan*, Abid Hussain, Irfan Mehmood and Sonila Hassan **

... increase in mean annual temperatures and irregular rain patterns, area under major crops at Kohat and productivity of major crop at Attock decreased. Bivariate correlations between mean seasonal rainfall, area and production of major crops were moderately positive and statistically significant (except for wheat crop at Attock). This means that an increase in rainfall contribute positively towards area under major crops and their production and vice-versa. Far...
Asad Sultan1, Sahal Ahmad1, Sarzamin Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Naila Chand1, Muhammad Tahir3 and Shakoor Ahmad2
... groups in thermoneutral temperature (TN) and three dietary groups under high temperature. One group of birds received a basal diet only (control group), second group of birds received a diet supplemented with silymarin at the level of 10g/kg and third group of birds received a diet supplemented with ZnO at the level of 60 mg/kg in both TN and HS birds. It was found that supplementation of ZnO significantly (P<0.05) impro...
Xia-Lin Zheng1, Pan Wang2, Jun-Yan Liu1, Yu-Jing Zhang1, Jun Li1 and Wen Lu1,*
...s are lower than the air temperature during the winter, which suggested that these stages are the potential overwintering stages of this species in Wuhan City.
...

 Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Mike Copland**

INFLUENCE OF THREE CONSTANT AND TWO RHYTHMICALLY FLUCTUATING TEMPERATURE REGIMES ON THE LIFE-TABLE PARAMETERS OF BROWN LACEWING SYMPHEROBIUS FALLAX
...rhythmically fluctuating temperature regimes from 16°C to 24°C and 24°C to 32°C. Studies were carried out describing survival, reproduction and development of S fallax. Survival was positively temperature dependent. Sex ratio was not affected by constant temperatures from 20 to 28°C; however this ratio was affected by rhythmically fluctuating te...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai, Saeeda Raza* and Shahzad Arshad Saleem**

MICROBIAL COUNT AND SHELF LIFE OF STRAWBERRY JUICE
...pt for two weeks at room temperature to check its shelf life. Total plate count (TPC), pH, flavor, color, yeast and moulds were checked weekly. Quality changes of strawberry juice during storage can be caused both by microbiological and physiological processes. At day 0; pH 3.2, color bright 2 -1 red, excellent flavor, TPC 2.7 x 10 cfu g were recorded, while no yeast or mould were found. After one week, the pH 3.6, dull red color, TPC 2 -1 3 -1 5 -1 2.25x10 cf...

 Javed Khan, Ehsan-ul-Haq, Naheed Akhtar, Waseem Ahmad Gillani*, Naila Assad**, M.Asif Masood and Irum Raza*

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF IMMATURE STAGES OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON RICE MEAL MOTH, CORCYRA CEPHALONICA EGGS
...a eggs at three constant temperatures 24 ±1 ºC, 28 ±1 ºC and 32 ±1 °C were studied. The results indicated that incubation period was 4.9±0.08, 3.8±0.08 and 3.0±0.06 days at three temperatures, respectively. Developmental duration of first instar were 3.6±0.07, 3.0±0.11, 2.0±0.06 days, second instar were 3.4±0.11, 3.0±0.07, 2.8±0...

 Munir Ahmad* and Asif Ali Mirani**

HEATED AIR DRYING OF GROUNDNUT
...intaining the drying air temperature above 49°C. The cost of drying one kg of groundnut was estimated as Rs 1.45 (1.7 US cents), which was very reasonable for the groundnut growers.

...

 Asrar Ali*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Abdul Rehman***, Javed Khan, Waseem Ahmad Gillani** and Maria Rauf*

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF MENOCHILUS SEXMACULATUS FAB. (COLEOPTERA:COCCINELLIDAE) AT VARYING TEMPERATURE ON RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI L.
... influenced by different temperature regimes and host were studied at Insectary-Biological Control Laboratories, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The results revealed that there was a significant effect of different temperature regimes on the development and predatory potential of M. sexmaculatus reared on Rhopalosiphum padi. The egg incubation period of predator beetle was 4.16, 3.66 and 2.24 days at...

 Rizwana Sultan*, Javed Khan, Ehsan ul Haq, Tariq Mehmood**, Roshan Zada Khattak***, and Naheed Akhtar**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF TRICHOGRAMMA CHILONIS ISHII (TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) FEEDING ON SITOTROGA CEREALELLA EGGS AT THREE CONSTANT TEMPERATURES
...a eggs at three constant temperatures and five different ages of host eggs at Insect Pest Management Programme, National Agricultural Research Centre, (NARC) Islamabad. The results revealed that maximum rate of parasitism was 95.70 ± 1.94 at 28 ± 1 °C while minimum was 61.30 ± 1.70 at 32 ± 1 °C. Maximum adult emergence and female ratio from parasitized eggs were 96.30% with 59.2± 5.83 female ratio at 28 ±1 °...

 Maria Rauf*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Javed Khan**, Abdul Rehman***, Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Asrar Ali**

BIOLOGY AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTATA LINN. ON SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM APHID UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS
...ndani) at three constant temperatures 20±1 °C, 25±1 °C and 30±1 °C in Insectary-Bio Control Laboratories, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The results revealed that incubation period of C. septempunctata was 5.12, 3.62 and 3.20 days with 75.6%, 82.0% and 71.2% hatchability, respectively. The larval durations were 29.5, 15.9 and 8.1 days with predatory potential of 573.7, 575.0 and 667.8 aphids per larvae...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-Din*, Sikandar Khan Tanveer*, Maqsood Qamar* and Syed Haider Abbas*

EVALUATION OF ADVANCE WHEAT LINES FOR AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN RAINFED ENVIRONMENT
...y growth period and high temperature stress during reproductive growth stage. Better yield under stressful environment is the main objective while evaluating genotypes for rainfed ecologies. A field study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan to evaluate the agronomic traits of three advance lines (NR-397, NR-379 and NR-400) in comparison to released variety (NARC-09) under rainfed conditions during crop season 2010...

 Munir Ahmad*, Asif Ali Mirani**, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood**, Tanveer Ahmad** and Muhammad Azhar Saeed**

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CROSS-FLOW RICE DRYERS
...ndicated that drying air temperature of the gas-fired and rice husk-fired dryers was 54° and 66°C, respectively. However, the average air flow rate was 6.24 and 3 -1 2.60 m s of gas-fired and rice husk-fired cross-flow dryers, respectively. -1 The drying rate of gas-fired dryer was 2.0 percentage point h , whereas the -1 drying rate of rice husk-fired dryer was 1.0 percentage point h . The drying costs of gas-fired and rice husk-fired dryers were about...

 Usman Shakoor*, Abdul Saboor*, Irfan Baig*, Anila Afzal** and Abdul Rahman***

CLIMATE VARIABILITY IMPACTS ON RICE CROP PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...that rising mean maximum temperature would lead to reduction in rice production while increase in mean minimum temperature would be advantageous towards rice production. Variation in mean minimum temperature brought about seven percent increase in rice productivity as shown by Variance Decomposition. Mean precipitation and mean temperature would increase...

 Quratulain*, Muhammad Aslam**, Muhammad Khalid Rafique*, Mian Atiq Ahmad* and Rashid Mahmood***

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF ROSE APHID MACROSIPHUM ROSAE L. ON DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF ROSA INDICA L. IN PAKISTAN
... decline with decline in temperature in December. While its population started rising again at the end of February. Significantly more aphid populations were observed on Perfecta than other varieties; however, significantly few aphids were observed on Christan Diar. These studies revealed that farmers growing roses on a commercial scale should grow Christan Diar to avoid aphid attack. Maximum average number of aphid nymph, winged and wingeless adults on leaves...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai*, Amer Mumtaz*, Saeeda Raza* and Shahzada Arshad Saleem** 

MICROBIAL COUNT AND SHELF LIFE OF PHALSA (GREWIA ASIATICA) JUICE
...ped phalsa juice at room temperature. Phalsa was purchased from local market, juice was prepared and kept in sterilized bottles at room temperature. Physicochemical and microbial and oragnoleptic quality of the juice was examined till two weeks. Microbial activity in phalsa juice increased while organoleptic attributes such as texture (mouth feel), flavour, taste, colour and overall acceptability of phalsa juice were decreas...

 Abdul Razaq*, Muhammad Jamal Khan*, Tahir Sarwar* and Mohammad Jamal Khan**

EFFECT OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION, SOWING METHODS AND MULCHING ON WHEAT YIELD AND NITROGEN UPTAKE
...o farm lands, increasing temperature with high evaporation rate and poor sowing, an experiment was conducted at the research farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2011-12. In the study three factors were studied i.e., sowing methods, mulching and deficit irrigation with four levels viz: full irrigation (DI ), 20% deficit irrigation (DI ), 40% deficit irrigation (DI ) and 60% deficit irrigation (DI ). Soil moisture was continuously monitored an...

 Ummad-ud-Din Umar*, Muhammad Aslam Khan**, *Ateeq-urRehman*, Abdul Hannan***, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi*, Azhar Ali Khan****, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar****

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF POTATO LEAF ROLL VIRUS DISEASE PREDICTION MODEL BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS FOR FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN
... Maximum and minimum air temperatures, relative humidity and rainfall were employed as independent variables while PLRV disease incidence served as the response variable. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to select potentially useful predictor variables for model development. In stepwise regression analysis minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall emerged as the main contributing environmental variables f...

 Abdul Rehman Khan*, Muhammad Mahmood–Ul-Hassan**, Rizwan Ahmad** and Anjum Munir ***

ARSENIC III TOLERANCE POTENTIAL OF FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLLUTED AND NON-POLLUTED SOILS OF PAKISTAN
...l growth was observed at temperature of 30 to 35 C and pH 6 to 7 under incubation period of 96-120 hrs. The isolated strains were capable of growing over a wide range of pH and temperatures and at high Arsenic concentrations. These findings show that the isolated strains are quite suitable for use in bioremediation under field conditions.

...
Anum Rafique, Sajid Abdullah, Khalid Abbas, Huma Naz* and Wardah Hassan
...ainst different range of temperature and pH. As a result of ion exchange chromatography enzyme from kidney of control and Pb+Cr treated fish had highest activity as 508.33 and 427 UmL-1 while highest specific activity was 1105.06 and 1055.55 Umg-1 with 1.98 and 2.70 fold purification, respectively. Recovery was 70% and 68% in kidney of control and Pb+Cr treated fish, respectively. After characterization it was observed that SOD had wide r...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos*, Abdullah N. Al-Owaimer, Elsayed O.S. Hussein and Mutahar H. Ali
... levels of environmental temperatures: normal (22°C) and high (32°C) and two levels of vitamin C in drinking water (with and without) were arranged in a factorial arrangement resulted in four dietary treatments for the period from 15 to 30 days of age. Results revealed a significant two way interaction for body weight gain (BW) and feed intake (FI) (P<0.01) for the first week of the trial (15-22 day). The effect of treatment in the second week (23-3...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
...e, relative humidity and temperature in Nsukka, Nigeria. Hospital records from three hospitals in Nsukka town: Bishop Shanahan Hospital, University of Nigeria Medical Centre and Sadiq Hospital were examined for malaria prevalence and intensity from January to July 2015. Indoor biting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected by standard procedures within the study duration. Meteorological data on relative humidity and temperature
Wei Dang1, Ning Xu1, Wen Zhang1, Jing Gao2, Handong Fan1 and Hongliang Lu 1,*
...s.
...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
...cked at different pH and temperature conditions. Best growth was observed at pH 7 and at 37ºC.
...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
...cked at different pH and temperature conditions. Best growth was observed at pH 7 and at 37ºC.
...

Ikramullah Khan1,2*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Sohail Akhtar2, Ijaz Ali3 and Ghufran Ullah4 

...sampled at environmental temperature 18, 32 and 42 °C in February, April and June, respectively. The physiological parameters recorded were rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR) and pulse rate (PR) whereas biochemical parameters determined from blood serum were glucose, cortisol and Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70). Thermal stress increased all physiological parameterssignificantly (P < 0.001). Holstein Frisian...
Shahzad Mahmood1, Memuna Ghafoor Shahid1, Muhammad Irfan2, Muhammad Nadeem3*, Quratulain Syed3
...ange of 4.0-6.0. Optimum temperature of enzyme was 40oC and attained 96% activity at 40oC for 70min. Metal profile showed that α-amylase activity was enhanced in the presence of Ca2+, Cs1+, Mn2+ and Co2+, whereas inhibited in the presence of Na1+, Mg2+, Ag1+ and Cu2+. Enzyme kinetics revealed that crude enzyme exhibit Km and ...

Muhammad Suleman Bacha1*, Mohammad Nafees1 and Syed Adnan2
 

...°C/year) and minimum temperatures (0.024 °C) and decrease in the mean annual precipitation (-0.73 mm per year) favors the local community perceptions about climate changes. To offset such worsening situation, future planning is vital to keep the natural resources intact while minimizing the risks in the years ahead. 

...
Song Jiang1,2, Fa-lin Zhou3, Jian-hua Huang1, Qi-bin Yang1, Li-shi Yang1 and Shi-gui Jiang1,*
...cultivated under a water temperature of 27.0±1.5 °C, salinity of 30–32, pH of 8.0–8.3, and light intensity of 1000 lx. Results showed that food consumption and feeding intensity of the eyestalk-ablated broodstock were higher than those without eyestalk ablation. The night-time feeding intensity was 1.46-fold and 1.31-fold higher than the daytime feeding intensity in the treatment and control groups, respectively (P<0.01). Food ...
Farhan Ahmad1,*, Muhammad Waris Sanjrani1, Shah Nawaz Khuhro1, Asif Sajjad2, Abid Ali3, Rashad Rasool Khan3, Farooq Ahmed3 and Junhe Liu4,*
...v>Among abiotic factors, temperature and relative humidity are important factors for higher cotton yields in all cotton growing regions. Cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci G.) being vector of CLCuV in Pakistani cotton crop is responsible to cause an economic damage. A survey of whitefly populations and its parasitism with connection to temperature and relative humidity was conducted in fourteen cotton growing districts o...
Noor Fatima1, Muhammad Irfan2,*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
...f fermentation period at temperature of 50oC. Results showed that cellulase production was greatly affected by the thermochemical pretreatment as compared to the chemical pretreatment. At the pretreatment condition of 1% H2SO4 conc, 6h residence time, 15% substrate concentration maximum CMCase production (0.858 IU/ml/min) was obtained while at pretreatment conditions of 1% H2SO4 concentration, 8h residence...

Muhammad Iftikharul Husnain1, Aneel Salman1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Tahir Mahmood3 

...nvestigate the impact of temperature on agriculture controlling for potential endogeneity by using locality as an instrument. Unsurprisingly, the magnitude of temperature coefficient increases substantially when endogeneity is controlled and becomes significantly higher (6 percent to 13 percent) than the previously reported findings in the literature. The findings suggest that endogeneity is a crucial issue and must be contr...

Muhammad Waqar Yasin*, Mobushir Riaz Khan and Muhammad Amin 

... changes in rainfall and temperature of Punjab, Pakistan on the production of five major crops viz. wheat (triticum), maize (zea mayes), cotton (gossypium), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and gram (Cicer arietinum). Firstly, changes in mean temperature and rainfall from 1951 to 2015 were assessed at district level. Secondly, the changes in crop performance were computed through remote sensing and crop reporting data obtai...

Sher Nawab Khan* and Ghulam Hassan 

... was recorded on average temperature of 24.8˚C. On the basis of field scoring resistant genotypes were identified which are prerequisite for further molecular and biochemical study to explore resistance pathway. These lines could be used as a source of aphids resistance in future wheat breeding program 

...
Gulnaz Malik1, Abdul Qadir1 and Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,*
...prevailing environmental temperature since it has a significant effect on the toxicities of insecticides. The focus of the present study was to evaluate the effect of post-treatment temperature on the toxicity of four insecticides viz., spinosad, emamectin benzoate, lufenuron and thiamethoxam. For this purpose, toxicities of insecticides were tested at three different temperatures 2...

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Irshad Khan Abbasi2, Muhammad Tariq2, Jawad Ali3, Melad Karim4 and Rizwan Ahmad1 

...d that increasing global temperature will result in waning glacier based freshwater availability in future. River Indus fed by glaciers is critical for Pakistan as it is irrigating its 80% of agricultural land. Shigari Kalan watershed is one of the water sheds located in Skardu, Northern Pakistan, which also contributes to River Indus flowing to Pakistan. The aim of instant research is to evaluate the correlation amid temperature
Wael S. El-Tohamy1,*, Russell R. Hopcroft2 and Nagwa E.M. Abdel Aziz3
...05) related to salinity, temperature, phosphate concentration and phytoplankton biomass. The main spatial gradients along the estuary were associated with salinity. The high salinity zone in the estuary downstream was dominated by the calanoid paracalanidae and the harpacticoid Euterpina acutifrons. In the lower salinity transects, the tintinnid Favella serrata dominated the estuary midstream, together with several rotifer species in the estuary ...
Xi-wen Chen1,2, Qian Wang1,3, Miao Yin1, Zhong-hui Pu1,2, Ai-wei Guo3, Lian Li 1,3, Wen-tao Luo1,3 and Xiong-qing Wang1,*
...as optimal at a constant temperature of 65 °C. The output of the RT-LAMP assay was visualized using 1% agarose gel electrophoresis or color change after the addition of the SYBR Green I dye. The RT-LAMP method was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than RT-PCR for PRRSV detection. The assay was also specific for PRRSV and did not cross react with CSFV, PCV-2, PPV or PRV. In clinical samples (n=5) RT-PCR and RT-LAMP both identified the same 2 PRRSV infec...

Rizwana Qamar1, Maria Ghias1, Fida Hussain1, Sajida Habib1, Muhammad Khuram Razzaq2*, Muhammad Aslam1 and Imran Habib3 

...phyll fluorescence, leaf temperature (°C) and relative water contents (%). Results indicated the presence of significant genetic variability among hybrids and inbred lines. Hybrids had more tolerance to drought conditions on both levels of water stress treatments. With the increase in stress, root length and leaf temperature increased, while shoot length, plant fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll fluorescence and relative ...
Ayesha Iftikhar1,*, Muhammad Asif Aziz1, Muhammad Naeem1, Munir Ahmad1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...erstanding the effect of temperature variations on its demography and predation rate is necessary to predict the population dynamics of this beetle against cotton mealy bug. Age-stage, two sex life tables of zigzag beetle were constructed at three different temperature regimes: 24 ± 0.5 °C and 27 ± 0.5 °C with 60-70% R.H. and ambient condition (32 ± 4 °C; 16-50% R.H.) with 14:10 h (L:D) photo...
Amna Waseem, Sikander Ali* and Syeda Wajiha Khalid
...m conditions at 30°C temperature, pH 7, and incubation period 64 h, the lipase activity was increased up to 124±2.48 U/g. The crude enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation method at 40 %. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 33 kDa. The results showed that the enzyme produced from mutant strain gave significantly higher (p≤0.05) lipase activity than the wild-type. From the results presented in the study, it was observe...

Syed Muhammad Hassan Raza1*, Syed Amer Mahmood1, Veraldo Liesenberg2 and Syed Shehzad Hassan1  

...patiotemporal changes in temperature are a main cause for a shift in crop phenology as well as failure of crop calendar. Yellow stem borer (YSB) is an insect pest of rice crop that may reduce rice yield about 20% due to the use of insecticide at inappropriate times and unsuitable locations following the crop calendar. The purpose of this research was to delineate the vulnerable zones for YSB attacks on rice crop using satellite thermal datasets. The area under...
Irshad Ali1, Mohammad Masood Tariq2,*, Abdul Waheed2, Ferhet Abbas Yousafzai1, Farhat Abbas Bokhari1, Majed Rafeeq1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Adnan Attique1, Shahid Amin3 and Tahir Hameed1
...nst > 50oC temperature in the hot weather nevertheless still gives good productive results. It has extraordinary long limbs which protect them from very heated ground. The odor of BN animal sweat is so pungent that helps it in tick resistance. The white color of the skin is natural reflector in an extreme weather, whereas, the inner coat of this animal has black lining (the natural insulator), provides an excellent insulation capability against h...
Laiba Shafique1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2, Mehroze Fatima3, Huma Naz4, Qaisra Saddique1
...dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature) were checked daily throughout the trail. Results concluded that the body mineralization in L. rohita was increased by supplementation of organic acid. The maximum body mineralization was noted in fish fed with the dietary group OA3 that contain citric acid and minimum mineralization was noted in the diet OA5 containing lactic acid when compared with other dietary treatments. In conclusion, citr...
Md. Abu Affan1,*, Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani1, Adnan Jaman Turki2 and Mohammed S.B. Hariri3
...w dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, salinity, pH, ammonia, turbidity, pesticides, toxins, and diseases. The study was carried out to find out the reasons of sudden fish killing. Therefore, physico-chemical and biological parameters, and postmortem, especially the gills and gut content of dead fishes were studied. The dead Tilapia tilapia (Tilapia), Chanos chano (Milkfish) and Parapriacanthus ransonneti (Glassfish) were found with wide mo...

Mohammed Zaki Fathy* 

...ratory rates, and rectal temperature were recorded. Blood samples were collected at 0, 20, 40, 80 minutes and 12 hours after administration for detection the hematological changes. Results showed that the onset, duration and total recovery times of anesthesia were 7.33±3.05 min and 3.33±1.53 min, 26.33±3.51 min and 45±3.00 min and 64±4.58 min and 86.67±6.11 min in G1 and G2 respectively. In G1, presence of a signifi...

Muhammad Haroon Hullio1,4, Abdul Ghani Lanjar2, Abdul Rahman Dhuyo3, Imran Khattri4 and Agha Mushtaque Ahmed4* 

...fect of abiotic factors (temperature and relative humidity). In last, the varietal screening of 30 local rice varieties in term of pest population was observed. The data were collected for two rice growing seasons 2012 to 2013. In results, the maximum mean population of 15.25 WBPH/25 hills at 38 0C with 50% relative humidity was observed in district Badin in the first week of August, 2012. The correlation results regarding mean population of WBPH also indicate...
Hafiz Manzoor Ahmad1,*, Hamad Bin Rashid1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Asim Khalid Mahmood1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Muhammad Rafi Ullah2 and Usman Ghani1
...al parameters like; body temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate with normal averages 105.02±0.12ºF, 103.75±3.18 beats/min and 19.2±1.62 breaths/min, respectively. All the physiological parameters varied significantly (p<0.05) between the two groups with exception of body temperature, which varied non-significantly (p>0.05). The post drug administration onset of sedation in ...
Gokhan Sahin1, Ecevit Eyduran2,*, Mete Turkoglu3 and Fatma Sahin2
...(estimated losses due to temperature and low irradiance), ESTLOSANGREF (estimated loss due to angular reflectance effect), and COMPVLOSS (Combined Photo Voltaic system losses) were calculated. Estimation of global irradiation parameters was made through multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) data mining algorithm for multiple responses (Hd and Hm) with the support of R software program and the utility prediction equation was aimed to improve for furth...

Aftab Khan, Shahid Ali, Syed Attaullah Shah and Muhammad Fayaz 

...forecasted the effect of temperature and precipitation on net revenue of maize growers across Northern, Eastern, Central and Southern zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. 200 maize growers were randomly selected through multistage sampling technique. Primary data on net revenue from maize crop was collected through an interview schedule and secondary data on temperature and precipitation was collected from Regional Metrolo...
S. Jalbani1, P. Khan2 and N.T.Narejo2,*and Y.M. Jalbnai3
...among the treatment. The temperature 28.1-30.7°C, pH 7.0-7.60, DO 3.9- 4.9 (mg/L), alkalinity 155-175 (mg/L), ammonia 0.37-0.52 (mg/L) and nitrate 0.168-0.174 (mg/L) were found to provide optimum condition to the fish. 
...
Iqbal Ahmad Alvi, Muhammad Asif, Rabia Tabassum, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*
..., and IttPL, at distinct temperatures for complete one year is described. Our results indicated that storage of bacteriophages at 4oC was most appropriate, followed by storage at -20oC and -80oC as no drop in viral titer was witnesses in bacteriophage samples stored at 4oC for up to one year. The results of this research indicated, that a standard refrigeration is suitable and economical means of long term storage wi...
Rahim Dad Brohi1,*, Amir Bukhsh Kalhoro1, Allah Bux Kachiwal1, Illahi Bux Kalhoro1, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro1, Sarfaraz Ahmed2, Farhan Anwar Khan3, Hira Sajjad Talpur1, Zia-ur-Rehman1 and Dinesh Bhattaria4
...spiratory rate. The body temperature decreased (P<0.01) with all the three anesthetic regimens. The means of safe induction of anesthesia (propofol, 14.00 ± 0.2582; and thiopentone sodium, 14.83 ± 0.1667 seconds) and duration of anesthesia (thiopentone sodium, 14.50 ± 0.2236 and propofol, 13.22 ±0.1014 min), and a full recovery from anaesthesia (thiopentone sodium, 13.67 ± 0.4216; and propofol, 12.45 ± 0.2432 min) w...

Sana Rana1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2* and Khalid Abbas1 

...against different pH and temperature. CAT activity was measured spectrophotometrically at A240 nm. Results showed that highest CAT activity was noted from the crude extract of control fish gills (140.66±0.71UmL-1) as compared to DM+END exposed fish (99.23±0.71UmL-1). After desalted the CAT activity in gills of both control and insecticides exposed fish was calculated as 73.45±0.71 and 42.77±1.36UmL-1, respectively. The highest speci...
Peng Xu1, Bin Liu1,2, Yongqiang Zhao3, Shicheng Lv3 and Changhu Lu1,*
...lts showed that mean air temperature in wintering period showed a linear upward trend. Annual maximum wintering crane population was 623±33. Fitting the population size and the climate variables in the same year with GAMs indicated significant correlations between population size and mean maximum air temperature in November, mean minimum air temperature in December, mean air

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

...arcity is extremely high temperature in the core zones colligate, which is already under observations where the temperature is extremely high. In Pakistan, closely 1.7 million peoples they are engaged in growing cotton crop. The farmers of Pakistan surveying and evolution for high quality of fiber and high quality of lint yield sweetening, the Pakistan also fulfills its 18.8% of comestible oil demand from cotton seed oil. In...
Tahira Jamil*1, Mohammad Asghar1, Fatma Husain1, Haq Nawaz Bhatti2
...cal parameters including temperature, pH, inoculums size and fermentation time (each at five levels) were optimized using central composite design (CCD) design in 30 triplicate experimental runs. The maximum statin formation (19 mg/g) was achieved at 25oC, pH 5.5, inoculums size 3.5 mL and fermentation time 144 h on wheat straw as a growth substrate. The growth medium has an important effect on lovastatin production. Effect of carbon and nitrogen su...
Mouslim Bara1,2,* and Luciano N. Segura3
...tudied the effect of air temperature and water depth on bird abundance and two ecological diversity indices (Shannon and Shannon E). Significant inter-annual fluctuations in bird abundance were recorded. Maximum values were always recorded during autumn. Water depth correlated positively with bird abundance and Shannon index. Field samplings indicated that bird abundance was frequently higher than 1000 individuals, which suggests that this site is an important...
Ejaz Mahmood Ahmad Qureshi1,*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Seemal Vehra3 and Atif Yaqub4
...>2 of MIR with air temperature in all seasons, strongest in early post-rainy season while with humidity and rainfall; these were significant in only early rainy and early post rainy seasons. It was concluded that higher MIR in mosquitoes indicated increased infectivity in them.
...

 *Irum Javed1, Muhammad Asgher2, Sadia Noreen1, Humara Naz Majeed1 and Tanzila Sahar1

SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING AGRICULTURE RESIDUE AS SUBSTRATE
...g inoculum size and 30oC temperature, are the initial requirements for maximum production of citric acid. It was also observed that Yeast extract in 1% concentration was the best nitrogen source. Surfactants like Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulphat (SDS) showed no effect on the citric acid.

...

 Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa Andleeb2, Bushra Mazhar1, Anum Imtiaz1, Shaukat Ali2*

Assessment of antibiogram and resistogram of pathogenic bacteria isolated from irrigated wheat field water
...rious parameters such as temperature and pH on growth of pathogens were also studied. Antibiogram and resistogram analysis were carried out through agar disc and agar well diffusion methods. Optimum temperature for growth of all bacterial strains was 37oC and pH 7 except Salmonella which had pH 6. Among all the antibiotics Oxacillin was less potent as three bacterial strains showed resistance against it while others antibiot...

 Siddra Tayyab Akhtar, Anjum Nasim Sabri

Twitching, swimming, swarming in biofilm forming strains in response to chemical and physical factors
...us subtilis. The optimum temperature
and pH for swimming, swarming and twitching motilities was 37°C and pH 7. All the
bacterial strains showed reduction in diameter of zones of all motilities when the
concentration of NaCl increased in medium. Among chemical factors, tobramycin
was proven to have excellent efficiency to reduce bacterial motilites whereas
proteinase K enzyme showed weak antimotility effect against all tes...
Haniya Mazhar1, Naaz Abbas2, Tehseen Zamir3, Zahid Hussain1, Syed Shahid Ali4*
...ptimum pH was 8 and best temperature was 40oC for the reported strain. Addition of divalent Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions resulted in 2-fold increase in enzyme activity while SDS completely inhibit the lipase activity to zero. 
...

Khush Bukhat Zahid1*, Ghaffar Ali2, Samina Sabir1 and Mohammad Fayaz2 

...tuations in rainfall and temperature in relation to agricultural productivity for the period 1981-2009. For estimation purposes, the production function technique is used to evaluate the relationship between climate and yield variability. The results show that higher amount of rainfall has a negative and significant impact on the production of all crops including wheat, rice and maize. It may be because unexpected rainfall in Pakistan during monsoon season sev...
Xiao-Ying Ren1, Di Zhang2 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
... were main influenced by temperature and humidity; E. olitor, E. custos and E. chinensis were main influenced by diet. Thus, the environmental factors (temperature, humidity and diet) may lead to the difference of geometric morphometry of skulls characteristics in Eothenomys.
...

Syed Said Badshah Bukhari1*, Ghulam Ali Bajwa2 and S. Shafiqur Rehman

...non manifested in rising temperature, erratic changes in precipitation and other climate variables. To assess such impacts, climate-growth response function of the Blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) was studied in Galies Forest Division -Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, for the time period 1962-2011. Time function response and impacts of changing climate were estimated on the basis of annual ring-width and intra-ring wood formations. The results showed mea...

Sahar Shibli1,2*, Farzana Siddique1, Saeeda Raza2, Zaheer Ahsan3 and Irum Raza4 

... to three months at room temperature

...
Jair Millán-Orozco1,*, Jersson Millán-Orozco2 and Luz María Tejada-Ugarte3
...ined between environment temperature and grazing activity. It was concluded that Saint Croix sheep, showed monthly pattern throughout the year and displayed high grazing activity at noon along the year, denoting great heat tolerance.
...

Babar Tasim1, Tariq Masood1*, Zafar Ali Shah1, Muhammad Arif2, Ata Ullah1, Ghazal Miraj3 and Muhammad Samiullah4 

...g (AD) were pyrolyzed at temperature range of 300-500 oC in order to compare the biochar samples obtained on the base of its physical and chemical properties. Physico-chemical characteristic such as pH, EC, proximate composition, macro and micronutrients, surface functional groups identification by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and structure morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were carried out in biochar samples by using standard ...

Raza Ullah1* and Jamal Shah

...d risks including rising temperature, changes in rainfall patterns, floods, droughts and heavy rains etc. Farmers adopt available risk coping tools to minimize the impacts of such risks at farm level however, these adoptions require farmers to incur cost or forgo part of the potential benefits from agricultural production. These costs (explicit or implicit) are referred to as the cost of risk management. Previous studies on risk management in agriculture howev...

Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Muhammad Irfan Zafar1, Faqeer Hussain2, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3 and Azhar Ali Khan3 

... of morning, evening and temperature positively in both of the rust disease. Fungicidal application showed great reduction in the management of the disease. 

...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2 
... the other hand, average temperature was found non-significant and negatively correlated in case of Brinjal Long 6275, Round Brinjal 86602 and Singhnath 666 while significant but negatively correlated in case of Short Purple and Round White Brinjal. Maximum temperature also showed significant and negative correlation for all the cultivars. Minimum temperature was observed negative but non-...

Sonia1, Khuram Nawaz Sadozai1*, Noor Paio Khan2, Abbas Ullah Jan1 and Gulnaz Hameed3 

... variables that includes temperature, precipitation and humidity was also inquired through this research. Panel data of wheat crop’s input and aforesaid climatic variables for the period of thirty years (1985-2015) was employed to figure-out the major findings. Econometric diagnostic tests were used to verify the model stability. Therefore, LM test was encompassed to detect the serial correlation. The result of Hausman test has suggested applying “...
Zhi YiJin1, Shao MingQin1,*, Cui Peng2 and Chen Bin1
...fects of sex and ambient temperature on how time was budgeted, and activity rhythms were established in wintering Mandarin Ducks (Aix galericulata). This was done using instantaneous scan sampling in the Poyang Lake watershed in the Jiangxi province, China. The results showed that the Mandarin Ducks’ predominant behaviors were resting (36.56%), swimming (21.75%), foraging (20.88%), and maintenance (15.58%), indicating that during the winter, Manda...
Ali Raza Jahejo1,2, Nasir Rajput2, Wen-xia Tian1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro2, Asmatullah Kaka2, Sheng Niu1 and Fa-jie Jia1
...d the water intake. Body temperature and mortality percentage were significantly decreased in ascorbic acid and basil supplementary group as compared to control. Dressing percentage significantly increased in both supplementary groups. It is concluded that supplementation of basil at 5g/kg feed, promotes the growth, improves the intestinal villus size, feed efficiency and immunity of heat stressed broiler chicken.
...
Fariha Latif* and Muhammad Javed
...re performed at constant temperature (30oC), pH (8) and total hardness (250 mgL-1). All the three fish species varied significantly in their sensitivity towards metals mixture with the C. catla beingsignificantly highly sensitive followed by L. rohita and C. mrigala. After the acute toxicity tests, fish were exposed to 2/3rd of their respective 96 h LC50 of metals mixture for 90 days, after which...
Muhammad Usman Ahmadand Ikram-ul-Haq*
...solved oxygen at pH 7.5, temperature 37°C, 25mM lactate as H+ donor after 20 min. This strain was later on confirmed by 16S ribotyping procedure. Oxyrase was used for improved cultivation of anaerobic bacteria by employing Hungate Technique where its antioxidant potential was compared with common reducing agent Cysteine-HCl (Cys-HCl). Four anaerobic bacterial strains (Anaerobaculum hydrogeniformans OS1, Akkermansia muciniphila, ...
Ayesha Chaudhary1, Fouzia Mumtaz1, Muhammad Yaseen2* and Muhammad Younis Afzal3 
 
...easing the earth’s temperature. The decrease in crop yield will cause another associated issue of food insecurity in the continent and emerge severe problem for a human to survive. Climatic change is definitely disturbing the farming approaches through an increase in disease spread, and careless usage of natural resources. Due to these effects, pastoral families are at high risk, hence there is a need to make farmers aware of the reasons and causes of cl...
Hande Küçükönder1, Pınar Çelebi Demirarslan1,*, Aykut Burgut2 and Mustafa Boğa3
...s for the input factors [temperature (oC), humidity (%) and feed per hen (g)] that provide effectiveness ii) Determination of targeted improvement values for the ineffective months to become effective. With this hybrid approach, which is based on the integration of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA), the effective months are determined by DEA method and a performance rank is performed between the effective months ...
Umar Farooq Gohar1, Hamid Mukhtar1,*, Ali Nawaz1, Ikram-ul-Haq1 and Asad Mehmmood2
...tions such as incubation temperature (30°C), pH (6.5) and inoculum size and age (2%, w/v, 48 h) were optimized. The maximum cephalosporin production was achieved after 144 h of incubation. The dry mycelial mass was found to be 39.46 mg/ml. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by disc diffusion method. Cephalosporin production was estimated by using spectrophotometric technique.
...
Song Jiang, Fa-Lin Zhou, Jian-Hua Huang, Qi-Bin Yang* and Li-Shi Yang
...fresh water and a sudden temperature change of 5°C), the survival rate in the two treatment groups was markedly higher than that in the C group (14.46% and 9.65%, respectively; P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that microecological preparations significantly enhanced the growth, survival and stress resistance of L. vannamei larvae.
...
Aisha Khalid1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Abdual Rauf Shakoori2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Tahir Yaqub3, Ali Raza Awan1, Muhammad Wasim1, Sehrish Firyal1, Zaheer Hussain4 and Munir Ahmad5
...llulase at wide range of temperature, pH, its high level activity and its paper deinking potential makes it a suitable candidate for its use in paper industry.
...

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Irshad Abbasi2, Himayatullah Khan1, Arjumand Nizami3, Abdul Hakeem4, Jawad Ali3 and Muhammad Jamal Khan

...ses with increase in air temperature and maximum flow discharge of 31.25cfs was observed during the month of June and then decreases with decrease in air temperature. In general, the snow/glacier melt was the major contributor (79%) during the summer months and spring water contribution was 21%. However, in winter months only spring water is available for drinking and domestic use and hardly any water is available to meet ir...

 Huma Naz1,*, Sajid Abdullah2, Khalid Abbas2 and Muhammad Anjum Zia3

...with further increase in temperature (70 °C) until it was 0.132 and 0.495 KJ mol-1, respectively. The free energy (ΔG*) of thermal denaturation for metal treated and control fish were 58.45 and 58.79 KJ mol-1, respectively at 40 °C and increases with increase in temperature until it remained 62.65 and 63.18 KJ mol-1, respectively at 70 °C. The negative value of entropy of in...

 Attaur Rahman1, Sadeeq ur Rahman1,*, Ashfaq Ahmad2, Abdul Sajid1, Muhammad Asif Hussain1, Mian Muhammad Salman1, Niamat Ullah Khan1, Kamran Khan3, Fazli Rabbani1, Muhammad Akbar Shahid4, Irshad Ahmad5 and Shakoor Ahmad6

...owed that a peak cloacal temperature was recorded on day 3 and day 4 with a 2.3°F and 1.2°F maximum rise in broiler and ostrich, respectively. A decrease in feed and water intake was recorded in both broiler and ostrich from 116 g to 82 g/bird and from 235 ml to 172 ml/bird for broiler, and from 1300g to 790 g/bird and from 1433 ml to 995 ml/bird for ostriches on days 0-7 post-inoculation. Interestingly, morbidity was observed 100%, while maximum morta...
Faiza Jabeen1,*, Bushra Muneer2 and Javed Iqbal Qazi3
...rew over a wide range of temperatures (40-70°C) and pH (4-9). The isolates exhibited growth with variety of nitrogen sources. Both thermophilic strains were grown on agro-dairy wastes to attain their cheap production by utilizing the wastes nutrients. Protein production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-dairy wastes in production medium both with and without nutrients at pH 7.0 for 48 h at their respective suitable temp...

Ragia S. Mohamed1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mamdouh. M. Hamoud1, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shimaa A.E. Nasr1, Manal M. Zaki1, ElShaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...og2 NDV and kept at room temperature then daily examination of poultry manure for the survival of NDV on the basis of virus isolation and haemagglutination assay (HA). Our results revealed that pH of the manure from time of its mixing with the NDV infected allantoic fluid till day 4 was 7, then pH values changed progressively and recorded 8.5 on day 12. After that, pH increased towards the alkaline side and recorded pH = 9 till day 33 of the experiment. Regard...
Muhammad Nasir1,*, Ata-ul-Mohsan2, Shafqat Saeed3, Munir Ahmad2, Muhammad Asif Aziz2 andMunir Ahmad4
...study different diapause temperature (-2-0 ºC), (1-3 ºC), (4-6 ºC) and duration (two and three months) showed the highest survival rate of the queens after diapause period of two months at 1-3 ºC. Highest colony initiation rate was observed at 1-3 ºC for three months duration. Early pre-oviposition period and early emergence of the first worker in a colony was also observed at three months diapause period at diapause
Muhammad Nasir1,*, Ata-ul-Mohsan2, Munir Ahmad2, Shafqat Saeed3, Muhammad Asif Aziz2, Muhammad Imran4 and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh4
...effect of five different temperatures (24 ºC, 26 ºC, 28 ºC, 30 ºC and 32 ºC) was studies on different colony characteristic of post-hibernated queens of Bombus terrestris during flight activity period and solitary phase of development. Results showed that survival rate and colony initiation rate of the queen was highest at 28 ºC and 30 ºC. Different parameters in the initial stage of colony growth like pre-oviposition ...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

... of NDV and kept at room temperature ranged from 20 to 25oc which is nearly the same as poultry farms on different coupon surfaces (metal, plastic and cooling pads). Daily examination of poultry manure for the persistence of NDV was conducted on the basis of virus isolation followed by haemagglutination assay (HA) which revealed that NDV survived in the manure up to 28 days. Likewise, monitoring for the manure pH and moisture % was carried out. Our explanation...
Aisha Khalid1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Tahir Yaqub2, Ali Raza Awan1, Muhammad Wasim1, Shagufta Saeed1, Sehrish Firyal1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori3
...nduction time, effect of temperature and pH were examined for the maximal production of recombinant cellulase. The effect of supplementation of LB medium with additional carbon and nitrogen sources was also analyzed for maximal production of recombinant protein. Higher level enzyme activity was recorded at 25°C, pH 7.0 when the cells were induced with 0.5 mM IPTG with 22h post induction incubation. Supplementation of LB medium with 1% glucose and ye...
Zahra Nazir1, Saba Ijaz1, Roquyya Gul2 and Mahjabeen Saleem1,*
...pendent studies revealed temperature optimum of enzyme to be 40°C and stable up to 60°C. Among substrates, polygalacturonic acid was established as the best substrate for polygalacturonase showing its specificity in the hydrolysis of polysaccharide galacturonate chain. The presence of Na+1 and K+1 enhanced polygalacturonase activity up to 110% and 130%, respectively when used at a concentration of 1mM, however, the enzyme was almo...
Shengjie Zhou1,2, Pengfei Wang1,2, Chao Zhao1,2, Mingjun Fu3, Jian G. Qin4, Lihua Qiu1, Zhenhua Ma1, 4,* and Maoshang Lin1
Muhammad Ahmad, Zohaib Noor*, Karim Johar Khan, Waqar Younas and Ajmal Hussain
...s were conducive however temperature fluctuated between 26°C-29°C. Significantly higher values of (P<0.05) crude protein, fats, carbohydrates, Mg (%) and K (%) was recorded in the H. molitrix than C. catla. The results of the study showed that H. molitrix probably consumed all the phytoplankton density by filtering the water continuously resulting in the reduction of growth in other fish species in the polyculture system.
...
Sun Hong1, Zhang Yifeng1, Wang Baishi2, Li Yangwei1, Xu Wenbo1, Mao Runkun1 and Wang Zhenglong1,*
...) concentrations and the temperature and humidity in the underground burrows of mandarin voles in Xinzheng, Henan Province, China during the spring and summer of 2015. Our results show that 1) the depth and complexity of the burrow were higher during summer than during spring; 2) maximal CO2 levels (2.55%) and minimal O2 levels (16.04%) were recorded in the underground burrows during summer; and 3) the temperature...

Asim Khan1, Shahid Ali1*, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Aftab Khan1 and Raza Ullah2 

...rea under maize, maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation, respectively. For statistical analysis, panel data record for twenty years (1996-2015) across five districts of the province were scrape together from Development Statistic of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Bureau of Statistic and Pakistan Meteorological Department, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Hausman test recommended fixed effect model (as opposed to random ...
Sagir Hussain, Erum Iqbal* and Shahina Fayyaz
...14-2016 to determine the temperature dependent property of Quinisulcius capitatus. About 280 root and soil samples were taken from 47 locations and 28 agricultural crops.Compilated data from the world has shown that Q. capitatus has the potential to survive and propagate proficiently at low temperature (-2 to -15ºC).
...
Muhammad Afzal1, Nighat Sultana1, Ali Hassan1, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2,*, Mahroze Fatima3, Syed Makhdoom Hussain4, Muhammad Bilal5 and Majid Hussain2
...ality parameters such as temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored and maintained within acceptable limits for fish during entire experiment. The findings of the experiment showed improved weight gain%, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), muscle composition and digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein and crude fat in Labeo rohita juveniles when fed CA supplemented diet. Similar observations were also recorded for the...
Syeda Shazia Bokhari*, Ghashia Qayyum, Uzma Rafi and Aisha Waheed Qurashi
...mum growth at pH 7.0 and temperature 37C. In the finally formed vermicompost water holding capacity, soil pH and aggregation changed positively by EG4. The results of the present finding showed positive impact of inoculation on vermicomposting in the presence of L. terrestris. This is beneficial for improving soil fertility and aggregation.
...
Fatima Tufail1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2*, Khalid Abbas1, Laiba Shafique3
...owed that optimum pH and temperature for hepatic CAT was noted as 7.5 and 25oC, respectively. It was concluded that the insecticides mixture exposure can alter the activity of antioxidant enzymes in fish. T
hese parameters can be used as a good biomarker to evaluate the aquatic pollution.
...

Punjab University Journal of Zoology

December

Vol. 33, Iss. 2, pp. 99-248

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