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Chun-Yi Lin1, Meng-Ling Wu2, Tang-Long Shen1, Hsin-Hung Yeh3, Ting-Hsuan Hung1*

 

...n citrus host. Our field survey can help clarify citrus-viroid relationships and develop proper prevention strategies in the near future.

 

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Gareth Longden

...ished the first detailed survey of the members of the British Humanist Association. His survey of 931 members represented the most comprehensive study of the members of the organisation then published. The current research builds on Campbell’s work and offers a detailed profile of the membership of the British Humanist Association at the start of the 21st century. The results of a survey...

 David F. Bradley*, Julie J. Exline, Alex Uzdavines

...ducted an Internet-based survey of adult nonbelievers in the U.S. (N = 458). Most (86%; N = 393) were able to form an image of a hypothetical god. On average, nonbelievers described a god that was more loving than distant or cruel. Compared to a previously reported sample of religious believers, nonbelievers described a god that was less loving, more distant, and more cruel. Using correlation and regression, we found that personality factors (Big Five persona...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

... this entomological survey was performed on the risk of transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and identification of the main breeding sites of Culicoides. From April 2009 to March 2010, the study was carried out at 14 sites distributed across the country. Results indicated that the two most abundant Culicoides species were Culicoides imicola (94.2-95.85%) and Culicoides newsteidi (2.21-2.72%). The rate of prevalence of these species was bi...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

... the large-scale primary survey estimates are available in India.

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Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

... producers was tested by surveying the cooperatives’ members. Econometric techniques to draw inferences include the application of t-test, binary Logistic model and Propensity Score Matching (PSM) with algorithm of near neighbor (NN) and interval matching. The impact of cooperative membership on small milk producers was evaluated by calculating the values of average treatment effects (ATE) on eight performance indicators. The outcomes of study disclosed ...

Haji Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal* and Saira Saleemi

...uth Punjab Pakistan. The survey was conducted from September 2013 to August, 2014 at eight sampling sites to ascertain fish diversity and their distribution pattern. A total 2249 fish specimen were collected using a variety of fish nets and identifications of these fishes were made by using standard taxanomic keys on the basis of morphometric characters. Seventy species belonging to 43 genera and 17 families were recorded from the study area of Indus River. Th...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...ed a pseudo-longitudinal survey to be undertaken for two years in Kibera slums in Nairobi city Kenya. Human and animal blood and urine samples will be collected at the household level whereas soil and water samples will be collected at the community level. Attempts will be made to isolate Leptospira bacteria from urine, soil and water samples. Antibody detection in animal and human serum samples will utilize Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Study outcomes...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

...al processing units were surveyed in Sindh and Balochistan to investigate production status, chemical composition, and fish species being used for producing fish meal. The overall production of single processing unit ranged from 40 to 500 metric tonns per month. Kampa Industry (Unit 1) was found to be the first largest contributor producing 100 metric tons in 24 h. The second largest producers of fish meal in this region were Abdul Baqi, Ghulam Hussain and Kam...

Rongrong Li1, Kun Li2, Xiaoqiang Wang2, Houqiang Luo2, Gang Qiu2, Hui zhang2, Yanfang Lan2 and Jiakui Li2,3*

...ext-align: justify;">The survey was to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China. A total 454 serum samples were collected from Tibetan pigs in Nyingchi in 2014 and 2015. Each sample was assayed for T. gondii antibodies by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and an indirect hemagglutination test. The results showed that seroprevalence in Tibetan pigs were 25.6% by ELISA. On gender basis, the prevalence was foun...

Bin Wang, Bo Zhang, Nan Yang, Liang Dou and Jianghong Ran*

...sociated with humans, we surveyed two natural populations in the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in western China. We compared the demography of the natural populations with that of the habituated population. The results showed that facultative cooperative breeding occurred in the two natural populations, but population density, group density, and the frequency of cooperative breeding were lower in the two natural populations than in the habituated populat...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...s endemic. A serological survey on the prevalence of antibodies to PPRV was carried out in sheep and goats of Jatoi and surrounding areas in Muzaffargarh districts South Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 965 serum samples were collected from sheep and goat’s farms from January to December 2015 with no history of vaccination. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was performed using PPRV antigen to determine antibody titres level. The overall prevalence of ...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

... help of a questionnaire survey. A total of 50 household were surveyed which make 45 percent of the total (114 households). The analysis of acquired data reveals that in 2008-09 tube well irrigated land account for 81.67 acre which decreased to 37.46 acre in 2013-14, after the dam construction. The number of parcels irrigated by tube well decreased from 158 to 75 in 2013-14. Today canal irrigation is the largest source of ir...

Muhammad Afzal1 and Murad Khan2*

...broiler poultry farms, a survey research was carried out in district Lower Dir in 2015. Four tehsils were selected namely Adinzai, Balambat, Timergara and Sumerbagh on the basis of purposive sampling technique. From these tehsils, 92 farms were selected randomly from 460 poultry farms. The sample farms were categorized into three groups i.e. small, medium and large. For analysing the data, descriptive statistics and gross margin were used. The average total co...
Syed Fazal Baqi Kakakhel*, Asad Ullah and Abdur Rashid
... in 2013. The population survey was conducted in two phases i.e. December 21-24 in Kalam and December 26-29 in Mankial valleys. Vintage point count surveys revealed that the Markhor preferred habitats in Kalam and Mankial valleys in District Swat. Among the six sub valleys of Kalam, only Shahoo and Mahodand valleys have some population of Flare-horned Markhor whereas in Mankial the sub valleys of Basharai, Tanazgah an...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
...espectively. The present survey showed that free-ranging chickens of Anhui province have been exposed to lymphoid leukosis virus subgroup A, indicating a high risk factor for poultry industry.
...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
...ross-sectional household survey was carried out using in-person questionnaire evaluation along with microscopic assessment of water samples for Cyclops species. Based on previous clinical records of dracunculiasis, five villages of Dera Ismail Khan including Kath Garh, Wanda Dost Ali, Chah Mundar Wala, Ketch and Gara Baloch were surveyed for a total of 206 randomly selected households, where the household heads (106 m...
Mohammad Salim1, Arshad Javid2,*, Faiz-ur-Rahman3, Khalid Javed Iqbal4 and FarmanUllah5
...hwa during a three years survey extending from June 2010 through May 2013. Mean body mass of the captured R. ferrumequinum specimens was 18.45 ± 0.35 g, head and body length was 60.11 ± 1.42 mm and forearm length was 60.01 ± 1.41 mm. Similarly, average greatest length of skull was 23.35 ± 0.20 mm while the total length of baculum of a single specimen was recorded 4.13 mm. The mean body mass, head and body length and forearm l...

Sadiq Ali* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...ocal biodiversity. Field survey of district Swabi (Peshawar Valley) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, was carried out during May-June, 2013-14 to study the distribution of Parthenium weed. Five villages were selected and thirty locations were randomly selected from each village. The data revealed that the flora is predominated by parthenium weed with the highest relative density of 63.4% among all weeds, followed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Cannabis sativa L. and Che...

Neelum Andaleeb, Munir Khan and Syed Attaullah Shah

...in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A survey was conducted in district Mardan to determine women’s participation in livestock farming and to investigate factors affecting their participation. A multistage sampling method was used to select a sample of 274 livestock farm households from 6 rural Union Councils, and a well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from female respondents through face to face interviews. A composite index was constructed to measu...

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...f Naran. Extensive field surveys carried out during last three years (2013-2016) to understand crops encroachment process and its implications for pastoral resources. Land use-classes such as forest, agriculture, pastures and snow cover were recorded by means of Global Positioning System (GPS) and further processed to develop maps by using Geographic Information System (GIS). The impacts of agriculture encrachment were determined by means of group discussions,...

Neerja Agrawal, Mukesh Srivastava, Akhilesh Tripathi and Amrendra Singh

Survey and monitoring of pests, parasites and predators of pulse crops in central and eastern Uttar Pradesh
... text-align: justify;">A survey was conducted in chickpea, pigeonpea and lentil crops in different districts of Uttar Pradesh.Atotal of 22 districts were surveyed to record gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera, Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua, plant hopper of Pentatomorpha group, termite Odontotermes spp, and cut worm Agrotis ipsilon in chickpea whereas Campoletis chlorlidae was recorded as natural enemy feeding o...

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
...on. During the faunastic survey in betelvine, a new species of Aleurocanthus (description under process) was recorded from West Bengal. This had also been found to occur on Piper longum L. Another species, A. nubilance (Buckton) which was recorded on betelvine in Bangladesh during 1900, was not recorded in this area. Detection of host resistance against insect pests is very relevant for genetic improvement programmes. Till date, scanty information is available...

S. Subharani, S. S. Thorat, N. Abem, L. Amit Kumar and T. K. Singh 

A database on parasitoid of insect pests of crops in Manipur, India
... conducting a systematic survey of parasitoids on insect pests of crops in different localities of Manipur was developed by using MS-Access. The database is for academic purpose and it includes the taxonomic details of the parasitoid, host insect, host plant, morphological characters, geographical distribution, period of activity, parasitoid behavior and its biology etc. Image of the parasitoid species are also provided for helping in easy identification of th...

S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
... disease of Som plant. A survey was conducted to study the infection of rotting pathogens on Som plants at Regional Muga Research Station (RMRS), Boko, Assam, India with during 2004-06. The disease incidence (DI %) caused by B. mediterranea was 12% while P. contigus showed 20% infection. Correlating the age of Som plants with susceptibility rot infection was found to be maximum in 10 years old plantation. Keywords: Rot disease, Som, Muga, Heart rot, Canker rot...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...this paper. Initially, a survey made in more than 80 farmers holdings supplying wet latex to the industry to get the first hand information on the extent of mealy bug incidence. Secondly, it facilitated select cluster of papaya growers to meet the concerned authorities and scientists of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore to appraise them of the gravity of the situation and the need for getting effective biocontrol agent [Acerophagus papayae ...

Shams Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif and Abdul Mateen 

 

Soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Pakistan
...tify">An extensive field surveys on important soil-borne viruses of potato were conducted in Hazara and Malakand Divi-sions during potato growing seasons in 2011-12. Incidence and distribution of Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV) and Tobacco rattle tobra virus (TRV) was reported on the basis of characteristic symptoms expression, bait test, infectivity assays and double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Both the viruses were preval...

Rashid Pervez, Santhosh J. Eapen, S. Devasahayam and M. Dinsha

Characterization of entomopathogenic nematode, Stein-ernema carpocapsae from ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizosphere in India
...ustify;">During a random survey, one isolate of entomopathogenic nematode from ginger rhizosphere was collected from Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh (India). Morphological and morphometric studies identified the isolate as Stein-ernema carpocapsae. This was further confirmed by ITS-rDNA sequences analysis. Phylogenetic was constructed for studying relationship with known isolates. Pathogenic potential of the isolate of S. carpocapsae (IISR-EPN 06) on the la...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...ion on the detailed soil survey, RS (Remote Sensing) generated geo informatics (Global Positioning System, GPS; Geographical Information System, GIS) including geo-referenced thematic maps, image analysis, geostatistics for spatial analysis, land, soil and physiography, farmers’ socio-economic status, meteorological data, crop suitability, crop and pest management, processing strategy and transport, market arrival, demand and price are provided, farmers&...

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
...
A survey was undertaken during 1996-1997 in different commercial perennial ornamentals in gardens and nurseries at Bolpur, Santiniketan and Sriniketan of Birbhum District, West Bengal, India, to study the fungal diseases of some commercial ornamentals. The leaf spot of Ficus religiosa (c.o. Alternaria sp.) is the first record. Fifteen fungal diseases have been formally described from West Bengal for the first time on these twelve ornamen...

V. S. Desai, S. D. Desai, A. J. Mayekar and V.G. More 

Infestation of coconut eriophyid mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer in Konkan region of Maharashtra
...ards from this area were surveyed to record infestation level of this pest in April and October of 2004 and March 2005. The survey indicated that the infestation was higher in Thane district followed by Sindhudurg district.
 

 

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S. Pal and I. Sarkar

Pests infesting ornamental plants in hilly region of West Bengal
...
The survey was conducted during 2005-07 at the farms of R.R.S., UBKV, Kalimpong; R.R.S.S., UBKV, Pedong and other adjoining areas. The Crops surveyed included gladiolus, carnation, anthurium, gerbera, china rose, chrysanthemum, Bird of Paradise, Straw flower. A number of aphid species were found infesting different ornamental plants viz. Myzus persicae on Carnation, gerbera and Anthurium; Macrosiphoniell...
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
... practices. A farm level survey was conducted in Sargodha and T.T. Singh districts to gather the information about the awareness and adoption of recommended production practices of citrus. The study sample was consisted of 140 respondents. The binary regression model has been used to evaluate the effect of different socio-economic variables on the adoption response of different recommended production practice for citrus. Average age, education and experience o...
Koksal Karadas1* and Ibrahim Hakki Kadırhanogullari2
...xt-align: justify;">This survey was conducted on all the 85 beekeeping farms collected with census study method in Igdir province of Turkey with the purpose of determining some factors influencing average honey yield (AHY) per beehive in the year 2014. For this purpose, predictive performances of several data mining algorithms (CART, CHAID, Exhaustive CHAID and MARS) and artificial neural network algorithm (Multilayer Perceptron, MLP) were evaluated comparativ...
Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Fatima Sellami3 and Muhammad Afzal1
...les, an extensive faunal survey was conducted in the district Sargodha (32°05’02’’ N and 72°40’18’’ E), Pakistan to assess the species richness and distribution of coccinellid beetles in seven selected regions (Bhera, Bhalwal, Kot Momin, Sahiwal, Sargodha, Shahpur and Silanwali). A total of 1,470 coccinellid specimens were collected from all types of vegetation and were identified up to species level by means of exte...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
... in Southern Punjab were surveyed in year 2013-14. Data were recorded on disease prevalence, incidence, frequency percent of root rot fungi and nematodes population. Maximum disease prevalence was recorded in Tibba Sultanpur (100%) and Dunyapur (88%) whereas disease incidence calculated was 5% and 4.4%, respectively, in these areas. Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) was frequently isolated (78%) from roots as well as in soil samples (81.7%) collected from ...
Omar S.O. Amer1,3,*, Mohamed I. Waly2,4 andSaeed A. Al-Zahrani1
...update the epidemiologic survey of the parasitic infection at regular intervals using different statistical methods to develop effective prevention and control strategies.
...
Mohammad Umar Farooq1*, Sarfaraz Ahmad2, Ghulam Nabi1, Ijaz Ali1 and Imtiaz Ahmad1
...stan. The study area was surveyed and homogeneous sites for conducting experiment were selected for grazed and un- grazed range land at Pabbi hills Kharian, District Gujarat, Pakistan. Carbon is played a vital role in the green house gases. Carbon sequestration during the photosynthesis process via plant biomass is the extent of this atmospheric gas. An experiment the data for above and below phytomass for grazed and un- grazed range land was collected and car...

Abbas Ullah Jan1, Muhammad Fayaz1*, Yousaf Hayat2, Dawood Jan3 and Ghaffar Ali3 

...ndard Measurement (PSLM) survey 2005. The log-log-inverse econometric model, representing nonlinear Engel curve relationship proved to be a valid estimation technique for fruit consumption in Pakistan. The results show that quantity elasticity with respect to income is constant for dates, grapes, guava and mango and tends to increase in all fruits, apple, banana and citrus with increase in household income for urban households. For rural households with increa...

Inayatullah Jan*, Sajid Khan, Noor Paio Khan and Muhammad Ashfaq 

...odeenaka. From the field surveys, it was found that majority of the respondents were smallholders or tenants. After procuring and properly utilizing credit, the yield of the major crops such as wheat, maize, and sugarcane and the resultant income of the respondents exhibited significant increase, as confirmed by higher t-values. The study concludes that the socio-economic conditions of the farmers can be improved if credit programme is extended which could ben...
Carolina A. Bonin1,2, Eric A. Lewallen2,3, Andre J. van Wijnen3, Marta Jussara Cremer4 and Paulo C. Simões-Lopes5*
...southern Brazil. Monthly surveys were conducted for one year (August 1999 - July 2000) within an area of approximately 100 km2, within the Paranaguá Bay Estuary. We employed the group follow protocol, which resulted in 260 h of direct observation. Our results revealed feeding as the most frequent activity in the estuary, totaling nearly two thirds of all records. We also identified two sites of Guiana dolphin habitat preference in our study a...
Saba Khalid*, Muhammad Saddique Awan, Riaz Aziz Minhas, Nasra Ashraf, Khawaja Basharat Ahmed, Nuzhat Shafi and Sajid Abassi
... study sites; systematic surveys were conducted at each site. Direct sighting and indirect evidences were collected from all these sites. Seventy eight bird species were recorded that belonged to 34 families and 11 orders. Passeriformes was the dominant specie. The habitat destruction due to deforestation, agricultural activities, infrastructure and land sliding and disturbances by the increasing human population were major threats to the avian fauna of Rawala...
Abu ul Hassan Faiz1,*, Fakhar-i-Abbas2 and Lariab Zahra Faiz2
...nce in North Punjab. The survey was conducted from February to December, 2015 using snap traps by applying line transect technique in wild area by using over 3840 trap nights in eight type of soil (sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, sandy clay loam, loam, clay loam, silt loam, silty clay loam). A total of 1571 animals were captured belonging to species of Nesokia indica, Mus musculus, Mus budooga, Millardia meltada, Tatera indica and Golunda elliotti....

 Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal*, Mehedi Hasan Kanon, Mohammad Amzad Hossain, Abul Hossain, Shamima Nasren, Md. Jahidul Islam, Md. Arifur Rahman

...hs. It revealed from the survey that 8 indigenous species which were previously available but not found for 3 to 12 years in the study area. As 5 vulnerable, 7 endangered and 1 critically endangered fish species were available in the study area that is why it is needed to be conserved these species in situ to keep for the use of future generation.

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Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

...y based on questionnaire survey and focus group discussion. A total of fifteen villages out of total 173 were selected for study, 75 farmers were interviewed, 05 from each of the 15 selected villages. A total of 15 focus group discussions were organised, one is each selected village. The key parameters addressed during survey were cropping pattern, sowing, harvesting date and yield per acre of different crops, pests and crop...
Kashif Prince1,*, M. Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Muhammad Asad Ali2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Nisar Ahmad3,Rais Ahmed2, Aamerzish Mushtaq4, Sajid Umar4 and Yung-Fu Chang5
...most half of the animals surveyed were deficient in selenium. Milking animals with high production levels and older animals require selenium supplementation.

 

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Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai and Samina Khalil*

... justify;">A small scale survey of Islamabad bakeries was conducted to determine the microbial contamination in the most commonly consumed bakery products i.e., biscuit, cake, and bread. Samples were randomly collected from 12 sectors (main markets and sub-sector markets). These samples were analyzed for total plate count (TPC), total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, yeasts and moulds. None of the sample was found contaminated with E. coli, contamination o...

Khalid Mahmood Aujla, Sajida Taj*, Khalid Mahmood** and Nadeem Akmal*

..., a national level field survey was conducted during June 2008 by Social Sciences Division, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council through its satellite institutes in the provinces. Total 238 wheat growers were purposively selected from different cropping zones of the Punjab province as sample of the national survey. The survey results reveal that decline in wheat area, the incidence of fr...

Hassnain Shah, Hina Riaz, Nadeem Akmal , Muhammad Sharif* and Abdul Majid**

...ce feed was done through survey of the participating and fellow farmers at the project sites. Paired sample ‘T’ test was used to compare the difference in milk yield. Farmers reported 0.5 to 2 liters per day increase in milk yield with the use of balance feed. The paired sample ‘T’ test depicts statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in milk yield before and after the use of balance feed. The locally produced balance feed was...

Aslam Memon, A. M. Khushk* and Umer Farooq**

...llected through a formal survey of sugarcane growers in the different agro-ecological conditions in three provinces of Pakistan during 2007-08. The major study findings showed that nearly one-fifth of total farm area was allocated to sugarcane crop by sample farmers with more than 70% and 76% of total sugarcane areas were devoted to recommended varieties during 2006-07 and 2007-08, respectively. More than 25 sugarcane varieties were cultivated by sample farmer...

 Aly Khan* and S. Shahid Shaukat**

...align: justify;"> A survey of phytonematodes associated with pomegranate was conducted encompassing 12 localities of Balochistan Province. Twelve genera were recorded from the rhizosphere of pomegranate. The most dominant species was Meloidogyne incognita. Species diversity (H’) was highest in Wadh while lowest in Ali Dasht. Equitability (J’) component of diversity was highest in Kork and lowest in Ali Dasht, while species richness (d’) ...

 Nadeem Akmal, Hassnain Shah*, Muhammad Azam Niazi** and Waqar Akhtar*

...impact and assessment, a survey was carried out of both buck holder and non-holder beneficiaries in six project tehsils, after one year of buck distribution. Data were collected from a sample of 38 buck holders and 31 beneficiary farmers using a structured pretested questionnaire. The main influencing factor in keeping bucks was goat breed improvement. All the sample respondents were convinced of the benefits of crosses with Beetal buck and reported that the o...

 Muhammad Azeem Khan*, Abid Hussain, Irfan Mehmood and Sonila Hassan **

...by conducting farm level surveys in Kohat and Attock districts. Clusters of six villages were selected from each district for field surveys. Six community representatives and 36 farmers were interviewed by using a set of well-designed questionnaires from each site. Results showed that over last three decades, number of small and tenant farmers increased in the semi-arid zones of Pakistan due to environmental harshness in gen...

 Rubina Bano, Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Sharif and Waqar Akhtar*

...arms and is based on the survey of 40 broiler farms in district Rawalpindi. The analysis covers the descriptive analysis of socioeconomic characteristics of the sample poultry farmers along with cost and profitability analysis. Broiler farming was done by adult males on full time basis. It was the main source of income of a family. The average flock size in the study area was 4033 birds. The study also bifurcates the cost structure and fixed cost accounts for ...
Abul Hassan Faiz*, Fakhar-i-Abbas and Lariab Zahra Faiz
...t on soil fertility. The survey was conducted from January to December, 2016 by applying line transect technique in eight types of soil (sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, sandy clay loam, loam, clay loam, silt loam, silty clay loam) to determine six soil properties (plant biomass, saturation, electrical conductivity, pH, organic matter, phosphorus and potassium) in Pothwar Plateau (250 km long and 100 km wide). We compared 216 soil samples (mound soil and undistur...
Jaime Molina-Ochoa1, 2, 6,*, Edelmira Galindo-Velasco2, Ana María Rosales-Gutiérrez2, Martín González-Ramírez3, Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez3, Wilberth Chan-Cupul3, Steven R. Skoda4, Muhammad Irfan Ullah5, Luis Jorge García-Márquez2 and  John E. Foster6
...k mortality.
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 Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Umar Farooq, Nadeem Akmal*, Shahid Munir and Bashir Hussain**

POTENTIAL FOR INVESTMENT IN INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGIES: A CASE OF LOW COST SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION STRUCTURES IN RAINFED POTHWAR, PAKISTAN
...orded through assessment survey revealed that the technology had a short payback period along with internal rate of return varying in the range of 25-37% under rainfed conditions and positive net present value. The farmers' perceptions revealed that the technology can solve the erosion problem along with 10-35% increase in crop yield and save repair and maintenance cost incurred on eroded lands. The technology is compatible with farmers' resources and practice...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad, and Ijaz Ashraf**

ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL CONTACT METHODS IN DISSEMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES
...interview schedule using survey technique. The results show that majority of the farmer respondents is aware of the farm visits (66.43%), demonstrations being conducted (62.50%) and home visits made by the extension staff (60.71%) as extension methods for dissemination of agricultural technologies among the farming community, whereas only 31.78% and 22.85% of the farmer respondents are aware of the office call and telephone calls, respectively, for diffusion o...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad and Ijaz Ashraf** 

ROLE OF FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS IN ENHANCING SKILLS OF FARMING COMMUNITY IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
...a were collected through survey method on various aspects from 280 randomly selected farmer respondents. The data collected were analyzed by applying simple descriptive statistics showing means, scores, ranking order and standard deviations. The results show that skills were highly enhanced in st the aspect of nursery raising techniques which was ranked 1 with mean value 3.40 closely followed by timely and balanced use of fertilizers and nd rd using recommende...

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Sonila Hassan**

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF CAMEL PRODUCTS IN SEMIDESERT AND DESERT AREAS OF PAKISTAN
...ly; however, none of the surveyed farmers reported milk sale. During last one year, sales of camel hides and hair were reported by few farmers (6% each). Mean purchase price of camel hides reported by shopkeepers in nearby town markets were higher than village level prices by 74.6 % and even more in case of hair. This is an indicative of camel farmers' exploitation by the village dealers. Mean quantity of hair sales was about 20 kg per farm per annum. Camel ha...

 Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure-Camphor* and Mohammad Irshad**

SURVEY OF MANAGED F. (APIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) POPULATION IN GALIAT, MURREE AND ISLAMABAD
...align: justify;"> A survey was conducted through a dialogue with the people of Abbottabad, Murree and Islamabad to estimate the population of honey bee Fabricius. Subsequent field visits were made to locate these bees. This study is first of its type in Pakistan to document the population density of this bee. It reveals the distribution and strength of population of in mainly hilly areas of Pakistan. The objective of this study is not only useful to upsca...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad**, Badar Naseem Siddiqui***, Muhammad Zakaria Yousuf Hassan****, Ijaz Ashraf**, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan***** and Aijaz Kuharoo******

COMMUNICATION OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION THROUGH GROUP CONTACT METHODS IN PAKISTAN

 Samiullah*, Mehmood Shah*, Kalim Ullah**, Rehmat Ullah*** and Ibrarullah****

PROFITABILITY OF WHEAT PRODUCTION IN DERA ISMAIL KHAN
...during May-June, 2012. A survey method was employed and 11 villages were selected at random which are the major wheat producing villages in the said district. A total of 50 respondents were probed by personal interview method from the sampled villages. Cost and return (gross return) data from the respondents were analyzed. Farm budgeting technique for estimating cost, gross return and profitability was applied. The analysis of data revealed that the average co...

 Rashed Saeed*, Shoaib-ur-Rehman**, Muhammad Qasim*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood*** and Irfan Mehmood*

ECONOMICS OF PERI-URBAN RADISH PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN FAISALABAD
...dy area. On the basis of survey data, benefit cost and total factor productivity analyses depict that radish cultivation is a profitable enterprise in the study area. Productivity gap between current and potential yield of radish can be minimized by the adoption of recommended production and marketing practices.

...

 Sameera Arshad*, Iftikhar Hussain*, Maqsood Anwar* and Sarwat Naz Mirza*

HABITAT SURVEY FOR RECOGNIZING BIRD ATTRACTANTS AROUND BENAZIR BHUTTO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
...iation industry. Habitat survey for recognizing bird attractants and hazardous bird species was carried out at 8 selected study sites within 8 km radius of Benazir Bhutto International Airport (BBIA), Islamabad. Each site represented a different habitat and was ranked for the presence of bird attracting sites using Habitat Composite Index (HCI). Habitat representing naturally preserved recreational area (Ayub Park) showed highest rank (9.7) for the presence of...

 Nouman Badar*, Hina Fatima**, Abdul Jabbar*** and Muhammad Asif*

MAJOR FOOD CROPS PRODUCTION AND YIELD FORECAST IN PAKISTAN

 Raja Zoq-ul-Arfeen*, Aamir Saleem*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Muhammad Akmal**, Hafiz Muhammad Tayyab* and Obaid Afzal***

BIODIVERSITY AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM RIPARIAN AREAS OF PAKISTAN: SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TAUNSA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY AND KETI SHAH FORESTS
...s. In Taunsa pre-monsoon survey, total 30 plant species were found with 4476 plants from 16 different families. In Taunsa post-monsoon survey total 3348 individuals were recorded from 20 plant species and 9 families. Similarly, in Keti Shah forest, total 3975 individual were recorded from 22 species and 11 families during the pre-monsoon season and 2460 plants were recorded in post-monsoon season, belonging to 16 species and...

 Muneeb Zafar*, Tahir Mehmood**, Irfan Ahmad Baig**, Abdul Saboor** Mazher Abbas***, Shumaila Sadiq** and Khalid Mahmood****

ANALYTICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF NON-OPTIMAL USE OF PESTICIDES AND HEALTH HAZARDS FOR VEGETABLE PICKERS
...ms identified during the survey were headache, eye irritation, skin infection, cough and shortness of breath. Health cost consists of costs related to precautionary measure, medication, traveling, the opportunity cost of attended persons and productivity loss. The mean health cost of vegetable pickers in the study area was about Rs. 385 per picker per year. Health cost model was used to measure the health cost of vegetable pickers. The regression results showe...

 Syed Waqar Shah* and Muhammad Ather Rafi*

PIERID (LEPIDOPTERA: PIERIDAE) PESTS AND THEIR NEW CRUCIFERS HOSTS IN POTHWAR REGION OF PAKISTAN
...rlier.

...

 Arshia Naeem*, Maria Anjum*, Mariam Rehman*, Zahid Mahmood** and Muhammad Asif Kamran**

AN INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM TO FACILITATE FARMERS IN WHEAT, SUGARCANE AND OTHER CROP DISEASES IDENTIFICATION
...mploying walkthrough and survey with farmers and agriculturists. The study is first attempt in terms of practical usage of ICT tools to bridge research and extension gap and can be used by agricultural policy makers to support agricultural services for farming communities who are otherwise deprived of extension services due to large number of farmers and their huge spread throughout the country.

...

Samina Ashraf1*, Ghulam Haider2 and Maimoona Ashraf

...cipants with the help of survey. A series of detailed and in- depth interview of 60 to 90 minutes were conducted from the participants. On the basis of collected data the researchers have given textural description and a structural description of the experiences, and ultimately provide understanding of the common experience of the participants. Finally from the structural and textural description, the researchers wrote a composite description that to present t...
Zheng Quan Jiang1,2, Feng Shan Li3, Jiang Hong Ran1,*, Chen Hao Zhao1, Man Zhang1 and Hua Li4
...d adaptation of birds. A survey was conducted on nest size and the underlying regulatory factors of Black-necked Cranes from 25 March to 31 July in 2013 and 2014 at Ruoergai Internationally Important Wetland and its surrounding area, covering 83 nests. Four types of nests were found in the area, i.e., natural island nest, grass mound nest, dirt mound nest and floating grass nest. The nest length, nest width, nest height and nest volume among the four ty...
Abid Hussain1,*, Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad2, Muhammad Hussan Mushtaq2, Mamoona Chaudhry2, Muhammad Sarwar Khan2, Michael Reichel3, Tanveer Hussain4, Amjad Khan2, MuhammadNisar2 and Imtiaz Ahmad Khan5
...tal sample size for this survey was consisted of 1,036 lactating buffaloes. The screening of lactating buffaloes was performed with the California Mastitis Test. The overall prevalence of mastitis was recorded at 49%. Among mastitis cases the prevalence of clinical mastitis was 10.2% (106/1036 animals) as a whole. However, the prevalence of clinical mastitis in district Lahore was 11.8% (71/598 animals) whereas it was 8% (35/438 animals) in district Bhimber. T...
Farhan Ahmad1,*, Muhammad Waris Sanjrani1, Shah Nawaz Khuhro1, Asif Sajjad2, Abid Ali3, Rashad Rasool Khan3, Farooq Ahmed3 and Junhe Liu4,*
...se an economic damage. A survey of whitefly populations and its parasitism with connection to temperature and relative humidity was conducted in fourteen cotton growing districts of Sindh province (southern Pakistan) for 2012 and 2013 seasons. There was a significant difference in whitefly population and percent parasitism among the fourteen districts. The highest average whitefly populationof two consecutive years was recorded in Khaipur, Sukhur, Sangar and N...
Waqas Ali1,*, Arshad Javid1, Syed Mohsin Bhukhari1, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Hira Rafique1
...
...
Muhammad Umar1, Mubashar Hussain1,*, Ghulam Murtaza1, Farid Asif Shaheen2 , Fatima Zafar1
...nce.. Regular conduct of surveys for important migratory birds to assess the population trend, abundance and patterns of their migration is another important step towards conservation of birds. To make an effective conservation of migratory birds, integration of different approaches for the protection of their habitats, and to prevent the illegal hunting and poaching, mitigating agricultural and industrial pollution, preventing water reservoirs from heavy meta...
Yakup Erdal Erturk1, Adem Aksoy2 and Mohammad Masood Tariq3,*
...redictors in the current survey were province (Erzurum, Igdir, Kars and Agri), farmer age, educational level (illiterate, primary school, secondary school, high school, and college), social security (available and unavailable), husbandry experience of farmer (year), farmer`s irrigated, dry and pasturage land, live weight before fattening, and fattening period. Predictive accuracy of MARS algorithm was evaluated using coefficient of determination (R2...

Ghufran ul Haq1*, Muhammad Arif2, Asad Ali2 and Mian Inayatullah3 

... (KP). For this purpose, surveys were conducted in the hilly areas of Mohmand Agency and Malakand Agency and plains of Shabqadar, Charsadda and Peshawar during 2011, 2012 and 2013, to determine the incidence of TYLCV and the population of its vector. Triple antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) was successful in detecting TYLCV in naturally and whiteflies inoculated tomato plants. Transmission properties of the virus were determined b...
Muhammad Shahbaz1,*, Muhammad Anwar Iqbal1, Arshad Javid2, Abu ul Hassan Faiz1, Irfan3 and Muhammad Irshad Arshad4
...hauddinin, Pakistan were surveyed to explore bat fauna of genus Pipistrellus in central Punjab from January 2015 to December 2016. A total of 172 specimens of genus Pipistrellus belonging to six species i.e. P. pipistrellus (n = 43), P. paterculus (n = 12), P. javanicus (n = 39), P. tenuis (n = 18), P. cylonicus (n = 40) and P. dormeri (n = 20) were captured. Out of these six species, four are reported fo...

Samiullah*, Mohammad Aslam Khan and Atta-ur-Rahman  

...nue department and field survey. For micro level analysis, five villages were randomly selected for detailed and intensive study. In addition to questionnaire survey, detailed focused group discussion was also arranged with the key stakeholders. The analysis reveals that rapid urban expansion has resulted in reduction of farmland and sub-division of landholdings into smaller land fragments. Beside urbanization, a major contr...
Jia-kui Li1,2,*, Kun Li2, Zhao-qing Han2, Hui Zhang2, Xiao-qiang Wang2, Hou-qiang Luo2, Yan-fang Lan2 and Gang Qiu1,2
Nausheen Irshad1,*, Imran Yousaf1, Tariq Mahmood2 and Muhammad Saeed Awan1
...tudies on the species. A survey was conducted from June to December 2014 to document existence of the leopard in Abbaspur area, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Direct field observations (opportunistic survey) and indirect observations based on signs of the species were recorded. This was supplemented with information collected through questionnaire survey. Results confirmed the occurrence of leopa...
Tariq Mahmood1,*, Shafqat Rasool1, Faraz Akrim1, Shaista Andleeb1, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2 and Fiaz Nadeem3
...ey site.
...

Fatma Abdallah1*, Ola Hassnain2, Elsayed Attar3, Haytham Ali3,5, Mohamed Megahed1 and Venugopal Nair

...ign: justify;">An update survey of the MDV strains circulating in the Egyptian poultry flocks during 2015 -2016 was conducted. Twenty one vaccinated chicken flocks suffering from different form of lymphomas, representing different governorates in the Egyptian Delta, were screened for MDV infection. Pathological findings in the visceral tumours and presence of viral DNAs with variable mitotic figures were observed in the examined visceral organs. Eight samples ...

Sadiqa Begum1, Murad Khan2* and Noor Pao Khan

..."text-align: justify;">A survey research was conducted in two main districts (Peshawar and Mardan) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to make economic and comparative analysis of wheat crop. Furthermore, two villages were selected from each district i.e. Lakarai and Barbar Opazai of district Peshawar and Khawo and Shamshad Abad of district Mardan. A questionnaire was used to collect data proportionately from 93 sample respondents. Budget allocation technique is used for ca...
Adem Aksoy1, Yakup Erdal Ertürk2, Selim Erdoğan3, Ecevit Eyduran3 andMohammad Masood Tariq4,*
...ential predictors in the survey were age of enterprise, province of enterprise (Agri, Kars and Erzurum), educational level, membership status of enterprise to an association of beekeepers (member and nonmember), other activities except for beekeeping (yes and no), number of full beehives, bee race (Caucasian, Carniolan, Italian and Crossbred), and frequency of changing queen bee. MARS outperformed multiple linear regression, and CART in honey yield per hive. N...

Iqbal Javed1*, Amar Razzaq2, Mudassar Yasin3, Muhammad Ali Imran4, Haroon Javaid5, Iftikhar Nabi6, Anum Sardar1 and Shahbaz Ahmad

... trade center, Economics survey of Pakistan, statistical yearbook of Pakistan and Agricultural Price Institution, Islamabad, Pakistan. Nominal protection coefficient (NPC), revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA) were estimated for the export of mutton to all existing international markets. According to the finding of the current study under hand internal markets are categorized into three categories of with hig...
Saima Shahzad Mirza1,*, Hafiz Muhammad Qamer2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3,*, Rana Shoaib Akram4
...purpose, cross sectional survey data of 34 conservative mothers was analyzed, obtained by means of questionnaire. Initiation of weaning process at proper time is found to be somewhat finance limited factor. Total 17 and 1 out of 34 cases were sufficiently and well literate, respectively and aware about weaning process. In our study 47, 39 and 14 % mothers belonging to lower middle, middle and higher middle class background, respectively and 9, 34, 21, 19 and 1...

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

... The farmers of Pakistan surveying and evolution for high quality of fiber and high quality of lint yield sweetening, the Pakistan also fulfills its 18.8% of comestible oil demand from cotton seed oil. Information acquiring on seed cotton oil and its consumptions is while ever short and not available. There is impregnable need from industry to furthermore sanctify cottonseed oil to provide it suit for direct used as vegetable cooking oil alternatively of hydro...

Muhammad Israr1*, Saeed Ullah1, Shakeel Ahmad2, Asif Yaseen3, Urooba Pervaiz4 and Nafees Ahmad5 

...h face to face interview survey method by filling a questionnaire. Farmer’s perceptions on agriculture LD were measured through the extent of severity scale in terms of LD dimensions and indicators resulted from water, tillage, soil, salinization, and overgrazing. Moderate (0.49) index of water degradation and the changing climatological index were light but the reduction of drainage density of water runoff and slope gradient reduction of soil index was ...

Amjad Ali1, Abbas Ullah Jan1, Lal Almas2, Noor Piao Khan1 and Khurran Nawaz Saddozai

...op season 2014-2015. For survey data a pre-tested structured questioner set according to objectives of the study was used. Coefficients of parameters were calculated by maximum likelihood estimation techniques. Per acre total yield, land rent and per acre inputs cost (labor hired, seed, tractor hours, irrigation, Urea, DAP, FYM and pesticides) were considered determinants for cost function. Respondent age, farming experience, education, family size, off-farm i...

Mohammad Salim1, Arshad Javid2*, Ali Hussain2, Faiz-ur-Rahman3, FarmanUllah4, Hamidullah5

Distribution records of fruit bats Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaultii from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...>...

Mohammad Salim1, Arshad Javid2*, Ali Hussain2, Faiz-ur-Rahman3, Hamidullah4 

First provincial record of desert yellow bat Scotoecus pallidus (Dobson, 1876) from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
....

...

 Saima Naz*, Adil Ali Rajpar, Abdul Hameed Chandio

New Records of some Phthiraptera (chewing lice) of birds from urban areas of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan
...s the first chewing lice survey that has been carried out in the region, which reported eight species of
Menoponidae and eleven species of Philopteridae. These species were Campanulotes compar (Burmeister, 1838),
Colpocephalum turbinatum (Denny, 1842), Columbicola columbae (Linnaeus, 1758), Hohorstiella lata (Piaget, 1880)
on pigeons and doves; Brueelia subtilis (Nitzsch, 1874), Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister, 1838) and
Sturnid...

 Abbas Ali1, Muhammad Altaf2*, Muhammad Samar Hussain Khan3

Winter survey of birds at Keti Bunder, district Thatha, Pakistan
...rect methods. During the survey, total of 49 winter season bird species belonging to 33 genera
and 21 families were recorded. A total of 4280 birds were recorded dedicated survey effort from the Keti Bunder.
Dominance (D), Shannon-Wiener diversity Index (H’), Simpson Index (S), Evenness (E) and Margalef (R) were
observed form the study area as; 0.06, 3.23, 0.94, 0.52 and 5.74 respectively. During t...

 Waqas Ali, Arshad Javid, Ali Hussain, Syed Mohsin Bukhari

Public attitude towards amphibian and reptiles in district Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan
...rea.

...

Umair Talib1, Ijaz Ashraf2, Robert Agunga1 and Saleem Ashraf3* 

...cations in Pakistan. The survey of 120 farmers was conducted in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, covering 36 districts and across three of the ten agro ecological zones of the country. Rice, cotton and mix-cropping are practiced in these zones. The findings show that maintaining soil fertility and controlling livestock diseases were the main challenges resource-poor farmers face while water conservation and climate smart agricultural practices were proposed as...
Abderraouf Chouaib Rebbah1, Mohcen Menaa2,*, Salah Telailia3,Menouar Saheb1 and Mohamed Cherif Maazi2
...conducted the first bird survey in this area using the point count method to describe the composition of woodland breeding avifauna and to analyze the spatial distribution among habitat types (oak woodlands, pine woodlands and oak-pine mixed woodlands). A total of 69 species were observed. One species was recorded only in mixed oak-pine forests, six were found exclusively in oak woodlands and 17 species were found only in pine woodlands. We noted 20 protected ...

Muhammad Rameez Khan1, Muhammad Imtiaz2, Farhatullah3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Sajid Ali1* 

...(from 63 districts) were surveyed in 2016, 480 fields (from 69 districts) in 2017 and 294 fields (from 34 districts) in 2018, revealing a high prevalence of powdery mildew in the northern Himalayan parts of Pakistan. Powdery mildew was more severe during 2018 followed by 2017, while it was the minimum during 2016. In Sindh province, none of the 253 fields surveyed over three years, had powdery mildew, while in Punjab the dis...
Hamidullah1,*, Arshad Javid2, Basit Rasheed1,Jehan Zeb3, Abidullah1 and Muhammad Iftikhar Khan1
...s.
...
Ayesha Chaudhary1, Fouzia Mumtaz1, Muhammad Yaseen2* and Muhammad Younis Afzal3 
 
...e. The present study was survey-based research and carried out in the Faisalabad district of Punjab, Pakistan. The data was collected using a multistage sampling method with the help of well-structured interview schedule. At first, on the basis of simple random sampling Faisalabad saddar tehsil was selected. Six villages were selected from two union councils using simple random sampling. The villages were Dhol Mahjra, Lilan, Sar Shameer, Javadi, Mulanpur,...

Irfan Ullah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Muhammad Fayaz, Amjad Ali and Atta Ullah Shah 

...y. The data given in the survey regarding commodity prices, quantity consumed, households’ food expenditures and demographic characteristics were considered for analysis. The uncompensated own price elasticity for milk, fruits, and baked products is greater than unity which suggests that these food groups are highly responsive to their own price change. Prices of these food products should be kept constant. Imposition of any sale tax could create a huge ...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...ce, many extensive filed surveys of forests, avenues, road sides and canal banks has been made to calculate the total losses and mortality of the sheesham trees in Indian sub-continent. Up-till now billions of shisham trees have been destroyed because of decline or dieback disease but unluckily there is no suitable solution against this disease. There is a need to develop the resistant varieties and to improve the quality of seed. Disease may be reduced by sel...

Khadim Hussain Wagan1*, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1 and Abdul Ghani Lanjar2 

...s collected during field survey at different districts of Sindh during 2015 and 2016 growing year. In soil sample maximum 41.371 cfu per gram of M. phaseolina with range of 27.00-48.40 were counted from Badin during 2016 followed by 40.2 with range of 27.00-45.20 during 2015 growing season. The plant tissues were carrying more M. phaseolina cfu as compared to soil samples. However, cfu count of M. phaseolina was significantly varying among districts, locations...

Muhamamd Naeem1 and Murad Khan2* 

...hera but the preliminary survey showed 127 operational poultry farms scattered over in the study area. Out of total farms, 60 firms were selected randomly. To capture the seasonal variation and effects of different factors on seasonal fluctuations in the poultry industry, a descriptive statistic as well as OLS technique was used. The main cost of winter season consists of feed cost, lighting cost, the price of day old chicks, breeding cost, medication and vacc...

Farhana Gul1*, Dawood Jan1 and Muhammad Ashfaq2 

...ers using extensive farm survey data from 150 farmers from different climatic zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were measured in this study. TOA-MD model was used to measure the impact of climate change adaptation strategies. Adjustment in sowing time, improved fertilizer application method and increasing sowing densities were three-major adaptation practices whose benefits were analyzed. The adaptation results indicated that adopters of adaptation technol...

 Muhammad Arshad Hussain1 and Tariq Mukhtar2,*

..., in the present studies surveys were conducted to record incidence, prevalence, and severity of root-knot nematode species associated with okra in the major vegetable growing districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The overall incidence of 39%, prevalence of 85% and severity of 4.1 in terms of the galling index was recorded throughout the province. Differences in the incidence of root-knot nematodes were recorded from all the districts ranging from 11% ...

Huma Khalil1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Sajjad Khalil1, Farghama Khalil2 and Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel1 

Ashfaque Ahmed Nahiyoon1,*, Shahina Fayyaz2 and Nasira Kazi2
...017–2018 extensive surveys were conducted at the time of cropping and at harvesting and soil root samples were collected from different fields in the cotton producing regions of five districts of Sindh viz., Sanghar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Mityari and Tando Allahyar. The analysis of samples resulted in the identification of one new species of soil nematode viz., Acrobeloides gossypii n. sp., along with three new record species viz.,

Hafiz Umar Farid1, Muhammad Zubair2, Zahid Mahmood Khan1, Aamir Shakoor1*, Behzad Mustafa1, Aftab Ahmad Khan3, Muhamad Naveed Anjum4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Muhammad Mubeen

...re selected based on the survey conducted that influenced the HEIS functionality as well as adoptability. The selected parameters were also ranked based on their influencing order such as net economic return, deployment of operator, literacy status, farming mode, pumping mechanism, backup support, system type, energy source, tenancy status, farm location, groundwater quality and farming experience because these parameters have significance coefficient values o...

Kubra Siddique*, Ghaffar Ali, Irfan Ullah, Atta Ullah Shah and Muhammad Fayaz 

Shamsudin Bojang1, Idris Abd Ghani2, Jugah Kadir1, Adamu Saidu Paiko1, Yasir Iftikhar3 and Muhammad Kamran3,4,*
...
During year 2015, a survey was conducted in 18 golf course greens from nine states (Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, Johor, Pahang, Perak, Kedah, Pulau Pinang and Wilayah Persekutuan) of Peninsular Malaysia for nematode, Meloidogyne graminis infections on the turf grasses. Samples were collected based on the sparsely growth and chlorotic appearance of the greens. A total of 36 soils and roots sample were collected. Scanning electron microscopy (S...
Sagir Hussain, Erum Iqbal* and Shahina Fayyaz
...ey is provided. Detailed surveys of cereals, fruits and vegetables were conducted from district Hunza, Nager, Gilgit and Ghizer of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan during 2014-2016 to determine the temperature dependent property of Quinisulcius capitatus. About 280 root and soil samples were taken from 47 locations and 28 agricultural crops.Compilated data from the world has shown that Q. capitatus has the potential to survive and propagate proficientl...
Asghar Khan1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Arfan Yousaf2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Mamoona Chaudhry1, Mumtaz Ali Khan3, Habibunnabi4 and Amjad Khan5
...ed cross-sectional based survey was conducted in 30 commercial and subsistent farms in Pothohar region of Rawalpindi district, Punjab. Where randomly 196 lactating buffaloes were sampled. Data on several health, management and bio-security variables was collected in face to face interviews from farmers, managers and owners. Milk samples collected were subjected to California Mastitis Test.Data entry and validation was performed through Epi-Data. Data analysis ...

Umar Hayat1*, Tariq Shah1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad

Waqas Raza*, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar and Muhammad Imran Hamid 

..."text-align: justify;">A survey on the incidence and severity of late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) of potato was conducted in the major potato growing areas of Punjab viz., Khushab, Sargodha, Sahiwal, Okara, Jhang and Chiniot districts during the cropping seasons of 2016-2017. A total of six districts comprising of three locations in each district were surveyed for the collection of late blight infected sa...
Aly Khan1,*, Khalil A. Khanzada1 and S. Shahid Shaukat2
... localities.
...
Hui Wang1, Lin Wang1, Xuanlu Li1, Shanshan Li1, Yongqiang Zhao2, Shicheng Lv2, Xinrong Xu1, Guang Yang1 and Bingyao Chen1,*
...onducted a line transect survey in December 2010 to estimate bird density and evaluate the importance of the buffer zone. As a result, 34 protected species among the 4975 individuals were sighted, including 127 red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) and 868 common cranes (Grus grus). The overall density of protected species, winter migratory species, and resident birds was 1244.60 individuals/km2, 396.88 individuals/km2 and 75...

Syed Muhammad Hassan Raza1*, Syed Amer Mahmood1, Syeeda Areeba Gillani1, Syed Shehzad Hassan1, Muneeb Aamir1, Muhammad Saifullah1, Mubashar Basheer1, Atif Ahmad1, Saif-ul-Rehman2 and Tariq Ali1 

Muhammad Ali1*, Norsida Man2 and Farrah Melissa Muharam

...ollected through a field survey in which 360 farmers were interviewed through the multistage cluster sampling technique. The subjective norms were measured through 5 points Likert scale (ranging from 1 as strongly disagree to 5 as strongly agree) based statements. The result exhibited that farmers had realized the significance of ICTs which helped them in staying connected with fellow farmers and extension service providers. Furthermore, majority of the farmer...
Rais Ahmed1,2,*, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor1,2, Iftikhar Hussain1, Muhammad Saqib3, Muhammad Hammad Hussain4, Amjad Islam Aqib5, Haleema Sadia6, Javed Muhammad7, Asma Irshad8, Kashif Prince5, Muhammad Zain Saleem9 and Abdul Whab Manzoor10
Himanshu Mishra, Vikas Kumar and Ashish Kumar*
...imates. During the field survey, we recorded a significantly higher number of migratory birds at the end of early winter (December) and at the commencement of middle winter (January). Red crested pochard (Netta rufina), Common coot (Fulica atra) and Gadwall (Mareca strepera) were the most populated species in the present study. The number of birds was not significantly different among winter months except between October/December and Octob...
Rakhshanda Kousar1, Tahira Sadaf1*, Muhammad Sohail Amjad Makhdum2, Muhammad Amjed Iqbal1 and Raza Ullah1

Ahmed Zia1*, Iqtidar Hussain2, Sardar Azhar Mehmood2, Shabir Ahmad2, Muzaffar Shah3 and Abdul Rauf Bhatti1 

...g insect group, seasonal surveys and temporal data collection for odonates in this ecologically rich area can surely bring forward important information for the migratory species between Afghanistan and Pakistan. 

...

Ahmed Zia* 

... need to conduct further surveys in whole hill belt is highly felt with a view to get more information especially for its male and naiads. 

...

Hina Fatima1*, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khurram Nawaz3 

...op in Pakistan. A formal survey of 430 wheat crop farmers was conducted in the district of Rahim Yar Khan in year 2014. In order to estimate the impact of farm inputs on wheat crop production, Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) was used. The major objectives of this survey were to identify factors of variation and effect of planting of wheat after BT and Non-BT-cotton varieties on wheat production. In this study, the average...

Umar Hayat1*, Shahid Ali1, Abdul Mateen2 and Hazrat Bilal

Khaled Kaboudi* 

...eported in Egypt and serosurveys programs showed high positivity, particularly in poultry workers. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the most of H9N2 viruses circulating in North Africa were among the G1-lineage group. The presence of mammalian and human genetic markers were reported in several H9N2 strains, indicating possible risk for public health. Control of LPAI H9N2 subtype infection is currently based on biosecurity and the implementation of vaccinatio...
Nadia Saeed1, Mian Sayed Khan2, Habib Ahmad3, Muzafar Shah4*
...espectively.
...

Mahnoor Pervez and Farkhanda Manzoor* 

... Pakistan during a field survey. Pollen was collected by installing traps and nectar was collected through capillary method allied with centrifugation. The HPLC technique was used for fast and simple detection of pesticide residues of commonly used pesticides (imidacloprid, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, thiamethoxam, carbaryl, profenophos and bifenthrin). Among a total of 100 pollen samples, 47% were found to be positive. The most frequently found resi...

Turab Ali Kaurajo1*, Huma Rizwana1, Gulbahar Khaskheli2, Muhammad Haroon Baloch1, Muhammad Naeem Rajput1, Asad Ali Khaskheli3 and Mohsin Solangi

...were selected during the survey and interviewed using comprehensive Questionnaire. Survey indicated that the Sakrai breed is prominent in number followed by Dhatti, Larri/Sindhi. Camel herders were almost uneducated except small proportions that were primary passed. Among the land holders, each sedentary and household camel herders possessed 1 to 5 acres land where they grew Rabbi and Kharif crops. The production systems wer...

Sanaullah1, Fazli Rabbi2*, Shahid Ali2, Zeeshan Khan3 and Muhammad Zamin4 

...ontingent Valuation (CV) survey conducted in Kalam valley, which is a famous tourist and biodiversity hot spot. The valley has remained underdeveloped in terms of infrastructure, tourists’ information facilities, telecommunication, affordable public transport system, and comfortable accommodation for the tourists. In the past few years, the development of this tourists’ spot has been neglected in the public development budget. Moreover, due to the ...

Shazia Akhtar1, Abdul Samad1*, Afshan Gohar1, Muhammad Munir Shahid2, Muhammad Ishtiaq1, Arslan Sarwer1, Adnan Khan1 and Karam Ahad1 

...structured questionnaire survey consisting of 40 sub questions was evaluated by interviewing the peach growers in Swat, Malakand. The current survey described the knowledge, behavior, agricultural practices and pesticides toxicity symptoms among the field workers. Over all 72 orchards from 26 Union Councils were covered. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 and sample collection points were presented on map by using software A...

Asif Yaseen1, Muhammad Israr2*, Allah Bux Khan1, Ahsan Javed3, Nafees Ahmad4 and Zia Ullah

...stry. The study employed survey technique to collect data from 300 citrus farmers in Punjab, and multinomial treatments effects were used to analyze the data. The results indicated though participation in traditional marketing channels (with intermediaries) is still profitable, high value marketing channels appeared more attractive alternative, having been shown to offer increased net income to smallholder citrus growers. Findings showed the importance of prod...

Faisal Azeem Abbassi1, Atta Ullah2, Muhammad Saim Hashmi1, Khadim Hussain1* and Nasim Akhter1 

...imber, AJ&K. A basic survey was carried out to collect primary data from 310 households selected through convenient sampling. Endowment of livelihood assets was calculated by constructing asset indices. Asset weights were obtained using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Assets indices revealed that district has performed best on physical capital (index value 0.63) and human capital (index value 0.59) dimensions. It was found that foreign remittance is th...

Mudassar Rashid1, Zuhair Husnain2, Usman Shakoor1* and Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain

Asad Ali Khaskheli1*, Gulfam Ali Mughal1, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Gul Bahar Khaskheli3, Allah Jurio Khaskheli2 and Arshad Ali Khaskheli1
... included. Comprehensive survey indicated year round availability of 19 different vegetations at study areas whereby dry matter contents in Calligonum polygonoides (93.63%) recorded significantly high, and in Trifolium alexandrinum it was low, while moisture content appeared vice versa to dry matter. Organic matter contents in Senegalia senegal (94.05%) followed by Calligonum polygonoides (93.80%) and Acacia jacquemontii (92....
Meriem Msaad Guerfali1,*, Heitham Hamden1, Salma Fadhl1, Wafa Djobbi1, Lotfi Sillini1, Wafa Marzouki1 and Mohammed Ammar2
...l as to spinosad after a survey carried out with farmers and to give precise informations about treatment management state. Surveys and sampling of the wild strain of Ceratitis capitata were conducted in several regions to learn about the nature and number of treatments. The samples were subjected to ingestion toxicity bioassays of ...

Ihsanullah Kakr1, Sarwar Khan2, Khalid Khan3* and Sajjad Ahmed

...nnaire was developed for survey of Camel farmers and information regarding the age of respondent, experience, type of community, feeding/watering pattern of camels, prevailing camel diseases in the area, treatment facilities, traditional remedies used by them against various diseases in camels and economic losses were collected. A total of one thousand and forty (n=1040) camel owners/respondents from three groups viz settled, transhumants and nomads were inter...

Hina Maryam1, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Ahmed Zia1, Ghulam Rasul3, Muhammad Kamal Sheikh3*, Muhammad Qasim4 and Gulnaz Parveen

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Anam Sarwar2, Muhammad Junaid1, Mirza B. Baig3, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel4 and R. Kirby Barrick

...te change. A descriptive survey research method was employed in this census study. There were 147 working EFS and 130 of them participated in the study. A well-defined structured interview schedule was designed for data collection. The Borich Needs Assessment Model was applied on Microsoft Excel sheets to identify the training needs of EFS, and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 used for additional analyses. The results indicated that ...
Waqas Ahmad Shams1*, Gauhar Rehman1, Khurshaid Khan1, Ibrar Ahmad1, Saima Bibi1, Saif Ul Islam2, Dawood Safi1, Saba Gul Ayaz1
...mpling points. Extensive surveys were conducted for three years at different timings during the active periods of crab life. To have a comprehensive study of the crab fauna of Buner District, nine different localities were selected for conduction of survey. The results showed that there were two crab species yawi and Smalley. These species belong to Allacanthos. They have gonopod with a distal portion of mesio laterally flat...
Mubashar Hussain1*, Misbah Younas1,Muhammad Faheem Malik1, Muhammad Umar1, Maimoona Kanwal1, Moazama Batool2
...ling was accomplished by surveying grassy fields, croplands, old dung piles and fresh dung pats from selected localesofSialkot during 2016. Specimens were collected by hand picking and cattle dung baited pitfall traps. Sixteen species representing three guilds i.e. Paracoprid (10 species), Endocoprid (4 species) and Telecoprid (02 species) were recorded. Onitis excavatus (27.68 %)and Onitis crassus (9.59 %)showed maximum relative abundance wherea...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Riyasat Sultan 

...s based on questionnaire survey. In Utla only 40 households practice transhumance, and the present study covers all the households who practice transhumance. Land use data were collected from revenue office Topi. Patterns of transhumance in Utla reflected the distinctive environmental and socio-economic conditions. The system and schedule devised by the local population is based on indigenous knowledge and is for the better management of forests, grasses and a...

Abdur Rehman1*, Sajjad Ahmad1, Ahmed Zia2, Asad Ali3, Kiran Shahjeer4, Abdul Latif1 and Taimur Khan

...n. A comprehensive field survey was conducted to collect dragonfly adults using aerial nets. 19 sites of District Swabi were surveyed during summer seasons of 2015 and 2016. The study revealed 23 species from 15 genera under 3 families. The abundant family was recorded as Libellulidae that was comprised of 19 species belonging to 11 genera, family Gomphidae included 3 species belonging to 3 genera and family Aeshnidae includ...

Bilal Saeed Khan1*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Asif Qayyoum1, Imran Ali3 and Abdul Ghaffar

...l soft insects. A random survey was conducted to explore the predatory mite fauna from Punjab, Pakistan. The holotype female (male unknown) of the new mite species Pseudostigmaeus sorghumus sp. nov was collected from city Dera Ghazi Khan on Sorghum bicolor (L.) and described. Fifteen paratypes were also collected from same collection data and seven were from Muzaffargarh. 

...

Muhammad Raheel Faiz1, Ijaz Ashraf1, Haq Nawaz2, Muhammad Zubair3*, Muhammad Sajid Mahmood4, Sajid Hussain5 and Abdul Qadeer2 

...elected respondents. The survey showed that major problems of the vegetable production were the labour shortage, high prices of fertilizers and chemicals. The protection problems identified were lack of storage facilities for surplus vegetables, fluctuation in market price of vegetables and transportation problems. This indicated that the government should launch small credit schemes and should provide better marketing facilities to the farmers to ensure the s...

A.N. Ashfaque1, F. Shahina1 and S. Dawar2

 

Diversity of nematode fauna associated with cotton fields of high temperature areas of Sindh, Pakistan
...n June2017 and June 2018 surveys of cotton fields of five Districts Sanghar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Mitiari and Tando Allah Yar of Sindh where temperature in May to July raised up to 40ºC -50ºC.The data was subjected to construct the dendrogram for interpretation on the basis of their prevalence. In order to estimate nematode species diversity, richness and evenness, the data has been submitted for calculating the diversity parameters such as Dominance...

Yasir Irfan Badrashia1, Qaisar Alia1, Mohammad Ashraf1, Muhammad Rashid1 

SEISMIC DESIGN CHARACTERIZATION OF RC SPECIAL MOMENT RESISTING FRAMES IN PAKISTAN-FIELD SURVEY TO LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS
...nections. Building stock survey was conducted in five major cities of Pakistan for identification and
quantification of material and detailing disparities between design specifications and construction practices. The effect
of these disparities was studied using quasi-static cyclic testing on two exterior beam-column connections; EJ-1A
(code-compliant) with no deficiencies and EJ-2A (non-compliant) incorporating all identified deficiencies...

Muhammad Usman Shafi*, Syed Muhammad Ali**, Syed Akhtar Ali Shah***, Kamran Ahmed****

DEVELOPMENT OF DATABASE OF HEAVY TRUCK LOAD DATA IN PESHAWAR, PAKISTAN
... overloaded. This sample survey of
load can be implemented across the country as it is the representation of the loaded vehicles moving in the country.
...

 Asif Ali Khan*, Nasru Minallah*, Shahbaz Khan**

ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SUPERVISED CLASSIFIERS FOR CROP IDENTIFICATION AND ESTIMATION USING MULTI-SPECTRAL IMAGERY
...d through multiple field surveys using
GPS receivers. The results obtained clearly show that the performance of maximum-likelihood classifier is better than
the other considered counterparts. Also it is indicated that the newly developed system offer an efficient, reliable and
faster approach for estimation of tobacco crop.
 
...

 Khizar Azam*, Abdul Shakoor*~ Afzal Khan*, Riaz Akbar Shah*~ Shaukat Ali Shah·

IDENTIFICATION OF VITAL VEHICLE MECHANICAL DEFECTS CAUSING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN PAKISTAN
...The response rate to the survey was 64%. The survey identified that 80% of vehicles had no maintenance record. About

Shaukat Ali*, Shah Khusro*, Laiq Hasan**, Asif Ali Khan**

A SURVEY OF MOBILE PHONES CONTEXT-AWARENESS USING SENSING COMPUTING RESEARCH
...nts a comprehensive survey of research efforts contributed by researchers, organizations, and academia emphasizing on using mobile phones sensing capabilities for developing effective context-aware applications. The readily available knowledge is organized and classified effectively to give insight knowledge about the phenomena. We believe that this paper will serve as a compact platform for researchers and learners to shine their understandings and ...

M. Nafees*, Bushra Khan*, Robina Naz*

STUDY OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SAFETY IN STEEL RE-ROLLING MILL WITH REFERENCE TO HIGH NOISE LEVEL AND TEMPERATURE
...mperature. The interview survey revealed that the workers exposed to these chronic conditions in the factory are suffering from post work irritability, headache, fatigue, eye infection and heat exhaustion. It was therefore, recommended that the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (PEPA) should strictly implement and follow-up on the occupational safety laws, adopt shift rotation and ensure reduction in the length of exposure of each worker i.e. 1.5 to 2 h...

Asadullah Saleem* and Nadeem Ehsan*

STATUS OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS IN INFRASTRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION FIRMS OF PAKISTAN
...ons. Questionnaire based survey revealed that there is an empirical evidence that most of the infrastructure firms find their PMS in need of urgent attention while one third of the surveyed firms consider their system needs improvement. Analysis of the results points out that current PMSs ignore the performance information needs of critical stakeholders like employees, customers and suppliers. Further the...

Shahrukh Khalid* and Athar Mahboob**

A SURVEY ON AUTO-CONFIGURATION MECHANISMS FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS (MANETS)
...is paper presents a survey of latest and primitive auto-configuration mechanisms for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs).
...

Behram Khan1, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Said Qasim3, Atta-ur Rahman4

ANALYSIS OF HUMAN PERCEPTIONS AND ADAPTATIONS TO FLASH FLOODS IN KHYBER AGENCY, FATA
...structured questionnaire survey and focus group discussions supported by secondary data sources. Three hundred adult residents in five sample villages along Chora River and its tributaries were interviewed by using a structured questionnaire which covered approximately 20% of the total households. Respondents’ perceptions were investigated about the occurrence of flash floods, flood damages, nature of affinity towards flood prone areas and adaptation str...

 Uzma Nawaz1*, Muhammad Iftikhar Khan1, Muhammad Naeem Arbab1

TECHNO-ECONOMICS OF UPS SYSTEM AS BACKUP POWER SOURCE DURING LOAD SHEDDING
...er loads. In this work a survey highlighting the technical and economic issues with UPS system is described that allowed obtaining a cost model based on useful service life of battery, which have also been investigated with the local brands of batteries. The results showed the battery useful life as a function of charging/discharging cycles. In particular analysis shows that the operating cost of the battery increases with the number of cycles t...

 Muhammad Qasim Khan1*, Syed Athar Masood1 and Shahzad Naeem Qureshi2

REFORMULATION OF PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT MODEL FOR PUBLIC SECTOR AUTOMOBILE REBUILD ORGANIZATIONS
...bsp;through quantitative survey and analyzed statistically through SPSS. Results implied that public sector automobile rebuild organizations due to certain peculiar characteristics possess low productivity and essentially require a distinct productivity improvement model. Based on the shortcomings/inadequacies identified through literature review, qualitative and quantitative analysis, an inclusive productivity enhancement model for public secto...

 Muhammad Naeem Khan Khattak1, Hamidullah1, Shehryar2

PROBLEMS, ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE AUTOMOTIVE VENDOR INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN—I
... of the findings of survey interviews, expert’s discussions, and media releases has unveiled some daunting facts pertinent to automotive vendor industry of Pakistan. The salient outcomes of the analysis are presented. On the basis of the analysis and interview results, comprehensive recommendations are also provided for the automotive vendor industry of Pakistan.
...

Hina Imtiaz1*, Salma Khalid2, Kashaf Riaz1, Muhammad Arshad Ullah3 and Zubair Rehman

...eam. During the question survey it was observed that 70% respondent reported that they are facing spread of diseases is become major issue. Therefore, the issue needs a special focus in terms of planning and management to save human health and environment.  

...
He Wenyun, Zhi Yijin and Shao Mingqin*
...he point count method to survey the sex ratio, habitat selection and foraging behavior of Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) in water systems (Raohe River, Ganjiang River and Xiuhe River) of Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Province, China. We recorded 162 individuals and determined 141 by gender: the sex ratio was 1.07. There was no significant male bias (n = 141, p = 0.210). Habitat selection results indicated that Mandarin duck tended to choose habit...

Israr Yasin1, Ismail Qureshi1*, Shahjahn Qaimkhani1, Gulam Mustafa Solangi3, Ismail Qaimkhani1, Ismail Brohi1 and Abdul Ahad Soomro2

A Perspective on Household Dairy Farming in District Naushahro Feroze, Sindh, Pakistan
...n: justify;">A household survey was conducted to collect the information on household dairy farming with special reference to management of livestock, milk production and marketing as well as role of livestock in household income in district Naushahro Feroze of Sindh-Province Pakistan. Six hundred households were selected from 40 villages in four out of nine Talukas (administrative units) using multistage clustering method. Estimates of the study revealed that...

Ummad ud Din Umar1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ishfaq Ahmed1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2, Sibghat Ullah3, Shah Pasand4, Zehri Khan3 and Abdur Rehman5

Prevalence and Serological Detection of Spiroplasma citri, a Cause of Citrus Stubborn Disease in Southern Punjab, Pakistan
...nducting a comprehensive survey in various districts of Southern Punjab. The results of the survey and serology of CSD showed that this destructive disease which causes symptoms mostly similar to citrus greening is present in all areas of South Punjab. Layyah, and Multan showed maximum incidence of CSD with “11.66” and “5.66%” respectively while least incidence was observed in District Bhakkar (03%) a...

Shahzad Khan*, Munir Khan, Inayatullah Jan, Mahfooz Khan and Fida Muhammad Khan

Determinants of Sugarcane Yield in District Charsadda, Pakistan
..."text-align: justify;">A survey was conducted to perform an economic analysis and to investigate determinants of sugarcane crop in district Charsadda in the year 2018. Three villages viz. Kamran Kalay, Aspandehri, and Sarfaraz Kalay were selected purposively. Primary data were collected with face to face interview method from 41 randomly selected sugarcane growers through structured questionnaire. The selection of farmers was based on proportional allocation t...

Nadeem Abbas Shah1*, Ejaz Ashraf1, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Zaheer ud Din Mirani3, Usman Rafique1 and Raees Abbas Shah4

Assessing Perceptions of the Households-heads Regarding Food Security Status in Drought-hit Areas of District Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan: A Case Study for Agricultural Extension
...ng to the results of the survey, the majority of the respondents perceived that factors such as global warming and climate change, unproductive land, depleting water resources, unavailability of drought-tolerant crop varieties, lack of health facilities, lack of awareness for food security measures, lack of Extension services in the area, limited income resources, and insufficient information for food security were the main factors cause food insecurity in the...

Zafar Ahmad Handoo1*, Mihail Radu Kantor1 and Ekramullah Khan2

Description of Seven New Species and One New Record of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes (Nematoda: Tylenchida) Associated with Economically Important Crops of Kashmir Valley, Jammu and Kashmir (Part-1 of the series)
...gn: justify;">During the survey of soil and plant-parasitic nematodes of vegetable and fruit crops of Kashmir valley, Jammu and Kashmir, seven new species and one new record of following species were recovered: Helicotylenchus siddiqii sp. nov. from soil around roots of Glycine max L. Miller, from Kashmir University Campus, Hazratbal, Srinagar, Kashmir; H. fotedariensis sp. nov. from soil around roots of Brassica oleraceae var. botrytis L. from Zadibal, Srinag...

Muhammad Tariq-Khan1*, Syed Zanib Ali Gardazi1, Abu Daud Ahmad Khan1, Muhammad Ilyas2 and Ishaq Ahmad3,4

Virulence and Distribution Trends of Root-Knot Nematode (RKN) Fauna on Summer Vegetables in District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Pakistan)
...t range. A comprehensive survey study was carried out to document host and non-host plants in cultivated fields of Bagh district, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Total of 111 vegetable fields from 82 locations of study areas was surveyed during summer 2013, 2014, 2016 and 2017. Okra, Eggplant, tomato, cucumber, chilies, beans and cucurbits were found most frequently cultivated vegetables in the area. RKN was found on 80 fields, with...
Ammara Gull-E-Fareen1, 3, Imran Bodlah1*, Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1, Yasir Niaz2, Muhammad Adnan Bodlah2, Muhammad Asif4 and Nasir M. Khokhar5
...(Walker, 1859). A lot of surveys were conducted during 2015-17 for the collection of ants associated with aphids on different host plants in different localities of Pothwar region. As a result of surveys, ant-aphid new mutualistic trophic associations were determined like Camponotus compressus with 12, Formica fusca 1, Formica clara 2, Lepisiota frauenfeldi 9, Myrmica aimonissabaudiae 4, Tapino...

Muhammad Siyar1, Anwar Saeed Khan2*, Fazlur Rahman2 and Muhammad Jamal Nasir2

Spatio-temporal Assessment of Reliability in Pehur Main Canal System, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...tion. An extensive field survey was undertaken in Rabi 2012-13 and Kharif Miana 2013 to acquire actual flow data of individual outlets. The reliability is measured on a scale of 0-1, 1 for complete reliable and 0 for unreliable services. The analysis shows the majority of reliability values closer to 0. Rabi season has better reliability than the Kharif Miana. The spatial reliability in different sections of the system as a whole, distributaries and minors are...
Atef  Mohamed El-Sagheer
Status of Phytonematodes in a Main Commercial Banana Production of Upper Egypt
...um L.) cultivations were surveyed for the prevalence of phytonematodes in Assiut governorate at middle of Upper Egypt. The encountered phytonematodes were identified during the survey belong to sixteen genera comprising sixteen genera belonging to nine families viz., Criconemella, Criconemoides, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Heterodera, Hoplolaimus, Longidorus, Meloidogyne, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Radopholus, Rotylenchu...

 Majid Shahi Bajestani1, Esmat Mahdikhani Moghadam2*, Reza Aghnoum3 and Hamid Rohani2

Study of Plant Parasitic Nematodes and Description of New Record (Rotylenchus alius) Associated with Barley (Hordium vulgare L.) in Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeast Iran
Zhi Chen1, Toshifumi Minamoto2, Longshan Lin3 and Tianxiang Gao4,*
...it. Up to now, many eDNA surveys have collected eDNA samples with large scale, which sometimes required hundreds of filter membranes and a mass of extraction kits. Combined the price and effectiveness, using AxyPrep DNA Gel Extraction Kit as an substitute for DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit could remarkably cut the eDNA extracting cost. AxyPrep DNA Gel Extraction Kit might be an optional low-cost method of extracting environmental DNA of macro-organisms from filte...

Asifa Kamal1*, Ghazala Noreen1 and Muhammad Amin2

Trends and Determinants of Fertility in Pakistan: Multivariate Decomposition Analysis (PDHS 1990-91 to PDHS 2012-13)
...pooled analysis of three surveys that age of women at first birth, region (Balochistan), wealth index (rich), education of both spouses and survey periods (2006-07, 2012-13) has significantly negative effect on the total children ever born to women in Pakistan. Child mortality (yes), husband’s desire for children (more than wife), ideal number of children, marital duration and ever use of contraceptives has significant...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Muhammad Ehetisham ul Haq1*, Muhammad Kamran1, Muhammad Idrees1, Shahid Nazir2, Ihsan Ullah3, Sumera Naz1, Shaukat Ali1 and Muhammad Zafar Iqbal2

Morpho-Molecular Characterization of Xanthomonas Axonopodis Pv. Citri Associated with Kinnow (Mandarin) and its Management
...conditions. A systematic survey of randomly ten localities/sampling sites was conducted for a reliable estimation of citrus canker disease in District Sargodha of Punjab Province. Nine sampling sites showed 90 % the presence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and only one site was free of citrus canker disease. Total cellular DNA was isolated from freshly growing aqueous bacterial culture using CTAB protocol with modifications. Amplification of 581bp fragment...
Abdul Hameed1*, Ihtsham ul Haq Padda2 and Abdul Salam3
Estimating Food Consumption Patterns in Pakistan by Using Ideal Demand System
...rated household economic survey 2015-16 data and the nonlinear quadratic almost ideal demand system. The paper finding shows that demand for most commodity items except for fruit, meat, sugar and other products is less than unit elastic to expenditure elasticity at the country and regional levels. Cross price elasticity assessment demonstrates that the most nutritious food items, such as fruit, milk and meat, are complementary products as compared to wheat, pu...

Imran Ahmad Rana*, Muhammad Ali Yab and Ch. Abdul Rehman

Quality Engineering Tools Implementation a Comparison of Indian and Pakistani Business Organizations
...ess. Instrument used for survey was built on quality engineering and management system elements. Study has yielded key outcomes which highlight that social dimension in use to practice SS in both of countries like behaviors and quality roles were varied. Moreover, results obtained from regression analysis display that there are also differences between the critical success factors (CSFs) of six sigma implementation in Indian and Pakistani organizations. Elemen...
Sukhpreet Kaur Sidhu*, Gurkirat Singh Sekhon, Randeep Kaur Aulakh and Tejdeep Kaur Kler
...d one man-made pond were surveyed at three locations viz. Ludhiana (location I), Ropar (location II) and Ferozpur (location III) falling in three agro climatic zones. A total of 51 bird species belonging to 31 families and 15 orders were recorded from studied locations. A diverse range of vegetation distribution was observed with 12 weed species, 22 tree species and three crops near the ponds. Avian species richness index was found positively correlated high w...
Mardan Aghabey Turghan1, Roller MaMing1*, Li Weidong2, Di Jie1 and Xu Guohua1
...second nation-wide field survey of wildlife resources of China (2010-2020). The information provided is based on field observations made from 2010 to 2017. A total of 172 bird species belonging to 95 genera of 42 families of 19 orders were identified as occurring in the reserve, accounting for 37.9% of the total bird species in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Among them, 85 species are migrants, 49 species resident, 33 species summer visitors and 5 species ...
Muhammad Riaz1*, Zahida Tasawar1, Muhammad Zaka Ullah2 and Zawar Hussain3
Parasitological and Molecular Survey on Theileriosis of Sheep and Goats and the Related Risk Factors in Musa Pak Shaheed Town, Multan, Pakistan
...n: justify;">The current survey was designed to study the infections of Theileria spp.  (Theileria lestoquardi and T. ovis) in small ruminants through PCR and microscopy in Musa Pak Shaheed, Multan district, Pakistan amidst 2013. A total of 200 small ruminants (93 sheep and 107 goats) without any apparent signs of theileriosis were examined to diagnose Theileria piroplasms. During sampling, blood was amassed by puncturing the jugular vein in eppendorf com...
Hannan Nasib Hamid1,*, Muhammad Rais1, Muhammad Arif2 and Rubina Noor2
...k using visual encounter survey method aided with pitfall and funnel trapping. Twenty three herpetofauna species (14 recorded through direct sightings) were recorded which included two species of amphibians and 21 of reptiles (eight snakes, 13 lizards). Species in the sub-tropical broadleaved evergreen forest were more diverse with Common Leopard Gecko, Persian Leaf-toed Gecko, Reticulate Plump-bodied Gecko as notable species while tropical thorn forest had sp...
Oluwatobi Emmanuel Olaniyi1,2*, Chukwudiemeka Onwuka Martins2, Mohamed Zakaria2
...m design was employed to survey (from November 2016 to December 2018) and choose 57 and 54 point stations around 14 and 24 lakes of PIW and PW respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) existed in the encounter rate and effective detection radius of PPI and AP between PIW and PW. Both wetlands had low site occupancy, an unevenly distributed and non-significantly relative abundance (p>0.05) of PPI and AP. PW recorded the higher estimates of sit...
Ashara Sajid1, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Saeed Rauf 2, Zahoor Hussain3, Salman Ahmad1 and Yasir Iftikhar1,*
...ease. In this context, a survey regarding the incidence of citrus green disease (CGD) was recorded in two cultivars Kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and Mosambi (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), among significant citrus-growing areas of Sargodha district based on symptoms. Random samples of trees within orchards were scored based on characteristic symptoms like blotchy mottle, lopsided unripe fruits, and aborted seeds...
Abdul Rauf Bhatti1*, Ahmed Zia1, Falak Naz2, Amjad Usman3, Rukhshanda Saleem4, Ghulam Sarwar5 and Amad Ud Din6
 
 
... For this, comprehensive surveys were undertaken in Pothohar plateau of Punjab province. Results revealed three new to country records viz. Ptochus assamensis, P. ovulum and P. limbatus. The species were recorded from walnut (Juglans regia) trees and Khabbal Grass (Cyanodon dactylon), which highlight their importance. Keeping in view topographic gradients, ecological complex in Pothohar plateau and pest status of curculionid weevils...
Ghazanfar Ali and Riffat-un-Nisa Awan*
...elected universities and surveyed through a questionnaire. The results of data analyses revealed gender wise differences in perceived level of CTIPs, CTS and AA in favor of female students. Students of physics were found better in CTS and students of chemistry were found better in academics. Teachers of chemistry were employing CTIPs more frequently than the other departments. The results also revealed that CTIPs had good predictability of CTD of science stude...
Muhammad Umar1, Mubashar Hussain1*, Muhammad Faheem Malik1, Muhammad Naeem Awan2 and David C. Lee3
...hts the need for further surveys in the region to locate other possible wintering grounds for this critically endangered species. 
...
Iftikhar Hussain1, Sardar Azhar Mehmood1, Muzafar Shah2*, Mohammad Salim3, Shabir Ahmed1, Sana Ullah1,Sidra Batool4, Nadia Saeed1 and Khalid Usman1
...all;">During the present survey, extending from the May 2015 to November 2016 the short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (n = 4) was captured from Frontier Region Kohat and Shublan, Kurram Agency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The morphometry and cranial characteristics of the captured specimens were compared with literature. C. sphinx is being reported form the study area for first time. Morphometry of all captured C. sphinx showed that head and...
Tariq Ali Mastoi1, Zulfiqar Ali Mastoi2*, Zahoor Ahmed Khetran3, Ghulam Hussain Alizai2, Binish Baig4, Mitha Khan2 and Syed Jahangir Shah1
 
 
...bad, Balochistan through survey method. Eight districts were selected purposively by using random sampling techniques to investigate eligibility, education and obstacles of the respondents for obtaining micro finance loan from Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited (ZTBL). Out of selected districts; ten respondents were chosen randomly who obtained micro finance loans. The information of the selected districts and respondents was obtained (ZTBL). Thus, the respondents w...
Chen Tongde1, Fakher Abbas1, Jiao Juying1, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz2*, An Shoshan1, Muhammad Ansar3, Qaiser Hussain2, Mah-Noor Azad2 andAyaz Ahmad2
... of each map spot in the survey unit. The land use situation was revised based on ArcGIS in the later stage. The overall soil erosion of woodland and grassland was relatively light with sheet erosion as the main type. Soil erosion mainly occurred in construction land. Gully erosion was caused by rainfall and runoff on excavated slopes, dump slopes, roadside slopes and brick factories. Due to overgrazing, gravity erosion and gully erosion also occurred in some ...
Tanay Dineshkumar Shah
 

...arly in their diets. The survey was conducted targeting the majority of youngsters i.e., Generation Z as the eating habits of present youngsters will define the mushroom market in the future. However, to know the perspective of millennials as well as baby boomers, people from those age groups were also included in the survey. There were 213 responses on the questionnaire which contained 14 questions. The

Muhammad Arslan Ibrahim1*, Aneeqa Aleem2, Farkhanda Manzoor2, Shahbaz Ahmad1, Hafiz Muhammad Zahid Anwar1, Talia Aroob2 and Mansoor Ahmad3 

...region of Pakistan, were surveyed after the published reports of fall armyworm presence in other parts of the country. Out of the total spots observed, the fall armyworm occurrence was spotted on ten variable locations. The highest level of infestation recorded was 19.39 % followed by 18.69 % while the lowest damage in percentage was 9.28. The present study was also directed to investigate the mortality factors in a lab-based experiment on the life table study...

Manzoor Hussain Memon1, Khalid Khan2, Anjum Parvez3, Sarfaraz Ahmed Shaikh4, Khan Mir Khan2, Guo Xiangyu5*, Mohammad Nasrullah6 and Saima Liaqat7

...gents and consumers were surveyed using multistage sampling technique. Building on quantitative industry figures the study also highlighted various qualitative problems and factors which are responsible for the production, and profitability of the poultry industry in the district. The results of the study revealed that the unfair and unwarranted distribution of profits among producers, commission agent and retailers are the major impediment to the extension of...
Xinjian Wang1,2, Eryan Yang1,2 and Lizhi Zhou1,2*
...ls and water levels were surveyed every day. Instantaneous scan and focal animal sampling was conducted to collect the behavior data. Foraging behavior is the major behavior in the wintering period, followed by rest behavior and vigilance behavior. In daily activity rhythms, the trough and peaks of foraging behavior appeared in the morning (09:00-10:00 h) and evening(16:00-17:00 h), which is just contrary to the rest behavior. Foraging and rest behaviors showe...
Abdul Muhaimin Wahab1, Basit Zeshan2,*, Naveed Ahmed2, Muhammad Afzal2 and Muhammad Naveed2

Zafar Ahmad Handoo1*, Mihail Radu Kantor1 and Ekramullah Khan2

...gn: justify;">During the survey of soil and plant-parasitic nematodes of vegetable and fruit crops of Kashmir valley, Jammu and Kashmir, ten new species including two new genera of following were recovered: Fotedaronema kashmiriensis gen. n. sp. nov., from soil around roots of Pyrus communis L. from Sonamarg, Parasicagutter chitwoodi gen. n. sp. nov., from soil around roots of Pyrus malus L. in Pattan, Kochinema pahalgamiensis sp. nov., from soil around roots ...
Muhammad Furqan1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Usman Ali2, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad3, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Waqar Ahmed1, Zakir Hussain1, Mian Amman Ullah1Nimra Afzal1 and Anjum Ara2
...with human beings. Field surveys were conducted from April 2015-March 2016 in 18 localities of Mirpur, AJ and K. Human mongoose conflict was evaluated following structured questionnaire method. A total of 490 poultry and pets were killed by mongoose during the study period, summing up to an estimated cost of 0.126 million PKRs (784 US$). The highest (n=56) depredation was recorded at Naugran and Mehmoodabad locality and the lowest (n=14) at Rata and Thara loca...
Suman Bhattarai1*, Subodh Raj Pandey2, Jaya Prakash Dutta3, Meghnath Timalsena4 and Rajendra Bam5
...ign: justify;">A general survey was accomplished among beekeepers in 2019 to investigate the determinants and resource use efficiency of honey production at Chitwan, Nepal. The information was primarily collected through 60 Apis mellifera beekeepers registered in bee zone, Chitwan. They were selected for interview by simple random sampling technique. Interview using semi-structured questionnaire schedule was carried out for primary data. Cobb Douglas productio...

Hajira Nur-ul-Islam1, Ahmed Zia2*, Khurshaid Khan1, Hirad Ali3 and Abdul Aziz3

...complex of Odonata. More surveys in the district are suggested to unveil probable new records from the area.

...

Kiran Shahjeer1*, Gauhar Rehman1, Khurshaid Khan1 and Toheed Iqbal2

...ring 2017-2020. Area was surveyed and collection of worker ants from the area was hired by using pitfall traps, aspirator and hand picking with the help of forceps. The study revealed that three species belonging to genus Lepisiota as a major outcome of this taxonomic study. The species include L. frauenfeldi, L. simplex, L. opaca and its sub-species L. o. pulchella. Among them two species viz., L. simplex, L. opaca and a subspecies of L. opaca i.e. L. o. pulc...

Summara Abbasi* and Khalid Nawab

...n of dairy technology. A survey was carried out in district Muzaffarabad of Azad Jammu and Kashmir by selecting 8 villages purposively, based on the average number of livestock population i.e 2-3 heads per household, for dairy production. A structured and pretested interview schedule was used to collect the primary data from randomly selected 333 respondents. For analysis of data descriptive statistics and binary logistic model was used through the Statistical...

Shahinshah Khan1*, Aijaz Ali Khooharo1, Zaheeruddin Mirani1 and Velo Suthar2

Abdul Hameed1*, Ihtsham Ul Haq Padda1 and Abdul Salam2

...is shows that 22% of the survey households in Punjab, 30% in Sindh, 11% in KP, and 37% in Balochistan are suffering from iron deficiency. Besides, 57% of households in Balochistan, 56% in Sindh, 35% in Punjab, and 26% in KP experience deficiency of zinc. The vulnerability analysis of the survey data found 12% of the households at the national level to be extremely vulnerable and food insecure in terms of their calorie intake...
Nilgun Dogan1,* and Hakan Adanacioglu2
...rms. For this purpose, a survey was done in Kelkit County, in northeastern Turkey. The performances of the beekeeping farms were evaluated by cost, profitability and efficiency analysis. The cost of a unit of honey was US$3.16 and the average price paid to the beekeepers was US$6.78. The absolute and relative profits were calculated as US$3.62 and US$2.14, respectively. The efficiency of the beekeeping farms was measured using Data Envelopment Analysis. The re...
Arshad Ali1, Muhammad Nasir Khan Khattak2*, Muhammad Ali Nawaz3 and Shoaib Hameed3
...ts were laid out in each survey area with 100 m length and 50 m width. Each transect was laid out with minimum distance of one km from each other. Higher sign density was found in the forest compared to the other habitats. Twenty brown bear signs were recorded at four sites of the study area. According to signs, brown bear was widely distributed in Batendar area, while Jaba had the least distribution. Estimated livestock predation per household was 0.84 &plusm...
Mandour, A. M. 1, Abdel Maksoud, H. M. 2, Amal, A. Khalil 3 and Mohga, A. El-Tahlawey 4
...ion with many viruses. A survey on viruses affecting maize was
conducted in El-Monfia, Kafr-El-Sheikh, Al Ismailia, and El-Menia
Governorates in 2010 and 2011 seasons. In addetion, weeds existed in maize
field were also rested. Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) is the most
economically significant virus infecting maize crop in Egypt. The percentage
of infection differs from one location to another. MDMV...
Amro A. Farrag1; Ahmed K. El-Attar1; Om-Hashem M. El-Banna2; Ibrahim A. I.2; H. M. Mazyad 1 
...ies grown in
surveyed governorates were found susceptible to Geminivirus infection and the dominant
Geminivirus affecting bean fields was SLCV. Percentage of infection was higher at Nili
season than that at the summer season. Six different commercial varieties of common
bean were evaluated for SLCV infection at three different growth stages. The evaluation
was performed using whitefly inoculation in i...

Amira A. Mazyad1; A. A. Kheder1; Ahmed K. El-Attar1; W. Amer.2; Mahasen, H. Ismail.2; Amal, A.F.1

...ELISA (DAS-ELISA). Virus survey was carried out during 2013 - 2014 in different locations on commercial strawberry fields. The percentages of infection were 3.7, 4.5, 15.7 and 20% in El-Behera, El-Kalubeia, El-Ismalia and El-Menofia respectively. SLRSV was transmitted either by Xiphinema americanumas nematode vector or mechanically from infected strawberry plants onto 16 host species belonging to seven families. Typical leaf curling, chlorosis, vein clearing a...
Eman A. Ahmed1, Osama Y. Shalaby2, Emad F. Dwidar2, Samah A. Mokbel1, Ahmed K. El-Attar1 

Megahed, A.A.1; Kh. A.El-Dougdoug2 and B.A. Othman2

...era Governorate.

...

Rafia Ahsan1, Saif Ullah1, Ijaz Yaseen1, Faisal Sohail Fateh1, Muhammad Fayyaz1, Shahzad Asad1, Atif Jamal1, Muhammad Sufyan2 and Muhammad Zakria1*

...was prevalent in all the surveyed provinces of Pakistan. In Punjab, high disease prevalence was observed in Gujranwala (55%), Hafizabad (36%), Sialkot (29%) and Narowal (27%). No disease was observed in Wazirabad, Zafar Wal and Gujrat. The disease incidence in Gujranwala, Sialkot and Narowal was 35%, 50% and 21% respectively, and severity ranged from 0-80%, 0-70% and 0-70% respectively. In KP 3 rice growing areas were survey...

Nashwa M. Helmy1, Ahmed S. Ahmed2, and Zeinab3 Y. Mohamed

...cattle. Conclusion: Sero-survey, conventional techniques and PCR assay should be applied besides clinco-pathological for any cases with skin lesions as early as possible to diagnosis and apply adequate control measures. The results encountered in the present study revealed that cattle infected with LSD exposed to strong oxidative stress so recommended to use antioxidants in infected animals during treatment.

...

Lamya A. F. Ateya1 , Said. A .Ahmed2, Khamees K.S. Ashraf3, Heba A. Abdel-Hady4

...nations followed by sero-survey have been implemented for the control of FMD. Objectives: 3ABC ELISA is highly effective for early identification of infected and vaccinated animals. Our study was designed for assessment of vaccination by local and imported FMD vaccines in cattle sera in Kalubeya Governorate. Methods: 220 serum samples were tested for FMD NSP by 3ABC Trapping ELISA.20 serum samples were used as control (no vaccination),100 serum samples collect...

Salama M. El-Saghir1, 2

...gypt,
larger surveys should be carried out to study the occurrence of PNRSV-phytoplasma disease complex
and their corresponding insect vectors.
...

Shimaa M. Gad1, Ahmed A. Kheder1, Mohamed A. Awad 2

...lants during
surveys in flower nurseries and open filed in Giza governorate, it was transmitted from naturally
infected Gazania to healthy periwinkle and other ornamental plants by dodder (Cuscuta reflexa ), and
the leaf hopper (Empoasca decipiens). Free hand sections stained with Diene's stain was used to detect
and differentiate the phloem tissues of leaf sections from infected gazania and periwinkle plants.

Muhammad Nasir1, Muhammad Usman Asif2*, Abdul Hayee Abid1, Qurat ul Ain Haneef1 and Muhammad Awais2

...three year spatial field survey of different insect pests of cotton and leaf curl virus (CLCuV) in relation to weather parameters was conducted in four tehsils viz. Alipur, Jatoi, Kot Addu and Muzaffargarh of district Muzaffargarh (Punjab, Pakistan). In each tehsil pest scouting was conducted in 40-50 spots (five acres each) per week selected randomly starting from 1st June to 30th October each year. Hot spots (pest incidence at and above Economic Threshold le...

Pukhtoon Yar1*, Salman Khan2, Du Ying1 and Muhammad Israr3

...comprehensive literature survey has been conducted. Scores of problems have been identified that has greatly affected the agriculture sector such as water deficiency, climate changes, long duration load shedding, traditional farming practices, poor extension services, high prices of fertilizers, land insecurity, etc. The outcomes of this study showed that the successful completion of CPEC related projects in the energy sector and infrastructure development wil...
Khawaja Adeel Tariq1*, Hadhi Hassan Khan2, Shuja Zaib Afghan3 and Arslan Raza4
...ntersection. Topographic survey is conducted for the intersections. Traffic counts are measured manually on every intersection. The data calculated are then changed into Passenger Car Unit (PCU) by applying equivalency factor as recommended by Urban Unit Punjab (Punjab geometric design manual). For computation of Level of Service (LOS), Delay and Volume/Capacity ratio model is used. It is noticed that Level of Services is very poor at these intersections. The ...

Syed Ismat Hussain1, Khalid Mehmood2, Mudassar Khaliq3, Habib Anwar1, Syed Muhammad Zaka4, Ateeq ur Rehman5*, Muhammad Shahid6, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi5*, Ummad ud Din Umar5 and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar7

...o October while for pest survey P= 2 X 10-16 were highly significant meaning that all variables had significant result in response to ETL. The results by pest survey of pink boll worms in cotton fields depicted that the spots above economic threshold level (AETL) was varying between 0.4% in districts viz., D G Khan and Rajanpur to a maximum of 5.0% in district Vehari. Below economic threshold level (BETL) was varying between...

Sami Ullah1, Bernhard Brümmer2 and Umar Ijaz Ahmed1*

... of Punjab through field survey. By employing the stochastic frontier approach, it was found that on an average 85% dairy farms are technically efficient, indicating that output can be increased by 15% by enhancing the efficiency of the dairy farms. The study reveals that extension services enhance the technical efficiency of dairy farmers by imparting better management and disease control skills. Extended extension services are recommended, alongside quality ...

Khalid Mehmood1*, Abdul Rehman2 and Ammara Khan1

...stan. An extensive field survey was conducted during 2019 to collect the data from the farmers of Potwar Plateau of Pakistan. Farmers’ preferences and perceptions of varietal characteristics were investigated. The elasticity of production was measured to compare the performance of improved and conventional groundnut varieties. Logit model was estimated to determine the factors affecting the adoption of improved groundnut varieties. The empirical findings...
Nazish Huma Khan1*, Mohammad Nafees2, Tooba Saeed3, Khaliq Ur Rahman4 and Adila Bashir2
 
...his end, a questionnaire survey was carried out among 105 industries and relevant government departments were interviewed. The solid waste generation rate for the operating industries was 125,481 kg/ day. Only 33% of the waste generated is reused, and 26% is sold to the community at low cost. About 41% solid waste is thrown away as waste. Fifty percent of discarded waste (41%) is properly collected and disposed of. These wastes include wood (27%), paper (20%),...

Junaid Ahmad1, Shahzeb Javed2*, Mehmood Khan1, Shadman1, Muhammad Farooq3*, Muhammad Saleem4, Rahila Afzal5, Muhammad Aasim6, Naqeeb Ullah7, Muhammad Noman Khan8, Dawood8 and Naila Ilyas9

...tions. Self-administered survey forms were used to collect data from several disciplines. Every correct and incorrect response was given a score of yes or no in order to assess the knowledge. For the purposes of assessing Attitude and Practice, each correct response received a score of (yes), a neutral response received a score of (don’t know), and an erroneous response received a score of (No). For each component, quartiles were created. Knowledge, atti...
Muhammad Mansha1*, Sidra Yaqub1, Asma Abdul Latif2, Muhammad Wasim3 and Peter C. Thomson4
...n. The results of survey study showed that “premature termination of pregnancy” emerges as a potential risk factor of breast cancer. Number of pregnancies has significant association with premature termination of pregnancies (P = 6 × 10–11). The regression coefficient for number of pregnancies is 0.220 ± 0.029= 1.25× i.e. a 25% increase for each additional...

Farrukh Ilyas1, Durdana Qaiser Gillani2, Mudassar Yasin3, Muhammad Amjed Iqbal4, Iqbal Javed5*, Shahbaz Ahmad6 and Iftikhar Nabi7

Manar M. Farouk1*, Amal El-Molla1, Fayez A. Salib1 and Yousef A. Soliman2
...mall;">A cross sectional survey study aimed to: 1) Identify the management factors associated with the occurrence of salmonellosis in some diarrheic sheep and goats belonging to mixed reared flocks in Giza governorate, Egypt, 2) Investigate the presence of enterotoxin(stn) gene in the recovered Salmonella spp. strains, and 3) Build a phylogenetic tree for the partial codon sequence of stn gene of some recovered strains in order to provide ...
Ikechukwu Eugene Onah*, Ifeoma Esther Aniaku, Jude Ifeanyi Okwor and Ada Sylvester Haruna
.... Of the 400 individuals surveyed, 190 (47.5%) and 160 (40%) linked crows to food and water respectively while 50 (12.5%) linked crows to the two environmental factors. The relationship between food and water showed a significant relationship (p < 0.05) with water being scarcer in the environment. Water is the environmental factor that bridges the gap between crows and man. The biochemical parameters reveal that the crows are apparently unhealthy and could ...

Bibek Aryal, Naresh Pandey and Laxman Khanal*

...tral lowland Nepal. Bird surveys were conducted during the winter and post-monsoon seasons of 2020 along eight transects each of 2 km length by positioning the point count stations at every 200 m interval. The associations of bird richness and abundance with NDVI as the proxy of productivity and human footprint data as the proxy of human disturbance were established. A total of 3,297 birds belonging to 69 species from 33 families in 14 orders were observed. Th...
Misbah Sarwar1*, Abdul Hamid2 and Iftikhar Hussain2
...llected by questionnaire survey. A total of 110 hunters were interviewed from 10 different hunting camps and record of capturing was documented from 2012 to 2015. The results revealed that 11.8% (n=13) hunters captured the cranes by hand, 36.4% (n=40) hunters captured them by Soai, while 51.4% (n=57) hunters employed both of these methods to capture cranes. In total, 7947 cranes were captured during the study period. Age wise segregation showed that 6624 (83.4...
Hailong Dong1, Fubin Gan2, Khalid Mehmood3, Jiang-Yong Zeng4, Rao Zahid Abbas5, Mushtaq Ahmad Gondal6, Zhenyu Chang1 and Qingxia Wu1*
... this study, serological survey and associated risk factors of Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica) infection in Tibetan yaks was investigated using an ELISA assay. The results showed that the 305/849 (35.92%) studied animals were sero-positive for F. hepatica with the further distribution of 24.20% (38/157), 38.02% (92/242) and 38.89% (175/450) from Bayi, Mainling, and Gongbo’gyamda areas, respectively. The seroprevalence ...
Zahid Beg Mirza1,*, Naveed Ali Soomro2 and Farwah Shariff1
...d a pre-monsoon baseline survey in the province in the dry season in June 2019 and another survey in the vulture breeding season, in February 2020. Methodology included direct field observations and interviews of local communities. Field Guide to the Birds of Pakistan, by the senior author and other related literature, as well as the use of a high resolution camera helped in the identification of the species. During the

Samreen Khan*, Salma Javed, Tabassum Ara Khanum, Nasira Kazi

...khwa province. Extensive surveys carried out in the months of October 2019 to February 2020. Total 73 soil samples retrieved from multiple fruits, vegetables, ornamental flowers, medicinal plants and other commercially important trees from different four sites of district Lakki Marwat and subsequently assessed the presence of EPNs using last instar larva of greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. as baited host. After completion of requisite process, resultant...

Shireen S. Aboelwafa¹, Alsagher O. Ali², Rania Hamada³, Hassan Y.A.H. Mahmoud2* 

...considered as an initial survey on toxoplasmosis and neosporosis in Luxor governorate also the results of this study showed a broad distribution for both protozoa in evaluated sheep and goat flocks.

Keywords | Protozoan, Parasites, Sheep, Goats, Egypt, ELISA 

...

Kusuma Adhianto*, Satria Ibnu Lenanto, Akhmad Dakhlan, Muhamad Dima Iqbal Hamdani 

...ct. The method used is a survey method, the research sample was determined by purposive sampling. The data were analyzed using the paternal half-sib correlation method. The observed variables included weaning weight and yearling weight. The results of this study showed that the average weaning weight of female Saburai goats in Sumberejo District was 16.4±2.0 kg, and the average weight for one year was 36.9±2.5 kg. The weaning weight and yearling ...

Murat Kulekçi1, Ecevit Eyduran2, Ayaz Yusuf Altın2 and Mohammad Masood Tariq3*

...n: justify;">The present survey was conducted on beekeeping enterprises in Elazığ province of Turkey with the purpose of predicting honey yield per beehive via Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) and Bootstrap Aggregating Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (Bagging MARS) algorithms. To realize this purpose, a questionnaire form including several questions i.e. honey yield per beehive of enterprise, age of enterprise, educational level of en...
Anjum Ara1, Usman Ali1, Muhammad Furqan2*, Zulfiqar Ali2
Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad3, Khawaja Basharat Ahmed4
Riaz Aziz Minhas4, Waqar Ahmed2, Zakir Hussain2 and Mian Aman Ullah2
...ct, hand capture, visual survey, tracking, trapping methods were applied to collect data related to diversity, distribution, density and questionnaire method applied to assess threats. Analysis of data revealed that four freshwater turtle species including Indian flapshell turtle (Lissemys punctate), Indian narrow headed softshell turtle (Chitra indica) Indian softshell turtle (Nilssonia gangetica) and Crowned river turtle (Hardella thurjii) were identified an...

Shoaib Hameed1, Shakeel Ahmad1, Jaffar Ud Din2 and Muhammad Ali Nawaz3*

...their range has not been surveyed; hence information on their distribution is largely based on anecdotal information and expert judgments. The present study investigated the species’ current distribution in the Hindu Kush Range in Pakistan, gathering information on human-brown bear conflict along with other large carnivore species in the study area. Multiple survey techniques questionnaire surv...

Shumaila Nazir1, Iqbal Javed1, Muhammad Luqman2* and Azra3

Sharjeel Saif1, Asghar Ali Kamboh1*, Ghulam Mustafa Solangi2, Rehana Burriro3, Hasina Baloch1, Atta Muhammad Memon2  

Sonali Menamvar1,2,3, Kirubakaran Vinod Kumar1, Veeregowda Muniveerappa Belamaranahally2, Yella Narasimha Reddy3, Rathnamma Doddamane2, Shrikrishna Isloor2, Ramesh Poojari Thimmaiah2, Gurrappanaidu Govindaraj1, Bibek Ranjan Shome1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan1* 

... sampling with a refined survey instrument tool.

Keywords | Bovine leptospirosis, Risk factors, Microscopic Agglutination Test, PCR, Seroprevalence 

...

Hilarius Yosef Sikone1*, Budi Hartono2, Suyadi2, Bambang Ali Nugroho2 

...ich was carried out by a survey method. Determination of the sample using two methods: purposive sampling (applied to farmer respondents) and snowball sampling (to collect respondents from traders and butchers). Samples used in the study were 115 respondents consisting of 90 farmers, ten collectors, four inter-island cattle traders, six cattle butchers, and five meat retailers. The data was analyzed quantitatively, the presentation of the data was descriptive,...

Tahir Munir Butt1*, Azra2, Muhammad Luqman3, Naveed Farah4 and Muhammad Yaseen3

...d by conducting research survey. Interview schedule as well as interview guide was used as the research instruments. The data thus collected were analyzed using SPSS for interpretation. Findings revealed the most prominent reason behind wastewater irrigation was uncertainty about energy supply. In addition, majority of the respondents were aware about health associated hazards (Hepatitis, Nausea etc.) of wastewater produced vegetables. It was further concluded...

Husmaini1*, Riza Andesca Putra1, Indri Juliyarsi1, Tevina Edwin1, Linda Suhartati1, Aditya Alqamal Alianta1, Harmaini2 

... the KBC. The method was survey method and purposive sampling to determine the respondents. The observed variables were breeder profile, maintenance management, number of KBC, actual population (Na), effective population (Ne), and inbreeding rate. The total population of KBC in Nagari Batu Bajanjang, Tigo Lurah District is 1960, with an actual population of 610 chickens, an effective population of 600 chickens, and an inbreeding rate of 0.08%. The result showe...
Muhammad Tariq Khan1, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Riffat Sultana3*, Anjum Munir1 and Sajjad Ahmad4
...n Sindh if more frequent survey would be carried out.

...

Mashakgene Isaac Senoamadi, Thobela Louis, Tyasi Teedzai Chitura* 

...gh a questionnaire-based survey that was carried out by interviewing forty-seven Small ruminants farmers (both males and females) of mixed ages. The average FAMACHA© score for the goats was three while for sheep the average score was 2.62. Ninety-eight goats (60%) had a FAMACHA© score of three and above while fourteen sheep (52.4%) had a FAMACHA© score of three and above. There was a high occurrence of haemonchosis in goats compared to sheep (p&...

Santosh Kumar1*, Riffat Sultana2* and Martin Husemann3

...elatively unstudied. The survey was conducted during November 2018 to August 2019. We found 25 species of grasshoppers, crickets and tree crickets. Caelifera were more diverse than Ensifera with 16 and 9 species, respectively. This work is provided an extended list of Orthopterans registered from Cholistan desert for the first time. 

...

Huahua Fang, Daquan Zhou and Xiaoyu Dong*

...ve allometric during the survey period. This study provided basic information for fisheries management in Yellow Sea along coastal waters of Shandong province.

...

Muhammad Ali Raza1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Kamran Ashraf2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali3, Kumayl Hassan Akhtar4 and Nazia Rubab5

... environmental safety. A survey was conducted through questionnaire distribution among 1000 literate persons who could easily read English i.e. physicians, veterinarians, lawyers, livestock farmers, managers and other literate stakeholders. This survey comprised of a variety of questions related to one-health, use of antibiotics, antibiotics (ABs) residues in milk, meat and yogourt, the role of food safety, organizations, an...

Muhammad Tahir Latif1*, Muzzammil Hussain1, Ayesha Latif2, Majid Hamid Bajwa1, Iftikhar Ahmad1, Ali Zohaib1, Naeem Faisal1 and Muhammad Hamza3

...align: justify;">A field survey was conducted in rice-wheat cropping system of Gujranwala zone, Pakistan during Kharif season 2020 to estimate the economic viability and profitability analysis of mechanically transplanted rice (MTR) in comparison to conventional manual transplanting (CT). Convenience and snow-ball non probability sampling method was used due to less adoption rate of MTR with a sample size of 240. Among targeted MTR growers 72% had 6-row riding...
Bambang Yudi Ariadi1*, Rahayu Relawati1, Barbara Szymoniuk2 and Waris Ali Khan3
...2021, based on an online survey through social media. Questionnaires were filled by 95 respondents who met the requirements. Data were analyzed using the partial least square–structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) model. The results revealed that product, psychography, and demography influence the purchase of organic vegetables. Furthermore, product and demography also influence the WTP of organic vegetables. All product attributes positively correlate w...

Judith Kiptoo1*, Daniel Mutisya2, Paul Ndegwa1, Ruth Amata3, Lucy Irungu4 and Rotich Godfrey5

...ent elements. A two-year survey in 2018 and 2019 was conducted in most citrus growing regions in Kenya to assess the abundance, distribution and diversity of plant parasitic nematodes from different soil rhizosphere. Nematode population in 200cc of soil and 5g of roots were collected for PPNs extraction by using modified Baermann’s technique and identification by morphological features. The findings indicated that four major genera were abundant in diffe...

Dali Wang1,2, Yujing Zhu1,2, Wancai Xia1,2, Mei Zhao1,2,3, Chan Yang1,2 and Dayong Li1,2*

...ed monkey group. A field survey was conducted to sample the vegetation within the area of the landslide and debris flow after it had been allowed to grow for ten years. In total, 27 plant species were observed within the debris field, all classified as either shrubs or herbaceous plants. Gnaphalium hypoleucum had the highest importance value of the herbs (27.48%), while Leycesteria formosa had the highest importance value of the shrubs (17.33%). The Shannon-Wi...

Nkiru E. Ekechukwu, Felicia N. Ekeh, Chinenye M. Ohanu, Hope C. Ezinwa and Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie*

...nugu senatorial zone and surveyed for insect fauna abundance, diversity, and distribution. The sampling was carried out over a period of eight weeks, using sweep net and hand picking as the collection methods. Overall 12 species were recorded, Orba had the lowest species diversity with 7 species while Obollo-afor and Ikpa recorded 10 and 9 species respectively. Dipteran and Coleoptera were the most diverse and abundant order observed with Musca domestica (Dipt...

Tabassum Ara Khanum, Nasir Mehmood* and Shahina Fayyaz

...-align: justify;">During surveys of chikoo (Manilkara zapota L. van Royen) plantation at Saedabad, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, several soil sample analysis revealed one new and one known free-living soil nematode species, Neorhabditis andrassyii n. sp., and Poikilolaimus oxycercus which represents a new record of this species from Pakistan. Neorhabditis andrassyii n. sp. is characterized by having male (1109-1222) µm long body, spicules 32-44 µm long...

Jae-Kang Lee, Hyun-Su Hwang, Tae-Kyung Eom, Dong-Ho Lee and Shin-Jae Rhim*

...g Sherman live traps. We surveyed slope gradient and microhabitat conditions at multiple trapping points. We focused on two rodent species for statistical analysis, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and the Korean field mouse (A. peninsulae). A. agrarius preferred microhabitat with dense ground vegetation, whereas A. peninsulae preferred understory vegetation. Ground vegetation was reduced as slope gradient increased, but understory vegetation was no...

Tariq Mahmood1*, Shakeela Ismail1, Faraz Akrim2, Muhammad Farooq1, Nadeem Munawar1 and Muhammad Raza Khan1

...man-wolf conflict. Field surveys were made on monthly basis from July 2018 to December 2019 for data collection. The distribution of the species was determined by surveying the potential habitats and recording its direct and indirect field signs (such as scats, pug marks, prey remains, hairs), while diet composition was investigated by using noninvasive technique of scat analysis. Results showed grey wolf being distributed a...
Rubaijaniza Abigaba1,4*, Pharaoh C. Sianangama1, Progress H. Nyanga2, Edwell S. Mwaanga3, Wilson N.M. Mwenya1
...ss-sectional descriptive survey was employed to obtain sex-disaggregated data from 622 respondents using a semi-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, mean, and standard error of the mean as well as inferential statistics, namely, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U test, independent samples t-test, ANOVA, and the post-hoc tests were used to analyse the data. Out of 622 respondents, 66.9% were females while 33.1% were males. This study ...

Aamir Ibrahim1, Bingyao Chen1, Hassan Ali2, Imran Ali3, Yang Cao1 and Guang Yang1*

... March 1 to 9 in 2019, a survey was conducted in the area covered in a branch of approximately 70 km of the Indus River from Taunsa barrage (District Muzaffargarh, Tehsil Kott Addu) to just downstream of Ghazi Ghat near Samina (District Dera Ghazi Khan) in Punjab, Pakistan. We successfully photographed and first reported seven types of skin marks originated from their natural or social interactions and anthropogenic activities. Dead bodies of five calves were ...

Muhammad Luqman1*, Adeel Mustafa1, Sheer Abbas2, Muhammad Yaseen1, Muhammad Umer Mehomood1 and Raheel Saqib3

...estock. For this purpose survey research design was used and data was collected with the help of an interview schedule from randomly selected 200 samples from two purposively selected districts Chakwal and Rawalpindi. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Data depicts that the maximum number of respondents were belonging to the age category of above 40 years of age and 70 respondents were recorded as illiterate. There were 75%...

Kusuma Adhianto*, Chairul Rahman Arif, Dian Kurniawati, Akhmad Dakhlan 

...gency. This study used a survey method using primary and secondary data. Primary data was obtained from interview questionnaires and measuring the weaning weight of goats. Secondary data was obtained from weaning weight data in the recording. The observed variables were birth weight, weaning weight, weaning age, age of the dam at partus, type of birth, and sex. Results: The results of this study showed that the average weaning weights of male and female Sabura...
Eman M. Aboelela1, Mohamed A. Sobieh2, Eman M. Abouelhassan3, Doaa S. Farid4, Essam S. Soliman2*
...seasonal cross-sectional survey on the point prevalence (PP) of ectoparasitic infestations in dogs and cats concerning some host, agent, and environmental determinants. A cross-sectional study was designed to last for four successive seasons from September 21st, 2020 to September 20th, 2021. A total of 1393 cats and 1511 dogs were admitted and examined for parasitic infestations. PPinfestations revealed highly significant (P < 0.01) increases during fall an...

Muhammad Furqan and Zulfiqar Ali

...e assessed through field surveys, communities meeting, and data from 250 questionnaires during April 2020 and March 2021. Based on analysis of threats data, conservation management strategies are recommended. The diet analysis showed that mostly the kalij consumes plant matter as the major diet. We recovered 45 plant species in major, minor, and trace forms which consisted of seeds, leaves, flowers, fruits, rhizomes, and bulbs. Invertebrates including ants, in...

Abid Ali1*, Safia Naureen Malik3, Muhammad Akmal2, Hafeez Ullah Rafa2 and Abid Subhani3

..."text-align: justify;">A survey study was conducted in Gujranwala district to evaluate the quality of groundwater for agriculture purpose. A total of 565 groundwater samples were collected from farmers’ tube wells during random survey of four tehsils of Gujranwala district, i.e., Gujranwala, Kamoke, Wazirabad and Noshera Virkan. The water samples were analyzed in Soil and Water Testing Laboratory Gujranwala for electri...
Muhammad Jalees
... on its association. The survey-based methodology was used for the collection of data from the Telecom industry in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. 250 valid questionnaires was collected from different telecom industries. Data were analyzed using the Cronbach alpha reliability technique with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0. Regression has been conducted to test the hypothesis. The result of the study confirms a significant rela...

Onwusiribe Ndubuisi Chigozirim*, Okpokiri Chibuzo Ikechukwu, Agu-Aguiyi Fortune Nneka and Oteh Ogbonnaya Ukeh

..., interview sessions and surveys were used to obtain the required data. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that the socio-economic status of rural farmers, especially income and education are significant factors influencing their access to institutional support and adaptation to climate change. This study suggests that the government take a multi-stakeholder approach to ad...

Naheed Zahra1*, Saira Batool1, Mubbashira Nazir1, Ghulam Akbar Malik2 and Iffat Batool3

...k activities. The formal survey collected data from eighty (80) female farmers using the random sampling technique. Research was based small landholders. The study’s main findings demonstrate that agriculture, together with livestock rearing is the primary occupation of the area’s residents. Females were completely involved in all aspects of farming. According to survey findings, only 32.5% of female respondents ...

Zain-ul-Aabdin Abro1*, Naheed Baloch1, Raza Muhammad Memon2, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2 and Waseem Akbar Qazi2

Muhammad Usman1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Nasir Mehmood2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1 and Mamoona Chaudhry3

... comprehensive molecular surveys to estimate its prevalence in wider geographical areas and additional animal species as well as human population.

...

Syed Ishfaq Ali Shah1,3, Azaz Ahmad2 and Wanzhi Cai1,*

...nquespinosa. The authors surveyed different locations of Pakistan for members of Reduviinae. In this context, Acanthaspis rafiqi Shah and Cai sp. nov., is described, including descriptions of genitalia and detailed illustrations giving important diagnostic characters. Interestingly, this species has relatively similar body size and color patterns including the structure of male pygophore and parameres, however, differs from A. quinquespinosa in the structure o...

Muhammad Umar1*, Mubashar Hussain1 and David C. Lee2

...ernoon (1600-1900 hours) surveys, recording all birds seen or heard along transects to a maximum perpendicular distance of 50 m; 0.1 km2 surveyed per transect. In total, we recorded 39 bird species belonging to 20 families and eight orders. We found significant differences in seasonal abundance and species richness related to species’ residential status. Across the survey period, spe...
Muhammad Younis1, Sami Ullah1, Fathul Bari1, Muhammad Asif2, Muhammad Ilyas2, Mahvish Rauf2, Ejaz Ur Rehman3, Rubina Noor4, Muhammad Arif4 and Muhammad Ali Nawaz5*
...a period of 47 days. The survey resulted in 1052 functional trap nights obtaining 5906 photographs. Results of the study show that large carnivores like common leopard, grey wolf, Himalayan lynx are present in the National Park. Snow leopard which used to be a symbol of fame for the National Park was not detected in the current study. Among other meso-carnivores golden jackal, leopard cat and red fox were also captured at different stations while small mammals...

Sherif Abdelghany1, Hossam Mahrous Ebeid2*, Ahmed Abdelkader Aboamer2, Mohamed Ali Radwan1, Rania Agamy1 

...structured questionnaire survey was designed, and field interviews were conducted to collect data and to characterize the current situation. Representative feed staff and milk samples were collected and analyzed. Feeding practices efficiency indicators were calculated to be compared with standards. Results revealed that most farmers in the studied two districts used the concentrate to feed animals, which was formulated at home and mixed with roughage at feedin...

Neni Widaningsih1,2*, Budi Hartono2, Hari Dwi Utami2, Eni Siti Rohaeni3 

...s used in this study are survey and observation methods. Data collection carried out includes; purposive sampling and accidental sampling techniques with the main respondents, namely breeders, collecting merchants, wholesalers, retailers, and consumers. The number of respondents in this study was 135 persons. Methods of data analysis carried out include; qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis is intended to find out the characteri...

Arif Mehmood1*, Muhammad Naeem2, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Asam Riaz1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Nadra Khan3 and Waqas Raza4

Ahmad Zaman, Azhar Rafique*, Farhat Jabeen and Tayyaba Sultana
...t Chiniot, Pakistan. The surveys were performed from March, 2020 to February 2021 on weekly basis, using point count method for the collection of data. Naked eyes and binocular telescope (10x50) were used to count the birds and camera was used to photograph the birds. The study area was divided into two major landscapes types such as open field area (agricultural land, river Chenab sides, canals and cemeteries) and built up area (settlements, residentia...

Cristina Stanca Moise1*, Cornelia Chimisliu2, Mihaela Arinton3, Tom Brereton4 and George Moise1

... new baseline for future surveys and studies on Lucanus cervus.

...

Talat Farid Ahmed1*, Muhammad Azeem Afzal1, Hashim Nisar Hashmi2, Hafiz Muhammad Yousuf2, Shamim-ul-Sibtain Shah1 and Muhammad Atiqullah Khan1 

...f electrical resistivity survey (ERS) to mark out subsurface formations in terms of groundwater quality and quantity. The main focus was on identification of subsurface litho-logy and aquifer zones by resistivity method in parts of the Havelian Cantt, Abbottabad district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province and Sanjwal Cantt, Attock district, Punjab Province, Pakistan. Evaluation of the lithology of subsurface strata was carried out by electrical resistivity
Xiao Zhang1, Guoqing Shen1, Yang Wang1, Pengdan Huang1,2, Yan Shui2, Zenghong Xu2 and Huaishun Shen1, 2*
...of the P. clarkii genome survey generated from Illumina Hi-Seq PE sequencing. A total length of 1,625 Mb genomic sequences of P. clarkii were assembled based on 124 Gb raw sequencing data. Based on a Kmer analysis, the P. clarkii genome size was projected as approximately 3.6 Gb. A total of 336,275 SSRs (simple sequence repeats) identified motifs were identified. There were 167,999 the most common type di-nucleotide repeat motifs (49.94%). The second most comm...

S. Samina and Y.I. Erum†

...istan. For this purpose, surveys were conducted and 150 samples of root and soil were collected from different locations of Kurram Agency. The detail morphological and taxonomical studies revealed a total of 26 species of plant parasitic nematodes belong to 17 genera, 13 families, 15 subfamilies and 3 orders while free-living soil nematodes revealed a total of 21 genera, 17 families and 8 orders. Overall percentage of plant parasitic and free-living nematodes ...

H. M. Hassan, M. M. Tantawy*, A. M. Younes and M. O. Sayed

...>Grapevine orchards were surveyed for the prevalence of plant parasitic nematodes in Maghagha, Samallot, Minia and Abokorkas Districts of Minia Governorate. Soil and root samples were collected during fruiting seasons of grapevine in 2012 and 2013. The nematodes encountered were identified as Meloidogyne spp., Helicotylenchus spp., Longidorus spp., Pratylenchus spp., Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Hoplolaimus spp. Community analysis of these plant parasitic nem...

S. Miheret1, A. Seid2† and N. Hailu3

..."text-align: justify;">A survey was conducted to assess the incidence and distribution of Meloidogyne spp., in major tomato growing districts (Kewet and Efratana Gidim) of the North Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. Soil and root samples were collected from 30 tomato farms represents six different localities of the two districts. The results revealed that the highest incidence percentage (80%) of the Meloidogyne species from root samples were recorded from three farms of d...

Urooj Shakoor* and Syed Attaullah Shah

...ing Standard Measurement survey (2018-19), was grouped into three geo-climate zones (Northern, Central and Southern zones). Results from data analysis revealed that 46.6 percent of the sampled rural households were multidimensional poor and the derived Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), at 0.30 cutoff level, was 0.254 for the overall rural Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The decomposition of the household’s average deprivation level revealed that ‘living-st...

E. Mahdikhani-Moghadam†, J. A. A. Bub, S. B. Chery and S. Alvani

...e in Iran.
...

J. Salma, K. Nasira, M. Saima and F. Shahina†

...s. During present study, surveys were conducted at four
locations of Sindh coast viz., Kaemari, Korangi Creek, Ibrahim Haidry, Mubarak Village and two of Balochistan
coast viz., Gadani and Sonmiani beach. As a result, four new species Oncholaimus paraoxyuris n. sp.,
Metoncholaimus medispiculatum n. sp., Theristus (P) karachiense n. sp. and Theristus cylindricus n. sp. were
found. O. paraoxyuris, M. medispiculatum...

I. K.A. Ibrahim1, Z.A. Handoo2† and A. B. A. Basyony1

...rd in Egypt.
...

M. Behdani1†, F.J. Afshar2, M.R. Mirzaee1

...ris in Iran.
...

C. C. Famina1†, A. Usman2 and M. K. M. Nasser1

...na (Musa paradisiaca), a survey was conducted in the Kondotty Taluk of Malappuram
district, Kerala, India. A total of 12 genera of nematodes including six commonly occurring nematodes in the banana
rhizosphere, three new records from banana and one new unidentified genus were obtained during the survey. Two
free-living nematodes were also frequently observed in...
K. Nasira, S. Shamim and F. Shahina†
...the different sites. Two surveyed sites Karachi Canal and Al-Manzar at River Indus,
Jamshoro were close to each other for the presence of fresh water nematodes as compared to other localities
whereas, similarity for localities and nematode species ranged from 0.458 to 0.7 and 0.45 to 1.0, respectively.
Ecological indices viz., Shannon’s index, species richness, evenness and maturity index were used for monitoring
...

H. Ravindra1, N. Adivappar2, M. Sehgal3 D. M. Soumya4 and H. B. Narasimhamurthy4

K. Nasira† and S. Shamim

...onsiderably at different surveyed sites. Nematode community
analysis revealed that frequency (absolute frequency, relative frequency), density (relative density) and prominence
value were variable for nematode population within localities. Relative density of fresh water nematode species of
studied sites ranged between 0.7-10.4 % while absolute frequency and relative frequency ranged between 15-98%
and 0.86-8.8%,...

M. S. Yasir†, A. K. Sajid, N. Javed and M. Ghani

...in Pakistan.
...

Uzma Ishaque1, Nasira Kazi1, Erum Iqbal1* and Shahnaz Dawar2

...gn: justify;">During the survey of predacious nematode of Pakistan two new species and eight new records of the following species were recovered. Mylonchulus musae n. sp., collected from the rhizophoric soil of Musa paradisiaca L. in Karachi Sindh, Discolaimus tabacum n. sp., from the roots of Nicotiana tabacum L. in Manshera, KP, Discolaimus conicus Siddiqi, 2005 from the roots of Saccharum officinarum L. in Mirpurkhas, Sindh, Discolaimus laksi Khan and Laha,...

S. Ahmed†, A. Munir, S. Hameed, S. Asad, M. Fayyaz, M. Zakaria and M. Umer

...on.
...

Z.A. Handoo1,†, I.K.A. Ibrahim2, D.J. Chitwood1 and A.A. Mokbel2,3

.... rivesi.
...

I. Kepenekci

...ey have been
surveyed. A total number of 240 nematode species of plant parasitic nematodes belonging to 56 genera of
Tylenchida detected in Turkey. These nematode species found associated with 66 plants from 48 different
localities of the country.
...

F. Toumi†*,**, L. Waeyenberge*, R. Yousef***, H. Khalil****, K. Al-Assas*** and M. Moens*,**

...div>variety.
...

Najam-ul-Sehar Afshan1*, Javeria Majeed1, Abdul Rehman Niazi1, Saima Khanum2, Maria Riaz1, Muhammad Fiaz2 and Shaila Anjum

..., during phytopathogenic surveys in 2015–2020. The causal fungus was observed and identified on the basis of morpho-anatomical and molecular analyses. This is the first report of powdery mildew infection caused by Erysiphe necator var. necator from Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan.

...

Mutasim Billah1, Sardar Azhar Mehmood1, Abdul Rauf Bhatti2*, Ahmed Zia2, Shabir Ahmed1, Waqas Ahmad2, Kiran Shahjeer3, and Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi4

...weevil fauna. Collection surveys were conducted in variable habitats such as natural vegetation, cropped, fields, and urban areas and specimens were collected during active season of 2018 and 2019yielding a total of 95 specimens five species (Myllocerus delicatulus, M. undatus, Lixus augustus, Ammocleonus aschabadensis, Rhynchophorous ferrugineus) under four genera (Myllocerus, Lixus, Ammocleonus, Rhynchophorous and 3 subfamilies (Lixinae, Entiminae and Dryoph...

Hendro Prasetyo1*, Diah Karmiyati2, Roy Hendroko Setyobudi2, Ahmad Fauzi2, Trias Agung Pakarti1,3, Mardiana Sri Susanti4, Waris Ali Khan5, Leila Neimane6,7 and Maizirwan Mel8,9

...attitude and behavior. A survey was employed for quantitative data gathering and an interview was for the qualitative ones. A total of 52 respondents were of local rice farmers in Sidodadi and Banturejo villages of Ngantang district, Malang Regency, East Java, Indonesia. The result of correlation test showed good cognitive, affective, and conative aspects of the farmers despite low achievement rates in all government programs. Social stratification significant...

Muhammad Humayun Kabir* and Md. Saiful Islam

...a face-to-face interview survey. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted to cross-verify the collected data. The data were analyzed using some common descriptive statistical parameters and an independent-sample t-test. The survey indicates the majority of farmers (81.46 percent) believe private sector extension programs are less effective in boosting farmers’ farming abilities. In contrast, 59.55 % of farmer...

D. S. Srivastava, M. Sehgal†, A. Kumar, S. Verma, B. K. Dwivedi and S. P. Singh

...255, 255);">An extensive survey was carried out for the infestation of plant parasitic nematodes associated with vegetable growing fields i.e., tomato and okra. Soil and root samples were collected from 238 tomato fields represents 16 different locations (villages) where TSS-1 to TSS-238 varieties and 227 soil and root samples from the okra fields were collected (OSS-1 to  OSS-227) represents 16 different locations (16 villages) to identify the hot spots ...

Muhammad Yaseen1, Muhammad Luqman1*, Sheer Abbas2, Usman Saleem1, Abdul-Gafar Ahmed3 and Muhammad Salman Aslam1

... and strategies are also surveyed at different scale.

...

JAVERIA NEHAL1, ARIF MUHAMMAD KHAN1, AZHAR ABBAS KHAN*2, MUHAMMAD MUBIN3, HAFIZ MUHAMMAD TAHIR4 & JAVED IQBAL5

... in Sargodha region were surveyed and leaf samples showing typical symptoms of citrus canker were collected. Infected section of leaf was taken for isolation of bacteria. Lesions were cut into parts and streak bacteria by the help of inoculation loop grown in nutrient medium. Pure bacterial culture of Xanthomonas axonopodis were used for detection by standard PCR. Xanthomonas axonopodis was diagnosed by amplification of 16S rDNA. A fragment of ~1.4 kb was ampl...

Hemayet Hossain1, Md. Masud Parvej1*, Khadiza Akter Brishty3, Muhammad Ali4, Junayed Ahmed4, Asibul Hasan4, Rubel Miah4, Md. Piplu Mia4, Saad Muhammad Rafe-Ush-Shan4, Md. Nazmul Alam4 and Md. Zahidul Islam Khan2

...justify;">An exploratory survey was conducted in a top milk pocket area (Sirajganj) to investigate the clinical prevalence of Infectious and non-infectious diseases and disorders (IND) in ruminants throughout the year 2021 in Bangladesh. A total of 755 selected clinical cases were recorded, of which 450 were cattle and 305 were goats, respectively. The selected clinical cases were diagnosed through anamnesis, physical examination, clinical signs, gross patholo...

Dalia Mansour Hamed1, Mohsen Zaky El Dimerdash1, Ahmed Abdelatif Ali2, Samer Adel Abd El-Gaffar3, Mona Salim Abdallah1* 

...control such problems. A survey on 167 specimens collected from diseased and freshly dead young rabbits in some Egyptian provinces was conducted. In addition, an experiment was carried out on 15 pregnant does divided into 3 groups: (A) opened, (B) semi closed and (C) closed nursing systems. Mean body weight, and mortalities were recorded. Moreover, 18 weaned rabbits (40 day old) were challenged intraperitoneally with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (1.5&time...

Usman Ali1,2*, Basharat Ahmad1, Riaz Aziz Minhas1, Muhammad Kabir3, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Liaqat Ali Khan1 and Muhammad Bashir Khan1

...mum entropy model. Field surveys were conducted between 2015 and 2020 to collect data using direct and indirect evidence. Maximum entropy (Maxent) models revealed an average AUC of 0.84 (+0.03) designating a high accuracy. Main predictors of HSM of black bear were elevation (34%), temperature (23%) and land cover (16%). This model predicted 1703 km2 as suitable habitat for black bear in Azad Jammu and Kashmir while 5802 km2 was not suitable for the species dis...

Imran Khan1*, Shahid Amin2, Safiullah3, Shah Zeb Khan3, Abidullah3, Amjad Ali3, Saghir Imdad Hassan3 and Israr Ud Din3

Faradji Khalil1*, Slimani Noureddine2 and Senoussi Abdelhakim3

... A 02 year’s field survey and investigation (2021-2022), 50 farmers who agreed to cooperate in the research were randomly selected to engage in agriculture and animal husbandry. These farms are also located in a lower arid bioclimatic zone with cool winters. The methodological approach followed to carry out our study requires the use of appropriate observation or survey methods and the use of analysis means adapted to ...

Roy Malindo1, Anuraga Jayanegara2, Osfar Sjofjan3, Siti Chuzaemi3*

...study used an analytical survey approach. Data collection consisted of interviews and observations based on a questionnaire. The observed forage land area was 96.5 ha, including cropland of 26.5 ha and pasture of 70 ha. A total of 760 Bali cattle were observed to determine weight gain. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using general linear model (GLM) was carried out using SAS OnDemand ...

Md. Saiful Islam Siddiqui1*, Sharmin Akter2 and Mohd. Riajul Islam2 

...(ABR). A cross-sectional survey was conducted over a period of around one year among 50 broiler farms of about 25000 birds at Sylhet district in Bangladesh. Data revealed that Amoxicillin, Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Azithromycin, Cephalexin, Erythromycin, Neomycin and Colistin were found most commonly used antibiotics. Majority poultry farmer’s bear’s very poor educational status and knowledge about farm management, did not follow t...

Budi Guntoro1*, Agung Triatmojo1, Bambang Ariyadi2, Nguyen Hoang Qui1 

...se primary data from the survey. Farmers were chosen by the criteria of who are staying and raising beef cattle in Yogyakarta. The results showed that farmers had a high experience and more than 50 years old, they worked as a farmer at the farm with low income from cattle production (less than 100$). Farmers had more than 8 years of education and raised their cattle under breeding system (68.55%). Besides, most farmers had a good knowledge of Anthrax and FMD. ...

Winda Sartika1*, Budi Hartono2, Hari Dwi Utami2, Lilik Eka Radiati2 

...ches. Research using the survey method, snowball sampling in the rendang industry with raw beef, and purposive and accidental sampling on the supply chain institutions involved in rendang production. The research respondents comprised 61 respondents from the rendang industry, including suppliers of raw materials, distributors, and consumers of rendang with qualitative and quantitative descriptive data analysis. The results of the study show that the resilience...

Muhammad Usman Shafi1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1*, Tiyyabah Khan2, Waheed Anwar2, Adnan Akhter2 and Muhammad Zubair3

...ent. The purpose of this survey was to check the knowledge about pesticide uses, risks and storage among farmers in Lahore division of Punjab, Pakistan. And, to get knowledge from farmers regarding local knowledge system (LKS) and Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Most of respondents 97% (out of total 250) were male and 28% were between the ages of 26-45 years. Thirteen percent respondents had acquired education up to secondary level, and 92% respondents got k...

Ying Guan1,2, Puqing Song2, Xing Miao2, Hai Li2, Rui Wang2, Liangming Wang3, Yuan Li2* and Longshan Lin2*

...;">Based on bottom trawl survey data collected in November 2009 (autumn), February 2010 (winter), May 2010 (spring), and August 2010 (summer), the seasonal variation in the trophic structure of the fish community in Dongshan Bay and adjacent waters was investigated. A total of 114 species of fish were caught in surveys throughout the year. According to their feeding habits, the fish species in the su...

Abdullah*, Imtiaz Khan, Muhammad Ishfaq Khan, Muhammad Ibrahim and Muhammad Fawad

..."text-align: justify;">A survey was carried out to determine the major factors influencing chickpea productivity. Weeds may be one of the main causes of low productivity in Pakistan. In order to highlight the most significant and challenging weeds of the chickpea crop in the southern regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, during the Rabi season 2022. Five chickpea growing regions were selected in chickpea growing area of district Karak. The quadrate method w...

Salman Ahmad1*, Muhammad Asim1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed2, Muhammad Atiq3, Yasir Ali4, Hafiz Bashir Ahmad5, Malik Abdul Rehman6 and Naeem Akhtar7

...d (ACP), a comprehensive survey of kinnow (Citrus reticulate cv. kinnow), musambi (Citrus sinensis cv. musambi) and feutrell’s early (Citrus reticulate cv. feutrell’s early) orchards was conducted in tehsil Sargodha during 2017 and 2018. Correlation and regression analysis were used to determine the relationship of ACP with CG, and the relationship of environmental factors with ACP. Surveys were conducted to reco...

Karamat Shah1, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Zaib Ullah2*, Rashid Ali Khan1, Sajid Mahmood1, Naveed Akhtar2 and Muhammad Naeem Awan3

...ose, questionnaire based survey and interview were conducted. In the study area, 300 questionaire were distributed through which the opinion of the respondent was taken by asking 13 different questions like crop damage, livestock depredation, season and months of damage, and people attributes towards the wildlife, etc. The domestic animals killed by the wildlife in the study area were the goats and sheep, (38.98%). The rate of depredation of livestock has been...

Afifatul H.A. Adilah1, Junun Sartohadi2* and Suci Handayani1

... conducted using a field survey method equipped with soil characteristic measurements in the laboratory. The data collection process began with a study of the landscape of the research area which was divided into three zones, namely residual, erosion, and deposition. In each zone, coconut and Mahogany plants were selected with the ideal morphology for measurement of interception, throughfall, and stemflow during rain events. Soil sampling under the plant canop...

Asim Zubair1*, Anam Farid Chishtti2, Zohaib Atta Mehdie3, Aamna Arshad3, Ghulam Akbar Malik4 and Iffat Batool5

...n livestock husbandry, a survey was carried out in the area of Dera Ghazi Khan. A well-structured questionnaire was utilized to collect data from female respondents during face-to-face interviews, a random selection approach was employed to choose a sample of 100 livestock farm homes from the research area. To gauge the level of women’s participation, a composite score was created, and factors influencing women’s participation in cattle farming wer...

Sagir Hussain1, Erum Iqbal2*, Nasira Kazi2, Sher Wali Khan1, Qamar Abbas1 and Abdul Razaq1

...ricultural fields during surveys of the districts Gilgit and Nager, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The analysis of samples yielded a new nematode species and two new reported species belonging to the order Tylenchida as new geographical records for Pakistan. Hemicycliophora pyri n. sp., is characterized by the broadly rounded lip region with two indistinct annuli, closely fitting sheath with 231-247 body annuli, stylet 95-100 µm long, non-raised and non-sep...

Uzma Ishaque1, Erum Iqbal1*, Shahnaz Dawar2 and Nasira Kazi1

...lign: justify;">During a survey for predatory soil nematodes of the order Mononchida, a new species of the genus Mononchus Bastian, 1865 was collected from rice (Oryza sativa L.) field in Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan, which has been described and illustrated. Mononchus oryzae n.sp., is characterized by its body, 1.508-1.528 mm long, lip region 23-24 µm wide, buccal cavity 34-36 x 16-17 µm with tooth apex located at 20-22% of stoma length and 3.9-4.2 ...

Yu Liang Cao1, Yue Guo2,3*, Hui Zhang2 and Chun Sheng Wang2

...orm before 2019. Further surveys indicated that 51% sellers were located in endemic areas of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. However, no A. cantonensis-positive snails were found among Internet-sold snails. Laboratory animal infection experiments proved that all 4 breeds of snails could transmit A. cantonensis. Internet sales of the 4 snails are of bio-safty temporarily but still present a high risk to spread angiostrongyliasis in China; moreover. Internet sales ...

Jaisy Aghniarahim Putritamara1*, MB Hariyono1, Budi Hartono1, Hery Toiba2, Hamidah Nayati Utami3, Moh. Shadiqur Rahman2, Tina Sri Purwanti1

...ta were collected from a survey with 210 business people selected using a purposive method. The first inclusion criterion is running a micro, small, or medium enterprise (MSME) in the beekeeping industry (with business sizes determined based on the number of workers, assets, and turnover as stipulated in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 20 of 2008 concerning MSMEs. The second criterion is having been in business for at least ten years. The findings sho...

Asif Sadam1*, Rahmat Ullah Khan2, Karim Gabol2*, Muhammad Awais3,4, Mohammad Ismail1, Sajid Mahmood1, Muhammad Aslam4 and Hamidullah5

...black market. The ground survey shows that waterhen is facing extreme threats from hunting and illegal trading. The government wildlife department is less equipped to tackle the hunters in the area. We outline a strategic plan for conservation of birds, other wild animals and their habitats.

...
Maria Mussarat, Amanullah Bhatti and Mehmood Elahi
... soil erosion assessment survey of Sumandar Katha catchment and adjoining areas of Harro River was carried out in order to investigate and identify the extent and types of soil erosion that are taking place and to evaluate the risk of erosion in the study area. For this purpose, initial data were collected from 1:20,000 aerial photographs followed by field visits. The survey revealed that extent of the gully erosion, rill er...

Zaib Ullah1*, Sajid Mahmood2,3, Zafar Iqbal4, Fakhar-i-Abbas5, Naveed Akhtar1 and Abdul Majid Khan6*

...;">Population estimation survey of Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus G. (Baron) Cuvier, 1823) was conducted in Kaghan and Siran Valleys of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan. The different surveys (questionnaire, sighting, and sign survey) were conducted in all sites of the forests from June to November 2018. Thirteen different types of signs were observed during the field
Misbah Ammanat1, Abdul Qadir1, Zulfiqar Ali2*, Rida Ahmad2,3, Usman Ahmad1, Irfan Zainab2 and Aliza Batool2,3
...tion in the south. Field surveys at 678 observation points were conducted from November 2017 to October 2018. A total of 38,939 birds were sighted, representing 215 different species. Tarbela Reservoir and the future Dasu dam site had the greatest abundance and diversity of avifauna. The number of individuals observed per survey peaked in November, at the height of fall migration; the secondary peak of back migration in Marc...

Olabode, H.O.K1, Mailafia, S1, Martha Echioda-Ogbole1*, Ameh, J.A1, Amadi, K.I1 and Meseko C.A

Muhammad Fiaz Qamar1*, Tahir Hussain1, Iram Liaqat2, Madiha Kiran1 and Abdur Rahman Ansari1

Wen Xiong1*, Shengao Chen2, Dong Xie3, Qiang Wang4, Yanxia Li5, Lei Pan6, Xiaolei Ren7*, Wei Tang8*, Kang Chen9 and Ross N. Cuthbert10

...nformation and empirical surveys to comprehensively discern the fish community of the Qiantang River. There are 184 (167 native and 17 non-native) freshwater fish species or subspecies, belonging to 15 orders, 38 families and 105 genera in the Qiantang River, including species listed as among the ‘100 world’s worst invasive species. Therein, 24 species are endemic to China and 14 species are classed as endangered by the IUCN. We identify and discus...
KHALID JAVED IQBAL1, ARSHAD JAVID2, NOOR KHAN3, IRFAN BABOO4, AHMED ALI5, KASHAF
MOHSIN6, AZRA ANWER7, USMAN ATIQUE8, MUHAMMAD ALTAF9, DILAWAR HUSSAIN10 & ASMA
CHAUDHRY11
...umer‘s
survey data, analysis techniques were carried out to achieve attitude
measurement for a set of scales. Significant percentage effects were
found with age, profession and education of fish consumers. Percentage
of those fish consumers found to be higher which were with age of <25
(43%), master passed (40%), students (49%). Quality, quantity and
effectiveness of fish consumpt...
IRAM MUJAHID IQBAL1*, ASAD SHABBIR1, 2, KANZA SHABBIR1, MAHAM NAVEED1, FAREIHA UROOJ1,
AQSA BUTT1, RAEES KHAN3, NIDHAN SINGH4 & FIRDAUS-E-BAREEN1
...mpuses through extensive surveys during 2014-15. A total
of 220 woody plant species belonging to 157 genera of 55 plant families
were being reported. The major plant families in terms of species
contribution were Fabaceae (34), Moraceae (19), Myrtaceae (14),
Rutaceae (12) and Euphorbiaceae (11). The PU botanical garden
represents 87% of the total tree collection of both the campuses. The
t...

Salam N. Aritonang*, Elly Roza, Rizqan, Winda Habsani 

... methods used census and survey methods with purposive sampling techniques for determining the research location. We observed variables such as body weight, chest circumference, body length, and shoulder height. Data analysis was carried out descriptively based on arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variance. The result showed that the body weights of male and female buffalo crosses at <6, 7−12, 13−18, and 19−24 months ...

Muhammad Ashfaq ur Rahman1*, Saleem Khan1, Aurang Zeb1, Zia ud Din1 and Zafar Iqbal3 

...Baghdada, Pakistan, were surveyed to determine their body weight before and after receiving dietary counseling. A total of 150 patients were enlisted for this prospective analytic case-control (case-cohort) double-blind, randomized feeding experiment, with each group receiving 15 participants on average. Nutritional counseling sessions were provided to patients in the nutrition therapy groups in order to urge them to follow one of nine pre-tailored diets desig...

Baoxuan Nong1,2, Biqiu Wu3, Anlong Xu2, Wenai He2 and Yongfu Qiu2*

...n varieties of rice were surveyed for insect resistance by assessing growth rates via seedbox screening, feeding activity via measurements of honeydew excretion, and insect development by counting the number of hatched nymphs. Two resistance varieties N22 and OB677 were crossed with susceptible line 9311 to develop mapping populations, which were applied to map the resistance genes/QTLs. In the results, rice variety PTB33 showed high resistance to both brown p...

Rokhani Rokhani1, Amam Amam2*, Mochammad Wildan Jadmiko2, Dhimas Yusantoro2

...ata were collected using surveys (interviews and questionnaires), observation, and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The respondents were 36 beneficiary farmers of the One Thousand Cattle Village Program. The data were analyzed using simple linear regression. The results showed that the farmer empowerment positively and significantly affected the economic dimension with the equation Y = 27.712 + 0.305X and the social and cultural dimension with the equation Y = 13...

Tevina Edwin, Arfa’i*, Olivio Dickresna

...te in the study. We used survey methodology. Data were collected using questionnaires and interviews. respondents in this study were 97 breeders. The cattle kept were generally Peranakan simental (F1-F4), Pesisir cattle, Bali cattle, and Peranakan Ongole cattle. The feed provided was forage and concentrate with a rate of 10% of the cow’s body weight. Cattle were intensively reared in a semi-permanent housing system. Disease prevention has been done well,...

Yunxia Guo1, Xia Zhou1*, Xin Huang2 and Fagang Zhong2

... bacterial isolates. The survey results showed that bronchitis and bronchopneumonia were commonly occurring respiratory diseases in cattle. The highest incidence of bacterial organism Staphylococcus aureus (83.6%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (80.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (77.0%) were recorded in the respiratory tract samples. Pasteurella multocida, Bacillus obstructivus and Mycoplasma alkalescens exhibited 100% resistance against penicillin, whil...

Muhammad Luqman1*, Muhammad Talha Shoaib1, Muhammad Yaseen1, Umair Safdar2 and Hassan Raza2

...godha. A cross sectional survey method using convenient sampling was adopted for this research and data was collected from 300 respondents with the help of structured interview schedule. The results revealed that all the respondents (100%) considered ‘enhance farm production’, ‘control of insect/pest’ and ‘weed eradication’ as major factors for application of pesticides. Moreover, results also indicated that 66% of responden...

Kanda Yanuar Muhamad1,3, Trioso Purnawarman2, Chaerul Basri2* 

...tted by these animals. A survey was conducted involving 113 employees working in reptile import and sales businesses all around Indonesia, utilizing the snowball sampling method. Data was collected through structured questionnaires administered during interviews. According to the research, most employees (63%) working in reptile import and sales industries have excellent knowledge about zoonoses-assosiated with imported reptiles, while about one-third (34%) ha...

Siswanto Imam Santoso*, Agus Setiadi, Maulina Syafa’ati Ningrum 

...cy. This research uses a survey method. The sampling method in this study was total sampling or census with a total of 6 farmers. The sample was divided into two levels: strata I 1-30,000 broilers and strata II > 30,000 broilers chicken. The data analysis method used was descriptive statistical analysis. Data were analyzed using the formula for production costs, total revenue, and profitability, BEP, payback period (PP), and R/C ratio. The statistical analy...

Farhana Umer1, Muhammad Sheryar2 and Sangam Khalil3*

...s. This paper presents a survey conducted in Multan city, Pakistan. In this survey, all 132kV high voltage grids and their 11kV outgoing feeders are observed and their locations are also marked on Google map. This survey includes current construction type of power lines and poles, principles for bird safety, photographic records, public views about deadly poles and Ultraviolet vision in Bi...
Riffat Sultana1*, Mohan Lal1, Samiullah Soomro1, Santosh Kumar2 and Ahmed Ali Samejo1
...esert of Sindh have been surveyed and 1383 specimens of band-winged grasshoppers were collected. These samples were sorted out into 07 genera and 11 species. Morphological and morphometry account of each species with illustration ecology and global distribution was given. Taxonomic keys have been generated at generic and species level.

...
Annum Razzaq1*, Zia Ullah2, Arooj Naseer1 and Abdul Nasir Khalid1
...>Lactarius. During a survey for the collection of macrofungi from forests of sub-himalayas, Bhurban, Punjab, Pakistan, a unique fungus Asterophora lycoperdoides found growing on a decaying Russula species. Previously, no species of Asterophora has been described so far from Pakistan. Descriptions and illustrations are made using morpho-anatomical details. Moreover, molecular techniques have been used to amplify its ITS region of nrDNA ...

M. Azalou1,3*, C. C. Kpomasse1, A. S. Assani3,4, I. T. Alkoiret3,4, Wéré Pitala1,2  

... through a retrospective survey from 102 farms in four agro-ecological zones (AEZ) of northern Benin: the far northern zone of Benin (FNZB), the cotton zone of northern Benin (CZNB), the food-producing zone of southern Borgou (FZSB), and the West Atacora zone (WAZ). Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and ascending hierarchical clustering (AHC) identified three groups of goose farmers. Group 1 was composed of primary and secondary level goose farmers whose ...

Khalid Alhudaib

...t. In spring 2009, field surveys were carried out in an area of stone fruit production (Al Juof- North of Saudi Arabia) to record virus incidence of stone fruit trees. Apricots and peaches were observed showing chlorotic rings, necrotic spots, and a shot-hole appearance. A total of 166 leaf samples (65 Apricots and 101 Peach) were collected and transferred to the Lab. to be analyzed for the causal virus. Double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent ass...

Madboulyl , H. M.; Tamami , S.M.; Abd Elmoneml , A.S.; Husseinl , A.S. and Arafa2, A.M.

...bp products. Serological survey for APV antibodies in serum and egg yolk samples collected from non-vaccinated flocks (608 serum samples were obtained from broiler chickens from El-Fayoum, Beni suef and Giza, 40 turkey poults serum samples from Al Behira and El Monofia, 278 chicken egg yolk samples from El-Monofia, Dommiat, Alexandria and Al Behira and 675 turkey egg yolk samples from El-Fayoum and Beni suef Governorates) were tested by using ELISA. The percen...
Mazharul A. M. 1, Md. S. Sarwar ,M. Nurullah 2, Keshab K. Adhikary I and M. Rahmatullah 1 
 
...ses. Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out amongst three ethnic groups (Garo, Khasia and Santal) and five districts of Bangladesh to identify medicinal plants used for the treatment of the above diseases. It was observed that six plants Nyctanthes arbortristis, Swertia chirata, Vitex negundo, Andrographis paniculata, Clerodendrum viscosum and Tinospora cordifolia were used for treatment of viral fevers. Stemona tuberosa was used in case of measles. Mori...

Arafa, A.; Kanawaty, Z.; Abdclwhab. E. M.; Hassan, M.K.; and Aly M.M.

...ors, this prompted us to survey avian influenza in Egyptian wetlands, especially El-Abassa Lake and neighboring areas. Eleven villages around the lake were included in the surveillance. Serological examination using Avian Influenza type (A) antibody ELISA revealed 4/73 positive samples of chicken sera, while HI test against AI-H7 revealed negative results for all examined species. Molecular examination of swab samples by RRT-PCR revealed negative results for A...

Abou zead, A.A., Ali, A.A.H.*and Abd El Hkeem M.M.

... were recorded. Serosurvey of 80 serum samples revealed 5 (6.25%) positive for the presence of IBDV precipitating antibodies. 3 out 12 pooled bursae (25%) were positive to the presence of IBDV precipitinogen. Trials for virus isolation on the CAM of chicken embryos revealed the isolation of 3 IBD viruses from diseased quails. Isolated IBDV viruses '.vere examined by electron microscopy. The disease was reproduced in quails to record the course, the clinic...

Sabry Y. M. Mahmoud; Maher H. Hosseny and Mamdouh H. Abdel-Ghaffar

* Amal Abou El-Ela, A.

...m rose shrubs during the survey of rose plantations in Orman Garden, showing Ilarvirus-like symptoms. To identify the causal virus, the plants were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antibodies against different Ilarviruses i.e., Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Prunus necrotic ring virus (PNRSV), Rose mosaic virus (RNIV) and Tobacco streak virus (TSV) Preliminary results revealed the presence of PNRSV in tested rose shrubs. The isolated virus was bio...

S.Y.M. Mahmoud1 and M. Hashem2

...et. In this study. field survey was carried out in sugar beet growing areas belonging to Kafr-ElSheikh, El-Beheira, El-Dakahlia, El-Gharbia. and Minia Governorates. The results of this survey revealed the presence of characteristic symptoms of rhizomania syndrome. i.e., stunted, and constricted roots which developed proliferation of rootlets. The foliar symptoms appeared as yellowing rounded patches in the field, including g...

A. A. Kheder1; I. A. M. Ibrahim2; H. M. Mazyadl

...Reaction (RT-PCR). Field survey was carried out in commercial peach orchards during 2001-2003 in four different locations using DAS-ELISA. The average percentages of infection in three seasons were 17.5% and 3.1% in El-Dakahlia and El-Behira respectively. Naturally PRMV-infected trees develop chlorotic spots, rosetting, mosaic, chlorotic mottling, leaf deformation and shortening or the internodes (rosette appearance). The virus causes chlorotic local lesions o...

Sukhpreet Kaur Sidhu1*, Gurkirat Singh Sekhon1, Sachin Kumar1, Tejdeep Kaur Kler1 and Anureet Kaur Chandi2

... ponds were selected and surveyed during April 2020 to March 2021 in village Mukrabpur, district Rupnagar (pond I), village Gopalpur, district Ludhiana (pond II) and in Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) campus (pond III), district Ludhiana. Out of 67 bird species recorded 44, 47 and 46 were observed at pond I, pond II and pond III respectively. Seventeen species of purely insectivorous and 19 species of partially insectivorous bird species were recorded. In...

Faisal Alsaaq

...e areas. A comprehensive survey was conducted at 30 different stations, encompassing coastal and offshore locations. A total of 117 fish species belonging to 31 families were identified during the survey, with an overall abundance of 20,810 individuals observed. The fish assemblages in the area exhibited a balanced representation by all functional groups across different trophic levels, indicating a healthy state. Of particu...
Muhammad Saleem1, Saifullah Khan2* and Mahmood ul Hasan3
 
... the questionnaire-based survey as a means of data collection for the employees of the metro bus project Pakistan. The results show that out of six major delay factors, two have found a significant association with the metro bus project delay and four elements as insignificant. The factors that have found with a significant association are material and external issues, whereas, the client, contractor, consultant, and labor-related factors have been found as in...

Joseph Oyiguh Abraham1, Cornelius Arome Omatola1*, Martin-Luther Oseni Okolo1, Ruth Foluke Aminu1, Emmanuel Edegbo1, Olubunmi Marvelous Emurotu1, Danjuma Muhammed2, Jesse Joseph Chock3, Helen Ojomachenwu Ocean4 and Yahaya Ocholi5

Muhammad Tahir Latif1*, Muzzammil Hussain1, Ali Zohaib2 and Ishtiaq Hassan3

...ling procedure for field survey as well as six field experiments were conducted in Gujranwala zone, Pakistan to evaluate four sowing techniques, i.e., CT, happy seeder, ridge sowing and SS with Randomized Complete Block Design. As compared to CT the SS has been estimated as resource conservation technique regarding sowing time (62.50%), irrigation time (7.69%), seed cost (14%), fertilizer cost (10.81%), and fuel cost (58.33%) with the constrained requirement o...

Ruth Dameria Haloho1*, Jisril Palayukan1, Agus Setiadi2, Edy Rianto2, Nadlirotun Luthfi3

...vince. This study used a survey method. The locations were selected by purposive random sampling for the highest population of buffalo. One hundred buffalo farmers were taken as respondents by a multistage random sampling method. The data were obtained by observation and direct interviews the farmers. The data was analysed descriptively and quantitatively. The study showed that there are two kinds of buffalo in West Sulawesi, the first one is the expensive buf...

Abdul Haseeb1, Yasir Iftikhar1, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan1*, Safdar Ali2, Rana Binyamin3, Salman Ghuffar4 and Muhammad Usman Ghani5,6

...ion of other microbes. A survey was carried out for the assessment of nematode population distribution in all 7 Tehsils of district Sargodha (Pakistan) viz: Sargodha, Silanwali, Sahiwal, Shahpur, Bhalwal, Kot Momin and Bhera. Population densities of nematode were assessed in different genera of citrus crop i.e. kinnow, sweet orange, feutral’s early, grape fruit and sweet lime, both in healthy and declining orchards. Whitehead and Hemming tray method was ...

Eluzia A. Barus*, Khansa N. Salsabilah, Achmad Firman, Linda Herlina

... was conducted using the survey method at Camara Farm, Cigendel Village, Pamulihan District, Sumedang Regency, in October 2023. Data collection consisted of primary and secondary data obtained using the interview method. Based on the research results, Camara Farm’s average total production cost per period for a year was Rp. 2,342,573,664. The average revenue per production period was Rp. 2,429,151,070, so the average revenue obtained per production perio...

Rogia SA Gomez*, Said H Mbaga 

...study is to classify the surveyed farmers in the coastal region of Tanzania based on their rearing characteristics. It also aims to evaluate their productivity by establishing an operating account for one broiler per group of identified farmers. Additionally, the study seeks to identify the factors that may influence the productivity of broiler farms. To this end, 78 broiler farmers were selected using a non-probability snowball sampling method. Information wa...

Ediset1*, Jaswandi2, Fuad Madarisa1, Amrizal Anas1, Rizqan2

...iness. This study uses a survey method and a secondary data analysis approach. The population is 100 buffalo breeders who have adopted the AI. innovation. In comparison, the number of samples determined by the Proportional Sampling technique is 50 breeders from 5 sub-districts in Padang Pariaman Regency. Data analysis was carried out in a quantitative descriptive manner, namely the adoption rate of A.I. was measured by the percentage of adoption, and the succe...

NUSRAT MAJEED* & ABIDA BUTT

...tudies in Pakistan. This survey was conducted from June 2013 to May 2017, to collect jumping spiders from twelve different localities of Pakistan. Specimens (2556) were collected which belong to twenty-eight species and twenty-one genera. This study added twenty-three first records of species from ten genera. The female of Phintella indica is in this study for the first time.

...

*ARIFA ZEREEN1, ALMAS JAHAN1,SHEIKH SAEED AHMAD2 & ZAHEER-UD-DIN KHAN3

...or the phytosociological survey Braun-Blanquet’s methodology was employed. In order to classify the vegetation data, ordination research tactics i.e., Two Way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) were used. Vegetation data obtained from forty quadrats was compiled. Thirty eight plant species belonging to twenty one families were recorded. TWINSPAN bifurcated the flora of entire study zone into two main communi...

LAILA SHAHZAD*1, MUHAMMAD UMER HAYYAT1, NIDA SAJID1, FAIZA SHARIF1, ASMA MANSOOR1, MANAL SHAH1 & NABEEHA LODHI1

...hold questionnaire based survey was used to determine awareness and resilience of the community. Another methodology named Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) was used to determine the factors that contribute to infrastructure vulnerability to natural disasters. Factors assessed through this methodology are vertical and plan irregularity, soft storey, soft hazards, multiple storeys and building codes. Questionnaire results show that 70% people are educated and 90% ar...

Inayat ul Islam1, Rooh Ullah1, Ahmed Zia2, Abdul Rauf Bhatti2*, Maryum Ilyas2, Sohail Hayat1 and Khabab Hayat1

...lected for insect faunal surveys due to multiple factors like lack of education, awareness, social barriers and uncertain ground conditions being representing Pak-Afghan border territories in many of its valleys and villages. Such areas have a strong potential to come-up with important scientific records. Current study revealed four families, eleven genera and seventeen species and added new geographic range to Odonata fauna of the country. Among recorded faun...

Firda Arlina1*, Mangku Mundana1, Linda Suhartati1, Agmelia Jasfaria2

...ature. This study used a survey method, and sampling was carried out using purposive sampling. The parameters observed were qualitative and quantitative phenotypes. The data obtained were analyzed by descriptive statistical analysis. The results showed that the qualitative variety of the Randah Batu Kokok Balenggek chicken reared by the Kokok Balenggek chicken Farmers in Solok Regency, West Sumatra, based on the Biriang color of 48.33%, the yellow/white color ...

Kiran Khan1*, Ata ur Rehman2, Jai Dev Maheshwari1, Ghazala Nasim Pasha3, Tayyaba Mumtaz4 and Ruqaya Nangrejo5

...onal study observational survey was conducted on all smartphone users between the ages of 18 and 35. A total of 400 samples were randomly selected from various parts of Karachi. The data was collected between February and March utilizing Google forms as a web-based questionnaire. The questions in the study included excessive smartphone use on day to day basis that was causing referred discomfort in the upper extremities in the previous 30 days. Our findings in...

Nadia Kèmi Assana Chabi1, Gildas Codjo Tchemadon1,2*, Olaïgbé Lydie Hounkpatin3, Paul Kouété Jimmy4 and Leonard Antoine Chaffara Afouda1

... them. A semi-structured survey was conducted in March and October 2022 among 156 sweetpotato farmers in 11 townships in agro-ecological zones (AEZ) II, VI and VIII of Benin. Among the respondents, 96.3% do not recognize symptoms of sweetpotato viral diseases, although 81.4% observe these symptoms in their fields with most (76.7%), a low incidence (0 to 25%). Also, 72.3% farmers affirm that the first viral symptoms appear at the flowering stage of sweetpotato ...

Mirwaise Khan1, Rubab Maqsood1, Hamad Bin Rashid2, Shakera Sadiq Gill1, Muhammad Noman1, Rafia Akram1, Muhammad Sajid Hasni1, Haroon Rashid3 and Mamoona Chaudhry1*

...mily. An epidemiological survey was conducted in 29 villages of District Zhob, Balochistan province of Pakistan, between December 2016 and February 2017. A total of 240 blood samples from backyard chickens were collected and were tested for antibodies against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) (H9N2) by hemagglutination inhibition test according to OIE. It was found that out of 240 collected blood samples, 140 (58.3%; 95% CI: 50.43-69.60) were positive for AIV (H9N2)...

Iqra Munir*, Farrah Iftikhar, Hira Fatima, Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari and Roha Ramash

...tion was collected using surveys and personal interviews with local inhabitants, involving 30 males and 20 females across a wide range of age groups ranging from 25 to 80 years. The participants also included traditional practitioners of herbal medicines, known as ‘tabibs’ and ‘hakims. Household and market surveys were conducted in the rural areas of Mandi Bahauddin, Phalia and Malikwal for collection of so...

Asmit Subba1*, Jash Hang Limbu2 and Laxman Khanal1*

...i from Nepal using field surveys from water bodies of eastern lowland of the country. Further, it characterized the habitats of the species and proposed the dispersal route from its original description locality in Bangladesh.
...

Arif Mehmood1*, Muhammad Naeem2, Abu Bakkar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1, Muhammad Asam Riaz1, Ikram ul Haq1 and Waqas Raza1

...habitats were specified, surveys were conducted to explore specified microhabitats in Chakwal district of Pothwar region, Punjab, Pakistan. After qualitative and quantitative sorting, checklist of mosquitoes along with diversity indices and quantitative habitat web were prepared, which point out the hotspots of different mosquito species. In this study, a total of 580 specimens, comprising twelve mosquito species belonging to five genera were collected, which ...

Hilarius Yosef Sikone1*, Gomera Bouk2, Edelnia Kristina Bere2, Yohana Kamlasi2, Elisabeth Yulia Nugraha1

...and quantitative data, a survey was conducted by 180 breeders from 18 respondent groups. Respondents must meet two requirements: have raised Bali cattle for at least five years and own at least three cows. A basic random sampling technique was employed to identify the sample, which involved selecting sample members randomly from among farmer respondents in six sub-districts without considering strata. The findings demonstrated that Balinese cattle raised in hi...
Muhammad Usman1, Ghulam Murtaza2, Allah Ditta3, Tamana Bakht3 Muhammad Asif4,
Muhammad Nadir1and Sehar Nawaz5
...tions. In this regard, a survey study was
conducted to investigate the distribution pattern of weed species in wheat crop during 2016-
18 in district Khanewal, Punjab Pakistan. Thirty-six weed species distributed among fifteen
different families were collected from the study area. Family Poaceae was the predominant
with 10 species, while family Asteraceae was the second most dominant family with four
...

Gulwaiz Akhter1* and Tabreiz Ahmad Khan

...8.10%
of the surveyed fields were infested with broomrapes. The highest disease incidence and
frequency of occurrence of O. aegyptiaca were recorded in brinjal followed by O. cernua and
O. ramosa. Thus, it is concluded that the brinjal crop cultivated in Banda district is under
threat to varying degrees by Orobanche spp. infestation and there is great potential for the
parasites to disseminate and inf...

Farrukh Hussain1, Sajid Aziz1, Gul Hassan2, Khalid Aziz1 and Sapna Raisham1

... is need for extensively surveys and ecological analysis from more localities in the valley to get further information about the weed flora, their distribution, population size and possible losses due to these weeds. It is an established cash crop in the entire valley that can be respected for improving the socio-economic uplift of the area.

...

Syed Awais Hussain Shah1*and Rizwan Ali2 2

...ashmir-Pakistan, we have surveyed various areas of Kotli and gathered information from the habitants by personal interviews, discussion and also by questionnaires. Plant specimens were also collected from the fields of different selected areas in different seasons of the year. Their medicinal uses and taxonomically confirmed with the help of available literature. The duration of this research work was one year, from December 2019 to January 2020. During the re...

Syeda Fakehha Naqvi1, Iqra Haider Khan1 and Arshad Javaid1

...s. A thorough literature survey showed that most of the identified compounds possessed antifungal and/or antibacterial properties while very few of them also possessed antioxidant potential. This study concludes that n-hexane soluble fraction of methanolic stem extract of C. murale is a big storehouse of antimicrobial compounds.

...

Haroon Khan1*, M. Mubassir Khan1, Bakhitar Gul1, M. Fawad1 and Imtiaz Khan1

...plant community, a field survey was carried out from July - September 2017 at New Developmental Farm (NDF), Malakandher, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar (UAP). Data were recorded from three sites i.e. field crop area, non-field, and orchards with a quadrate randomly thrown 50 times at different locations. A total of 39 weeds species from 16 families (14 dicots and 2 monocots) and 36 genera were identified. The major monocot family Poaceae contributed 1...

*Arshad Javaid1, Syeda Fakehha Naqvi1 and Iqra Haider Khan1

...tane (1.29%). Literature survey showed that 10 of the
identified compounds exhibited various biological activities including antifungal,
antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer and antipsoriatic. However, this study concludes that
most of the compounds were antimicrobial in nature.
...

*Malik F. H. Ferdosi1, Iqra Haider Khan2, Arshad Javaid2 and Muhammad F. A. Fardosi3

...ster (3.16%). Literature survey showed that these compounds possess anti-inflamatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant and/or anticancer activities.

...

*Malik F. H. Ferdosi1, Arshad Javaid2, Iqra Haider Khan2, Muhammad F. A. Fardosi3 and Ayesha Munir4,5

...are of 1.99%. Literature survey showed that majority of the identified compounds possessed various biological properties such as aphid repellant, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial and/or anti-inflammatory.

...

Abdullah1, Syed Mukarram Shah2, Adnan Ali Shah1, Murad Muhammad1, Muhammad Abdussalam1, Khushnood Ur Rehman3 and Haroon Khan4*

...t-align: justify;">Field surveys were carried out to assess the phytodiversity, phenology, leaf size, leaf shape and life form of weed flora of village Sufaid Sung, Peshawar from March 2018 to June 2020. Overall, 95 plant species associated with 31 families have been recorded. Among them Poaceae (22 species), Asteraceae (10 species) followed by Amaranthaceae and Papilionaceae (6 species each), Brassicaceae and Polygonaceae (5 species each), Euphorbiaceae and S...

Amir Afzal1*, Sairah Syed1, Hafiz Husnain Nawaz2, Ruqeah Mustafa1, Marjan Aziz1, Madeeha Khan1, Azra Khan3, Uzma Javed1, Attiq Ur Rehman4, Rubab Altaf 5 and Qamar Shakil6

...roduction. Pathogenicity surveys, which involve testing Pst samples against differential host plants, and molecular techniques such as PCR and DNA sequencing are discussed as effective tools for tracking Pst populations, identifying new introductions and monitoring their evolution over time. A combination of traditional and molecular techniques has generated valuable data for understanding populations virulence of Pst.

...
Khan Bahadar Marwat , Zahid Hussain, Bakhtiar Gul, Muhammad Saeed , Siraj-ud-Din
Zahid Hussain, Khan Bahadar Marwat, Muhammad Saeed, Bakhtiar Gul , Muhammad Riaz Khalil

Thuong Thi Nguyen1*, Thoa Thi Kim Nguyen1,2, Thuan Khanh Nguyen3, Meera C. Heller4

...7 small dairy farms were surveyed over 12 months in 2022. The average number of dairy cows per smallholder farm was approximately 9 cows with 11.52 ± 4.56 kg/cow/day. Milk yield was measured for the total number of dairy cows per smallholder, and 10 milk quality parameters included somatic cell count (SCC) and others (total solid, fat, solid-non-fat, crude protein, pH, free fatty acids, lactose, temperature, true protein), and examined by Foss–Mil...

Migie Handayani1*, Dwidjono Hadi Darwanto2, Jamhari Jamhari2

...ia. The study employed a survey method. The study purposely selected three sub-districts in the Purworejo District as the study sites. A quota sampling method was applied to select 90 respondents in each sub-district, resulting in 270 respondents. Data and information in the study were measured on an annual basis. Data were analyzed using a combination of quantitative descriptive and inferential analyses with a multiple regression model. The results show that,...

Syed Basit Rasheed*, Farrah Zaidi, Samiullah and Tehmina Jan

...s also collected in this survey. Sergentomyia baghdadis and S. babu were the most abundant species and sand fly active season extended from March to November with a unimodal distribution and population reaching its peak during the month of August. A supplementary collection from Charun area of Chitral revealed 12 species of Phlebotomus and four species of Sergentomyia. Among the total 31 species collected from both areas, six species of Phlebotomus (P. angustu...
Mubashar Hussain1,2*, Hifza Liaqat1, Muhammad Faheem Malik1
Kiran Aftab1, Moazama Batool3, Razia Iqbal1 and Somia Liaqat1
... handpicking. A one-year survey of pollinator fauna was recorded from selected locales of DVNP from October 2019 to September 2020. We observed the same species richness in all three study sites, but a great difference was observed in species abundance. A total of 5565 individuals of 58 species belonging to 23 families and four orders were collected from DVNP. Barmala was reported as the highest abundant site (2815 individuals), followed by the Vatala (1832 in...

Arshama Sheraz1, Shabir Ahmed1*, Sardar Azhar Mehmood1, Wali Khan2, Waheed Ali Panhwar3, Fiza Sadiq Awan1

... to August 2020, a field survey was undertaken in District Abbottabad. Total dissolve solvent (TDS), Dissolve solvent (DO), Electrical Conductivity (EC), PH, Humidity, and Temperature (C) of several water bodies were also measured. A total of 100 specimens from the District were collected and stored in a 10% formalin solution. This study discovered that five species of anurans, i.e. Duttaphrynus stomaticus, Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis,...
Manahil Wahab1 and Anwar Ali2
...s of the study, a social survey was conducted in the area and information was collected through a semi structured questionnaires. Fifty respondents were interviewed in selected sample villages using multi-stage random sampling techniques. The sampling intensity was 0.1%. The results revealed that all farmers have planted trees on their farmlands. Poplar is the main species, followed by Eucalyptus, Bakain, Ailanthus and Kikar. Though farm forestry is practiced ...
Ehtisham1, Rizwan ur Rehman1, Raja Wajahat1, Tabarak Ashraf1, Shabir Ahmad Jan1, Arz Muhammad1 and Ahmad Zamir2*
...chieve these study goals surveys were conducted in various parts of Galiyat during June to September 2022. Data was collected both for population of monkeys by visual encounter method and interaction with tourists while interview responses were obtained by developing questionnaires. On the basis of encounter rates and population estimates, nine major interacting sites were identified in Galiyat region, viz. Nathia Gali, Morti, Khoza Gali, Kala Bagh, Charian, C...
Syed Farooq Shah1, Nowsherwan Zarif1*, Zahid Rauf1, Anwar Ali1, Ghayyas Ahmed1, Basheer Ahmed1, Salman Ahmad1 and Saifullah1
... in Pakistan underwent a survey of farm households to study the factors that affect the potential of agroforestry and the challenges that farmers confront in implementing it. The opportunity to achieve these objectives exists because of Pakistan's traditional agroforestry land management method. The ownership of any timber resource can be established by planting trees on privately owned farms, and well-managed systems have a tremendous deal of potential to bot...
Ghayyas Ahmad1, Arifullah Awan2 and Muhammad Imran3
...nducted through a social survey of the local population. Factors involved in the practice of lopping such as the purpose of lopping, awareness about the legal status of the practice and its impact on the tree health, tools used in lopping, species preferred and the role of gender were investigated. It was found that the practice was quite prevailing in the area. Main purpose of lopping was to meet the domestic need for fuel wood. Local people were largely unaw...
Basheer Ahmad1, Anwar Ali1, Salman Ahmad1, Nowsherwan Zarif1* and Saif Ullah Khan1
.... In accordance with the survey, 38% of people do not engage in self-cultivation, 48% of people are tenants who work on other lands under a share cropping system, and 7% of people have their own land but have also purchased land from owners....
Muhammad Rayyan1, Basheer Ahmad1, Anwar Ali1, Nowsherwan Zarif1*, Saif Ullah1 Khan and Salman Ahmad1
...m of fuel wood. From the survey it is also revealed that 45% of farmers are directly benefited from fuel wood from farmland, while 32.5% of farmers relied for fire wood on their land as well as from market. Overall, the findings indicated that factors related to socio-economic status, such as family size, land possession, subsidies received, livestock raising, types of energy used, and total income, significantly impacted the planting of trees on agricultural ...
Khush Bakht Arooj1, Muhammad Salman2 and Naveed Ahmed3
...istrict Bannu. A general survey was also conducted to know about the bee flora for pollen and nectar sources plants in district Bannu. The purposive random sampling method was used. During this study it was found that majority of the respondents belong to age class 21-35 (52%) followed by age class 36-50 (32%) and the least number of respondents belong to age class 51-65 (16%). It was concluded that average production in the study area is 5-7 kg/10 hives and m...
Maaha Malik1, Muzakir Shah2, Muhammad Naqash2, Mamoona Wali Muhammad2, Safdar Ali Shah2, Bushra Khan1, Sayyed Masoom Shah2, Zahid Mahmood2, Syed Talha Kamil2, Kamal Anwar2 and Faisal Khalid2
...ate change. The research survey was conducted based on hundred questionnaire including 25 questions ranging from demographic background of the participants to their level of awareness regarding climate change and the suggestions for measures to mitigate and adapt the effects of climate change. The study results showed that the only 24% participants know about concept of Climate Change. The term climate change is understood differently by different people and t...
Ahmed Zamir, Muhammad Waqas Khan and Saeed Anwar Wazir
Zahid Rauf, Tanvir Ahmad Qureshi, Ghayyas Ahmad and Wahiba Iqbal
...ased industries.

...
Bilal Ahmad1, Maqsood Anwar2 and Muhammad Sadiq Khan3
...nd through questionnaire survey. Secondary data was collected from literature. Dabber Tangy (Chrhat), Obukhwarh, Topdara areas sampling points were selected for data collection. Many flocks were observed during the study in which the average numbers in each flock was 10-12. Majority of the respondents 22 (55%) replied that Chukar is present in abundance at Topdara, 28 (70%) replied that its population is decreasing due to habitat destruction and 20 (60%) repli...
Inam Ullah, Zahid Ahmad, Syed Hasnain Abbas and Kaleem Shah
...ransect walks and market surveys were used to get the required results. The results revealed that Mazri Palm is growing on about 24000 hectares area on communal lands of Kohat, Hangu and Karak districts and the average annual production is 39376 mounds (40 kg per mound), while production in Paniala D. I. Khan for the year 2003 was estimated to be 12000 mounds. The main Mazri Palm growing tract in Kohat is being denuded. While on other hand the Mazri Palm'...
Fazal Baqi Kakakhel
...pped using GIS and field surveys. The species was observed in three of the available six habitat types including woody ravines, shrub land and agricultural fields. Chi-square tests showed the species displayed significant habitat selection in relation to the availability. The species showed highly significant habitat selection for woody ravines, preferred northerly aspects and foraged in the morning and evening. The findings conformed generally to other studie...
Fazal Baqi Kakakhel
...pped using GIS and field surveys. The species was distributed in three of the available six habitat types: woody ravines, shrub land and agricultural fields. Chi-square tests was used and the species showed highly significant preference for woody ravines, preferred northerly aspects and foraged in the morning and evening. The findings conformed generally to other studies on the species....
Fazal Baqi Kakakhel
...pped using GIS and field surveys. The species occurred in five out of six available habitat types; agricultural fields, shrub lands, mountain slopes, grass lands and barren rocks. Chi-square tests showed the species displayed significant habitat selection in relation to the availability. The species showed highly significant habitat and preferred mountain slopes highly significantly. The species preferred northerly aspects and foraged in the morning and evenin...
Muhammad Shabir Mughal and Abid Hussain
...conducted through social survey to determine the benefits and constraints of raising Hurrie plantation in the three Union Councils; Seri, Hatri and Masoo Bhurgri of Hyderabad district. Among 24 respondents 21% farmers have 1-5 acres of Hurrie plantation, 13% have 6-10 acres, 29% have 10-16 acres and 37% have more than 16 acres. The results show that 58.3% farmers raised hurrie by themselves and 41.7% grow through tenants. The cost for raising hurrie varied fro...
Bazmir Khan1, Mazhar Iqbal2 and Anwar Ali3
...vince of Pakistan. Point survey method was employed and observers were placed with binoculars during the evening and morning in autumn, 2010 and spring, 2011. The study resulted in 4,710 number of Demoiselle and 1,250 numbers of Eurasian Cranes in autumn, 2010 and 35,688 Demoiselle and 2,652 Eurasian Cranes in spring, 2011. It is suggested that regular seasonal monitoring surveys will be helpful to assess the trends in the ...
Muhammad Shabir Mughal and Muhammad Muslim
...pid appraisal vegetation survey was conducted in Bhimber district of Azad Jammu & Kashmir with the objectives to explore plant wealth and examine the status of biodiversity. The plain area falls under dry subtropical broad leaved thorn forests and hilly area under dry subtropical Chir pine forests. Bhimber district is very rich in biodiversity, enchanting valley present panoramic views to the visitors and is important from Archaeological point of view. During ...
Muhammad Shabir Mughal and Muhammad Muslim
...pid appraisal vegetation survey was conducted in the Mirpur and Kotli districts of Azad Jammu & Kashmir with the objectives to explore plant wealth, Identification of floristic composition, current status of indigenes tree species, medicinal, aromatic and economic plants growing in the area and evaluation of future prospects of endemic tree species including medicinal and economic plants that need in-situ conservation of sustainable utilization having market p...
Rahim Muhammad Akmal Syed1, Hasnain Shahida2, Mamoona Wali Muhammad3 and Jabeen Farkhanda4
...ive ecotypes. During the survey of farm plantations, about 400 soil samples were collected and their physical and chemical analysis was conducted for the comparison of the four agro ecological zones of the Punjab Province of Pakistan with regards to agroforestry. A comparison of the characteristics of soils taken from various farm plantations necessitated a prior evaluation of their a prior evaluation of their particle size, pH, organic matter and other solubl...
Mian Muhammad Shafiq and Hussain Bux Bhaagat
...nd Nara canal. A general survey of the area was conducted in the month of January 2006 and direct (field observation) and indirect (meeting with communities and wildlife staff) observation methods were used.

These lakes support a good population of waterfowls, Marsh crocodiles, otters and fish stock. About 1% of global population of globally threatened duck specie i.e. Marbled teal (Marmaronetta angustisvostris) breed in these lakes in May-Ju...

M. Nafees and Zahid Ullah
...estation activities. For survey Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques including transit walk and semi-structured interview were used. Mountains are communal property that can be acquired as personal property by converting it in to agriculture land. The study area was reforested in 2000-2002 with the help of forest department and harvesting was banned for five years after consultation with the local people. On termination of the ban, a household locate...
Muhammad Shabir Mughal, Asif Raza Wazir and Ch. Muhammad Muslim
...sity. ...
Amjad Ali Ch., Javaid Ahsan, Tariq Mehmood, Shahzad Fazal, Punjab Forestry Research Institute, Faisalabad and Nowsherwan Zarif
... research. ...
Malik Mahboob ur Rehman1, Muhammad Rafiq2, Amjad Ali Ch.3, Tariq Mahmood4, Javaid Ahsan5 and Shahzad Fazal6
Muhammad Afzal, Amjad Ali Ch., Javaid Ahsan, Shahzad Fazal and Saima Tabassum
Mian Muhammad Shafiq and Muhammad Idrees
...peregrinus) etc. The survey of migratory falcons was conducted in D.I.Khan, Mardan, Swabi and Nowshera districts of NWFP. It has been observed that Bala Aba Shaheed, Oubha, Kheshki Maira, Aman Garh, Marathi Maira, Naranji Maira, etc are the hot spots of hunting/trapping of migratory falcons in NWFP.

During the survey it has been observed that Khudhu, Paidam, Trangri, Dogazza and Patti methods are used for the live...

Abdul Hameed Khan1, Bashir Ahmed Wani2, Hakim Shah3 and Basar Ali4
...lt up....
Mohammad Athar and Syed Mahmood Nasir
...ult's of the trapping survey were analyzed to determine host range of olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) in California. Since its first appearance in California in 1998, the olive fruit fly has spread from Los Angeles to 37 counties, including all of the state's commercial olive growing areas. Olive fruit fly was trapped from 19 tree species belonging to nine genera distributed in seven families of angiosperms. Olives (Family Oleaceae) were the pr...
Amjad Ali Chaudhry, Chaudhry Muhammad Muslim and Muhammad Mushtaque
... block year after year....
Bashir Ahmed Wani1, Shakeel Haider Zaidi2, Hakim Shah3 and Muhammad Muslim4
... Lahore in Pakistan were surveyed to find out sources of supply, quantum of trade and total turn-over of herbal drugs per annum. Results indicated that sizable quantities of thirty herbal drug species were traded in these markets and used by a number of leading manufacturing units of Greco-Arabic, Homeopathic medicines as well as allied food processing and cosmetic industries.

Keywords: Marketing potential, Herbal drugs, Medicinal plants.

...
Muhamamd Arif Chaudhary and Ejaz Ahmed
...y out an intensive field survey; study the biology, physiology and ecology of the suspected fungi and Rhizobial nodulation pattern.

...
Klaus Euler and Zulfiqar Ali Qazi
...do so. Based on a recent survey, the local people loose a staggering amount of 42 million rupees each year because of the livestock casualties caused by various diseases. In 2003, about 10% of the livestock was vaccinated. This came to a net saving of about 4.2 million rupees. While comparing it to the net income of Rs.730,000 - that the people of the Valley receive as revenue from timber-they are well off by a respectable margin of Rs.3.470 million rupees. If...
Abdul Hameed Khan, Bashir Ahmed Wani and Hakim Shah
...nd land sliding....
M. Saqib, Mushtaq Ahmad, Mir Ajab Khan and R. M. Zarif
...ck was studied by sample survey of randomly selected villages. Data from sample households were collected with the help of structured and pretested questionnaire. In all 90 respondents were randomly selected and interviewed. Analysis revealed that fuelwood was the major source of household energy in the area. About 83% of the household use fuelwood as well as other cheaper fuels. Only 17% were found using efficient commercial fuels (LPG, Kerosine etc.) to meet...
Bashir Ahmad Wani, Shakeel Haider Zaidi, Muhammad Shabir Mughal and Hakim Shah
...d allied industries. The survey brought forth some important facts and figures about floristic composition, status of medicinal and economic plants. At present exploitation of this renewable natural resource is not carried out on scientific lines and thus this resource is not fully utilized. Suggestions have been made for better utilization and the strategy to be adopted to improve marketing channels and their impact on socio-economic conditions of the local c...
Mian Muhammad Shafiq and Umeed Khalid
... to confirm this general survey of Agricultural fields around Pakistan Forest Institute, Agriculture University, Peshawar and village Serdheri (Charsadda) was conducted in the month of April-May 1998. 1x1 m3 quadrate sample was taken after every 10 m length and 2 m inside the plots with plots without trees, plot having trees on one side, trees in the whole field and trees in whole field with barbed wire/fence. The damage was observed in the plots wi...
Muhammad Ibrar Shinwari, Maryum Ibrar Shinwari and Mir Ajab Khan
...ational park. The market survey was aimed to know the market value of medicinal species, rate of consumption, availability and vulnerability to harvesting. Questionnaires were adopted for interviews of local inhabitants, herbalists, pansaries, park authorities and societies on random bases. Only 26 species have been found as marketable medicinal plants collected by the inhabitants, drug dealers and herbalists for their socioeconomic value. Among the species so...
Abdul Qayyum Khan, Bashir Ahmad Wani, Hakim Shah and S. Irfanullah
...consumption....
Hanif Gul and Mirza Hakim Khan
...die-back of blue pine, a survey was conducted in the affected localities. The results of this survey revealed that the twigs and bark of dead and dying trees were infested by the bark borer beetles i.e. Ips longifolia and Scolytus major belonging to the family Scolytidae, order Coleoptera. The main reason for the spread of these insect pests is due to stress caused by extremely dry conditions duri...