Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

... showing its nation-wide distribution. In Brazil, BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and ‘HoBi’-like viruses are frequently reported whereas BVDV-2 has a higher frequency when compared with other continents. It is important to reinforce that currently Brazil has no official control program for BVDV. The significance of cattle production losses or the potential implementations of commercial barrier by other countries can possibly reason the placement of governmental ve...

Chun-Yi Lin1, Meng-Ling Wu2, Tang-Long Shen1, Hsin-Hung Yeh3, Ting-Hsuan Hung1*

 

... common in field. Uneven distributions of both viroids also occurred in different tissues of citrus. Two multiplex molecular detection methods provide the understanding of the genetic diversities among viroid isolates and quantify viroids in citrus host. Our field survey can help clarify citrus-viroid relationships and develop proper prevention strategies in the near future.

 

...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...icola. Collectively, the distribution patterns and emergence of BT can be predicted by the abundance of the Culicoides species in a specified locality so that control measures
can be implemented well in time to contain the disease spread.

...

Ashley C. Banyard1* and Satya Parida2

...ated an expansion of the distribution of the disease. Having been in the shadow of rinderpest virus for decades little is understood regarding factors that influence the outcome of infection with both viral and host genetics being thought to influence the outcome of disease. Following the successful global eradication of rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus has also been targeted for global eradication by the OIE. Whilst the tools are...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...se severity patterns and distribution might be due to the effectiveness of vaccine, timely vaccination, circulation of a single lineage virus and most importantly effective planning and implementation of the vaccination programme. Sharing the experiences on the PPR control strategies adopted by some of the states in India may motivate other Indian states or other countries of similar socio-economic and small ruminant rearing pattern to vaccinate and control PP...

Murad Ali Khan and Mohammad Akmal 

...rception and assimilates distribution within the plant parts to yield the best healthy grains.   

...

 Mukhtiar Ahmed, Jana Pickova, Taufiq Ahmad, Muhammad Liaquat, Abid Farid, Muhammad Jahangir

... manufacturing, storage, distribution and final preparation of foods. Lipid oxidation products are omnipresent in foods, although much variation exists in their kind and levels present. Although levels of these compounds are generally low, the problem of lipid oxidation severely compromises the quality of some food products and limits the shelf-life of others. Oxidative changes can cause rancidity such as off flavours, loss of colour, altered nutrient value, a...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

...ender-based family labor distribution during past 30 years shows that herding labor (male and female) of age 14 to 60 significantly (P<0.01) reduced during past 30 years and partly shifted to cropping. The male herding labour reduced 40.2% in semi-nomadic pastoralists and 8% in nomadic pastoralists. Similarly the female herding labour reduced 54.3% in semi-nomadic and 32.2 in nomadic pastoralists. This reduction is highly observed in herding labour of semi-...

Zuhao Huang1, Feiyun Tu2 and Dianhua Ke1*

...opidae with a very large distribution. The complete mitochondrial genome of Blue-throated Bee-eater M. viridis was determined. The mitogenome is a circular DNA molecule of 18,295 bp and comprises of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and two control regions CR and CCR, which was first reported in the order Coraciiformes. The overall A+T content for the mitogenome is 52%, and the GC and AT skews are -0.400 and 0.108. Unlike to many ot...

Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar*

...spider with cosmopolitan distribution but has not been much studied in Pakistan. Two new species, Oxyopes chenabensis new species, and Oxyopes bidentata new species are being reported from Punjab.

...

Haji Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal* and Saira Saleemi

...fish diversity and their distribution pattern. A total 2249 fish specimen were collected using a variety of fish nets and identifications of these fishes were made by using standard taxanomic keys on the basis of morphometric characters. Seventy species belonging to 43 genera and 17 families were recorded from the study area of Indus River. Thirty two species were commercially important. Alpha Diversity Indices study showed that fish diversity of the River was...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...based information on the distribution of the infection and transmission determinants for urban Leptospirosis in developing countries. This study aims to source dynamic ecological and epidemiological field parameters to describe a slum household-based pathogenic Leptospira population dynamics simulation model. The model will be analyzed to assess the role of slum-based biotic (human and animal) and abiotic (soil, water and weather) habitats in Leptospira propag...

Pan-pan Guo1, Wei Liu2, Yan Li2, Rui-yu Ma2, Wang Zaigui1*, Kai Zhan2*, Jun-ying Li2 and Sheng-nan Liu2 

... AC) and their frequency distributions were estimated using the phase program. Haplotypes combinations constructed on these two SNPs of HTT gene were associated with some reproduction traits. In particular, diplotype H1H1 had positive effect on reproduction traits, diplotype H2H4 had negative effect of reproduction traits. In conclusion, our study showed that polymorphisms of the HTT gene were significantly associated with egg production traits in two Anhui lo...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

...ther vertebrates. Tissue distribution of C. nasus SS1 mRNA was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which demonstrated high expression level in the brain. During embryogenesis, SS1 mRNA was detected during early-stage embryonic development, decreased during subsequent developmental stages then increased gradually from the stage of midgastrula onward. This study provides some basic evidence that SS1 may play a role in growth, development and m...

Süleyman Kök1*, Sertaç Atalay1, Hasan Semih Eken2 and Mustafa Savaşçi3

... respectively, while the distributions of the marker genotypes, except for CAPN1 4751 were found to be significant (P<0.05). The positive alleles of SNPs in Calpain and Calpastatin genes and all of their genotype combinations, were also found to be carried by TGC.

...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...le was estimated and the distribution of FMD according to different factors was evaluated. Both retrospective and prospective FMD clinical cases were included considering clinical signs and drugs used for treatment during 13 January to 15 March 2015. A total of 131 cattle was investigated and 16.8% cattle cattle were recorded as FMD. The proportionate prevalence of FMD in different study areas were 4.5-18.2%. The occurrence of FMD was higher in February (23.3%...

Abdul Aziz Khan1,*, Waseem Ahmad Khan2, Waseem Ahmad Khan3 and Najam-ul-Huda Khan4

...ent study indicated that distribution of Mus booduga was abundant in thorn-scrub habitat around five lakes in the Salt Range.

...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

...eld. Though the rate and distribution of rainfall during the cropping season were the main contributing factors in the varied performance across years, however, the grain yield of synthetic derived wheat lines across different environments was not significantly disturbed within each year and hence, are suitable for areas of prolonged drought. Some lines of synthetic derived wheat especially those carrying blood from T. tauschii germplasm were equivalent in per...
Önder Duysak*andKübra Azdural
... season and stations.The distribution of heavy metals in P. caerulea followed in their muscular tissues in order; Çevlik > Kaleköy> Payas > Arsuz > Dörtyol > Konacık > Yumurtalık > İskenderun for spring and Kaleköy > Payas > İskenderun > Arsuz > Dörtyol > Yumurtalık > Konacık > Çevlik for autumn.It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals at ...
Syed Fazal Baqi Kakakhel*, Asad Ullah and Abdur Rashid
...ut on the population and distribution of ‘Near Threatened’ Markhor sub species Flare-horned Markhor (Capra falconeri falconeri Wagner 1839) in District Swat covering an area of 5337 km² in 2013. The population survey was conducted in two phases i.e. December 21-24 in Kalam and December 26-29 in Mankial valleys. Vintage point count surveys revealed that the Markhor preferred habitats in Kalam and Mankial valleys in District Swat. ...
Md. Yeamin Hossain1,*, Md. Alomgir Hossen1, Md. Nasir Uddin Pramanik1, Fairuz Nawer1, Md. Mosaddequr Rahman2, Suraiya Sharmin1, Dalia Khatun1, A. H. Bahkali3, Abdallah M. Elgorban3 and Khairun Yahya4
... ratio, length-frequency distributions (LFDs), length-weight relationships (LWRs), length-length relationships (LLRs), condition factors (allometric, KA; Fulton’s, KF; relative, KR), relative weight (WR), form factor (a3.0), size at first sexual maturity (Lm) and natural mortality (MW) in the Ganges River, northwestern (NW) Bangladesh. S...
Muhammad Luqman Sohail1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor2, Omer Naseer1 and Muhammad Usman Saleem3
...tes, monocytes, red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were increased significantly (P < 0.05) which indicated hemolytic anemia. While, serum biochemistry showed significant elevation in alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine which indicate renal and liver damage. Concentration of Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Cu and zinc in serum were significantly ...
Faiz Muhammad,1, 2,*, Zhang Zhi-Feng,1, Shao Ming-Yu1 and Muhammad Shafi3
... β- strands. Tissue distribution of the LvCypA after real time analysis revealed that expression is in order of muscle, gill, lymphoid organ and hepatopancrease. 
...
K.N. ArulJothi1, M. Abinaya1, B. Suruthi Abirami1, Melvin George2, S. Elangovan3 and A. Devi1*
...rophoresis. The genotype distribution in the population was found to be consistent with Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Through logistic regression analysis, it was observed that, in Tamil population the CC and CT genotype carriers have higher odds of developing myocardial infarction (OR – 1.64 and  2.04 respectively) and for developing hypercholesterolemia (OR – 2.02 and 2.13 respectively). In the total population, the CC genotype carriers have s...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
...r ALV-A with the further distribution of 2.91% (95% CI 1.0-6.7), 3.70% (95% CI 1.5-7.5), 2.48% (95% CI 0.5-7.1), 3.13% (95% CI 0.6-8.9) and 1.30% (95% CI 0.2-4.6) in Anhui province of Huaibei, Suzhou, Bozhou, Bengbu and Fuyang, respectively. The present survey showed that free-ranging chickens of Anhui province have been exposed to lymphoid leukosis virus subgroup A, indicating a high risk factor for poultry industry.
...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...had a more circumscribed distribution. Resistance to Methicillin, Penicillin, Erythromycin and Oxacillin was 100% for all the serotypes while Gentamicin had the lowest resistance (5.9%).This is one of few studies on the occurrence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Salmonella in poultry slaughter slab (processing plants) in Nigeria. The relatively high prevalence rate documented in this study may be attributed to the generally poor infrastructure, lack of...

Sadiq Ali* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...ne, 2013-14 to study the distribution of Parthenium weed. Five villages were selected and thirty locations were randomly selected from each village. The data revealed that the flora is predominated by parthenium weed with the highest relative density of 63.4% among all weeds, followed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Cannabis sativa L. and Chenopodium album L. with relative density of 11.37, 10.86 and 7.31%, respectively. Moreover, at different locations, the p...
Tianzhu Chao, Huiqiang Cai, Yuxun Zhou, Kai Li* and Junhua Xiao
...e patterns of subspecies distribution, diversity and differentiation of the house mouse Mus musculus provide insights into past dispersal events in natural populations of this species. We investigated the molecular phylogenetics of Chinese house mice based on 466 DNA sequences from mitochondrial D-loop fragments. Our analyses revealed that Mus musculus musculus and M. m. castaneus are older colonized subspecies with broad

Wazha Mugabe1,2, Lawrence Akanyang1, Mackenzie Nsinamwa1, Batanani Moatswi1, Naledi Matthews1, Kealeboga Dipheko1, Imtiaz Ahmed Ujjan3 and Assar Ali Shah2*

...bited random patterns of distribution along grazing gradients in both grazing gradients. The composition for fodder trees was composed mainly of low value species of which most were encroaching species which have spread and established throughout the gradients.

...

S. Subharani, S. S. Thorat, N. Abem, L. Amit Kumar and T. K. Singh 

A database on parasitoid of insect pests of crops in Manipur, India
...characters, geographical distribution, period of activity, parasitoid behavior and its biology etc. Image of the parasitoid species are also provided for helping in easy identification of the species. Keywords: Database, insect-pest, parasitoids, Manipur
 

...

Shams Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif and Abdul Mateen 

 

Soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Pakistan
...n 2011-12. Incidence and distribution of Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV) and Tobacco rattle tobra virus (TRV) was reported on the basis of characteristic symptoms expression, bait test, infectivity assays and double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Both the viruses were prevalent in Hazara and Malakand divisions. The average symptoms based incidence in Hazara divi-sion for PMTV was 8.83% and TRV was 6.80% while in Malakand divis...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...on intensity and spatial distribution. Often it ends up in reducing the quantum of a pesticide threatened with withdrawal. We understand Appropriate PA (Appropriate Precision Agriculture, APA) as Site-Specific Appropriate Precision Agriculture (SSAPA) applied to cropping system management with geoinformatics and agriinformatics as may be available of land, soil, including its nutrient content and availability of requisite water, meteorology, agrometeorology an...
Bao-Ming Ge* Dai-Zhen Zhang, Qiu-Ning Liu, Sen-Hao Jiang, Jun Cui, Chun-Lin Zhou and Bo-Ping Tang
...he effect of dike age on distribution of pill bug (Armadillidium vulgare Latreille, 1804) in the forests was studied at a reclaimed coast in Yancheng, China. The aggregated distribution of A. vulgare population was found by Taylor’s power law and Iowa’s patchiness regression methods in each season (P< 0.001). The abundances were markedly affected by habitat type (F5,120 = 49.409, P <...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi2
...t body weights. The most distribution of gonad wet weights and total wet weights were generally less than 10 g and 80 g, respectively. The females were heavier than the males (~1.77x). The heavier females had more gonads (direct relation, r=0.45) while the lighter males had more gonads (inverse relation, r=-0.52). The males’ total dry weights were < 20 g and > 40 g but females’ were between 10 to 40 g. The total wet weight was > ~2x (femal...
Jia-xiang Wang1,2,* and Peng Li1,2
...ittle is known about its distribution in the pancreas ofthe African ostrich. In the present study, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the African ostrich pancreas were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that the pancreas is divided into twosections: the exocrine and endocrine portion.The exocrine portionis comprised of peripheral gland cells and ce...
Baohua Chen1,2, Wenzhu Peng3, Jian Xu2, Jingyan Feng1,2, Chuanju Dong1,2 and Peng Xu2,3,*
...with a wide phylogenetic distribution. They are multifunctional enzymes that play a crucial role in cellular detoxification and oxidative stress tolerance. Comparing with that in mammals, investigation of GSTs is more complicated in teleosts because of the greater pressure they suffer in aquatic environment. In this study, we identified a set of 27 GSTs including 8 classes of members in common carp genome. Both sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis exh...
Huseyin Sasi1* and Gulcin G. Ozay2
...per Akcay River. The age distribution for both females and males of S. cephalus populationwas betweenI-VII, and the second age group was found at maximum rate of 30.60%. Their fork lengths and weights ranged between 6.0-22.8 cm and 3.7-134.62 g for females; 6.1-22.1 cm and 2.7-110 g for males, respectively.The growth parameters of the von Bertalanffy equation were found as Lt=34.71 [1-e–0.116(t+0.867)] for females and Lt=32.87 [1-e...
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
... project, prevalence and distribution of soil borne Brucella species in nine districts of Punjab including Lahore, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura, Sargodha, D.G. Khan, Chakwal, Sahiwal, Gujranwala and Attock were determined. By using grid based sampling strategy, soil samples (n= 1280) were collected from villages (n=256, 5 samples/village) of the nine districts. Brucella genus specific DNA (bcsp31) was detected using Real Time PCR and prevalence...
Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Fatima Sellami3 and Muhammad Afzal1
...the species richness and distribution of coccinellid beetles in seven selected regions (Bhera, Bhalwal, Kot Momin, Sahiwal, Sargodha, Shahpur and Silanwali). A total of 1,470 coccinellid specimens were collected from all types of vegetation and were identified up to species level by means of external morphology, published descriptions and male genitalia micrometry. Nine species were identified belonging to 9 genera and 4 subfamilies occurring along with 10 tro...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

... yellow rust occurrence, distribution and impact on wheat landscape was carried out along with recent deployment status of cultivars during 2012 in northwest Pakistan located close to the center of diversity of P. striiformis f.sp. tritici. Around 1600 wheat fields were sampled covering a geographical area of little less than 5000 acres in the southern, central and northern zones located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. Yellow rust occurrence was dist...

Muhammad Amin1*, Khalid Mahmood2, Imran Bodlah3, Muhammad Rahim Khan2 

...metric data, biology and distribution of the studied species are provided herewith.  

...
Shabana1,*, Farah Ehsan1 and Shahida Hasnain1,2
...t difference in genotype distribution was observed between cases (Gly/Gly, 66.9%; Gly/Ser, 20.17%; Ser/Ser, 12.8%) and controls (Gly/Gly, 67.4%; Gly/Ser, 28.5%; Ser/Ser, 4.00%) (p = 0.013). The cases showed significantly higher frequency of the Ser allele compared to the controls (22.9% vs. 18.3%; OR: 1.32, CI: 0.95–1.83, p=0.013). The minor allele (Ser) showed a significant association with weight, BMI, fasting plasma glucose, total choles...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4

Ghani Akbar1, Steven Raine2, Allen David McHugh3, Greg Hamilton4 and Qurban Hussain5 

...uarter (AE lq) 71%, 87%, distribution uniformity of low quarter (DU lq) 70%, 80% and adequacy of low quarter (AD lq) 100 %, 90% for NB and WB, respectively. Majority (67%) of WB irrigations monitored were under irrigated while large number (50%) of NB irrigation were over irrigated. Simulation modelling showed that achievement of above 90% Potential Application Efficiency (PAE) is possible by improving operation (inflow rate and time to irrigation cut-off) ...
Carolina A. Bonin1,2, Eric A. Lewallen2,3, Andre J. van Wijnen3, Marta Jussara Cremer4 and Paulo C. Simões-Lopes5*
... in other parts of their distribution.
...
Minmin Chen1, Xiaoke Zhang1, Kexiong Wang2, Zhigang Liu1, An Wan3, Daoping Yu1,*, Hong Ji3 and Fangzhen Peng1
...cal spatial and temporal distribution dynamics can help establish better conservation strategies. In order to understand the characteristics of habitat chosen, a continuous 15 months observation on the distribution patterns of the Yangtze finless porpoise at the confluence of Yangtze and Wanhe rivers was conducted. The results showed that the distribution of the porpoise changed seasonally...
Saba Khalid*, Muhammad Saddique Awan, Riaz Aziz Minhas, Nasra Ashraf, Khawaja Basharat Ahmed, Nuzhat Shafi and Sajid Abassi
LX Ye1,2, JX Wang1,2,*, P Li1,2 and XT Zhang1,2 
...s little known about its distribution in the testes of the African ostrich. In the present study, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the testes of African ostrich were investigated using immunohistochemistry. The testes of African ostrich consisted of a capsule and parenchyma. The capsule was divided into three annular layers, and the parenchyma consisted of tub...
Quang Minh Dinh
...ased on length-frequency distribution analysis of 1,527 individuals. The male to female T. vagina ratio was not significantly different within and between seasons, and the parameters of the von Bertalanffy curve of this fish were given as L= 24.15 cm, K = 0.53 yr-1 and t0 = –0.03 yr-1. The longevity (tmax) and the growth performance (Φ’) were...
Pan Hong, Ruonan Li, Yumeng Li, Hainan Lan* and Xin Zheng*
...lization and subcellular distribution of growth hormone (GH) from humans and rats have been extensively reported. However, to date, there are no descriptions of the cell behaviour of porcine GH in domestic animals. Thus, freshly isolated porcine hepatocytes were used as a somatic cell model to study the internalization and subcellular localization of porcine growth hormone (pGH), and the results showed that pGH could be internalized into porcine hepatocytes in...
Xiaoting Zhang1,2, Jiaxiang Wang1,2,*, Peng Li1,2,* and Lixun Ye1,2
...ittle is known about its distribution in the lung of the African ostrich. To provide the morphological basis of ghrelin function in the African ostrich lung, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-ip cells were investigated using immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the lung of African ostrich was composed of interstitial tissue and parenchyma. The interstitial tissue formed a layer of seros...
Bian Xunguang1,2, Li Jiancheng1, Xu Chu1 and Yang Li2,3,4,*
...by H&E staining. The distribution of AR in the cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of AR mRNA was found in the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina of the oviduct. The expression of the AR mRNA in infundibulum was the strongest, and the vaginal expression was weak. The immunohistochemical results was consistent with the molecular expression of AR mRNA, the positive reaction in the infundibulum, ist...
Muhammad Nabeel,1,* Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...nformation regarding its distribution is lacking therefore, its incidence and prevalence was determined in seven major maize growing districts of Punjab during 2016. The maximum overall incidence of maize borer (12%) was recorded in Khanewal district followed by Multan (6%) while it was the minimum (1%) in district Okara. On the other hand, maximum prevalence of maize borer was observed in district Vehari (100%) followed by districts of Khanewal and Multan (73...

Phong Huy Pham1 and Hoa Thi Dang2

...iology, description, and distributional notes are also provided.

...
Tariq Mahmood1,*, Fakhra Fazal1, Faraz Akrim1, Hira Fatima1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...c in many areas of their distribution range in the Potohar Plateau. Morphologically, the two species differ in their body size, so there could be substantial anatomical differences between them, not yet documented. The current study compared morphological and anatomical characteristics of the two species inhabiting the Potohar Plateau. Results showed marked morphological and anatomical differences between two mongoose species studied. External morphometrical c...
Abu ul Hassan Faiz1,*, Fakhar-i-Abbas2 and Lariab Zahra Faiz2
... of soil types on rodent distribution and abundance in North Punjab. The survey was conducted from February to December, 2015 using snap traps by applying line transect technique in wild area by using over 3840 trap nights in eight type of soil (sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, sandy clay loam, loam, clay loam, silt loam, silty clay loam). A total of 1571 animals were captured belonging to species of Nesokia indica, Mus musculus, Mus budooga, Millardia meltada...

 Addishiwot Fekdu, Afework Bekele and Demeke Datiko*

...ctes macrocephalus). The distribution and abundance of species varied between exclosure and control sites, and between seasons. Livestock grazing in the area was the major problem encountered affecting the rodent population. As a result, proper conservation measures have to be implemented to solve the problems and safeguard the endemic wildlife in the Park.

...
RuiHua Zhang, YongFang Jia, TingTing Liang, QianWen Yang, QiYan Du and ZhongJie Chang*
...s in vertebrates. Tissue distribution analyses by Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that CcSoxD genes were abundant in the brain, showed sexual dimorphism, and were inconsistently expressed during embryogenesis. These results indicated that CcSoxD plays an important role in the development of the nervous system and may be involved in sexual development in carp. And they provide a foundation for further study of the function of C...
Shahid Mehmood1,*, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Hassan Raza1, Rida Ahmad1, Azhar Muhammad3, Zulfiqar Ali2, Farhan Abid1, Fehmeeda Bibi4 and Syed Maviz Ahmed5
...e recorded. Bird species distribution was: year round residents 50 (70.4%), winter migrants 12 (16.9%), summer breeders eight (8) (11.3%) and passage migrant one (1) (1.4%). More birds were observed in winter season compared to summer season. The most dominant species were house crow, Corvus splendens (n=2518), house sparrow, Passer domesticus (n=772), common myna, Acridotheres tristis (n=327), black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nyct...
Muhammad Abubakar,1,2,* Aamer Bin Zahur,1,3 Khalid Naeem1,3, Muhammad Azeem Khan1,3 and Subhan Qureshi
...ent lineage of Asia. The distribution of Pakistani strains of PPRV was more dispersed as the isolate collected from Taxilla was clustered slightly distinct compared to rest of the isolates collected from Pakistan. Our findings are indicative of PPR endemic state of the country.
...
Yanjie Guo1, Weini Wu1, Hongmei Wang2, Xiao Guo2 and Yongping Xu2,*
...etect the expression and distribution of IL-18Rα in the inferior mesenteric ganglion of the female goat. Our results showed that IL-18Rα mRNA and proteins are expressed in the IMG, which provides molecular evidence for the study of immune and neuro-modulation in the female reproductive system.
...

 Muhammad Asim, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Munir* and Muhammad Aslam**

...y;"> The uptake and distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) were studied in inoculated and uninoculated plants of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from the time of inoculation to root-nodule initiation (192 hours after inoculation). 3H-ABA was applied to the leaves of two soybean cultivars: cv. Williams-82 and its hypernodulating mutant, NODI-3. There was a significant difference in the percent uptake of 3H-ABA between the two varieties both in inoculated and...

 Nadeem Akmal, Hassnain Shah*, Muhammad Azam Niazi** and Waqar Akhtar*

..., after one year of buck distribution. Data were collected from a sample of 38 buck holders and 31 beneficiary farmers using a structured pretested questionnaire. The main influencing factor in keeping bucks was goat breed improvement. All the sample respondents were convinced of the benefits of crosses with Beetal buck and reported that the offsprings Beetal were of higher body weight (40% higher), good looking and well built. Regarding the suitability of Bee...
Naveed Akhtar,1,* Riaz Muhammad2, Kausar Saeed2, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Muzaffar Shah3, Jehan Zeb2, Shahid Ahmad2, Azam Jan Afridi4 and  Aftab Hussain5

 Muhammad Tariq*, Raja Muhammad Omer**, Muhammad Ashraf Mian*, Obaid Ur Rehman***, Amjad Tahir Virk and Kazim Abbass**

PROMOTING CERTIFIED SEED AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON YIELD IN RAINFED AREAS
...fied seed production and distribution in rainfed District Chakwal under joint venture of a study on comparison of seed source(Certified vs. Farmer's seed) contribution towards wheat yield at six sites in the District. All the agronomic practices were the same in both -2 treatments. The number of fertile tillers m were significantly higher in certified seed source than the farmer's own seed that resulted in significant increase in grain yield. Other yield contr...

 Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure-Camphor* and Mohammad Irshad**

SURVEY OF MANAGED F. (APIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) POPULATION IN GALIAT, MURREE AND ISLAMABAD
...this bee. It reveals the distribution and strength of population of in mainly hilly areas of Pakistan. The objective of this study is not only useful to upscale honey production by this hill bee but also for pollination purpose. People interviewed were of the opinion that there is still some potential for these bees. Abbottabad area was having comparatively more population of than other areas.

...

 Md. Nazirul Islam*, M. Z. Rahman**, R. Ali***, A. K. Azad**** and M. K. Sultan**

DIVERSITY ANALYSIS AND ESTABLISHMENT OF CORE SUBSETS OF HYACINTH BEAN COLLECTION OF BANGLADESH

 Muhammad Aamir Khan*, Abdul Saboor*, Rauf-i-Azam**, Abdul Qayyum Mohsin* and Fayyaz-ul-Hassan***

IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE LIBERALIZATION ON INCOME INEQUALITY IN PAKISTAN
...gation allows to analyze distributional impacts and to implement policy scenarios that target particular households. The economy wise results showed that agricultural trade liberalization increases income inequality and somewhat detrimental to the rural household types, who guage most of their income from agricultural business. Trade policy must be pursued keeping derivation and distributional narration in view. 

...

 S. Talat Gilani*, Shahid Hameed* and Hussain Shah* 

OCCURANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POTY VIRUSES INFECTING GARLIC IN PAKISTAN
...revalence, incidence and distribution of the poty viruses causing diseases in garlic (Allium sativum) from major garlic growing areas of Pakistan. The yellow stripes, mosaic and chlorotic spot symptoms of the disease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. Altogether 690 samples were collected from 29 locations of Punjab and 40 locations of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa to determine the prevalence of Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV) and Leek Ye...

 Zafar Islam*, Abdul Ghafoor Mangrio*, Muhammad Munir Ahmad*, Ghani Akber*, Sher Muhammad**, Muhammad Umair*** and Yaskina****

APPLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF IRRIGATION WATER UNDER VARIOUS SIZES OF CENTER PIVOT SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
... systems for their water distribution, uniformity and tendency to recommend changes in system maintenance or repair. The main objective of this study was to evaluate existing central pivot sprinkler irrigation systems under field conditions at different locations in the country. The study was carried out to evaluate water distribution under central pivot irrigation systems at three locations; National Agricultural Research C...
Youbao Zhong1, Xianlai Zhang1, Xiaofen Hu1 and Yong Li1, 2,*
... intestine and mast cell distribution by conventional HE and modified toluidine blue staining, respectively. Despite its similarity to the general mammal small intestine microstructure, the present results indicated that the hedgehog duodenum contained fewer Brunner’s glands, and that the Paneth cells were lacking in the crypt. The connective tissue was denser in the jejunal submucosa, but the muscularis was thicker. The intestinal glands were greatly de...
Zheng Quan Jiang1,2, Feng Shan Li3, Jiang Hong Ran1,*, Chen Hao Zhao1, Man Zhang1 and Hua Li4
...ine crane species, whose distribution is restricted to the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau and the adjacent high altitude areas of China, Bhutan, Pakistan, and India. Study on nest type and size is useful for understanding the life history, evolution and adaptation of birds. A survey was conducted on nest size and the underlying regulatory factors of Black-necked Cranes from 25 March to 31 July in 2013 and 2014 at Ruoergai Internationally Important Wetland and its sur...
Hao Zhang,1,2,3,* Hai Tao Nie,3 Tie Wei Ma,3 Zi Yu Wang3 and Feng Wang3
...neral concentrations and distributions in the main body tissues and the net requirements for maintenance and growth of F1Dorper × Hu ewe lambs. Thirty-five ewe lambs averaging 33.52±0.56 kg body weight (BW) were used. Seven ewe lambs were randomly chosen and slaughtered at 34.93 ± 0.37 kg BW as the baseline group for measuring initial body composition. Another seven lambs were also randomly chosen and offered a pelleted mixed die...
Mubashar Hussain, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Sehreen Siddique, Muhammad Umar, Tamkeen Zainab, Fatima Zafar
...ess the biodiversity and distribution of coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), sampleswere collected from rainfed and irrigated fields of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan during 2015-2016. Adult specimens were collected fortnightly from crops, weeds and shrubs from randomly selected locations i.e. Dolat Nagar, Lala Musa, Jalalpur Jatan, Guliyana, Fateh Pur and Kunjah. Analysis of specimens indicated a representation of 14 species, 6 genera and 3 sub familie...
Tariq Mukhtar,1,* Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Usman Raja1 and Humayun Javed2
... to determine the latest distribution of wheat seed gall nematode Anguina tritici (Steinbuch) in Sargodha division of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The overall incidence of ear cockle of wheat in the division was found to be 1.2% while the overall prevalence was 27%. As regards districts, the maximum incidence was recorded in district Bhakkar followed by Khushab. Similarly, the maximum prevalence was observed in district Bhakkar followed by Sargodha ...
Mei Li1, Di Zhang2 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...vival, reproduction, and distribution of herbivores. In order to test the effects of plant secondary metabolite on energy metabolism and thermogenesis, changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and energy intake were measured in Eothenomys miletus fed diets containing 0, 3.3% and 6.6% tannic acid, respectively. The results showed that E. miletus fed the diets with 6.6% tannic acid increased RMR compared with contro...
Abdul Majid Ujjal2, Sharmin Akter1* and Suman Paul1 
...o determine the temporal distribution of important infectious diseases of buffalo like as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) at Upazila veterinary hospitals of Jaintapur, Gowainghat and Kanaighat upazilas of Sylhet district. From October, 2015 to September, 2017 a total of 1057 cases of buffalo diseases were recorded in the hospital record books. Among all diseases, the overall hospital prevalence of Helminthiasis in buffalo was hig...
Ligia Neves Scuarcialupi, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra, Julia Rosas Hochheim, Rodrigo Martins Soares, Fabio Gregori*
...derstanding of rotavirus distribution in Brazil.
...
Waqas Ali1,*, Arshad Javid1, Syed Mohsin Bhukhari1, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Hira Rafique1
...ta related to diversity, distribution and habitat preferences of amphibians and reptiles in any particular ecosystem. During past few years, a decline in amphibian and reptilian species attracted attention of the conservation biologists worldwide to monitor herpetofunal diversity for effective conservation planning and management. Different sampling techniques are applied during herpetofaunal surveys and some of them might be expensive, time intensive and thei...
Archana Naithani, Pongthep Suwanwaree* and Bartosz Nadolski
... avian community and its distribution in the Suranaree University of Technology, which is an important ecosystem for the conservation of avian biodiversity. Many other areas adjacent to the campus also require attention for the inventory of avian communities. Therefore, a long-term database on exhaustive and intensive study of the North East Thailand is required.
...
Huma Ayub1,Iftikhar Ahmad2, Syed Lal Shah3,*, Muhammad Zafarullah Bhatti4, Nuzhat Shafi5 and Mazhar Qayyum1
...the seasonal and spatial distribution of zooplankton species at Chashma Lake during June 2014 to May 2015. The samples were collected from three partially separated stations of the Chashma Lake on a monthly basis. A total 42 species of zooplankton were identified from the Chashma Lake belonging to three taxa viz.; copepoda, rotifera and cladocera. The diversity of the zooplankton species in the lake was determined by richness and evenness indices, which...
Liumeng Zheng1, Yanmei Wang1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yuanzhao Qin3, Yuming Guo3, Hongxing Niu1,* and Yanzhen Bu1,*
...he factors affecting the distribution of the crested ibis. We used a maximum entropy model with seven environmental variables to evaluate habitat suitability. Our results indicate that the current reserve may be too small to meet the crested ibises’ needs in the future, and we believe that more ibises will disperse outside the reserve as the population expands. The distribution of crested ibises in the Dongzhai Reserve...

Abdur Rehman1*, Wang Jian2, Noor Khan3 and Raheel Saqib

...ndicated that the normal distribution model is not appropriate used in evaluating the major crops market risk due to various degrees of market risk in various crops such as the cotton and soybean crops with higher levels of market risk, while the coarse grain rice with the medium risk level and finally the corn and wheat with lower levels of market risk. According to the results, the crops having similar characteristics belong to the same level of market risk....
Muhammad Mohsin Ahsan1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2,*, Khizar Samiullah3
...f Pakistan. Furthermore, distributional pattern and habitat structure of known species is also ambiguous. In this study, we report the scorpion Androctonus finitimus (Pocock, 1897) from several areas of Punjab, Pakistan. This scorpion species has not been previously documented from this part of the country, highlighting the wide distribution of this specie across the country. We identified that A. finitimus pre...
Qaisar Jamal1, Muhammad Idrees1, Saif Ullah2, Muhammad Adnan1, Farrah Zaidi1, Qaiser Zaman1,3 and Syed Basit Rasheed1,*
...inatus). Altitudinal distribution of reptiles shows that maximum diversity (26 species) has been observed at an altitude range of 550-1000 meters which decreased gradually reaching to occurrence of only four species at 2500-2900 meters above sea level. District Dir lower, primarily sub-tropical, was found more diverse regarding squamate species than the mountainous, temperate Upper Dir.
...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

August

Vol. 50, Iss. 4, Pages 1199-1600

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