Tom Gilson & Carson Weitnauer (eds), True Reason: Confronting the Irrationality of the New Atheism (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2013), 315pp, US$17.99 (paperback), ISBN 978-0-8254-4338-1

Reviewed by Gregory W. Dawes, Associate Professor of Philosophy

Science, Religion and Culture
...s posed by biblical endorsements of slavery and genocide. No review could do justice to so wide a range of issues, so my aim here is simply to offer some general reflections on the strategies employed.

...

Muhammad Zubair, Sajid Mahmood Sajid

... terms of improvement of semen.

...

Asma-ul-Husna1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari2, Bushra Allah Rakha3, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah1 and Shamim Akhter1*

... quality of buffalo bull semen. For this purpose, two consecutive ejaculates were collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls using artificial vagina at weekly intervals for a period of three weeks (three replicates). Qualifying semen ejaculates were diluted (50×106 motile spermatozoa ml-1) in tris citric acid extender with melatonin at 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mM. Diluted semen
YaQiu Liu and ZhiJian Wang*
... μm) and the basement membrance (0.27±0.05 μm) between them is similar to that of the respiratory organs in other vertebrates.Intestinal tract has digestion and respiration functions. Anterior intestine performs digestion/absorption. Posterior intestine performs gas exchange/accessory respiration. In middle intestine, digestion and respiration overlap.
...
Hamayun Khan1,*, Momen Khan2, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3, Shakoor Ahmad1, Ali Gohar4, Hameed Ullah5, FarmanUllah6, Arab Hussain7, Pershotam Khatri8, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Hamid Rehman1 and Azmatullah Khan1
...n the cryopreserved bull semen. Experiments were carried out on Achai breeding bulls of similar age at the Semen Production Unit, Harichand, District Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Collection of semen was done using artificial vagina (42°C) for three weeks. Semen was extended in egg yolk extender at various inclusion levels (0.0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75 a...
Ayşe Gül Harlıoğlu*
...ns of unfertilized eggs, semen, fertilized eggs, eyed embryo, yolk-sac larvae and absorbed yolk-sac larvae were investigated in rainbow trout(O. mykiss). The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found the highest followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the unfertilized eggs. On the other hand, PUFA was the highest followed by SFA and MUFA in the semen. The proportions of th...
Mushtaq Ahmad1,*, Mehboob Ahmed1,2 and Nasim Ahmad1
...g standard protocol. The semen straws were thawed at 37oC and stained using different protocols as followed: Protocol 1 (washing effect); washing either with normal saline (NS) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Protocol II (heating effect during incubation in tampon solution); smears were immersed in tampon either at room temperature or at 60oC, Protocol III (concentration of dye in staining solution); slides were stained with 1, 5, 200...
Asmatullah Kaka2, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff 1, Nurhusien Yimer1,  A.M Khumran1, Akeel Ahmed Memon2, Kazhal Sarsaifi1 andMahdi Ebrahimi3
...n-thawed quality of bull semen. Twenty-four ejaculates (8 from each bull) were collected from three bulls. Semen ejaculates having motility ≥70% and normal morphology ≥80% were extended into Tris extender consist of equal concentration of each ALA and DHA (0, 3, 5, 10,15ng/ml). Extended semen was cooled at 5oC for 2 hours at 5oC and then packaged in 0.25ml straw...
Falah Baiee1,3, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff1, Ariff Omar,2 Nurhusien Yimer1, Salman Hammadi1, Tarig Ahmedeltayeb1, Asmatullah Kaka4
...erienced in bulls during semen collection by electro ejaculation method. The normal electro ejaculation method of semen collection (Method I) was compared to a modified method involving three stages of graduated electrical stimulation (Method II) in four crossbred bulls. The results showed that intensive muscle spasm, bull struggling and arc back were reduced (p ˂ 0.05), as well as the time of penile protrusion (p = 0.0...
Ibrar Muhammad Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan1,*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Tahir Usman2, Adnan Khan1, Zakir Ullah1 and Hamid Rehman1
...Friesian) to compare the semen quality. Semen samples were individually diluted with egg yolk extender and tested for individual motility, progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal and DNA integrity, seminal pH and dead sperm percentage in fresh and thawed semen. Data were subjected to one way analysis of variance. High sperm individual motility (85.12 ± 0.51%), pro...
Jarosław Pytlewski1, Ireneusz Antkowiak1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*
...from cows inseminated by semen of Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian bulls and giving birth to single calf. The following information was taken from each animal: age at first insemination, age at first calving, number of semen portions attributable to successful insemination, length of pregnancy and periods of: insemination service, postpartum resting period, interpregnancy period and intercalving period. The study also deter...

Manzoor Hussaina,b

...rate the DNA profile the semen donor in the post-coital vaginal swabs. Sixty two post coital vaginal swabs (x3) were collected from six volunteers at different TSI (time since intercourse). Out of these, 42 post coital vaginal swabs (up to TSI 5 days) were used to generate the autosomal DNA profile of the semen donor and twenty of the post coital vaginal swabs obtained at the TSI of 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 days were not tested for...
Irfan1,*, Arshad Javid7, Muhammad Ashraf2, Athar Mahmud3, Muhammad Altaf4, Syed Makhdoom Hussain5, Muhammad Shahbaz4 and Khalid Javed Iqbal6
...>Meleagris gallopavo semen were recorded and hatchability percentages of the artificially inseminated hens were assessed. To study the effect of natural mating on hatchability 15 (3♂, 12♀) M. gallopavo were randomly selected, were kept separately and were allowed to mate through stud mating. For artificial insemination, male (n = 3) and female (n = 12) birds were kept separately. Semen of the male bird...
Souheila Slimani1,*, Sonia Hamouda1, Chahrazed Souadi1, Sara Silini2, Cherif Abdennour2 and Leila Delimi3
...measured weekly, whereas semen quality, and histopathological profile were investigated at week 10.The obtained results reveal that under a long photoperiodthe sexual activity of the control lasted only 04 weeks, characterized by significant increase in the testicular volume, followed by spontaneous gonadal regressionup to week 10. Consequently, an azospermia and lack of germ cells in control birds was noticed,which confirm the testicular regression.In the tre...
Nizam Uddin Jamali1, Asmatullah Kaka1,*, Pershotam Khatri1, Moolchand Malhi2, Muhammad Naeem3, Akeel Ahmed Memon1, Rameez Raja Kaleri4, Habibullah Janyaro5 and Dildar Hussain Kalhoro
...selenium addition to the semen extender on chilled and frozen thawed quality of Kundhi buffalo bull semen. After collection ejaculate was brought in Semen Production Unit. Semen was evaluated as fresh for volume, colour, motility, morphology, live dead ratio, membrane integrity and sperm concentration, post chilling for motility, morphology, live dead ra...

M. Tariq Javed1, Nazir Ahmad2, Gulbeen Saleem3, Haleema Sadia4, Farkhanda Manzoor5 and Ghulam Hussain Dilbar

EFFECT OF AGE AND SEASON ON SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS OF BUFFALO BULL - A REVIEW
...re on various aspects of semen parameters in buffalo bull at different age and in different seasons has been published with conflicting reports. An effort is made to review the literature gathered from different sources on semen characteristics in buffalo bulls which will be helpful to researchers and allied professionals in future research or policy planning. The review is bifurcated in different sections for easy understan...
Zhongquan Zhao*, Tianyuan Yang, Lei Qiao, Qijie He and Zinuo Dai
...s does in the breed. The semen quality was high in different seasons. Dazu black goats might have shorter gestation period (147.9±1.7 days) and have longer kidding interval (237.8±4.6 days). The percentages of singletons, twins, triplets and quadruplets born were 1.98, 47.27, 40.02 and 10.29 %, respectively. The mean litter sizes (2.60±0.72) were the highest among the reported meat goat breeds in China. Dazu black goat reached the highest ...
Muamber Shah1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi1, Rifat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mobashar1, Mubashar Ali Khalique2, Irfan Khattak3, Ambrina Tariq4, Ijaz Ahmad1 and Shabana Naz5,*
...d supplementation on the semen quality of breeding bulls. A total of 8 adult (≥2 year) bulls (2 each from Jersey, Friesian, Sahiwal and cross bred) were selected with body condition score (BSC) at a scale of (0-5). The results showed that mean semen volume was significantly (P<0.05) high in Friesian bull. Sperm concentration and motility were significantly (P<0.05) high in Jersey bull while live sperm percentage was...
Xiaohui Yu, Shuai He, Liqiang Wang, Mengyang Kang, Yanjiao Zhu, Shuhui Wang and Xiuzhu Sun*
...rent antioxidants on the semen cryopreservation in Guangzhong donkey by testing indices of sperm motility, mitochondrial activity, membrane integrity and arosome integrity. The results illustrated that compared with controls, above-mentioned indices of sperm were significantly improved under concentrations of Vitamin C (400 mg/L) and Vitamin E (600 mg/L) (P < 0.05). Moreover, physiological indices of donkey semen w...
Naimat Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan2, Muhammad Mobashar3, Shahbaz Javaid4*, Tarique Tonio1 and Asif Mahmood5
...ductive performance, and semen quality of Friesian Sahiwal crossbred bulls during summer season. A total of 24 Friesian Sahiwal crossbred bulls at nearly similar age and body weight were selected and allotted erratically into 3 treatment groups, denoted as A, B and C for a period of 2 months (May and June). Each group was assigned 8 bulls. Bulls in group A were not fed with any dietary fat (control group) while bulls in group B and C were offered 100 and 200 g...
Zakirullah1, Hamayun Khan1, Ali Gohar2, Haq Amanullah1,*, Muhammad Younas1, Muhammad Tarique Tunio3, Muhammad Saleem Khan4, Ibrar Muhammad Khan1 and Noushad Khan5 
...ect post-thaw quality of semen. In the current study, we endeavored to ascertain the most favorable application of L-cysteine for cryopreservation of Achai and Holstein Friesian bull semen under the subtropical conditions of Peshawar region of Pakistan. Semen of six adult bulls, three Achai (the indigenous breed) and three Holstein Friesian (exotic breed) amount to the experimental materia...
Sameh S. Tawfik, Ahmed A. Elkady* and Ehab T. Mohamed
...;s space and thickened basement membrane, while in TSE-treated and irradiated-group, renal-tissues showed minimum-damage with or without few degenerative changes. TSE acts as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug to prevent and/ or ameliorates the hazardous-effects of γ-rays
...
Yanyan Yu1,2,3, Yizhong Hu1, Qipeng Zhang1, Rongquan Zheng1,4,*, Bing Shen1, Shenshen Kong1 and Ke Li1
...al.
...
Yun-Feng Liu, Yong-Mei Guan, Dan Chen, Jia-Le Chen, Chen Jin, Wei-Feng Zhu, Lu Wu and Li-Hua Chen*

Amit Sharma1* and Pankaj Sood2 

...tors affect affects the semen cryopreservation viz. species, breed, semen collection technique, collection season, extender composition, type of cryoprotectant used, cooling rate, equilibration time, freezing and thawing rate. All these factors should be given due credit for achieving better post-thaw post thaw quality of semen to be utilized in different advanced reproductive techniques...
Alicja Kowalczyk1, Marian Kuczaj2, Anna Szul3 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska4*
...ng the quality of frozen semen due to the use of GnRH analogue additive (buserelin acetate) for bovine semen and its low cost of use in routine semen production will allow manufacturers of insemination doses to improve the quality of their product.
...

Paul Oludare Adetunji* and Safiriyu Idowu Ola 

...from 16-22 weeks of age, semen quality parameters (semen volume, semen concentration, sperm output, sperm motility and sperm abnormalities) from 26-52 weeks of age and sexual ornaments’ morphometry (Comb Length-CL, Comb Height-CH, Wattle Length-WL, Wattle Height-WH and Inter Pubic Distance-IPD) from 16-24 weeks of age. Data on onset of puberty and semen

 Muhammad Qasim Khan1*, Syed Athar Masood1 and Shahzad Naeem Qureshi2

REFORMULATION OF PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT MODEL FOR PUBLIC SECTOR AUTOMOBILE REBUILD ORGANIZATIONS
...ite huge budgetary disbursements. On the contrary, private sector organizations achieve high productivity and output as these organizations work to maximize their profit. This paper attempts to identify reasons for low productivity and reduced output of public sector automobile rebuild organizations of Pakistan. Input in this research was sought primarily from top, middle and lower management of public sector automobile rebuilt organizations. Data from a ...
Bushra Ismail Khan1, Shamim Akhter1, Sanwal Aslam2* and Rabea Ejaz1
...f Nili-Ravi buffalo bull semen. The semen samples were collected from Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull kept at SPU Qadirabad, District Sahiwal, Pakistan. Qualifying semen ejaculates having motility >60%, volume >5-6ml and concentration >0.5 billion/ ml were diluted 50 × 106 motile sperm ml approximately at 37°C in Tris-citric acid extender suppl...
Rabea Ejaz1*, Saima Qadeer2,Muhammad Sajjad Ansari3, Bushra Allah Rakha4Shazia Shamas5, Iram Maqsood1, Asma Ul Husna6, Asima Azam1 and Shamim Akhter6
...ion of arachidic acid in semen extender. For this purpose, semen was collected from 3 adult buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) of same age by artificial vagina keeping temperature at 42°C for a period of 5 weeks (replicates; n=30). Ejaculates were mixed in tris citric acid extender having 0.0 (control), 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0 ng/mL of arachidic acid at a temperature of 37°C (>1 mL volume, >0.5 billion p...
Adnan Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2Muhammad Mobashar3, Ali Gohar4, Shakoor Ahmad1, Kamran Khan5Hamayun Khan1 and Shabana Naz6*

 

... h) effects on different semen quality parameters. Highest sperm progressive motility, sperm plasma membrane integrity were observed in T2. It reflects high damages at T3 and T1 due to cryo shock and oxidative stress respectively. Sperm DNA integrity and pH were increased linearly from T1 to T3. The dead sperm percentage was significantly (P<0.01) low in groups with semen sample treated with T2 compared to other groups. S...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

February

Vol. 53, Iss. 1, Pages 1-400

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