El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...ng not only domesticated birds but also many other avian species and mammals. Infections of humans were accompanied by mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein which improved the binding affinity to human receptors but simultaneously retained its specificity for avian-receptors. Vaccines were applied nationwide to control the disease in poultry. Meanwhile, the viruses accumulated several point mutations in the HA immunogenic epitopes resulting in antigenic ...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

...rious species, including birds and mammals. H9N2 AIVs could spread through water, air, and live bird markets. Since the first isolate from 1994 in China, H9N2 AIVs have been prevalent over 20 areas of China, especially in South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, and Fujian provinces. Vaccination is the predominant strategy to prevent and control H9N2 AIVs. There are three inactivated vaccines of H9N2 AIVs have been used in domestic poultry in China. But H9N2 A...

Ahmed Sultan Jatoi1*, Shahid Mehmood2, Jibran Hussain2, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq2, Yassar Abbas3, Muhammad Akram2

 

...ht (g) of Japanese quail birds obtained from the four strains designating as M, K, S, and Z showed non-significant differences at week 0 and 1, whereas, a significant effect was found at week 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The average weight gain (g) was found non-significant at week 1 and week 6, however, the statistical analysis revealed significant effect from week 2 to 5, respectively. Times of gain were found significant difference at week 1 to 4; however, at week 5 ...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El Naggar2, Ahmed M. Helal3, Hussein Ahmed Hussein1 and Neil LeBlanc4

...otential role these wild birds can play in the transmission and evolution dynamics of PPMV-1.

...

Zuhao Huang1, Feiyun Tu2 and Dianhua Ke1*

...08. Unlike to many other birds, no extra base is inserted at certain position relative to ND3. Interestingly, a 484bp repeated sequence appears in both CR and CCR. Genetic distance shows that the differences between M. v. viridis and M. v. americanus is higher than that M. v. viridis vs M. leschenaulti based on Cyt b gene. Morphology, geographical distribution and genetic data suggest the elevation of M. v. americanus to a fu...

Hira Akhter1, Bilal Aslam2*, Naveed Shahzad3, Tanzeela Farooq4, Muhammad Umer5 and Muhammad Hidayat Rasool2

...Serum collected from 120 birds was tested for antibodies against H9N2 by using Haemagglutination Inhibition assay. Calculated geometric mean titers of 5.37 revealed the infectivity of the flock with H9N2 Influenza virus. To investigate the presence of virus in the study population, trachea, lung and intestine tissue samples were processed for RNA isolation and subjected to molecular detection of H9 gene of H9N2 subtypes using one step Reverse Transcriptase Pol...
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
...oth in chicken and feral birds (natural reservoirs) in Pakistan; however, their molecular characterization is largely inadequate and requires continuous evaluation. In this study, sequencing and molecular analysis of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (HN) genes of NDV strain isolated from an outbreak in a peacock flock was undertaken. Proteolytic cleavage site of F0 showed a cleavage motif (112RRQKR↓F117), representative of a v...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
...ultry industry. Effected birds show lymphocyte tumor, abnormal proliferation and series of tumors in connective tissues and other visceral organs. To evaluate the status of lymphoid leukosis virussubgroup A (ALV-A) infection in free-range chickens in five different cities of Anhui province, a total of 732 serum samples were analyzed through enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) in 2015 and 2016. The diagnosis of avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV-A) inf...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...onfirmed by PCR. In life birds, only E.coli and Salmonella could be recovered from Cloacal swabs, while in freshly dead birds all four pathogens disseminated in various organs with higher incidence of mixed compared to single infection. Different serotypes of E.coli and Salmonella could be recovered from dead birds however E.coli (O78) and S.enteritidis were recovered mainly from heart and...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

...ided into six groups (20 birds in each) were coded A, B, C, D, E and F; vaccinated with various combinations of IBD through different routes. Results showed that the birds of different groups received different maternal antibodies did not induce any antibodies as recorded in all groups received vaccines at days 1, 9 or 12 exhibited similar pattern antibody profiles, however, an increase in the mean titer of antibodies was re...
Salman Khalid1,*, Abdul Rehman2, Mohammad Yasin Amir1, Abdul Rehman1, Imran Sarfaraz1 and Muhammad Asif1
...erapeutic trials, the 80 birds (n= 60 infested with ticks, n= 20 healthy birds) were selected and divided into four groups (A, B, C and D), each comprising of 20 birds. Group A and B were treated with Ivermectin @ 0.2mg/Kg orally for two days and Fipronil (Spray at once), respectively. Group C was kept as positive control whereas the ticks free birds wer...

Muhammad Asif Zahoor1, Zeeshan Nawaz1, Abu Baker Siddique1, Sajjad ur Rahman2 and Shahid Ali1*

...fections in gallinaceous birds are reported throughout the world and are caused by either Mycoplasma gallisepticum or Mycoplasma synoviae. Hence, in the present study we have detected Mycoplasma spp. from tissue samples collected from clinically sick (60 samples) and apparently healthy broiler birds (30 samples) in a commercial farm, using classical isolation and compared with molecular identification of Mycoplasma infection...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
...embrane. The two hundred birds were divided into 4 groups A, B, C and D). The birds in group A were commercial broiler chicks having maternal derived antibodies and were challenged with IBDV field isolate at the rate of 0.1ml of EID50 (virus titer 105.50/100μl) on 2nd week of age through eye drops. Group B specific antibody negative (SAN) chicks were challenged with same dose at 2nd week o...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

Furukh Faiz1,2, Muhammad Issa Khan2, Masood Sadiq2 and Haq Nawaz3

...%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%. 225 birds were reared in 5 treatments and 3 replications of each treatment having 15 birds in each replication. The chicks were being provided with the standard conditions for light, water, vaccination and experimental feed for 42 days. The body weight gain, feed intake and the feed conversion ratio was observed weekly. After 42 day of the growth, the birds were slaugh...
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
...week later in a group of birds kept on pelleted straw (FPD score = 0.34±0.07). At the end of the experiment in both groups of broilers percentage of severe FPD was high. Severe lesions were significantly (p<0.01) more frequent (80%) in broilers reared on chopped wheat straw than on pelleted straw (56%). Although the high moisture content was measured in both litter substrates and the high frequency of severe FPD was estimated in both groups of broile...
Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Rashid A. khan2, Muhammad Rafay3, Tanveer Hussain3, Tahira Ruby4,Fariha Rehman5, Sangam Khalil3 and Sohail Akhtar6
...st height and diameter), birds plumage variations, courtship behavior, eggs measurements (clutch size, eggs length, breadth and weight), incubation and hatching. The hatching of the chicks was observed to be an asynchronous one i.e., chicks did not hatch at the same time but at an interval of a day (20-25 h). Role of parents during weaning period i.e. feeding and parental care of nestlings was performed by both partners. It may be said that Cattle egret...
Furqan Sabir1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Bushra Muneer2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Sehrish Firyal1
...h of monogastric poultry birds. Current study deals with the production and characterization of recombinant thermostable phytase from Thermotoga naphthophila (PHYTN). This study was an initial step for the fulfilment of domestic industrial requirement of phytase in Pakistan.The PCR resulted in the amplification of 1.8 kb phytase gene. SDS-PAGE confirmed the size of recombinant protein as 70 kDa. The optimization studies demonstrated th...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos1,*, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Elsayeid O. Swilam1 and Mu’ath Q. Al-Ghadi3
... in broiler. A total 200 birds (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 10 treatments on day 15 after introduction of coccidiosis. The results indicated that feed intake and production efficiency factor (PEF) did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between Elancoban and natural products. However, treatment had a significant effect on BWG and FCR (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively), chicks which had received Elancoban had the highest BWG (327.9 g) and convert...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...re Reserve in 2007. Wild birds bred in semi-wilderness were reintroduced. Habitat selection and breeding ecology of crested ibis in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve has not been studied. To clarify the breeding status of the crested ibis and to provide more reference for the reintroduction of this species, the process of pairing, nest site selection, egg laying, incubation and brooding of the crested ibis in the wild was studied in Dongzhai National Nature Res...

Rabia Tahir1*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muti-u-Rehman Khan2, Farah Khan1, Hassan Bin Aslam1 and Arslan Mehboob

Lucas Pedroso Colvero1, Paulo Eduardo Brandão2*, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales2, Hanny Swam3 and Laura Yaneth Buitrago Villarreal1 

 

...ization test showed that birds vaccinated with vaccine A showed neutralizing antibodies against IBV Massachusetts, 4/91, D274 and Qx types, while titers for vaccine B were not detected, suggesting a role of the poor emulsion quality on the performance of vaccine B. These results demonstrate that effective quality control and emulsion preparation are essential benchmarks of immunization and vaccine potency. 

...
Nehafta Bibi1, Muhammad Shafiq2, Munawar Saleem Ahmad3 and Haitao Wang1,4,*
...c of social and flocking birds. In this study, we investigated Eurasian siskin (Carduelis spinus) dominant individuals for neophobia and influence of social context on foraging. In our experiments, a subject (observer) was presented with three novel and familiar food in each of three contexts: asocial, first social context (conspecifics without food) and second social context (conspecifics with food). The results showed that individuals preferred to con...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...re Reserve in 2007. Wild birds bred in semi-wilderness were reintroduced. Habitat selection and breeding ecology of crested ibis in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve has not been studied. To clarify the breeding status of the crested ibis and to provide more reference for the reintroduction of this species, the process of pairing, nest site selection, egg laying, incubation and brooding of the crested ibis in the wild was studied in Dongzhai National Nature Res...
Saswati Roy1, Rakesh Pashi2, S. Dey3 and Shantanu Jha
...l areas. Observations on birds were taken twice a week, at early morning, starting from just after the sunrise around 7a.m and till before sunset up to 5.30 pm. Data were collected by using the line transect method. Total 74 number of bird species were recorded which belonged to 18 orders. Out of 74 bird species 23 species (31.08%) were recorded as insectivorous, 16 species (21.62%) as omnivorous, 13 species (17.57%) as granivorous, 11 species (14.86%) as carn...
Tariq Mahmood*1, Syed Wasif Ahmed Shah1, Muhammad Rais1, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...reproductive behavior of birds that plays an important role during their different life stages. Nest composition and location are important factors in studying utility of plant material by avifauna. The current study investigated nesting use of tree species by avifauna at Pabbi Range Forest Kharian (32.811°N and 73.865°E), District Gujrat, from September 2013 to June 2015. Data were collected from five selected sampling sites by searching and identifyi...

Irfan1* , Arshad Javid2 , Muhammad Altaf3 , Muhammad Shahbaz3 , and Khalid Javed Iqbal4 

...ty (n = 60) experimental birds were divided in to three groups i.e., poults having age 4-8 weeks (10 and 10 ), grower...
Muhammad Iqbal Anjum*, Shahbaz Javaid and Mukhtar Ahmad Nadeem
...ibia bone samples from 5 birds per treatment were collected. Total weight gain and dry matter intake in chicks fed rations I, II and III were 1861, 1736 and 2023 gm/bird and 3242, 3284 and 3265 gm/bird, respectively. The chicks fed R-III got 16.00 and 8.00% higher weight gain compared to chicks fed R-II and R-I, respectively. Feed: gain ratio (gm/gm) was found best (P<0.05) in chicks fed R-III (1.61) and poorer in chicks on R-II (1.89). The concentration of...
Muhammad Usman Saleem1, Saima Masood1,*, Hafsa Zaneb1, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Asim Aslam3, Kamran Ashraf4, Habib-ur-Rehman5, Muti-ur-Rehman3 and Muhammad Shabir Shaheen6
...eplicates. The number of birds per group were 32 whereas the number of birds per replicate were 8.The first group was kept as control (CONT) whereas, the second (MOSG) and third (OABG) groups were given MOS (2g / kg of feed) and OAB (3g / kg of feed), respectively. The fourth group (MOS+OAB) was given combination of MOS (2g / kg of feed) and OAB (3g / kg of feed). Birds were given ad-libit...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

...sly or 3 days apart. The birds were clinically observed and swabbed daily. They were killed at 4 and 14 days after single or dual inoculations and were inspected for gross lesions. Samples of the respiratory organs (trachea, lungs, and air sacs) were taken for histological analyses. All the infected subjects showed clinical signs of varying severity. Co-infected groups showed the most obvious clinical signs, associated with significant higher mortality and res...
Shahid Mehmood1,*, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Hassan Raza1, Rida Ahmad1, Azhar Muhammad3, Zulfiqar Ali2, Farhan Abid1, Fehmeeda Bibi4 and Syed Maviz Ahmed5
...Pakistan. In total, 5456 birds belonging to 71 species, 40 families and 12 orders were recorded. Bird species distribution was: year round residents 50 (70.4%), winter migrants 12 (16.9%), summer breeders eight (8) (11.3%) and passage migrant one (1) (1.4%). More birds were observed in winter season compared to summer season. The most dominant species were house crow, Corvus splendens (n=2518), house sparrow, Passe...
Alptug Sari*, Ahmet Arpacik and Sagdan Baskaya
...rioration of habitats of birds as well as other forms of life has been considered to be the most important factor. Even though the importance of wetland ecosystems is well known, no remarkable effort for saving the Erzurum Marshes, was observed.
...

 Rubina Bano, Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Sharif and Waqar Akhtar*

... the study area was 4033 birds. The study also bifurcates the cost structure and fixed cost accounts for 7 % while variable cost accounts for 93% of total cost of production. Feed makes the major share and accounts for 49.34%. Broiler production in the study area is profitable with a profitability index of 0.24, capital turnover of 1.32 with a rate of return on fixed cost 424% and on variable cost 135%. The issues and problems in broiler farming are also narra...
Asad Sultan1, Sahal Ahmad1, Sarzamin Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Naila Chand1, Muhammad Tahir3 and Shakoor Ahmad2
...emperature. One group of birds received a basal diet only (control group), second group of birds received a diet supplemented with silymarin at the level of 10g/kg and third group of birds received a diet supplemented with ZnO at the level of 60 mg/kg in both TN and HS birds. It was found that supplementation of ZnO significantly (P<0.05) improved fee...
Irfan1,*, Arshad Javid7, Muhammad Ashraf2, Athar Mahmud3, Muhammad Altaf4, Syed Makhdoom Hussain5, Muhammad Shahbaz4 and Khalid Javed Iqbal6
...= 3) and female (n = 12) birds were kept separately. Semen of the male birds was collected on weekly basis to record morphological characteristics and to inseminate the female birds. Mean abnormal spermatozoa rate was 14.61±1.61% with most common acrosome defects 39.67±3.80 % followed by defects in mid-piece 29.61±0.24%, head defects 10.15±1.21% and tail defects...

 Javid Iqbal, Asghar Ali Mian, Tanveer Ahmad*, Shamsul Hassan** and Sohail Hassan Khan* 

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT ECONOMIC TRAITS OF FOUR IMPORTED BROILER STRAINS UNDER LOCAL CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
...dy weights gained by the birds were 2264g, 2277g, 2256g and 1942g for A, B, C and D strains, respectively at 49 days of age. The birds in treatments A, B and C gained significantly (P <0.05) more weight than the birds in treatment D. On the contrary, the birds in treatment D (4371g) consumed significantly (P <0.05) less feed than

 Farrukh Saleem*, Babar Hilal Ahmad*, Saleem Zahid* and Bilal Kabeer*

COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF INDIGENOUS NAKED NECK AND NAKED NECK CROSSBRED LAYER CHICKENS
... Pakistan. A total of 72 birds (16 weeks of age) comprising 30 females and 6 males of each breed were divided into six experimental units / replicates (10 females and 2 male / replicate). Separate breeding pen were allotted to each replicate. The birds were fed ad-libitum. The data on body weight, feed consumption, daily egg production, egg weight, egg shell thickness and mortality were recorded. Naked Neck Crossbred (NNC) l...
Zheng Quan Jiang1,2, Feng Shan Li3, Jiang Hong Ran1,*, Chen Hao Zhao1, Man Zhang1 and Hua Li4
...lution and adaptation of birds. A survey was conducted on nest size and the underlying regulatory factors of Black-necked Cranes from 25 March to 31 July in 2013 and 2014 at Ruoergai Internationally Important Wetland and its surrounding area, covering 83 nests. Four types of nests were found in the area, i.e., natural island nest, grass mound nest, dirt mound nest and floating grass nest. The nest length, nest width, nest height and nest volume among th...
Burcu Onuk1,*, Murat Kabak1, Bünyamin Sahin2 and Nazan Gezer İnce3

 

...for the fluid balance of birds. This function may be related to the structure of the nose of flying birds. For this reason, we decided to analyze the nasal structure of two different birds using volume and volume fraction approach of the stereology. In this study, 14 seagulls and 7 storks were examined and volume fractions of the nasal cavity and nasal structures were estimated. Heads of a...
Nasir Abbas1, Muhammad Suleman1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2,*, Ijaz Ali3, Mubashir Rauf1,5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman4,*
...n poultry and pheasantry birds of Northern Pakistan is underreported. In this study we report on the seroprevalence and isolation of MG from a total of 2341 poultry and 24 pheasantry birds. Overall, seropositivity of 46.56% (1090/2341) and 27.2% (6/24) against MG was observed among poultry- and pheasantry- birds, respectively. Broiler breeder and broiler showed 58.93% (264/448) and 37.23% ...
Yan Li1, Kai Zhan1,*, Junying Li1, Wei Liu1, Ruiyu Ma1, Shengnan Liu1, Tao Han2, Shaoquan Li2, Shaolin Wang2 and Yang Hu2
...5 laying hens. The other birds were reared in 3-layer complete ladder cages for AI, for which 180 hens were maintained in 60 cages with 3 hens/cage and 20 roosters in 20 cages. Laying performances, mortality, egg quality characteristics and welfare level of birds were measured during the study period.Compared with AI birds, NM birds laid the first egg si...
Zahida Parveen1, Safdar Sidra1*, Bushra Nisar Khan2
... selected and fed to the birds over duration of one week each. During the fourth week, all three diets were combined and offered to the peafowls. The feed was pre-weighed and the leftover feed was collected and weighed the next day before offering the new feed. According to previous reports at site, the peafowls were preferred to poultry feed but in present research, the diet preference was in order of maize >millet >poultryfeed. During feeding, the beha...

Osama Elshazly1, AbdelSatar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2, Ismaeil M. Reda2 and Hussein A. Hussein2*

...collected from live/dead birds, including commercial and backyard flocks, in five different locations in Egypt between the years of 2015 and 2016. All samples were screened using virus isolation, as well as antigenic and molecular detection methods. Full-length hemagglutinin (HA) sequences of six representative H5N1 isolates were analysed to study their genetic evolution followed by estimation of their evolutionary rates among different virus clusters. This an...
Muhammad Umar1, Mubashar Hussain1,*, Ghulam Murtaza1, Farid Asif Shaheen2 , Fatima Zafar1
... route for the migratory birds that is connected to West Asian and East African flying routes. The ecological concerns faced by the migratory birds in Pakistan have been reviewed extensively. The disappearing trends of migratory birds are recorded from fresh water reservoirs of Pakistan and are mainly attributed to continued loss of wintering habitat, habitat modification, fragmentation, e...
Archana Naithani, Pongthep Suwanwaree* and Bartosz Nadolski
...The threatened status of birds given in the checklist is as per IUCN Red List of ThreatenedSpecies2017.The presence of Alexandrine parakeet (Psittacula eupatria) in the study, listed under the category ‘Near Threatened’ in the IUCN Red List, is a matter of concern.The findings of the present study would provide the baseline information about the composition of the avian community and its distribution in the Suranaree University of Technology...
Nanjing Zeng1, Guanhua Liu1, Sibiao Wen1 and Feiyun Tu2,*
... site for migratory birds in Asia. Poyang Lake National Nature Reserve (PLNNR) is a hot spot for birds inhabiting or overwintering at Poyang Lake. Hitherto, limited checklist of bird species has been available. In order to investigate the bird diversity and avifauna of PLNNR, complete species checklist was strictly checked according to systematic analyses of species records from multisource. Fifty-seven species were new...
Amna Kausar1,2, Sana Anwar1, Naila Siddique2, Safia Ahmed1 and Javid Iqbal Dasti1,*
...pecies of non-vaccinated birds inhabiting diverse ecological zones of Pakistan. Altogether, 507 tissue and swab samples were screened for the presence of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Same samples were further processed for the isolation of virus by embryonated egg inoculation technique. Moreover, out of 507 samples, 479 serum samples were scrutinized by enzyme linked immunosorbent essay (ELISA). Sero-prevalence of AIV ...

Nashwa Mohamed Eid1, Al-Hussien Mohamed Dahshan1, El-Shayma El-Nahass2, Basma Shalaby3 and Ahmed Ali1* 

...PI), the second 2 set of birds without EOs addition were fed ration containing 0.25% and 0.125% thyme and clove oils as treatment in comparison to an antibiotic control group using for 5 days. The results showed that the use of EOs improved growth performance of broiler chickens especially when used as preventive feed additive continuously. The thyme EO showed better anticlostridial activity in terms of reduced CP counts in intestine and alleviation of intesti...
Ye Gong, Nehafta Bibi and Haitao Wang*
...six cases nests of other birds were usurped by Mandarin duck and in three cases nests of Mandarin duck were usurped by other birds. The remaining mixed clutches may be incomplete usurpation. For the nests taken over by Mandarin ducks, all heterospecific eggs were rejected and four clutches were incubated successfully. For the other mixed clutches, none of Mandarin duck eggs were removed, only two eggs were hatched but the du...
Fazul Nabi1,2, Hui Zhang1, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal1 , Mujeeb ur Rehman1, Muhammad Shahzad3, Khalid Mehmood1,3 and Jiakui Li1,* 
...ality in rapidly growing birds causing carcass downgrading and severe welfare problems.Present study was aimed to determine specificity of salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) on growth plate width, liver oxidative stress and toxicity in avian TD. One hundred and fifty broiler chicks were equally distributed into three groups: Control, Thiram (50 mg/kg/d) and SM (10 mg/kg/d) treated. Results showed that thiram caused lameness, decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activi...
Hazrat Nabi1, Irshad Hussain2, Muhammad Adil3, Amar Nasir3,*, Arbab Sikandar3, Saeed Khan1 and Nasrullah Khan3

 

...r (GMT) was recorded for birds fed aflatoxins alone. However, difference in the calculated values of GMT for control group and birds fed toxin binders was not significant. Treatment related changes in organ body weight ratio of thymus, spleen and Bursa of fabricius of aflatoxins binders administered groups (groups E and F) were also significant compared with ones fed aflatoxins mixed feed (groups B and C). In conclusion, myc...
Ali Zaman1,*, Abdul Haleem1, Sajjad Ur Rahman2, Adnan Amin3 Asma Saeed1, Sana Ullah4 and Naimat Ullah4
... contagious infection of birds as well as humans which is zoonotic of significant economic and public health concern. From total 650 broilers sera were taken, around the five geographically distinct districts and analyzed through hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for detection of H5 antibodies. Highest sero-prevalence of Avian Influenza (H5) was recorded in district Abbottabad 36.15% (47/130) followed by Dera Ismail Khan 33.08% (43/130), Tank 26.92% (35/13...
Souheila Slimani1,*, Sonia Hamouda1, Chahrazed Souadi1, Sara Silini2, Cherif Abdennour2 and Leila Delimi3
...of germ cells in control birds was noticed,which confirm the testicular regression.In the treated groups, thiram delayed the refractory phase along the experimental period, but testicular weight were superior in the treated pigeons compared to the control during the last weeks. Treated pigeons had more dead spermatozoa compared to the control. Remarkably, abnormal spermatozoa were much higher in the group received 5mg than that of 10mg.The histological profile...
Muhammad Anwar Iqbal1, Habib Rehman2, Ali Hussain3,*, Faiza Jabeen4, Ijaz Ahmad2, Kamran Ashraf5, Muhammad Irshad Arshad6 and Omaima Khan7
...s given to control group birds (Group A) and the same feed mixed with three different concentrations of MOS i.e., 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 %, was offered for 35 days to the birds of experimental groups, B, C and D, respectively. Results showed that the birds of group C were heavier (P < 0.05) during 2nd and 3rd weeks compared to the other groups. Feed conversion ratio was not affe...
Hafiz Manzoor Ahmad1,*, Hamad Bin Rashid1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Asim Khalid Mahmood1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Muhammad Rafi Ullah2 and Usman Ghani1
... groups each carrying 10 birds. The birds were monitored for various physiological parameters before and after anesthesia. The birds of K+X group were given ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg) and xylazine (5 mg/kg), while K+X+D group were given ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg), xylazine (2.5 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5mg/kg) cocktail, respectively. The birds
Gokhan Sahin1, Ecevit Eyduran2,*, Mete Turkoglu3 and Fatma Sahin2
...35.00 East) of migratory birds found in Iğdır province of Turkey. In the estimation of global irradiation parameters (Hd: average daily sum of global irradiation per square meter and Hm: average annually sum of global irradiation per square meter), several predictors viz. ESTLOSTEMP (estimated losses due to temperature and low irradiance), ESTLOSANGREF (estimated loss due to angular reflectance effect), and COMPVLOSS (Combined Photo Voltaic system losses) we...
Shoukat Ara1, Sheikh Adil2,*and Manzoor Ahmad Khan3
...dy weight gain of grower birds. Further, the SGPT and SGOT levels of birds did not differ among various treatments at 19 weeks of age. A non-significant (p>0.05) improvement was observed in the egg weight, shell thickness and weight in all the groups fed Azolla in the diet (T2, T3, T4 and T5) when compared with the control group (T1). The differences in the total number of eggs laid, % hen-day-egg production, vario...
Peng Xu1, Bin Liu1,2, Yongqiang Zhao3, Shicheng Lv3 and Changhu Lu1,*
...ation size of endangered birds,red-crowned crane. Then, an interpretation model with high deviance explained was explored. More and continuous attention should be paid to improve considerable measures of crane conservation based on climate change.
...
Naila Chand1, Shamsullah1, Rafiullah1, Rifat Ullah Khan2, Muhammad Mobashar3, Shabana Naz4,*, Ebrahim Rowghani5 and Murad Ali Khan2
... kept as control and the birds in this treatment were fed on basal ration without alteration in feed contents while the other treatments MOS-50 and MOS-100 represented 50 and 100 g MOS/kg feed, respectively during starter phase. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly (P<0.05) high in Treatment MOS-100 compared to the control. Similar trend was also observed in the weight of bursa,thymus and spleen. Significantly higher v...
Tahira Batool1*, Nabila Roohi1, Athar Mahmud
...hased) to group C. These birds were placed in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with a factorial arrangement of 3(lysine regimens) × 4 (varieties) × 20 (replicates) with one bird in each replicate under standard conditions of house management. For slaughter and carcass characteristics at the age of eighteen weeks, 72 birds including 18 from each variety with 6 from each group were randomly selected and...

 Saima Naz*, Adil Ali Rajpar, Abdul Hameed Chandio

New Records of some Phthiraptera (chewing lice) of birds from urban areas of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan
... common wild and captive birds of
Hyderabad during 2013-2015, mainly from urban areas. Chewing lice of both suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera
included family Menoponidae and Philopteridae respectively were reported from different localities of Hyderabad city.
It was the first chewing lice survey that has been carried out in the region, which reported eight species of
Menoponidae and eleven species of Philopteridae. These species we...

 Abbas Ali1, Muhammad Altaf2*, Muhammad Samar Hussain Khan3

Winter survey of birds at Keti Bunder, district Thatha, Pakistan
...noted the threats to the birds of Keti Bunder. To know the avian dominance and
diversity of Keti Bunder; we carried out at dawn and dusk in winter season (November, 2015 to February, 2016),
using direct and indirect methods. During the survey, total of 49 winter season bird species belonging to 33 genera
and 21 families were recorded. A total of 4280 birds were recorded dedicated survey effort from the K...

 Bushra Siyal1, Sanjota Nirmal Das1, Rafia Rehana Ghazi2, Aly Khan3

Heterotestophyes gibsoni sp.n. (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the bird little tern (Sternula albifrons) in Sindh, Pakistan
...on helminth parasites of birds, a new species of trematode genus Heterotestophyes gibsoni
sp. n. was recorded from the intestine of little tern (Sternula albifrons) collected from Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. The
new species is characterized by having small body, maximum width attained at the level of mid body region and
twisted at the level of pharynx. Oral sucker terminal, rounded and broader than long. Esophagus long, intestinal
bi...
Farheen Shaikh*, Saima Naz, Nadir Ali Birmani
... Districts. The selected birds were tagged with identity rings and 5-8 hosts in each locality were examined. Infestation of chewing lice on each bird was checked periodically in each month. Moreover, permanent microscopic slides of ectoparasites were prepared. During the study, three species of chewing lice were reported from Common Quail. Their population density on host body was recorded in each month. The prevalence of chewing lice species of Coturnix co...
Muhammad Shabir Shaheen1, Shahid Mehmood1, Athar Mahmud1, Jibran Hussain1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi2, Muhammad Yaqoob3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Arshad Javid4,*
... 36 replicates having 20 birds each according to completely randomized design and were fed the same quantity of feed. The birds were subjected to 4 heating systems during brooding (Floor Heating, Diesel, Gas and Electricity Bulb). Growth performances, blood glucose, cholesterol level and economic appraisal in term of running cost / Kg of live meat were recorded. The results revealed that all strains generally but Ross 308 pa...
Muhammad Tufail1, Naila Chand1, Rafiullah1, Shakoor Ahmad2, Rifat Ullah Khan2, Muhammad Mobashar3 and Shabana Naz4,*
... kept as control and the birds in this treatment were fed on basal ration without alteration in feed contents while the other treatments MOS-50 and MOS-100 represented 50 and 100 g MOS/kg feed respectively during the finisher phase. Treatment MOS-100 improved feed intake significantly (P<0.01) at the age of 4th and 5th week followed by MOS-50. Significantly (P<0.01) higher overall body weight gain was recorded for treatment MOS-100 ...
Kalimullah Khan1,*, Hafsa Zaneb2, Zia Ur Rehman3, Hamza Maris4 and Habib ur Rehman1
...div>...
Wen Chao Liu1,2, Kwan Sik Yun3 and In Ho Kim2,*
...replicate cages, with 16 birds per replicate. The 4 dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based diets and supplemented with 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% 1,3-DAG, respectively. During d 1-14, with increasing the dietary 1,3-DAG levels from 0 to 0.15%, the body weight gain (BWG) was improved (linear, P<0.01), whereas the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was decreased (linear, P<0.01). During d 14-28, dietary supplementation of graded level of 1,3-DAG improved th...
Sakhra Mahmood1, M. Younus1, A. Aslam1, A.A. Anjum2, S. Umar3, Aamerzish Mushtaq3 and M.L. Sohail4,*
...kg of feed). Another 120 birds were divided into two groups, one group was fed with basal diet (control group) and other was fed with AFB1 diet without any detoxifying agent. Growth parameters (body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio), hematology (hemoglobin, haematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and total leukocyte count) and immune response were recorded and analyzed by duncan test for 6 weeks. Results showed significant reduction in ...

 Asad Sultan1, Rabia Ali1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Sarzamin Khan1, Naila Chand1 and Ambrina Tariq3

...sed to avoid compromised birds’ performance. The present study assessed the impact of phytase on enhancing the nutrient retention and phosphorus utilization in two different sorghum cultivars fed to broiler. In an open sided house, a total of 160, 14-days-old broilers were allotted to four dietary bioassay treatments and fed mash red and white sorghum grain with or without phytase enzyme (500 FTU/kg) for 12 days (including 4 days adaptation period). Stan...
Guo-hai Wang1, Zai-xi Yang1, Pan Chen1, Wei-ning Tan2 and Chang-hu Lu1,*
... habitats by frugivorous birds are of great concern. In this study, we recorded the bird’s seed foraging and dispersing behavior of local bird species to examine their role in dispersing seeds of Kmeria septentrionalis, an endangered tree species in a karst habitat in southwest China. Twenty-seven bird species were recorded feeding on its seeds, and fourteen bird species were confirmed as seeds dispersers. The chestnut bulbul (Hemixos castanono...
SiRui Wang1,2, Fekede Regasa Joka1,2, XiaoLong Wang1,2,* and SuYing Bai2,*
...try, and studies in wild birds are rare. To understand the antiviral site of the Myxovirus-resistance (Mx) protein in the evolution of different wild birds, 10 wild bird species, including Anas formosa, Anas crecca, Anas strepera, Mergus squamatus, Accipiter nisus, Buteo hemilasius, Buteo lagopus, Passer montanus, Psittacula roseata and Emberiza elegans, w...

Muhammad Rehan1, Asim Aslam1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Muhammad Abid2, Shakeel Hussain3, Javeria Umber4, Ahsan Anjum1 and Altaf Hussain2* 

... known as Ranikhet. Wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and some common resident or migratory wild birds are associated with outbreaks of ND in commercial poultry in Pakistan. Continuous isolation of new genotypes in Pakistan shows the evolving nature of the virus and the emergence of new strains is limiting in its diagnosis and control. Pakistan is a developing country and poultry i...

Muhammad Sohail1*, Asad Sultan2, Said Sajjad Ali Shah3, Muhammad Sajid1 and Adnan Khan4

...their cultivars in quail birds. A total of 270 quail birds were raised in cages having three main groups, one each for wheat (W), maize (M), sorghum (S) and six subgroups for the collection of fecal samples and further analyses. Nutrient profile, digestibility coefficients, and apparent metabolizable energy were investigated. Fat percentage and metabolizable energy was higher in maize (4.1% and 17.04 MJ/kg). The protein leve...
Fazal Wahab1, Naila Chand1, Rifat Ullah Khan1, Nazir Ahmad1, Urooba Parvez2, Zia ur Rehman3 and Shabana Naz4,*
... replicates, each with 5 birds. Birds were kept in cages for 28 days in open sided house. FS-0 was kept as control while treatments FS-0.5, FS-0.75 and FS-1 were provided with fenugreek seed powder in the ration at the rate of 0.5, 0.75 and 1%, respectively. Egg production and feed intake was recorded on daily basis. Egg weight, egg shell weight, egg shell thickness, Haugh unit, albumin height and yolk weight were determined...
Rana Waqas Arshad1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Kamran Ashraf2 and Raheela Akhtar1,*
... each having 100 broiler birds were placed in the same environmentally controlled house. Samples of blood and bursa of Fabricius were collected from slaughtered birds after every 7 days till the end of experiment (35 days). The size of bursas and the bursa/body weight ratios were significantly greater in live vector vaccine group than other vaccinal groups. ELISA revealed high antibody titre in live vector vaccine group and ...
Shujjah Haider1,*, Ayesha Maqbool1, Tariq Pervez1, Saima Parveen1, Arfan Ahmad2, Zahid Iqbal3, Javed Iqbal3, Shahid Mehmood3, Amanullah Khan4 and Sajid Umar5
...cks with small number of birds (1000-2000) as 24.28%. In addition, it was also found that iELISA test is more sensitive and specific for detection of MG antibodies in serum samples as compared to RPA/SPA test. This evidence emphasizes the need of more systemic approaches for the investigation ofMG distribution and prevalence in otherparts of Pakistan in order to design effective control strategies. 
...
Hui Wang1, Lin Wang1, Xuanlu Li1, Shanshan Li1, Yongqiang Zhao2, Shicheng Lv2, Xinrong Xu1, Guang Yang1 and Bingyao Chen1,*
...ation, and more and more birds have begun to utilize the buffer zone. We conducted a line transect survey in December 2010 to estimate bird density and evaluate the importance of the buffer zone. As a result, 34 protected species among the 4975 individuals were sighted, including 127 red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) and 868 common cranes (Grus grus). The overall density of protected species, winter migratory species, and resident
Chen-Yu Sun, Wen-Chao Liu*, Mei Xiao, Zhi-Hui Zhao and Li-Long An*
...replicate cages, with 15 birds per replicate. The 4 dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based diets and supplemented with 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg betaine, respectively. During d 1-14, with increasing the dietary betaine levels from 0 to 2000 mg/kg, the BWG was improved (quadratic, P<0.05), whereas the FCR was decreased (linear, P<0.01). During d 14-28, dietary supplementation of graded level of betaine had no significant effects on BWG, feed in...
Tahir Iqbal1, Umer Rashid1*, Naveed Shahzad2, Amber Afroz1Muhammad Faheem Malik3 and Muhammad Idrees4

 

...n the bile fluids of two birds. The histological data demonstrated pathological changes in liver and spleen tissues of layer chickens positive for viral RNA. The extensive phylogenetic analysis on the basis of partial helicase domain (ORF1) and capsid protein (ORF2) revealed clustering of Pakistani aHEV (Pak aHEV) strains with members of Orthohepevirus B species. However, Pak aHEV strains were highly divergent from other known members within O...
Irfan Irshad1, Asim Aslam1,*, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Kamran Ashraf2, Beenish Zahid3 and Abdul Wajid4
...cterized from vaccinated birds collected between 2013-14. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to sub-genotype VIIi with high similarity of 97.9 to 99.8% with similar viruses in this clade. Analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences of the two AIV was performed and phylogenetic analysis reveals genetically closely-related to H9N2 viruses classified into Mideast group-B and sub-lineage B2. The two strains classified as LPAIV in...
Zia-ud-Din1, Muhammad Nauman Aftab2, Tanveer Hussain3,*, Irfana Iqbal4 and Asma Zafar5
...seel female chicken (120 birds) comprising of four varieties (Lakha, Mushki, Peshawari and Mianwali) was fed for 42-days experimental period on antibiotic and probiotic supplemented ration. The results showed that the female growth, weight gain, FCR and economics varied significantly for feed supplements as well as for chicken varieties (P<0.05). The chickens given feed with probiotic (@1g/kg of feed were of more economic value than those fed on antibiotic ...
Min Li1,2, Jingjing Wang3, Suxian Hu3, Philip Stott4, Baoqing Lin5, Lianshan Li5, Hui Liu1, Heng Bao1, Duoying Cui6 and Guangshun Jiang1,* 
...ndertook point counts of birds in the Xianghai wetland reserve of northeastern China from 2000 to 2009, and used remote sensing and GIS technologies to map land cover types. We linked cover types to avian species richness, evenness, and Shannon’s diversity using a stepwise linear regression model and regressions of proportions of cover types at different spatial scales. We recorded 109,026 sightings comprising 94 species, and found that avian diversity i...
Himanshu Mishra, Vikas Kumar and Ashish Kumar*
...utilization of migratory birds at Bakhira bird sanctuary, district Sant Kabir Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India from October 2017 to March 2018. Thirty two species of birds were observed during the field investigation. The line transect method was employed for population estimates. During the field survey, we recorded a significantly higher number of migratory birds at the end of early winter (D...
Muhammad Furqan Shahid1*, Tahir Yaqub1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu2, Asim Aslam2, Saima Yaqub1, Aziz-ul-Rahman3, Muzaffar Ali1
...ckyard poultry and fancy birds (partridge). Commercial broiler birds were infected experimentally at the dose of 106 EID50 by using these three isolates. Results revealed that onset of clinical signs was started at 2nd day post infection (DPI) followed by severity in redness and swelling of eyes, sneezing and lacrimation at 3rd DPI that lasts up to 5th DPI. Cross reactiv...

Khaled Kaboudi* 

...ies of domestic and wild birds. Infection in commercial poultry flocks causes important economic losses, related to high mortality, decrease in animal performance and aggravation of infection by other pathogens. Although H9N2 is endemic in many regions of the world, such as Middle East and North Africa, where the first outbreaks were described since the end of 1990s, many features about epidemiology and genetic characteristics are still little known. This revi...
Abu ul Hassan Faiz1,*, Fakhar-i-Abbas2, Mehboob ul Hassan3 and Lariab Zahra Faiz1
...spot light count and for birds point count methods were used to determine abundance of each species. The study, documented 10 species of mammalian pests, 13 species of pest birds of maize crop and their population density differed significantly (P≤ 0.05) at study sites. The habitat analysis of study sites and correlation of species with habitat were done through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) by using software (XLSTAT...
Syed Maaz Nadeem1*, Muti ur Rehman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh1, Arfan Ahmad1* and Muhammad Anees2
...roiler chicken and layer birds in Pakistan; however, their molecular characterization is largely inadequate and requires continuous evaluation. In this study, sequencing and molecular analysis of specific regions overlapping VP1-VP2 and VP2-VP3 genes of CAV strain from outbreaks in broiler flock (n=45) were undertaken in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. The phylogenetic analysis clustered study strains of CAV in group II similar to those reported previously fr...
Peng Chen1,2, Zuhao Huang3,Chaoying Zhu1, Yuqing Han1, Zhifeng Xu1
Guanglong Sun1, Zhen Zhang1, Dongqin Zhao4, Gang Ge1 and Luzhang Ruan1*
...tating the mtDNA of four birds, the results showed that the lengths of mtDNA were 16,955 bp in Porzana paykullii, 17,149 bp in Rallus aquaticus, 17,647 bp in Gallirallus striatus and 16,855 bp in Hydrophasianus chirurgus, respectively. The base compositions were A > C > T > G in 73 species complete mitochondrial sequences in Gruiformes and Charadriiformes. The total AT content in the 73 species was larger than that of GC. T...
Chiping Kong1,2, Yongheng Wu1,2, Shangling Lou1, Benping Chen3, Simon D. Dowell4 and Yiqiang Fu1*
.../div>...

Hamoudi Naoual1, Alloui Nadir2*, Barberis Abdelhak2 and Boudaoud Amine2 

...ign: justify;">Migratory birds, especially Anseriformes, are a primary reservoir and the first source of the avian influenza virus (AIV) introduction. In 2016, following the first official detection of the H9N2 subtype circulation in broiler flocks in Eastern Algeria, a preliminary descriptive study is conducted to identify and enumerate in wetland areas, migratory bird species, known to carry the AIV. The Anatidae population peaked in January 2017 with a tota...
Peng Peng1,3, Xiaopeng Tang2*, Dun Deng3, and Rejun Fang1*
... had 8 replicates and 15 birds were included in each replicate. The experiment lasted for 28 days. The average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. Results showed that: (1) the DM, CP, EE, CF, Ash, Ca, Pi, GE content of GM is 89.96%, 47.80%, 4.92%, 6.43%, 4.49%, 0.3%, 0.63%, 4.66 Mcal/Kg, respectively, the composition of Met, Lys, Ile, Asp, Glu, Gly, His, Arg, Thr, Ala, Pro, Tyr, Val, Phe in GM is 0....
Irfan Shahzad Sheikh, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa, Nadeem Rashid, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa, Mohammad Masood Tariq*, Majed Rafeeq, Abdul Samad, Tauseef M Asmat and Asad Ullah
...r management conditions, birds were divided into five treatment groups of 48 with four replicates. Commercial pre-starter feed, starter feed and finisher feed were offered on days 1-12, 13-25 and 26-42, respectively. Birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bursal disease. Relative lymphoid organ weights were recorded on day 42. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay was performed against Newcastl...
Mounir R. Abi-Said1, Mohammad Al Zein2, Mohammad A. Abu Baker3 and Zuhair S. Amr3,4*
Xuhui Zhang1, Zhiyuan Sun2, Jinfeng Cai1, Guibin Wang1, Zunling Zhu1, Linguo Zhao3 and Fuliang Cao1,*
...tase (T-SOD) activity of birds from group FR3 was significantly increased (42d) compared with NF group. Additionally, the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes including nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were improved by FR supplemented into the broiler diets. Based on these results, FR could be acted as a beneficial feed additive with antioxidant capacity and meat qual...

Grigory Antonovich Nozdrin1*, Regina Gabdrahmanovna Utkina2, Anastasia Aleksandrovna Lelyak2 and Yana Viktorovna Novik1 

...throbotrys oligospora in birds. The experiments were performed on two-days-old goslings and ducklings which were divided into four experimental groups and a reference group. The fowls in experimental groups were supplemented with preparation once with dosages (2,000 µl/kg, 3,000 µl/kg, 4,000 µl/kg, and 5,000 ml/kg) while the fowl in the reference group were left untreated (they were given a placebo – distilled water). The experimental f...
Imran Khan1, Muhammad Nawaz1,*, Aftab Ahmad Anjum1, Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad2, Adnan Mehmood1, Masood Rabbani1, Amina Mustafa1 and Muhammad Asad Ali1
Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Asim Aslam1*, Muhammad Yasin2, Tahir Yaqoob2 and Beenish Zahid3
...the protective titers in birds at 19 days post inoculation three week-old broilers were challenged with 10-5.76 and 10-6.03 EID50 dose of NDV and IBV, respectively. The hosts were divided into six groups of 35 birds each. These were groups A (NDV-challenged), B (IBV- challenged), C (NDV+IBV-challenged), D (IBV+NDV challenged), E (NDV and IBV- challenged) and F (negative control). Mild to mode...
Xiuqing Hao1, Zhe Hong2, Huili Gao1, Fumin Tian1, Hongke Zhang3, Yu Zhou3, Yuming Guo3, Guang Yang1,* and Bingyao Chen1,*
...t model generated the seabirds’ density of 11.47 (95% confidence interval 6.90-19.05) individuals/km2 and 1.94 (1.27 - 2.95) individuals/km2, respectively in Beihai and Shatian. The coefficient of variation value of 20.42% and 25.43% showed moderate accuracy. The Beihai and Shatian seabird communities had similar fixed kernel home range. Seabirds’ distribution largely overlapped with various...

Paul Oludare Adetunji* and Safiriyu Idowu Ola 

...into 2 replicates with 3 birds per replicate. The study lasted for 38 weeks (Feb.-Nov., 2019). Data were taken on the onset of puberty parameters (age at first sperm cell and puberty) from 16-22 weeks of age, semen quality parameters (semen volume, semen concentration, sperm output, sperm motility and sperm abnormalities) from 26-52 weeks of age and sexual ornaments’ morphometry (Comb Length-CL, Comb Height-CH, Wattle Length-WL, Wattle Height-WH and Inte...
Abdul Waheed*, Asim Faraz, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq
...e small room for keeping birds). Most of them offer grains to the desi birds and majority was aware of poultry diseases, mainly keeping desi birds. Without having any special training, vaccinating the birds for Rani Khet (New Castle disease). Most of them hatched chicks of their own, bought hens from the village, knew about ill b...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi1*, Jibran Hussain2, Muhammad Hayat Jaspal3, Shahid Mehmood2, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq4, Reema Bughio5 and Athar Mahmud2

Comparative Study of Carcass Traits in Four Strains of Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) at 3 to 6 Weeks of Age
...iver weight (g) in quail birds. Significant (p<0.05) differences were noted in keel length (cm) at week 3, 5 and 6 and keel angle at week-3. A significant (p<0.05) effect was observed in mean heart weight at week 3 and 6, gizzard weight at week 4, 5 and 6 and intestinal length (cm) at week 3, 5 and 6;  whereas, dressing percentage (%) and shank length (cm) differ non-significantly (p>0.05) in this study period. Imported quail strain (M) performed...
Zhi Yijin, Shao Mingqin* and Li Quanjiang
...che separation of wading birds in Poyang Lake, China, was assessed. A total of 38 bird species, including 4 class I and 3 class II Chinese nationally protected bird species were identified. Of six habitats, 64% (15,435 individuals) of the total number of wading birds counted occurred in water-covered areas. The common crane Grus grus has the widest habitat niche (0.727), utilizing grasslands and farmland after crops w...
Hari Prasad Sharma1*, Shova Adhikari1, Yogesh Rai1, Rajkumar Sijapati1, Sapana Chand1, Manisha Karki1, Rubina Thapa Magar1, Ashik Husain1Khadka Bahadur Khatri1, Melina Karki1, Samiksha Badu1, Sushila Bajracharya1, Somika Pathak1, Rachana Shah2 and Chiranjibi Prasad Pokheral2
...ure to give space to the birds to avoid closer contact with the visitors OR raise a tinted glass partition between the Ostrich (both female and male) and the visitors through which only visitors could see the ostrich.
...

Paul Oludare Adetunji* and Safiriyu Idowu Ola

Comparative Productive Performance among three Plumage Varieties of Noiler Hens
...nto 3 replicates with 10 birds per replicate in each of the variety. Data were collected on the pubertal parameters (age at first egg and crouching behaviour) from 16-22 weeks of age; egg production performance indices (egg weight, hen day egg production-HDEP, feed efficiency-FE/dozen eggs and persistency of lay) from 19-52 weeks of age. Additionally, sexual ornaments’ morphometry (Comb Length-CL, Comb Height-CH, Wattle Length-WL, Wattle Height-WH and In...

Mohsin Ali Alias Mehran Khan Solangi1, Gulfam Ali Mughal1, Asad Ali Khaskheli1*, Turab Ali Korejo3, Nazeer Ahmed Rajput2, Qurban Ali Memon3 and Maqsood Ahmed Kumbhar4

Influence of Camellia sinensis on Broilers Performance
...University Tandojam. The birds were distributed into 4 groups A, B, C and D containing 48 chicks in each. Birds of group A were supplemented with 5g/L Camellia sinensis, group B with 10g/L, group C with 15g/L, while group D was control. The findings of the current study revealed higher feed intake (4480g/b), water intake (8960ml/b), live body weight (2356.8g/b), weight gain (2322.8g/b), carcass weight (1381.8g/b) in group D ...

Moazam Ali1, Wajid Ali2, Ayhan Ceyhan2 and Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta3*

Pigmentation Genome Influence in Animals and Human Interventions in its Course of Action
...resence of multi-colored birds, fishes, pure colored animals in our community and the wild always remained attractable to humans. The color pigmentation is essential in animals regarding beauty, tick resistance, photo-protection, camouflage appearance in wild, and identification. Pigmentation is a complex and multi-factorial regulated process to produce the melanin from melanocytes. Melanin amount, size, shape, and distribution control the color pigmentation o...

Md. Sahidur Rahman

Origin and Spillover of Coronaviruses: Prospects of One Health Action
...ls, including humans and birds. Bat and rodents act as a reservoir of alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus whereas, gamacoronavirus and deltacoronavirus originate in avian species. Domestic animals also play a critical role in disease transmission as they are found seropositive against different coronaviruses. At least seven coronaviruses are known to have been spilled over from animal to human. SARS-CoV-2 is the recent one that showed pneumonia-like syndrome ...
Gulzhan Aubakirova1*, Zhanat Adilbekov2, Assylkhan Inirbayev2, Assel Zhamanova2 and Aibar Akhmetov3
... presence of fish-eating birds (herons and tree frogs) and a large number of gastropods in these reservoirs. We detected isolated cases of fish infection with diplostomiasis in roach from Lake Toxumac, where IR was 12.5%. This is due to the presence of gulls and pond mollusks on this lake, which are the main links in the helminth’s life cycle. We have also identified isolated cases of ligulosis in roach and crucian carp from the “DSU-58” dam,...
Muhammad Tahir Khan1, Shahid Mehmood2*, Athar Mahmud2Khalid Javed3 and Jibran Hussain2

 

...tment group contained 40 birds and experiments were replicated six times using a completely randomized design (CRD). The experimental diets consisted of increasing levels of compost (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10%), but were otherwise iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA under CRD. Performance parameters, including feed consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency, and mortality at 28 day of age, were not affected (P>0.05) by the compo...
Gautam Patra1*, Ana Sahara2, Sonjoy Kumar Borthakur1, Parthasarathi Behera3, Subhamoy Ghosh1, Apurba Debbarma4 and Seikh Sahanawaz Alam5
... various species of wild birds (Upupa epops, Passer domesticus, Pycnonotus cafer, Bubulcus ibis). The birds were captured by netting system. After blood was collected from wing veins, birds were released from the cages. Blood samples were examined after staining with Giemsa stain. The positive samples were used for amplification of cyt b gene of Plasmo...
Ye Ge1,2,3, Qiucheng Yao1, Hongliang Chai3, Yuping Hua3* and Guohua Deng2*
..."font-size: small;">Wild birds, as reservoirs of viruses, play active roles in influenza virus transmission and reassortment. To further evaluate the potential infection risk of H6 AIVs from wild birds, we inoculated these viruses into A549 cells, which showed that these wild bird H6 AIVs have acquired the ability to cross interspecific barriers and have the potential to infect mammals. We analysed the level of cytokine expr...
Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1,2, Zaheer Ahmed Nizamani1, Asghar Ali Kamboh3, Mansoor Ayoob4, Waseem Ali Vistro3 and Abdul Sattar Baloch3*
...e quails and mynas. Both birds were divided into Q1, Q2, Q3, M1, M2 and M3 group each of four bird. The birds of group Q1, M1 and Q2, M2 were administered with 0.3ml of VVND virus (1.8×109 EID 50)via intramuscular and oral routes, respectively, whereas, birds of group Q3 and M3were kept in contact exposure with VVND virus infected chickens. Clinical signs were o...
Mardan Aghabey Turghan1, Roller MaMing1*, Li Weidong2, Di Jie1 and Xu Guohua1
...visitors. Six species of birds viz., Red-rumped Swallow (Cecropis daurica), Eastren Crowned Warbler (Phylloscopus coronatus), Blue-cheeked Bee-eater (Merops persicus), Robin Accentor (Prunella rubeculoides), Tibetan Rosefinch (Carpodacus roborowskii) and Japanese Sparrowhawk (Accipiter gularis) are being reported for the first time from Xinjiang. Among them, Blue-cheeked Bee-eater is reported from China for the first t...
Jiawei Zhang1,2, Thomas Quirke1, Shibao Wu2*, Shaoshan Li2 and Fidelma Butler1
... from a flock of over 20 birds at Fota Wildlife Park, Cork, Ireland, gathered during daytime observations over a six month period. The results show that penguins spent most of the daytime in stationary, terrestrial locomotion, preening and swimming modes of behavior, and swimming activity increased on rainy days. Peak activity took place from 16:00 to 17:00 hours, especially before and after feeding. The behavior of penguins was significantly affected by the n...
Hongqun Li1*, Xiaoli Liu2*, Zongxian Han1, Shabin Wu1 and Changlei Cao1
...ng sites utilized by the birds also featured higher altitude, steeper slope, bigger tree heights and diameter, smaller shrub cover and lower herb height, and higher sheltering class. The overall classification model developed from these seven variables helped distinguish foraging sites from random ones at probability of 90.2%; while day-roosting sites tended to be found in the areas of higher altitude, smaller tree cover, lower shrub cover and height, lower he...
Rabia Riaz1, Khushi Muhammad1*, Masood Rabbani1, Muhammad Amjad Iqbal2, Aamir Riaz Khan2, Sadia Sarfaraz1, Mudassar Naseer3 and Khalid Majeed1
...on. Antibody response of birds to inactivated MG vaccine is poor. On 7th day of age (broilers: n=40) each bird of group A, B, C and D (n=8) was vaccinated (subcutaneous: 0.3ml) with G-MG, O-MG, G-MG+NDV (New castle Disease Virus) and O-MG vaccines, respectively. Serum samples were collected on 21, 28 and 35 days post vaccination for anti-MG-ELISA antibody titer. Cumulative mean anti-MG-ELISA antibody titer of birds to G-MG, ...

Inam Ullah1,2, WU Qing-Ming1*, Ruqia Bibi2 and Najam Un Nisa2

Comparison of Nesting Site Preferences and Breeding Ecology of Red-Vented Bulbul, Baya Weaver, and Grey Bush Chat in Sheikh Badin National Park Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
...henomenon related to the birds’ reproductive behavior. Nests play a pivotal role in various growth stages of birds, including breeding, defense, environmental factors, shelter, and conservation.  The relation between a bird and plant species is considered to be the central aspect of wildlife and biodiversity , which makes the nesting behavior a vital factor when investigating the life of b...
Muhammad Umar1, Muhammad Arshad2, Mubashar Hussain1*, Moazama Batool3 and Muhammad Faheem Malik1
...arge number of migratory birds visit the Mangla Wetland. The birds were counted by the Point Count Method from a fixed point and for a fixed time period in such a way that the Sun was always behind the observer. A total of 37,082 birds belonging to eight orders, 11 families, 28 genera and 37 species visited the wetland in 2010, whereas in 2011, 21,302 birds<...
Muhammad Bilal Anwar1, Mirza Azhar Beg1, Amjad Rashid Kayani1, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem1*, Syed Israr Shah1, Sajida Noureen2
Muhammad Mushtaq1 and Tariq Mahmood3
...e least studied group of birds in northern regions. In this study, we compared seasonal differences in the diet of three owl species in an uncultivated area with rapid urbanization all around to better understand their ecological significance. Regurgitated pellets of three owl species (n = 434) were collected seasonally from the study area. The food of the spotted owlet and eurasian eagle owl was found significantly different (P< 0.05) across ...
Saad A. Moussa1, Mohammed Ahmed Mahmoud Abdullah2*, Mahmoud Saied1, Mustafa Saleh1, Mohamed A. Soliman2 and Ali Mahmoud Zanaty2
...ease of poultry and wild birds. Phylogenetic analysis of recent Egyptian isolates in Menofia governorate, Egypt was constructed, and showed to be of genotype VII. Eight NDV viruses were isolated from vaccinated commercial broiler flocks showing respiratory manifestation in Menofia governorate, Egypt during 2019. Those viruses showing deaths and haemorages of inoculated SPF ECE eggs, harvested allantoic fluids showed haemagglutination activity by using 1% RBCs ...

Hosts and Viruses

December

Vol. 7, Iss. 6, Pages 129-146

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