Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...degrees of morbidity and mortality. The intracellular signalling cascades of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immune dysfunction. Studies of the innate immune responses to HP-PRRSV infection are crucial to gaining insight into HP-PRRSV-induced pathogenesis and for the de...

Asma Noshad1, Mudassar Iqbal1*, Zafar Iqbal1, Hamida Bibi2, Saifullah3, Salma Bibi4, Hamid Ullah Shah1

...er mushroom. The percent mortality of Macrosiphum rosae (rose aphids) and the LC50 values were calculated and used as an indicative of insecticidal potential. The maximum mortality of aphids was achieved at 80 µg mL-1 and the LC50 for the fruit body extract after 24 HRS was calculated as 12.83μg mL-1, followed by the extract from the fermentation filtrate with LC50

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...1 resulted in weeds mortality upto 66.6%, produced seedcotton yield of 3961.4 kg ha-1 and gave net benefit of Rs. 2,20,029. Sunflower applied @ 15 L ha-1 in integration with Dual Gold @ 1.25 L ha-1 showed weeds mortality of 65.5 %, resulted in seedcotton yield of 3949.7 kg ha-1 and net monetary benefit of Rs. 2,19,821. Sole application of Dual Gold @ 2.5 L ha-1 reduced weeds by 55.9%, produced seedcotton&...

Guoyi Li1, Haiyan Tong1, Jiansheng Chen2, Jinliang Wei2, Xiaoming Zhao2, Guoping Zhang2, Zixue Shi2*

E-mail | shizixue@gmail.com

...us system signs and high mortality in adults and children. It is caused by the JE virus (JEV), which belongs to the family Flaviviridae. JEV is endemic to many parts of East Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia, where periodic outbreaks take thousands of lives. With rapid globalisation and climatic shift, JEV has started to emerge in previously unaffected areas. Scientific evidences show that JEV would remain a global pathogen and might cause worldwide ...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1, Faizah Abood2, Yusof Bin Ibrahim3

... 3rd responded with 100% mortality at 5x107 conidia ml-1, while same level of mortality was recorded in 5th instar at 1x108 conidia ml-1. Instar 5 also showed the lowest mortality (33.3%) at 1x106 conidia ml-1. Median effective concentration (EC50) ranged between 9.87x105 and 21.30x105 conidia ml-1 for 3rd to 5th instars. Median effective time (ET50) ranged between 3.3 days and 8.2 days f...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

...al incidence, morbidity, mortality levels etc. derived from literature, discussion with experts, and based upon scientific facts. Different mathematical models were used to assess the losses due to mortality in young and adult sheep/goats, body weight loss in young and adult sheep/goats, milk loss, loss due to increased inter-lambing/kidding period, loss due to increased abortion, cost of high feeding and rearing inputs in y...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

...o its high morbidity and mortality. The study was undertaken to detect and characterize the PPR virus (PPRV) circulating in Bangladesh. Twelve local isolates of Bangladeshi PPRV were successfully detected from post mortem samples (lymph node, spleen and trachea) of goats and a sheep during the year 2008-2012. The partial N gene of ten isolates and partial F gene of eight isolates were amplified by RT-PCR, and were sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis revealed ...

Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Waqar Ahmad1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Noor Islam1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1 and Zain Ul Abiden2 

...re was no adult honeybee mortality in any of the colonies during the experiment. It can be concluded that screen bottom board trays alone and with soft chemicals in all three seasons effectively control the Varroa mite and can be used without any side effect during all the three seasons.

...

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

...%, 30%, 70%, 50% and 65% mortality occurred by tested pesticides at field relevant doses after 144 h respectively. Missing mites data indicated repellency due to pesticides, was highest at the start of experiment, and then these acclimatized on leaf discs. Thiacloprid having lowest LC50 value 295 and proved toxic for the predator while diafenthiuron and pyriproxyfen have higher values. The findings of the study revealed that among five tested pesticides chlorf...

Muhammad Imran*, Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Farooq Nasir, Imran Bodlah, Muhammad Nasir and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh

Ayanda Opeyemi Isaac,1,* Oniye Sonnie Joshua2 and Auta Jehu2

 

...es in fish behaviour and mortality. Juveniles of the African catfish were exposed to varying acute concentrations of glyphosate and paraquat. The fishes responded, exhibiting different behavioural abnormalities like hyperactivity, abnormal swimming, restlessness, loss of equilibrum and haemorrhage. Observation of opercular ventilation count (OVC), tail fin movemant rate (TMR) and air gulping index (AGI) showed a marked difference between control and exposed fi...

Adedeji A.J, Sati N.M, Pewan S.B, Ogbu K.I, Adole J.A, Lazarus D.D, Ijiwo S.J, Okpanachi A, Nwagbo I.O, Joannis, T.M and Abdu P.A

...teau State, Nigeria with mortality of up to 79.12%. The clinical signs observed were prostration, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, anorexia, trembling and mortality that lasted for 6 days. Postmortem findings include ecchymotic hemorrhages in the breast and thigh muscles, mucosa of the junction between the proventriculus and gizzard, severely enlarged and hemorrhagic bursa of Fabricius (BF) and splenomegaly. The bursa of Fabriciu...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...als as well as increased mortality in calves and kids. In this study proportionate prevalence of FMD in cattle was estimated and the distribution of FMD according to different factors was evaluated. Both retrospective and prospective FMD clinical cases were included considering clinical signs and drugs used for treatment during 13 January to 15 March 2015. A total of 131 cattle was investigated and 16.8% cattle cattle were recorded as FMD. The proportionate pr...

Muhammad Afzal1 and Murad Khan2*

...y farms in spite of high mortality in large farms. Proper vaccination and medication was proposed to decrease losses due to high mortality particularly in large firms.

...
Muhammad Afzal1,Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi1,*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Irfan Hussain1
...sumption per termite and mortality rate were determined to evaluate resistance of wood against H. indicola. Populus euramericana and Dalbergia sissoo were observed most palatable and resistant wood species, respectively, in no-choice laboratory and field trials. Five different wooden pairs were evaluated in choice bioassays in laboratory and field conditions. In force feeding field bioassays, least mass loss was recorded on D. sissoo
Md. Yeamin Hossain1,*, Md. Alomgir Hossen1, Md. Nasir Uddin Pramanik1, Fairuz Nawer1, Md. Mosaddequr Rahman2, Suraiya Sharmin1, Dalia Khatun1, A. H. Bahkali3, Abdallah M. Elgorban3 and Khairun Yahya4
...m) and natural mortality (MW) in the Ganges River, northwestern (NW) Bangladesh. Samples were collected occasionally using multiples traditional fishing gears, including cast net (mesh size 1.5 – 2.0 cm), square lift net (mesh size ~1.5) and gill net (mesh size 1.8 – 2.2 cm) from July 2013 to June 2014. A total of 142 individuals of B. dario were collected, where 42.0% were males and 58.0% were females. The overall sex r...
Mehmet Cilbiz1* and F. Banu Yalim2
...ub>, to), mortality rate (Z, M, and F), recruitment pattern and yield were investigated for Oncorhynchus mykiss in Karacaören I Dam Lake. Fish were collected on monthly basis between July, 2013 and June, 2014. Growth parameters were analyzed by ELEFAN with monthly length–frequency data. The b values of the length-weight relationship, mean condition factor, K (growth coefficient), L...
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
...be focused on sex ratio, mortality and sex ratio at birth.
...
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...watery diarrhea and high mortality in piglets. This post-viral syndrome results in severe economic losses in the pig industry. However, limited information on the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus-infected pigs is available. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify transcriptomes with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) of piglets, Large White x Landrace crossbreds, infected with live strain PED virus (PEDV). Several g...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

...chicks, No morbidity and mortality were observed. During present study, some milder infection with field strain of IBDV almost a week ago recorded were also found in the control group when challenged with IBDV, IBD vaccines in the presence of specific maternally antibodies of IBD could no induce antibodies titer 1500 with live vaccines were protective against the IBDV. Based on the findings of present study, it can be concluded that all vaccinated group displa...
Xiang Nong1,2,3,*, Yao-jun Yang1,2, Guang-you Yang3, Feng-zheng Chen2, Mei Tang1,2 and Gang Wang2
...ndition also showed mite mortality of 16.67% within 12 h and 23.33% within 24 h. The insecticidal activity of stigmasterol was weaker than that of ageraphorone compound obtained from E. adenophorum Spreng. Through preliminary separation. However, in the experiments, we found an interesting phenomenon, that is, the dead state of mites treated with stigmasterol was similar to that of mites of the positive control group treated with fenvalerate. Fur...

S. K. Mukhopadhyay and M. V. Santha Kumar

Studies on the biosafety of botanical insecticides to native natural enemies of mulberry ecosystem
...cals tested showed least mortality and was on par with unsprayed control. Dimethoate (0.1%) was highly toxic causing 100% mortality. Whereas, dichlorvos (0.1%) was least toxic in comparison to dimethoate. Botanical insecticides tested in different conc./combinations are compatible with natural enemies and may be incorporated in IPM in mulberry ecosystem.

...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...hatching and caused high mortality of juveniles than the control (P< 0.05). The microorganisms which caused high nematicidal activity also showed antifungal activity in dual plate culture test in vitro. All the antagonists showed reduction in root knot and root rot disease and promote plants growth as the length and weight of root and shoot in pot trials on tomato plants. Keywords: Antagonistic fungi, root knot nematode, wilt fungus, bio-management
<...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
...ess their effects on the mortality of P. marginatus . It is evident that tobacco medicine exerted the best result in terms of control followed by neem seed oil, mehgoni seed oil, castor seed oil and tobacco leaf extract (20 % ).

...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Sultan Ayaz2, Sajid Umar4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Muhammad Shafee6, Ikramullah Khan7, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Azmat Ullah Khan8Naimat Ullah Malik1 and Abdul Razzaq9
...e main cause of neonatal mortality in Southern KPK and its zoonotic potential.
...
Ahmad Ali1,*, Sheikh Muhammad Azam2, Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Ghulam Mustafa1 and Mujahid Kaleem3
...onducted on breeding and mortality of Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris Linnaeus 1758). There are five big cat species in the genus Panthera and tiger is the biggest one. Data were collected by recording observations on breeding of Royal Bengal Tiger in captivity at Bahawalpur Zoo from June 2012 to July 2014 (two years) on prescribe sheets. Data from June, 2003 to December, 2011 (nine years) were collected from zoo management. In tw...
Noor Islam1, Muhammad Amjad2, Ehsan ul Haq3, Elizabeth Stephen1 and Falak Naz4
...mica sheet, percent mite mortality and honey yield per colony was determined before and after the treatments in the experimental colonies. The results revealed that formic acid and the highest concentrations (100%) of tested essential oils caused effective control of Tropilaelaps mites, whereas the infestation reduction percentage with formic acid, lemongrass, thyme, lemon, basil and oregano oils was recorded more than 96% after the end of treatments on...
Rahat Naseer1*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Zulfiqar-ul-Hassan2, H. Rehman1, Saima Naveed1, F. Masood1 and M. Tayyab1
...±0.804) group. No mortality was observed. It can be concluded that rice husk can be successfully processed and can replace the wheat bran. Moreover, fermented husk by using Pleurotus florida can process rice husk into a nutritionally dense ingredient.
...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,Waqas Wakil2 andMuhammad Hussnain Babar3

 

...e their impact on larval mortality, pupal and adult emergence of 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera litura F. under laboratory conditions. Both NPV and flubendiamide were applied using diet incorporation method. Larvae were allowed to feed for 48 h. Mortality was recorded until larvae died or pupated. Second instar larvae showed more susceptibility as compared with 4th instar larv...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Arshad1, Mubasshir Sohail1,2 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa3,4
...nt doses against percent mortality of Varroa mites. The essential oils were applied at two different doses (2.5ml and 5ml) and percent mortality data was recorded after 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of the application. As seen from results, all essential oils gave satisfactory control of Varroa mites except orange oil. The percent mortality was observed higher in eucalyptus oil (76.13%...

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

...d growth performance and mortality. In this study, 59 pools of intestinal content of layers, broilers, and breeders were investigated from different Brazilian regions for the presence of rotavirus (RVA, RVD, and RVF), avian coronavirus (ACoV), and avian astrovirus (AAstV), using PCR reactions followed by nucleotide sequencing and analysis. Twenty-nine pools (29/59; 49%) appeared positive for AAstV, 6 pools (6/59; 10%) were positive for RVD, forty-three pools (...
Naheed Bano* and Muhammad Afzal
...its slow growth and high mortality due to unavailability of suitable diet especially at juveniles stage. This study focus on the healthy production with low cost by using sunflower meal to some extent replace fish meal. In this 3× 3 factorial and completely randomized design study 324 fish were used. The acidification levels were (0, 1.5 and 3%) whereas the phytase levels were (0, 500 and 1000 FTU). The addition of 3 % citric acid and 1000FTU phytase pro...
Müge Aliye Hekimoğlu*, Cüneyt Süzer,Şahin Saka andKürşat Firat
...duce handling stress and mortality.
...
Sher Khan Panhwar1,2,3, Zhou Yong Dong1,4,*, Gao Tianxiang1,3, Wang Ping5, Han Zhiqiang1, Wang Zhongming1,4 and Wang Yang1,4
...0.494. The rate of total mortality (Z) ranged from 0.82 to 2.73 year-1 in 2013 and 2001, respectively. The exploitation rate was estimated to range from 0.660−0.797 year-1. Catch per unit effort estimates showed a consistent decline in catches. This study is a start to bridge the gap between data and information, allowing resource managers to determine management priorities for this economically and ecologically important species in...
Temel Gokturk1, Elif Tozlu2,* and Recep Kotan2
...r controlled conditions, mortality rate varied between 19.58%-42.08% in nymph applications, and between 6%-18% in adult applications.
...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
...s. Moreover, the maximum mortality was held between 3000 and 4000 ppm with no significant difference in the mortality of T. urticae. Finally, Huwa-San TR50 can be safely used in biological control programs, as it has little or no effects on biological control agents such as predatory mite, N. cucumeris, which is widely associated with the infestation of two spotted spider mite, T. urticae on tomato plant...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...gnificant effects on the mortality of RPW. After exposure to direct spray of oxamyl, adult mortality was 62, 82 and 100% whereas larvae mortality was 72, 77 and 100% after 1, 24 and 48 h, respectively. Alive adult and larvae were completely paralyzed after 24 hours. There was significant difference between 2 treatments, 1 and 24 h, in both adult and larvae. The mor...
Rana Fartab Shoukat1, Shoaib Freed1,*, Kanwar Waqas Ahmad1 and Ateeq-ur-Rehman2
.... Highest larval percent mortality (73.3 ± 4.7) was observed after application of Ma-11.1(LC40) + nitenpyram (LC40) mixtures under laboratory and field conditions (71.5 ± 7.4). The results showed a significant effect of binary treatments of fungi and chemical insecticides on biological parameters of C. pipiens and its progeny (P<0.05). The insect pathogenic fungi showed compatibility with insecticides and the combi...
Ghazala Saeed1, Rabia Wajid1* and Ayesha Yousaf Dar2
... to compare the maternal mortality after cesarean section versus vaginal delivery among eclampsiapatients.It is a descriptive case series conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lady Willingdon Hospital, from December 2014 to June 2015. In our study, 62.86 % (n=88) patients were between18-25 years of age and 37.14 % (n=52) were between 26-35 years of age. The mean+SD was calculated as 25.12+4.53 years. Frequency ofvaginal delivery in patients wit...

Naila Riaz1 , Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2* , Khizar Samiullah3

...he same venom dose, 100% mortality was achieved at 8 hr posttreatment when applied topically. Similarly, oral administration of 1µl and 0.5µl venom caused 100% mortality at 8 hr post-treatment compared to 10 hr and 12 hr post-treatment of topical application, respectively. It is concluded that oral treatment of venom was more efficient compared to its topical treatment with same doses of treatment.
...

Ayesha Aihetasham1*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2, Syeda Rida Hasan1, Imran Bodlah3

...C. papaya caused highest mortality i.e. 100% of 10%, 5% and 3% concentration. Bougainvillea glabra and H. annus caused 100% mortality at 10% and 5% concentration while 96.4% mortality on 3% concentration after exposure period of 10 hours. B. glabra extracts also caused 100% mortality on 10% and 5% concentration while 96.4% mortal...
Ayesha Aihetasham1,*, Humaira Aziz1 and Khalid Zamir Rasib2
...8 h caused less than 97% mortality in 8 h. LC50 values for Pronil and Mirage were 39.81 ppm and 177.32 ppm, respectively. Pronil was found more toxic than Mirage with low LC50 value however both insecticides revealed to be non-repellent against H. indicola.
...
Ikramul Haq1, Aneela Zameer Durrani*1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Imtiaz Ahmad3, Amjad Khan2 and Mehboob Ali1
...the most common cause of mortality. Lahore and Sahiwal districts of Punjab, Pakistan were selected during 2016 for the present study. A total of 616 foals were examined out of which 447 diarrheic foals were sampled for isolation of bacteria. During the study 294 faecal samples (horse n=217, mules n=23 and donkey n=54) were diagnosed positive for bacteria. The overall prevalence of diarrhea was 72.56% with bacteria in 65.77% of diarrheic cases. The prevalence o...

Ayesha Aihetasham*, Faiza Qayyum and Muhammad Xaaceph

...0 minutes and percentage mortality and consumptions were noted during eight days period. Results showed that workers of C. heimi responded effectively to different exposure time. Percentage mortality in 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60 minutes exposure was 46.7%, 55.6%, 67.5%, 76%, 85.3%, 100%, respectively. And, control showed 0% mortality. There was marked reduction in consumption by termites subj...
Zia ur Rehman1, Naila Chand1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3
...ared to HAT zone. Higher mortality was recorded in HAT zone as compared to thermoneutral zone. Significantly (P< 0.05) higher net return per chick was recorded in TN zone as compared to HAT zone. Ross and Arber Acer performed better in terms of feed intake, weight gain, FCR and are more economical to be reared in hot summer season in tropical climates of Pakistan, while Cobb and Hubbard strains performed better in TN environment.
...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

... with significant higher mortality and respiratory organ abnormalities, in comparison with the mono-infected groups (P<0.05). There was a non-significant (P>0.05) effect of the inoculation time intervals between vNDV and E. coli inoculation (none or 3 days). Microscopic lesions staining supported clinical and macroscopic findings. Higher virus shedding (P<0.05) in oropharyngeal swabs was observed in co-infected groups than single infected group...
Muhammad Abubakar,1,2,* Aamer Bin Zahur,1,3 Khalid Naeem1,3, Muhammad Azeem Khan1,3 and Subhan Qureshi
...th goats. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rate were 26.79%, 10.83% and 40.41% in sheep in comparison with 34.90%, 16.34% and 46.82% in goats, respectively. Overall, disease affected all three age groups of sheep and goats but the younger animals were more severely affected with a morbidity rate of 37.19%. The mortality and case fatality rates were also higher in young which were 46.86% and 17.39%, respectively. Ye...

Noreen Rasul1*, Madeeha Rashid2, Aqeela Abbas1 and Rubina Sohail

...g neonatal morbidity and mortality. This is a case series design of 121preterm and low birth weight neonates, weighing less than 2500 gram, enrolled from 1 August 2016 till31 January 2017.Kangaroo Mother Care is initiated after birth, after performing early essential newborn care practices. Weight gain of 20-30 gram for three consecutive days, establishment of breast-feeding for 20-30 minutes every two hourly and maintenance of body temperature at 37 degree ce...

Ayesha Saeed*, Mobina Naqvi and Ahsan Javed 

...e neonatal morbidity and mortality

...

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid 

... to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with it. 

...

Tariq Mahmood, M. Sudheer Tariq, Khalid Mahmood Khokar, Hidayatullah and Syed Ijaz Hussain*

...etle on the crop with no mortality of plants. Highest mortality of plants due to foliage eating by red pumpkin beetle was observed in control where no permethrin was applied. None of the plant extracts tested in this study as dust alone or mixed with dung ash was effective in controlling red pumpkin beetle attack. Permethrin dust (0.5%) alone and ash + permethrin dust (2000: 1 a.i w/w) gave a significantly higher yield of 18...
Jaime Molina-Ochoa1, 2, 6,*, Edelmira Galindo-Velasco2, Ana María Rosales-Gutiérrez2, Martín González-Ramírez3, Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez3, Wilberth Chan-Cupul3, Steven R. Skoda4, Muhammad Irfan Ullah5, Luis Jorge García-Márquez2 and  John E. Foster6
...plicated two times. Tick mortality was recorded daily for 9 days. Our EPNs were able to parasitize engorged ticks, and tick mortality ranged between 70-100% after 9-d post-exposure. The faster and higher tick mortality was obtained with the concentration of 2000 IJs causing 100% mortality after 3 days post-exposure. This is the first report of a native M...
Hina Safdar1,*, Nazir Javed1, Sajid Aleem Khan1 and Muhammad Arshad2
... larval instars. Maximum mortality was observed in 2nd and 5th larval instar. After the fourth day 100% mortality was observed in all larval instar. Mortality was increased with an increase in exposure time. Nematodes were harvested using White Traps. Multiplication of entomopathogenic nematodes was also recorded in all larval instar. The maximum number of H. bacte...

 Javid Iqbal, Asghar Ali Mian, Tanveer Ahmad*, Shamsul Hassan** and Sohail Hassan Khan* 

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT ECONOMIC TRAITS OF FOUR IMPORTED BROILER STRAINS UNDER LOCAL CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
... conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, antibody titres, dressing percentage and economic evaluation as cost of broiler per kilogram live weight produced. The average body weights gained by the birds were 2264g, 2277g, 2256g and 1942g for A, B, C and D strains, respectively at 49 days of age. The birds in treatments A, B and C gained significantly (P <0.05) more weight than the birds in treatment D. On the contrary, the birds in treatment D (4371g) consumed sig...

 Khawer Jawad Ahmad*, Asif Razzaq*, Khalida Hamid Abbasi*, Muhammad Shafiq*, Muhammad Saleem** and Muhammad Arshadullah***

THYMOL AS CONTROL AGENT OF MITES (VARROA DESTRUCTOR) ON HONEYBEES (APIS MELLIFERA)
...st Varroa mite. The mite mortality rate was recorded in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera during 2011-12 at research farm of Beekeeping and Hill Fruit Pests Research Station, Rawalpindi. Analysis of variance for different treatments indicated (F=3.64, F>P=0.15) significantly different effect among treatments as well as for the control of mite. The average efficacy of thymol was 73.72% as compared to 69.21% by fluvalinate, 72.23% by formic acid and 13.1% i...

 Farrukh Saleem*, Babar Hilal Ahmad*, Saleem Zahid* and Bilal Kabeer*

COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF INDIGENOUS NAKED NECK AND NAKED NECK CROSSBRED LAYER CHICKENS
... egg shell thickness and mortality were recorded. Naked Neck Crossbred (NNC) layers exhibited relatively less body weight (1461g) at 40 weeks of age, better egg -1 -1 production (66.36 %) and feed efficiency (761.32 g feed bird week ) and produced heavier eggs (average weight 60.89g) than those produced by Naked Neck (NN). However, the difference in the feed intake values was found to be non 0.05). The Naked Neck layers produced thicker shelled e...

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool*, Abuzar Muhammad Afzal*, Abu Baker Siddique*, Waseem Akram**, Muhammad Saqalein*, Madiha Basit* and Muhammad Farooq Tahir***

ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF VIRO CARE GZ-08 AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN POULTRY AND ITS IN-VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY
...ly reduced morbidity and mortality as compared to the use of vaccines alone. However, further work is recommended in future on GZ-08™ for its use as post-treatment of ND as well as on other antiviral compounds of natural origin to develop a novel antiviral drug against NDV in poultry.

...
Rabia Faiz and Dilara A. Bukhari*
...rvae of mosquito. Larval mortality was noted after 24 h and GCU B.t. 4 (400± 1.15) was found to be the most toxic against 3rd instar larvae of mosquitoes. Spores LC50 values of other isolates were 451± 0.90 (GCU B.t. 1), 511± 0.85 (GCU B.t. 2), 525± .013 (GCU B.t. 5), 582± 0.66 (GCU B.t. 3) and 850± 0.34 (GCU B.t. 6). GCU B.t.4, with LC50...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Arshad1, Rashid Mahmood2,* and Ziyad Abdul Qadir2
...spectively). Lowest mite mortality (52.3%±1.2) was recorded in Apitol® treatment. Overall, the data indicated that acaricides like Perizin® and Apistan® were highly effective against V. destructor and can be recommendedfor better management of this destructive pest.
...
Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2 and Saleh S. Alhewairini1,*
...eenhouse conditions, the mortality percentages were 81.17, 84.11, 92.74 and 95.10% for A. lycopersici and 15.86, 23.45, 33.33 and 58.19% for N. cucumeris after one week of exposure to 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000ppm of Huwa-San TR50, respectively. Under laboratory conditions, the mortality percentages were 83.24, 85.13, 94.21 and 97.36% for A. lycopersici and 17.14, 27.55, 37.14 and 59.37% for N. cucumer...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
...r cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study explored the dynamics of malaria infection relative to Anopheles mosquito abundance, relative humidity and temperature in Nsukka, Nigeria. Hospital records from three hospitals in Nsukka town: Bishop Shanahan Hospital, University of Nigeria Medical Centre and Sadiq Hospital were examined for malaria prevalence and intensity from January to July 2015. Indoor biting Anopheles
Yan Li1, Kai Zhan1,*, Junying Li1, Wei Liu1, Ruiyu Ma1, Shengnan Liu1, Tao Han2, Shaoquan Li2, Shaolin Wang2 and Yang Hu2
...es. Laying performances, mortality, egg quality characteristics and welfare level of birds were measured during the study period.Compared with AI birds, NM birds laid the first egg significantly earlier age, and had significantly lower laying rate, mortality and body weight of hens. NM birds however had significantly higher albumen height, Haugh units and yolk colour. No significant differences were found in other laying per...
Felicia NkechiEkeh*, Ifeanyi Oscar Ndimkaoha Aguzie, Joy Ihuoma Nzei, Chinenye Maria-Goretti Ohanu, Godwin Ikechukwu Ngwu and ChukwudiebubeUgolo
...ctively. Observation for mortality and larval emergence was made every 3 days and cumulative taking at the end of 28 days. Mortality of adult D. maculatus was higher in 8, 12 and 15% (w/w) of P. guineense and 15% (w/w) of C. annum than control. Both extracts significantly enhanced D. maculatus larval and adult mortality (p < 0.05). Larval emergence in 8, 12 a...

Murad Khan1* and Muhammad Afzal2 

...e negatively affected by mortality of chicks. All the variables were significant except age of the respondents. Proper vaccination and medication is required to decrease the high mortality rate so that the losses due to mortality can be minimized. 

...

Baharullah Khattak1*, Saifullah2, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharraf Ahmad2, Asad Ali2, Mohammad Junaid2, Ijaz Ahmad Khan3, Taj Ali Khan1 and Mubbashir Hussain1 

...g an average of 66.6% J2 mortality. Genetic variability among these isolates, was studied at molecular level by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA procedure. A selected set of three random primers was used for this purpose, which resulted in 113 bands on gel for the 15 isolates of T. harzianum. The analysis of the bi-variate data, using Unweighted Paired Groups Method Averages, divided the indigenous isolates of Trichoderma, into four well-defined clusters. Th...
Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq1, Amer Jamal Hashmat1, Ejazul Islam1, Muhammad Afzal1, Abid Mahmood2, Muhammad Ibrahim2,*, Muhammad Nawaz3,*, Shahid Nadeem4 and Qaiser Mahmood Khan1
...toxify the effluent. The mortality rate of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) was 70% decreased in treated textile effluent as compared to untreated textile effluent. Overall, electrochemical treatment process has been proved to be efficient in reducing COD, color and toxicity and thus treated water can be reused.
...
Sukirno Sukirno1,2, Muhammad Tufail1,3,*, Khawaja Ghulam Rasool1Said El Salamouny1, 4, Koko Dwi Sutanto1 and Abdulrahman Saad Aldawood1
... data indicated that the mortality of the first instar larvae was highest at day 0 of the sunlight exposure. In virus alone treatments, after 7 days of sunlight exposure, the efficacy recorded was 88%. However, in clove-virus treatment, the mortality was higher (96%) than other treatments. These data also revealed that the second instar larvae were more resistance than the neonates. The efficacy of SpliMNPV at 0 and 7...

Wasim Javaid1, Farid Asif Shaheen1*, Farah Naz2 and Muhammad Usman Raja2 

...chickpea grains. Highest mortality (90%) of PB was observed in 72 hours through application of 1×108spores/ml of M. anisopliae compared to B. bassiana with 60% mortality. On 24 hours of exposure, minimum mortality (4%) in PB was recorded in grains treated with 1×106 spores/ml of B. bassiana. In M. anisopliae, the concentrations of 1×108 after 24 hours, 1×107 after 4...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

... along with considerable mortality in young suckling animals and showing an expanding host range even to marine species make this contagious virus, an important animal pathogen globally. Being zoonotic and endemic in most parts of the developing world, it is necessary to prevent and control the infection using latest molecular diagnostics and effective vaccine along with anti-viral therapeutics. This short commentary deals with current knowledge and opportunit...
Azmat Hayat Khan Khattak1, Abdul Wasay2, Tariq Ali1,*, Muhammad Iqbal1, Khisrao Kalim1, Mohammad Farooque Hassan3, Muhammad Mobashar2, Nazir Ahmad2, Abid Iqbal2 and Muhammad Nauman ul Islam1
...es.
...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2, Sumaira Maqsood3, Ishita Ahuja4 and Atle M. Bones4
...y condition. The highest mortality of S. litura was observed at early instars. Against second instars of S. litura, LC50 values of NPV isolate ranged from 1.92×103 to 3.64×103OB/ml with LT50 values of 69.30 h to 72.80 h, respectively. This study showed highly effectiveness and provides an opportunity to cut down the use of synthetic approaches and develop safe biological/microbial insecticid...
Junaid Akhtar1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Abdul Waheed1, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed4 and Shah Jahan5,*
... amount of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients across the globe. Currently, β-lactam ring containing antibiotics predominantly carbapenems, are considered as last treatment option against multi-drug resistance GNR infections. However, the emergence of carbapenemases particularly metallo β-lactamases (MBLs) in bacteria have severely mitigated the efficiency of carbapenems. MBLs producing gram-negative bacteria have been reported from v...

Ashraf Khan1*, Suliman Shah2, Maid Zaman3 and Komal Habib2

...was evaluated as percent mortality (%) of citrus psylla. Overall highest percent mortality was observed in plants treated with combination of Nitenpyram + Chlorfenapyr (99.20 and 99.89 %) followed by Flubendiamide (89.83 and 99.39 %) and Imidacloprid (89.31 and 98.77 %) after spray 1 and 2, respectively. Least effective insecticide was proved to be Melathion with 39.79 and 65.43 percent reduction in citrus psyllidspopulation...

Mohsin Iqbal1, Farid Asif Shaheen1*, Farah Naz2, Muhammad Usman Raja2, Muhammad Fiaz3 and Muhammad Nadeem1 

...mber of days (7) to 100% mortality of C. chinensis adults were recorded when chickpea grains were treated with the highest concentration of B. bassiana as compared to that of M. anisopliae. These non-chemical control strategies will have significant contribution towards development of commercial formulations of bio-pesticides to be used against this grain beetle and other stored product insect pests. 

...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...boratory conditions. The mortality percentages of O. afrasiaticus were 61.79, 73.58 and 82.90%; 62.87, 73.77 and 83.32%; 71.70, 82.23 and 92.37% after one week of exposure to the quarter recommended dose (QRD), half recommended dose (HRD) and recommended dose (RD) of oxamyl only and with the recommended dose (RD) of Injo200 or 1000ppm of Huwa-SanTR50, respectively. The percentages of larvae hatching from eggs of O. afrasiaticus were 97.20, 94.62 ...
Tevfik Ceyhan1,*, Osman Samsun2 and Okan Akyol1
...tural, fishing and total mortality of the garfish were 0.47, 0.69 and 1.16, respectively. The current study revealed that about 68% of the fish caught were of size smaller than the first maturity length. In addition, exploitation rate was found to be higher than optimum. On the other words, there is a fishing pressure on the garfish stock in the Black Sea due to absence of minimum landing size (MLS) of the garfish. Apart from direct fishing control measures ai...
Sajid Ali Khan1, Mazhar Hussain Ranjha1, Azhar Abbas Khan2,*, Muhammad Sagheer1, Amjad Abbas1 and Zeshan Hassan2
...tone. The data regarding mortality, growth regulation and repellency of T. granarium was observed. Repellency of plant extracts was tested using area preference method while for the growth regulatory potential of plant extracts, the adults insects were released in wheat grains treated with different concentrations of plant extracts. All the experiments were carried out in an incubator at 30±2ᵒC and 65±5% R.H using Completely Randomized D...

Zubina Hameed1, Muhammad Azim Malik1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Ansar1, Farina Shaheen1, Ijaz Ahmad2 and Khisrao Kalim3 

...tril-super showed higher mortality percentage of weeds after weeds free (hand weeded) plots having (63.61 %), (62.64 %) and (100%) mortality percentages respectively. The plots treated with Buctril-super, Clean wave, Brominal-M, Sectril-M and hand weeding produced a higher number of tillers, plant height, spike length, and biological yield when compared with other treatments. The highest biological yield (10.55 t. ha-1) and ...

Muhammad Zafar*1, Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan2, Asmatullah3

Efficacy of methamidophos, fenpropathrin and metasystox against aphid population within the response of Brassica campestris at Multan
...ticides showed different mortality of aphid population. Of the three insecticides tested, methamidophos resulted in more than 80% mortality in the aphid population and more than 30% increase in the yield, whereas fenpropathrin and metasystox produced mortality of 80% and 72% respectively. The result of this study indicated that the insecticide methamidophos is more effective as compared to...

 Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1*, Zafar Iqbal Khan2, Saira Batool2, Kafeel Ahmad2, Salma Begum2

Residual effect of lambda-cyhalothrin on abundance of insect pollinators in marigold field patch
...plants for one hour. The mortality rate of honey bees in the control and insecticide
exposed group was compared. Overall, a significant decline in plant pollinators was
observed after application of lambda-cyhalothrin on the patch of marigold plants.
Lambda-cyhalothrin caused significant mortality (15/20=75%) in honey bees in
semi-field experiment. It is concluded that lambda-cyhalothrin is highly...

Muhammad Shahzad Akbar, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed* and Muhammad Afzal 

...cides caused significant mortality of termites as compared to control treatment. Formulations of chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr and pyriproxyfen exhibited maximum termite mortality, ranging from 31.18±5.67, 28.33±7.03 and 21.67±4.01%, respectively at 3 h post-exposure to 100% at 24 h, followed by triflumuron (81.67±3.07%) and indoxacarb (63.33±5.58%). Moreover, chlorantraniliprole, chlor...

Akshay Sharma*, Mohit Mahajan, Madhumeet Singh and Pravesh Kumar 

...days) and late embryonic mortality, if any. Sexing of the twins was done on 56th and 70th day post artificial insemination and two male twins were confirmed on the basis of genital tubercle, median raphe, scrotal and penis impression. With the aid of ultrasonography and color Doppler technique, it is possible to determine the twins’ zygosity and viability. 

...
Radek Aulicky1,*, Vaclav Stejskal1 and George Opit2
...gnificant differences in mortality between repressive and preventive regimes. However, no differences between regimes existed for 24-h exposure. Our data show that short term exposure to DDVP strips have suppression effect for O. surinamensis but cannot fully replace long term exposure of strips or high dose DDVP aerosols for T. castaneum, C. ferrugineus, R. dominica and S. granarius.
...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Saleem Haider1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Ashfaq1, Muhammad A. Aqueel2 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah2
...e their impact on larval mortality, pupal and adult emergence by exposing three field strains of S. litura (Faisalabad, Chiniot and Sargodha), under laboratory conditions. Both NPV and Bt were applied using diet incorporation method. Two concentrations of a NPV based formulation (Somestar): 1x107 and 1x108 POB/ml, and three concentrations of a Bt based formulation (Dipel): viz., 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 μg/g,...
Huseyin Cetin1,*, Oner Kocak2, Emre Oz1, Samed Koc1, Yesim Polat1 and Kalender Arıkan2
...auses an increase in the mortality rates after 24 h. Also the toxicities of tested chemicals, based on their KDT50 (Knock-down 50 times) values, increased when mixed with PBO.
...
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
...he nematodes caused 100% mortality of the test insects within 6 days. The mean numbers of IJ of S. feltiae invading each G. mellonella, T. molitor medium and small were significantly greater (11.2, 15.2 and 11.4 IJ, respectively) than those of H. bacteriophora (2.8 IJ each per G. mellonella and T. molitor medium and 3 IJ per T. molitor small). Contrarily, there was greater emergence of IJ of H. bacteriophora ...

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

...diseases and significant mortality in various cattle, sheep, deer, buffalo and goat, etc. Various synthetic anthelmintics have been used, on wide scale, to control the helminths infections.But the parasite worms have developed multiple resistances against the synthetic anthelmintics. Hence, various biological controls, vaccines and local medicinal plants are being explored to control the parasitic worms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic p...
Ali Raza Jahejo1,2, Nasir Rajput2, Wen-xia Tian1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro2, Asmatullah Kaka2, Sheng Niu1 and Fa-jie Jia1
...ke. Body temperature and mortality percentage were significantly decreased in ascorbic acid and basil supplementary group as compared to control. Dressing percentage significantly increased in both supplementary groups. It is concluded that supplementation of basil at 5g/kg feed, promotes the growth, improves the intestinal villus size, feed efficiency and immunity of heat stressed broiler chicken.
...
Osman Ergene1,*, Isfendiyar Darbaz1, Serkan Sayiner2 and Selim Aslan1
...d 9 cows whose embryonic mortality (EM) was determined. In PAG-Serum, there was a statistically significant difference (P <0.05, P <0.01) between the measurements on 40th day when EM was detected and on the 28th and 32nd days of pregnancy. In the PAG-Milk and PSPB-serum tests, there was a difference (P <0.05) in terms of blood values between the 32nd day and the 40th day when EM was detected. Statistically significant differences...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
...n increase in percentage mortality with increasing concentrations of Huwa-San TR50 and this resulted in mortalities of 66.5% for H. dromedarii and 76.5% for H. impeltatum after 24 h of direct exposure (direct spray treatment) whereas in the dipping treatment, the mortality was 60% and 70% for H. dromedarii and H. impeltatum at 14,000 ppm of Huwa-San TR50. Huwa-San TR50 was found to be moderately e...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...ate the total losses and mortality of the sheesham trees in Indian sub-continent. Up-till now billions of shisham trees have been destroyed because of decline or dieback disease but unluckily there is no suitable solution against this disease. There is a need to develop the resistant varieties and to improve the quality of seed. Disease may be reduced by selecting the improved genetic material. Because it will have a good impact on product quality, economic ou...

Khadim Hussain Wagan1*, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1 and Abdul Ghani Lanjar2 

...infection. Maximum plant mortality (46.67%) was recorded in plants inoculated with MPS16 isolate followed by MPS17 (43.33%) and MPS12 (43.0%). Similarly, length of necrotic lesions was also significantly higher in MPS16 (6.67 cm) followed by MPS17 (6.33 cm), MPS12 (6.30 cm), MPS15 (6.17 cm) and MPS 13 (6.07 cm). The predicted isolate (MPS16) was aligned with different species and observed that MPS16 belongs to M. phaseolina isolate. The sequence showed high id...

Muhamamd Naeem1 and Murad Khan2* 

...n the summer season. The mortality rates were also high in the winter season. The lighting cost was comparatively less in summer season. Broiler and breeding cost was also low. The consumption of breeding was less and the price of broiler was low in the summer season as compared to winter season but revenue and production were higher due to high demand and consumption in winter season than the summer season. The paper also show major factors that affect poultr...
Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Yasir Iftikhar2, Samina Khalid3, Zahoor Hussain4, Jaime Molina-Ochoa5,6 and John E. Foster6
...ectin showed significant mortality (63.5%) of CLM larvae when topical bioassay was performed. Similarly, the percent mortality of CLM larvae was 53.8% after application of abamectin, when leaf dip bioassay technique was used. However, among tested botanicals, Azadirachta indica oil showed better results with percent CLM mortality of 35.6%, through topical bioassay and 31.8% t...

 Zhi Yijin and Shao Mingqin*

...exual migration time and mortality. We did not detect significant differences in the sex ratio of the scaly-sided merganser among different group sizes. 

...

 Abdul Khaliq1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Akhlaq Ahmad2 and Yasir Iftikhar3

...phine fitness in term of mortality mean calculated at 300 ppm was minimum against weevil but highly effective against red flour beetle after 24hours while, at 400ppm showed same resistance level in all. At 500ppm, lesser grain borer (LGB) was more susceptible as compared to others as in rice weevil. Nicotiana tabacum (L.) and Calotropis procera (Aiton) oil both at 15% were most lethal to LGB, weevil and red flour beetle after 72hours following by...

 Attaur Rahman1, Sadeeq ur Rahman1,*, Ashfaq Ahmad2, Abdul Sajid1, Muhammad Asif Hussain1, Mian Muhammad Salman1, Niamat Ullah Khan1, Kamran Khan3, Fazli Rabbani1, Muhammad Akbar Shahid4, Irshad Ahmad5 and Shakoor Ahmad6

...rved 100%, while maximum mortality of 100% in broiler and 33% in ostriches was observed on day 7 and 6 post-inoculation, respectively. Interestingly, gross lesions were found similar comprising hydropericardium, hepatomegaly, hepatitis, nephritis and spleenomegaly. Altogether, albeit, FAdV-4 caused similar symptoms and lesions in ostriche, however, mortality remained comparatively lower.

...
Mohsan Iqbal1, Farid Asif Shaheen1, Rashid Mahmood2,*, Muhammad Khalid Rafique2, Imran Bodlah1, Farah Naz3 and Muhammad Usman Raja3
...nidial germination and % mortality of C. chinensis were also evaluated when B. bassiana was used with DEBBM. The minimum number of eggs (0.66 grain-1), number of holes (1 grain-1), number of F1 new emerged (5.6 jar-1), days to 100 percent mortality F1 (3), weight loss (4%), damage (5%) whereas the maximum inhibition rate of 85% and percent

Hafiz Abdul Ghafoor*, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Luqman and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed 

...ignificant effect on the mortality of mealybug nymphs. The most effective novel chemistry insecticides against D. mangiferae mealybugs were sulfoxaflor, spirotetramat, thiamethoxam and pyriproxyfen with mean mortality and LT50 values of 64.00±3.50% and 31.67 h, 62.67±2.64% and 34.42 h, 53.01±4.10% and 45.84 h, and 51.00±3.97% and 48.10 h, respectively. Based on these results, the above mentioned n...

Sadaf Rahim and Mudassar Iqbal* 

...ed enhanced insecticidal mortality (73% and 76%) against Diuraphis noxia and Tribolium castaneum respectively while the extract obtained from GPYB media showed merely 46% and 56% mortality against Diuraphis noxia and Tribolium castaneum respectively at highest concentration after 2 hours exposure. Increased potency of extracts was observed with the increased exposure time. The LC50 value calculated for organic extract obtain...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1, Samia Afzal1,*, Zareen Fatima1 and Muhammad Idrees2
... till now.
...
Khansa Nazir1,*, Tariq Mukhtar1 and Humayun Javed2
...ognita). The maximum mortality of juveniles was recorded at a concentration of 100 mg/ml followed by 75 mg/ml of AgNP. The minimum mortality was recorded with 25 mg/ml of AgNP. With the increase in concentration, there was a corresponding increase in the mortality of juveniles showing a direct relationship between mortality and concentration of nanop...
Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Moez Ayadi1 and Abdullah H. Alyemni2
... lamb weaning weight and mortality rate were recorded. Blood samples were collected regularly during the different stages and analyzed for different important nutritional metabolites. In addition, colostrum, at parturition, and milk samples on day 30, 60 and 90 postpartum were collected for nutrient contents. The results showed an improvement in lambing rate of ewes in T1 and T2 (81 and 80%, respectively) compared to the control (78.8%). Moreover, ewes in T2 s...
Sikander Ali1, Muhammad Kamil Malik1, Muhammad Zubair1*, Muhammad Jawad Saleem2, Kanwal Hanif2 and Saira Azmat3
...sica juncea. Maximum mortality of mustard aphid was caused by nitenpyram (96.24%) followed by carbosulfan (94.69%) and pyriproxyfen (90.85%). Results of these three insecticides were not significantly different from each other but were different from thiamethoxam which showed least mortality (71.65%). Nitenpyram, carbosulfan and pyriproxyfen can be included in integrated pest management strategies to control mustard aphi...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2,*, Hareem Mansoor1, Sana Khan1 and Mushtaq A. Saleem1
Irfan Irshad1, Asim Aslam1,*, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Kamran Ashraf2, Beenish Zahid3 and Abdul Wajid4
...being reported with high mortality in poultry and non-poultry avian species. In this study, five AAvV-1s have been pathotyped and genetically characterized from vaccinated birds collected between 2013-14. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to sub-genotype VIIi with high similarity of 97.9 to 99.8% with similar viruses in this clade. Analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences of the two AIV was performed and phylogenetic anal...
Zia-ud-Din1, Muhammad Nauman Aftab2, Tanveer Hussain3,*, Irfana Iqbal4 and Asma Zafar5
...±0.25) with least mortality and highest net profit (Rs.1677, 0.35 cost benefit ratio). Among varieties, Mushki showed more economic value than rest of the varieties with highest live body weight of 169.78±8.23g, gaining 130.61±7.92g weight, multiplying their weight 4.41±0.22 times over the initial body weight with feed intake of 658.95±37.70g showing slightly less efficient FCR (5.09±0.47) with no
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...ignificant effect on the mortality of RPW (larvae and adult) except the pupal stage under laboratory conditions. After direct spray application of the recommended dose, the adult mortality percentages were 66.67, 73.33 and 100% for acetamiprid and 23.33, 60 and 96.67% for sulfoxaflor after 1, 24, and 48 h, respectively, whereas the larvae mortality percentages were 63.33, 73.33 and 100% fo...
Abdul Hanan1, Talha Nazir1, Abdul Basit1, Shahbaz Ahmad2 and Dewen Qiu1,*
...V-3 showed maximum aphid mortality (95%) and V-5 showed the lowest mortality (70%) at the highest concentration (1×108 conidia/ml) at 8th-day post-treatment whereas, in filtrate bioassay, 98% mortality was achieved in V-3, and recorded mortality up-to 74% in V-5. Similarly, in the binary combination of fungal conidia 1×1...
Muhammad Aslam Farooqi*, Bakhtawar Irsa, Sajjad Ali, Asif Sajjad, Muhammad Waqar Hassan and Sohail Akhtar

 

Mubasshir Sohail1,2,*, Raza Muhammad1 and Qadeer Ahmed Soomro1
...cts of different prey on mortality and certain biological characteristics of C. carnea. The highest mortality rate (66.43±2.13%) was for larvae, which fed upon Oleander aphid, Aphis nerii. Less larval mortality (7.86±2.37%), larval period (164.57±8.16 h), maximum pupal weight (9.86±0.41 mg) and emergence (95.13±2.03%) was observed when C....

Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Rashid Mahmood2, Ziyad Abdul Qadir2, Muhammad Arshad1 and Mubasshir Sohail3 

...trations against percent mortality of Varroa mites. The essential oils were applied at different concentrations (100 ppm, 200 ppm and 400 ppm) and percent mortality data were recorded after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hrs of the application. The results of present study were showed that lemon oil and eucalyptus oils were best compounds to manage Varroa mites at 200 ppm concentration. Percent mortality
Muhammad Siddique1, Muhammad Shafique2,*,Abdul Mateen3, Naveed Shahzad4, Bilal Aslam2, Nasir Ahmad1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar2
...t cause of morbidity and mortality globally due to the lack of HCV vaccine. HCV genotypes are helpful for analyzing disease severity and start of therapy. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the genotyping of clinically isolated HCV from a Liver Center Faisalabad, Pakistan. A total of 3200 clinical samples were screened for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies by ICT method. Among positive samples, confirmation was carried out by RT-PCR and clustere...
Riaz Shah1* and Margaret Appleby2
...ely acceptable levels of mortality 72.0+5.8% while bifenazate caused 95.2+3.7% mortality. TSSM females laid significantly more eggs on the garlic/chilli treated leaf discs in both contact and residual bioassays. When sprayed directly (contact bioassay), all of tested low-risk pesticides mortality of 85.2-100% to P. persimilis except DE. All of tested low-risk pesticides were moderat...

Illahi Bux Bhatti1, 2*, Imran Khatri2, Maqsood Anwar Rustamani2 and Riffat Sultana

...per leaf) with highest % mortality (79.89) was recorded in T11 (cultural control + biological control + chemical control), followed by T10 (Cultural control + Biological control + Yellow sticky traps) in which recorded 0.48 nymphs + puparia with 74.60% mortality. The next best treatment was T7 (cultural control + chemical control) in which recorded 0.56 nymphs + puparia per cm2 per leaf 70.37%, T5 (cultural control + Biologi...

Muhammad Shahzad Akbar*, Maria Aslam, Muhammad Rehan Khalid, Shahid Iqbal, Muhammad Luqman and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed 

... each treatment. Termite mortality data was recorded at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h post-treatment. Median lethal concentration (LC50) and median lethal time (LT50) values were calculated for each treatment using log-dose probit analysis. Results revealed a mortality response of termites directly proportional to the extract concentration for all treatments. The floral extracts of basil (O. basilicum) and Tecoma (T. stans) exhibited m...

Khaled Kaboudi* 

... losses, related to high mortality, decrease in animal performance and aggravation of infection by other pathogens. Although H9N2 is endemic in many regions of the world, such as Middle East and North Africa, where the first outbreaks were described since the end of 1990s, many features about epidemiology and genetic characteristics are still little known. This review summarized the epidemiological situation of H9N2 subtype in poultry in Algeria, Egypt, Libya,...

Ankur Abrol, Madhumeet Singh, Akshay Sharma* and Pravesh Kumar 

... by dam as well as fetal mortality. So, the most important aspect in successful management of uterine torsion lies in the correct and efficient diagnosis which can mainly be achieved by anamnesis, vaginal and rectal examination. However, prognosis of uterine torsion is mainly dependent on the degree and duration of condition and can be categorised into 3 successive stages i.e. stage of positive prognosis, stage of less positive prognosis and stage of negative ...
Ali Mujtaba Shah1,2,3, Ali Raza Shah3, Muhammad Farooque Hassan2, Muhammad Yousif2, Zhisheng Wang1*
...lostrum reduces neonatal mortality, strengthen immunity and increase animal lifespan. Delaying intake of colostrum in dairy calves causes decreased transport of both immunoglobulins as well as fat-soluble vitamins. In this review, an attempt has been made to study the composition of colostrum, i.e. fat, protein, immunoglobulin, lactose, oligosaccharide, vitamins, minerals, growth factors and nucleotides and its benefits to health of animals.
...
Naila Riaz1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar1, Ali Hassan2, Shaukat Ali2, Shafaat Yar Khan1
...orpion venom caused 100% mortality in adult M. domestica. . It was concluded that the venom of scorpions contains peptides fractions that may be used as potential bio-pesticides.

 

...

Ghulam Hussain1, Muhammad Asrar1, Dilbar Hussain2, Khurum Zia3, Abdul Rashid4*, Hina Anwar5, Muhammad Azeem1, Saddam Hussain1 and Sabeen Asghar1 

...24 and 48 hours. Maximum mortality of cotton mealy bug was recorded in Syngenta 50EC (profenofos) are 42%, 62%, 80%, 88%, 94 % while Match 50EC exhibit minimum percentage of mortality is 22%,34%,48%, 72% and 76% after 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours respectively.
 

...
Khursheed Ahmed, Shoaib Freed*, Rana Fartab Shoukat and Kanwar Waqas Ahmad
...secticides caused higher mortality of O. hyalinipennis. Moreover, the combined treatments decreased the adult emergence, male and female longevity, while increased the nymphal duration. The results indicated that these entomopathogenic fungi can provide better control in combination with insecticides and can be used in integrated pest management for reducing the population density of O. hyalinipennis.
...
Ammara Blouch1, Ata ul Mohsin2, Muhammad Naeem2 and Rashid Mahmood1*
...ts indicated that larval mortality increased with time and Turex (Bt sub speciess kurstaki and aizawai)after 3 days of exposure caused significantly higher mortality i.e 46.43, 43.45 and 38.69 % as compared to Dipel (Bt sub speciess kurstaki) that caused 19.05, 6.55 and 4.76 % mortality for 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar, respect...
Mubasher Ahmad Malik1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad2, Muhammad Jalal Arif1 and Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,*
...chta indica (AZA) on mortality and development of P. xylostella under laboratory conditions. Both AZA and PxGV were applied alone and in integrated manners at LC20 and LC50 dose rates. The combination of 349.3 parts per million of AZA and 4.8×104 occlusion bodies per millimeter of PxGV, resulted in synergistic interaction after 3rd, 5th and 8th days post application while the ad...

Asim Munawar1,2*, Farooq Ahmad1, Aqsa Arshad1, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi3 and Chengjuan Liang4 

...to lab strains. Maximum mortality of lab and field collected strains of R. dominica and T. castaneum was observed against phosphine than against deltamethrin. Our results suggest that field strains experienced with different out door conditions was less susceptible as compared to lab strains which proved to be more susceptible and findings of this study could be helpful for effective management of these key pests keeping in mind the issue of resistance develo...

Anand Kushwaha, Amit Kumar, Aparna Madhavan, Durga Goswami, Golmei Poulinlu and Gnanavel Venkatesan* 

... to high morbidity, high mortality rate and animal trade restrictions. Though several diagnostics including molecular tools are available, recombinant protein based diagnostic assays namely ELISA is safer and robust to handle large sample size and also to minimize labor/time. However, the genus Capripoxvirus encodes putative 147 proteins in their genome, among which some of them are reported as potential immunogenic candidate genes. Selection and use of such c...
Erum Yawar Iqbal1*, Ashfaque Ahmed Nahiyoon1, Shahnaz Dawar2 and Shahina Fayyaz1
...ificant effects on Aphid mortality, change in population density, population reduction and fecundity. Cell-free supernatant of new EPB species Xenorhabdus steinernematis n.sp. strain PAK. CB10 (KU097324) and the other X. indica PAK. S.B.56 (MF521953) resulted in both the highest mortality rate [(94.33±2.05, 100.00±0.00)%] @ 300µl/10ml at 30ºC and the lowest fecundity [(65.00&plus...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2*Mubasher Ahmad Malik1, Mujahid Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir2,  Zubair Aslam4, Sumaira Maqsood5, Ishita Ahuja3 and Atle M. Bones3
.... A difference in larval mortality, pupation, adult emergence and egg ecluson was observed. The higher but sub-lethal dose rate of NPV with Spinosad exhibited synergistic interaction, while the rest of the combinations were found additive in all the tested populations. The results confirmed the population of S. litura from Rahim Yar Khan Region least susceptible, and that of Faisalabad highly susceptible. It may be inferred that the mixtures of the corr...
Guoan Yin1,2, Lei Wang1, Xiaoyu Zhao1, LangchaoYu1, Liwei Guan1 and 
Dapeng Huang1,2*
...ated closely with piglet mortality. However, few studies have focused on effects of pregnancy and lactation environments on Postures of primiparous sows during lactation. This study has investigated the postures of lactating primiparous sows raised in the crates or free pens during pregnancy and lactation. Total 12 gilts were reared in three types of environments randomly during pregnancy and lactation, including gestation pens&nb...
Rafia Sadaf1, Ishrat Younus2*, Sidra Maqbool2, Talha Bin Fayyaz3Sarah Jameel Khan1, Sidra Siddique1 and Rida Fatima1
... to toxicity and also no mortality was observed. Antianxiety activity of Pulsatilla nigricans was examined by using elevated plus-maze paradigm and hole-board paradigm in rats at two different doses i.e. 250 and 500 mg/kg, and significant anxiolytic effects were observed as compare to control.
...
Babar Khan1,2 *, Nazir Javed1, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Nasir Ahmed Rajput1, Muhammad Atiq1, Abdul Jabbar1, Abdul Rehman3, Anam Moosa1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1*
...nificantly higher larval mortality of insect larvae followed by 15°C and 10°C. Effect of storage time of EPN culture was studied on insect’s larvae and results showed that 2-week-old culture was more efficient as compared to 4- and 6-week-old cultures in reproduction. The larvae weight of 0.5 g was best option in comparison to 0.25 g for the reproduction of S. kraussei. The results conclude that S. kraussei is a potential biological...
Sumaira Akram1, Sajid Aleem Khan1*, Nazir Javed1 and Saeed Ahmad2
... produced 100 % juvenile mortality at S concentration. After 48 h the treatment TH + PL caused highest juvenile mortality of MG and among plant extracts tobacco extract caused the highest juvenile mortality after 48 h. The protective and curative effect of chemicals, biocontrol agents and plant extracts on the development of MG was recorded on the basis of number of eggs on the most suscep...
Godwin Ikechukwu Ngwu1*, Maria Ifeyinwa Ngwu2, Fabian Chukwuemenam Okafor1, Aruh Ottah Anaga3 and Christopher Didigwu Nwani1
...) in the mean percentage mortality between the laboratory-reared and field-collected Aedes mosquitoes. The mortality rate due to the extract was found to be less in the field collected A. aegypti (LC50 = 2.81 ± 0.14; LCI = 2.55; UCI = 3.11) than the laboratory-reared ones (LC50=1.24±0.09; LCI = 1.07; UCI = 1.43) after 24 h exposure. The median larvicidal concentration LC50

Ihsanullah Kakr1, Sarwar Khan2, Khalid Khan3* and Sajjad Ahmed

...ence of Trypanosomiasis, mortality rate, abortion and perceptions of the respondents were recorded. The camel dies due to Trypanosomiasis in direct visible losses and invisible losses include reduced fertility, meat loss, low quality of hide, loss of draught power and traction force and change in herd. While, indirect losses include additional costs of drugs, veterinarian fee, preventive medicine and quarantine. Moreover, the present study demonstrates that th...

Hamza Rehman*, Nida Ahmad Khan, Asad Ali, Warda Batool and Kanwal Razzaq 

... determine the corrected mortality. At 2ppm concentration thiamethoxam and imidacloprid provided 87.57% and 78.59% mean mortality of khapra larvae on treated filter paper after 72 hours respectively. On treated wheat, thiamethoxam provided 82.61% while imidacloprid gave 78.18% mean mortality of khapra larvae at 2ppm after 72 hours. Mortality was dose and...

Muhammad Zeeshan Nazar*, Ayyan Umer, Zahid Mahmood Sarwar, Faiz Ullah Faiz and Sikandar Hussain 

...quid impelled leading to mortality. Provide the required temperature and humidity with appropriate hygienic condition to B. mori are advised to produce healthy silk. 

...
Ahmad Osman Mal1 and Mohamed Hosny Gabr1,2,*
... fishing ‘F’ mortality coefficients and current exploitation ‘Ecur’ were 0.96, 0.294, 0.670 year-1, and 0.69 year-1, respectively for H. harid and 0.77, 0.299, 0.471 year-1, and 0.61 year-1 respectively for S. ferrugineus. The maximum yield per recruit at the current fishing mortality was 108.1 g for H. harid and 137.6 g for <...

Bilal Atta1*, Muhammad Rizwan1, Arshed Makhdoom Sabir1, Muhammad Dildar Gogi2, Muhammad Sabar1, Bakhtawar3, Faizan Ali3 and Mehran Sarwar

...ults have suggested that mortality and repellency in T. castaneum increased as the dose rate of crude plant extracts and exposure interval increased. The maximum mortality (86.67%) was achieved with the highest dose of crude extract of Z. officinale (80mg per 7.5g wheat) at 10 days exposure interval. Similarly, the highest dose of Z. officinale extract (80ml) was responsible to cause 100% repellency at 2 hours exposure inter...
Alicja Kowalczyk1, Marian Kuczaj2, Anna Szul3 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska4*
Murtala Muhammad, Ting Zhang, Siyu Gong, Jing Bai, Jiansong Ju, Baohua Zhao* and Dong Liu*
...reak that caused massive mortality of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) in 2016. We isolated the pathogenic bacteria (HNM-1) from the infected A. sinensis and identified its identity by conventional physiological, biochemical, and molecular techniques. Virulence and pathogenesis of the disease were determined by intraperitoneal injection of the etiological agent to the healthy A. sinensis. Physiological and 16s rRNA molecular analysis ...

Anila Latif, Zaheer Abbas, Farhatullah and Ghulam Muhammad Ali* 

... bioassay confirmed 100% mortality in DBM within 72 hours. The present investigation concludes that the metabolic engineering of berberine in plants is an effective strategy to protect plants from herbivorous insects and this pathway should further be evaluated for possible application in agriculture. 

...

Muhammad Salim1*, Ayhan Gökçe1, Muhammad Nadir Naqqash1 and Orkun Ersoy

...re. Significantly higher mortality (89.75±3.66%) after one week occurred in grains treated with the highest concentration (2000 mg/Kg). At the highest concentration (2000 mg/Kg), the mortality reached as high as 100% after 2 weeks, while the lowest significant percent mortality (1.00±1.00%) was recorded in the control one week after exposure and only increased to 3.53±...
Hina Nazli, Abida Butt*
...caused approximately 50% mortality in the population of O. javanus. Toxicity data showed that these insecticides are slightly harmful ( caused < 80% mortality) towards studied spider. Insecticide residues of different ages were used to evaluate the residual toxicity of both insecticides. Mortality in exposed spiders decreased with the increased age of the residues. The results of...
Muhammad Usman Asif1*, Sadam Hussain Soomro2, Raza Muhammad1, Sikandar Ali Soomro2
... causing 66.66 % and 75% mortality on its recommended (80 ml) and high dose (160 ml), respectively. After 72 hours, 83.33% mortality was observed in Voliam Flexi on its recommended dose whereas percent mortality was reached to 100% on its high dose. Uniron 10 EC was also found effective and statistically at par with Voliam Flexi 300 SC causing 100 % mortality

M. Hammouchi1*, G. Sebbar1, N. Touil2, C. Loutfi1, Y.S. Malik3, M. El-Harrak1 and O. Fassi-Fehri4 

...ble to the disease, with mortality rates approaching 100%, contrary to local breeds which were less susceptible to the disease. In the present study, animals of local breed of Moroccan sheep (Timahdid) were experimentally infected using the protocol previously validated for Alpine goats. The infected animals showed mild or no clinical signs of disease, with low levels of viral RNA detectable in swabs and fecal samples taken at the peak of infection. The transm...

Kajol, A. H. Bhat, Aasha and A. K. Chaubey

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Photorhabdus akhurstii associated with Heterorhabditis indica from Meerut, India
...IJs/larva for 50% larval mortality whereas in Helicoverpa armigera it needed 13 IJs/larva, to kill 50% of the larvae.

...

S. Ahmed† , L. Yue, Q. Liu and H. Jian

Evaluation of media for mass production and fermentation of Pseudomonas spp. for integrated management of cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae)
...he second stage juvenile mortality (J2) of H. avenae. The culture filtrates formed in media No.8 (Corn flour 17g/L, Glucose 10g/L, Soybean Cake Powder 25g/L, Maltose 10g/L, Yeast Extract 5g/L) and media No.5 (Corn flour 5g/L, Yeast Extract 1.5g/L, Fish Peptone 2.5g/L, Soybean Cake Powder 20g/L, Peptone 0.75g/L, KH2PO4 3g/L, CaCO3 0.5g/L, MgSO4 0.3g/L) has more toxic effects on the second stage juvenile (J2) mortality as comp...

Inamullah Khan1*, Amjad Usman2  and Rahamdad Khan2

The Mortality Rate of Pupae and Adult of Fruit Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) Affected by Different Submerging Time and Soil Types under the Laboratory Treatment
...al age and soil types on mortality and rate of emergence of fruit flies pupae to adult stage. Pupae of Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett at different ages by hour i.e., 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 (hrs) were submerged underwater for (1 and 24 hrs). The rate of pupal emergence to adult stage and mortality was investigated. Results showed that emergence and mortality of B. cucurbitae was significan...

Parakriti Gupta1, Kapil Goyal2 and Mini Pritam Singh3*

Hepatitis E Virus and Zoonosis
...ections per annum with a mortality of 44,000. The virus is endemic in developing nations and the outbreaks occur mainly in the post monsoon season when the drinking water gets contaminated with sewage. However, the mode of acquisition of infection is different in developed nations with good sanitary conditions where the infection is a zoonosis. Though the virus has only one serotype, 8 genotypes have been documented. Out of these, HEV 1 and 2 have been reporte...

Mohsin Ali Alias Mehran Khan Solangi1, Gulfam Ali Mughal1, Asad Ali Khaskheli1*, Turab Ali Korejo3, Nazeer Ahmed Rajput2, Qurban Ali Memon3 and Maqsood Ahmed Kumbhar4

Influence of Camellia sinensis on Broilers Performance
...lative organs weight and mortality rate was found minimum in group C.

...

Christian Marco Hadi Nugroho1 and Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan2,3,4*

Production of Antibody for Direct Fluorescence Antibody Assay against Avian Influenza H9N2
...on and increases chicken mortality. In human health, cases of this zoonotic agent are being reported and some cases showed fatal infection. The H9N2 is highly contagious, and transmission can occur from chicken to chicken, chicken to humans through the air, or sometimes from humans to humans. H9N2 belongs to alpha influenza virus genus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. It has a minus sense RNA genome of eight segments. This fact makes the virus to easily re-asso...
Muhammad Tahir Khan1, Shahid Mehmood2*, Athar Mahmud2Khalid Javed3 and Jibran Hussain2

 

...in, feed efficiency, and mortality at 28 day of age, were not affected (P>0.05) by the compost supplement to the diet. There were no differences (P>0.05) in carcass yield and relative weights of breast, thigh, wing, liver, gizzard, heart, and abdominal fat for chicks fed compost at any level compared to chicks fed the control diet. Although, a slight reduction in breast and thigh weights was observed in chicks fed compost at 10% level compared to control...
Abida Parveen1, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Nazir Javed1, Anam Moosa1*, Khushboo Javaid1, Hina Safdar1 and Asma Safdar2
...K produced 100% juvenile mortality while the treatment MO + SK caused the least juvenile mortality of MI. Juvenile mortality was increased in a time-dependent manner. Aqueous MO extract + ethanolic MO extract + SKproduced 100% egg hatching inhibition at standard ‘S’ concentration. Plant growth was significantly enhanced in plants treated with MO extracts, SK and their combinati...

Muhammad Nauman, Unsar Naeem-Ullah*, Mehreen Hanif, Hafsah Ghaffar, Muhammad Shahid and Syed Haroon Masood Bokhari

Management of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) by using Microwave Oven
...is used to determine the mortality of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) adults. Grain samples of 20 g in each petri dish were infested with both adults and exposed to microwaves for 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 sec. For germination determination 25 seeds from each treatment were selected. Results indicates that increase in exposure time also increase the mortality but it reduces the germination capabi...

Umar Hayat1*, Ibrar Hussin2, Aftab Alam3 and Khalid Khan4

Time Series Analysis of Child Mortality in Pakistan: An Application of Bootstrap ARDL
...y (SDT) related to child mortality in Pakistan. The study adopts the framework of Ferreira and Schady (2009) and Baird et al. (2011) to carry out empirical estimation via ARDL and Bootstrap ARDL. Confirming the co integration relationship, the study identifies that real GDP per capita is a significant variable responsible for decline in child mortality thereby confirms the hypothesis of MT. The study however, does not find s...

Sajid Amin Sarmad1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Luqman1, Muhammad Asam Riaz1, Sohail Ahmed3 and Sylvain Nafiba Ouédraogo2

Development and Laboratory Evaluation of a Slow Release Formulation of Fipronil against Subterranean Termites (Odontotermes obesus Rambur)
...se material. The maximum mortality of termites was observed at 15 days of treatment application in T3MPF (maize cob powder plus fipronil) treatment after 48 h of bioassay. It was concluded that fipronil can be used as a slow acting toxicant by formulating it with some cellulose-based material such as powdered maize cobs in order to attract and kill the subterranean termites.

...
Wajahat Azeem1,*, Tariq Mukhtar1 and Tooba Hamid2
...ng inhibition and larval mortality of M. incognita. The hatching inhibition and mortality was the maximum at 100% concentrations of both the agents while the minimum inhibition and mortality was obtained at 25% concentration. No statistical difference was observed between T. harzianum and A. indica in causing hatching inhibition and larval mort...
Rida Younas1*, Tamseela Mumtaz1, Nabeela Roohi2 and Muhammad Amir Iqbal3
...r cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Evaluation of expressed of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine as biomarker was obtained in moderate, severe and very severe COPD patients and established their relationship with lung obstruction. Samples were collected between April and August 2017, total 35 COPD patients with lung obstruction (FEV1/FVC< 70) were enrolled as well as age and sex matched healthy subjects were also recruited as control g...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Afzal1,Muhammad Asam Riaz1,Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Luqman2, Mehar Zubair Shehzad1, Muhammad Bilal Tayyab1, Mujahid Tanvir1 and Saadia Wahid1
...citri exhibiting 90% mortality. The extracts of Dodonaea viscosa and Olea ferruginea caused highest mortality of S. litura (i.e. 70 and 58%, respectively). Maximum mortality of C. quinquefasciatus larvae was observed by Maerua arenaria (87%), N. indicum (84%) and Withania coagulans (83%) extracts. While, the most toxic plan...
Mumtazur Rahman1, Farhan Anwar Khan1,*,Umar Sadique1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Faisal Ahmad1,2, Hayatullah Khan1,3, Muhammad Saeed1, Faiz Ur Rehman1, Ibrar Hussain1, M. Faraz Khan1, M. Izhar ul Haque1 and Hanif-ur-Rehman1,3

...using high morbidity and mortality in goats. More recently Mccp Pakistan strain has been identified and isolated by our laboratory. Alarmingly, antimicrobials in animals are inappropriately using and resultantly leading to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) including mycoplasmas, which are causing serious infections in ruminants. Since the growth curve of our local strain and its susceptibility to commonly using antimicrobials is unknown. Therefore, this study was...

Muhammad Yasir*, Mansoor ul Hasan, Muhammad Sagheer, Amer Rasul, Rameesha Amjad Ali and Habib ur Rehman

Evaluation of Spinosad Applied to Grain Commodities for the Control of Stored Product Insect Pests
... 4, 5 and 6 months). The mortality of three insect species was recorded at tested concentrations in all the treated commodities after the exposure period of 3 and 7 days. Overall results of all bioassays show that residual efficacy of spinosad was reduced with the increase of post treatment period. At 1 mg Kg-1, at the exposure period of 7 days, the mortality was more than 97% at month 0 and it was > 47.7% at month 5 in a...
Muhammad Mohsin1, Yin Hengbin2,* and Zhang Luyao3
...also showed that fishing mortality (F) is increasing while biomass (B) is swiftly decreasing. Based on the results it can be concluded that Spanish mackerel is facing the risk of overexploitation. Thus, it is recommended to make such policies which can conserve this fishery resource for future.
...
Jin-Juan Wan, Mei-Fang Shen*, Hui Xue, Hong-Yan Liu, Mei-Qin Zhang, Xi-He Zhu and Chong-Hua Wang

 

...us (WSSV) and cumulative mortality was recorded for the next 4 days. The results showed that the weight gain rate (WGR) of crayfish tended to increase initially and then decrease as feeding frequency increased. The WGR in F3 were significantly higher than those fed 1, 4 and 5 times/day (P<0.05). The highest serum lysozyme (LZM), lowest catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed in crayfish fed 3 times/day. However, there were no significa...

Asifa Kamal1*, Ghazala Noreen1 and Muhammad Amin2

Trends and Determinants of Fertility in Pakistan: Multivariate Decomposition Analysis (PDHS 1990-91 to PDHS 2012-13)
...women in Pakistan. Child mortality (yes), husband’s desire for children (more than wife), ideal number of children, marital duration and ever use of contraceptives has significant positive contribution towards women fertility in terms of number of children ever born to women. A significant decline in fertility is observed for the two periods (PDHS 2006-07 and PDHS 2012-13) as compared to PDHS (1990-91). There is 10% and 15% decline in fertility in 2006-0...
Saima Siddique1* and Zarrien Ayub2
...e 5.7 years. The natural mortality coefficient was found to be 1.584 year-1. Further detailed studies on biological/ecological parameters of E. mathaei are needed for better understanding and management of this species in Northern Arabian Sea. 
...
Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1,2, Zaheer Ahmed Nizamani1, Asghar Ali Kamboh3, Mansoor Ayoob4, Waseem Ali Vistro3 and Abdul Sattar Baloch3*
...g all the groups. Higher mortality rate (75%) was recorded in mynas as compared to Japanese quails (50%). Major necropsy lesions observed were pin point hemorrhages in proventriculus, demarcated button-like ulcers of intestinal mucosa, hemorrhages in trachea and spleen. Histopathological lesions observed in proventriculus were erosions in epithelium, localized hemorrhages and congestion in the glandular region. In small intestine of affected birds, villi appea...
Qianbao Wang, Zhengyang Huang, Shoufeng Li, Huayun Huang, Chunmiao Li and Zhenhua Zhao*
...icantly higher embryonic mortality (8.65%) and significantly lower hatchability (90.48%) was found in males fed with 135.5g/d diet than other two groups (p<0.05). Taken together, feed allocation of 125.5 g/d under ME 2770 kcal/kg and CP 15.4% was recommended to broiler breeder males of genetically modified F line after sexual maturity. 
...
Javeria Afzal, Muhammad Abid, Faisal Hussain* and Alia Abbas
...tching and caused larval mortality. Maximum reduction (24.3%) in egg hatching was recorded in C. album stem extract at 2% concentration. The minimum reduction (0.33%) was observed in the leaf extract of A. viridis at 10% concentration after 48 hours of exposure time. In larval mortality test, maximum larval mortality (33%) was recorded in C. album leaf extract at 10% c...
Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khalid Munir1, Ghulam Abbas1’*, Isra Munir1Mumtaz Ahmad Khan1, Asif Iqbal1, Munsoor ud Din Ahmad1, Muhammad Arshad Javid2, Zareen Fatima1 and Maria Arshad1
...nally high morbidity and mortality. Amongst the South Asian countries India is worst hit by this deadly COVID-19. Pakistan’s neighboring Iran is also very badly infected and reported 57,057 deaths of 1,348,316 infected people. In Pakistan 52,411,930 confirm cases of COVID-19 and around 11,000 deaths are reported in various region of the country.
...
Laura Alejandra Arriola-Mosqueda1, Yadira Jiménez-Lara2, Eugenia del Carmen Prieto-Avella1, Carlos Ricardo Cruz-Vazquez3, Roberto Montesinos-Matias4, Mauricio Valencia-Posadas2, Ana Martha Cruz-Avalos5, Jaime Molina-Ochoa6,7 and César Andrés Angel-Sahagún2,*
...s and larvae showed 100% mortality for both biological stages. The Ma4 strain showed an outstanding LC50 value with 1.78 × 10E6 conidia mL-1. M. anisopliae is effective for controlling R. sanguineus, and that the radial growth characteristics and germination were not correlated with the fungal virulence against R. sanguineus larvae. We can conclude that there are differences between the evaluated strains of M...
Rashid Mahmood1*, Muhammad Abu Bakar2, Muhammad Fahim Raza3, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1 and Muhammad Yahya2
... mites. Maximum mite mortality was observed in eucalyptus oil (96 ± 2.89%) followed by winter green oil (79 ± 2.89%), mustard oil (70 ± 2.1%), neem oil (61 ± 1.83%) and orange oil (54 ± 1.62%).x
...
Haris Setiawan1, Aris Winaya1,*, Herwintono Herwintono1, Mulyoto Pangestu2 and Yayuk Kholifah3
 

...ris Egg-yolk extender on mortality and motility of spermatozoa of Limousin bull (Bos primigenius f. taurus [Linnaeus, 1758]) collected from Singosari Artificial Insemination Center, Indonesia and commercial SFE. Semen from the same bull were collected and processed according to the protocol at Singosari AI Centre. Semen extender were supplemented with SFE, G0 = 0 % SFE, G1 = 2 % SFE, G2 = 4 % SFE, G3 = 6 % SFE and G4 = 8 % SFE. Each of the treatments wa...
Canan Vejselova Sezer*
...e risk of cancer and its mortality rates have increased both in economically less and highly developed countries. Two of the leading causes of the death of cancer are lung and breast cancers among males and females, respectively. A variety of drugs are in use for cancer treatment but their recruiting properties are limited because of the developing resistance and/or finiteness of bioavailability. Current research is aimed at synthesis of a new effective agent ...

Syed Mazuan, Syed Mohamed, Insyirah Ishak, Dzolkhifli Omar and Norhayu Asib*

... resulted in the highest mortality of bagworms which was 83%. Then, flubendiamide, chlorantraniliprole and Btk resulted in mortality rate of 82%, 75%, and 70% respectively. All aforementioned, insecticides applied were able to suppress the population up to 30 DAT.

...

Muhammad Arslan Ibrahim1*, Aneeqa Aleem2, Farkhanda Manzoor2, Shahbaz Ahmad1, Hafiz Muhammad Zahid Anwar1, Talia Aroob2 and Mansoor Ahmad3 

...ected to investigate the mortality factors in a lab-based experiment on the life table study of fall armyworm. A sub-lethal dose of 4µl of entomopathogenic NPV suspension containing 4×106 polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) was tested as a mortality factor against the late larval instars of S. frugiperda when natural mortality tends to decrease after each successive instar. The s...
Ahmed Saud Alsaqufi1, Sheikh Mustafizur Rahman2,3*, Roshmon Thomas Mathew2, Yousef Ahmed Alkhamis1,2, Md. Moshiur Rahman3,4 and Muhammed Aslam Pathiri2
...antly reduced the larval mortality than those reared without shelter. The survival rates were also significantly different among various light regimes in which the highest was found in 24D (86%) followed by 12DL_PVC (74%), 24L (71%), and 12DL (60%). The study also revealed that larvae reared in 24D exhibited maximum dark brown body colouration (63%), while in 24L showed maximum light brown colouration (96%). On the other hand, maximum larvae were appeared as m...

Aioub Sofizadeh1, Ehsan Allah Kalteh2, Shahin Saeedi3, Mulood Mohammadi Bavani4*

... sting and the resulting mortality are considered among the most critical health problems in Iran. This research was aimed to study on the scorpion’s species in Golestan Province, Northeast Iran. Scorpions were captured during day and night using rock rolling and ultra violet methods from May to September, 2019. Then, the specimens were put into a 75% alcohol-containing plastic bottle. Finally, the specimens were identified using a valid identification k...
Mohammed  Akinlabi Rufai1*, Abideen Akinkunmi Wahab2, Kamil Ayo Fasasi1, Quadri Olusegun Adeshina1 and Mary Tolulope Awotidebe1
...ocidal efficacy. Maximum mortality (100%) was observed in highest concentration of nematodes (50%) after maximum time exposure (72 h); sample treated with 0% concentration had no mortality. The result shows that the death rate of the armyworm is proportional to the concentration of the H. bacteriophora and duration of application. Statistical analysis conducted using analysis of variance indicated that there was no significa...

Saima Maher1,3*, Shahina Fayyaz2, Nadra Naheed3 and Zarbakth Dar1

...incognita by showing 90% mortality at 0.1 g/mL after 48 hours of exposure. The LC50 0.0149, 0.1575 μg/ml of (VA4 and VA7), respectively found to be significantly effective than compounds VA5 (LC50 = 0.1575 μg/ml), VA 6 (LC50 =0.1575 μg/ml), VA2 (LC50 = 0.6269μg/ml and VA3 (LC50 = 0.25) VA1(LC50 = 0.3969μg/ml). The findings indicated that the constituents of V. album have a natural potential to use as nematicides and introduction in eco-friendly ...

Muhammad Suhail Ibrahim1*, Asif Ahmad1, Anwaar Ahmed1, Amer Mumtaz2, Muhammad Javaid Asad3, Saqib Jabbar2, Ahmad Mujtaba1 and Muhammad Nadeem4

...re causing morbidity and mortality. Contamination of food by various agents includes physical, chemical, and microbiological. Food safety ensures that what we eat, chew, or drink is safe for human health. The whole food chain should be monitored right from production to consumption. The public health burden of developing countries is increasing beyond their resources. In developing countries like Pakistan, food safety issues result in serious health issues. Di...

Khan Tamoor1*, Hafsa1 and Hanif Maryam2

... F. oopoda showed higher mortality as compared to A. santolina and N. cateria. The results showed a maximum mortality of 76% by Z. multiflora and F. oopoda at highest dose of 3 g/ liter which was followed by 72% of N. cateria and 49% by A. santolina at the same dose. However, essential oils of A. santolina showed the highest mortality (79%) as compared to Z. multiflora (74%), F. oopoda (70...

Mian Muhammad Arif* and Malik Muhammad Shafi

...creased by reducing high mortality rate through proper vaccination, medication, and better management techniques.

...

Md. Mukthar Mia1 and Mahamudul Hasan2

...y diarrhea amidst a high mortality and morbidity rate. CPV is distributed in the family Parvoviridae beneath the subfamily Parvovirinae that pertains to the genus Protoparvoviorus with a high genomic replacement unlike other DNA virus; the organism is primarily segmented into three forms acknowledged as (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c), which resembles to be liable for the infection’s statewide spread. For transmission, the fecal-oral pathway is deemed the m...
Muhammad Mohsin1, Yin Hengbin2*, Qian Chong3 and Bohyun Kim4
...ts indicate that fishing mortality (F) and biomass (B) showed increasing and declining trend from 2000 to 2009, in that order. Thus, results indicate overexploitation of Penaeus shrimps in Pakistan. By considering results, recommended MSY target reference point (TRP) for Penaeus shrimps is between 2600 t – 3000 t. Moreover, harvest below 2300 t and over 3200 t may be considered as limit reference point (LRP). To conserve Penaeus shri...

Mai A. Kilany1; Hanaa H.A. Gomaa1; Yousry E. Abo El-magd2 and Nermin Raafat2.

...ent modalities with high mortality rates. In develop-ing countries, the major concern in HCC frequently belongs to HCV long lasting in-fection. Chronic HCV infection mostly leads to hepatic cirrhosis before developing HCC. HCV infection induces overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes leading to their proliferation and triggers HCC. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a nuclear-encoded antioxidant enzyme that neutralizes free radica...
RehamM. El-Bakrey1, Shimaa M.G. Mansour2, Mohammed A. El Sisi1 AndAmal A.M. Eid1
...ntage of protection from mortality, morbidity and reduction in virus shedding from respiratory and/orintestinal tracts. Despite the H5 antibody responses in vaccinated chickens with program I (rFP-AI-H5" vaccine then Re-5) being significantly lower prior to challenge, it provided good protection (73.3%) against the lethal A/chicken/Egypt/SHAH-1403/2011 (H5N1) AIV challenge, with no evidence of virus shedding. Keeping in mind that each bird was potentially...

AdlyAbd-Alla1,2, MahaNada3, Francois Cousserans1, and Max Bergoin1

...iv>productivity and high mortality rate were observed. Electron microscopy examination of dead
insects homogenate revealed the presence of paraspherical virus like-particles with diameter
of 25 nm. Virus purification on cesium chloride gradient showed one band at a buoyant
density of 1.362. Extraction of nucleic acid from purified virus particles revealed a ~9 kb
ssRNA linear genome and analysis of capsids showed...

Manar F. Seioudy1, Magda M. Sayed1, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2 and M. A. Shalaby2

... with high morbidity and mortality rates. A live attenuated PPR vaccine has been produced in Veterinary Serum and Vaccines Research Institute (VSVRI), Abbasia. It has and still been utilized to control PPR disease in endemic areas of the Arabian Gulf. In this study, the identity of four batches of PPR vaccines was tested as per the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) guidelines and Couacy-Hymann et al., 2002 using RT-PCR technique that based on the ampli...

Shahida Sabir1, Anwar Ali Shad1, Tariq Masood1*, Zafar Ali Shah1, Nasiruddin2, Yaseen Ahmad1 and Syed Sartaj Alam3 

...ngii showed increasing % mortality against red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) in methanolic extract with increasing concentration after 24 and 48 h exposure time. Maximum mortality (100%) was noticed at 300 mg/L after 40 h exposure time. Hence, methanolic extract of P. eryngii can be used as a natural pesticide, especially in stored grains. 

...

Wesley D. Nafarnda, Japhet H. Baraya, Olatunde H. Olabode, Malang K. Simon

...ant effect on morbidity, mortality, hatchability, culling and
ultimately the flock productivity.
Conclusion: Corn-bran feed based vaccination demonstrated effective delivery and suitability of V4
thermostable ND vaccine use in scavenging village chickens in Adamawa State, Nigeria.
...
Karim M. Selim1, Abdullah A. Selim1, abdelsattar Arafa1, Hussein A. Hussein2, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2
... increased morbidity and mortality in contact birds.
Conclusion: The combined inactivated and live NDV vaccination programs have the
potency to prevent mortalities of virulent genotype VII challenge virus. The vaccination
program used genotype VII inactivated and live vaccines initiated a high level of antibody
titers that can limit the transmission and virus shedding to the contact birds. These results

Bakhtiar Gul*, Saleetha Rabial and Haroon Khan

...s, budding (%), duckweed mortality (%), plant growth, root length, frond diameter, growth of microscopic algae and macrophytes associated with duckweed, and water surface coverage (%). Results revealed that herbicides had a significant effect on duckweed fresh biomass, budding % and water surface coverage. Minimum fresh biomass (2.98 g pot-1), budding (24 %) and water surface coverage (14.67 %) were recorded for glyphosate as compared to weedy check (4.45 g po...

Ibadullah Jan1*, Iqbal Munir2, Inamullah Khan3, Syed Muhammad Suhail4 and Aqib Iqbal2

... differences in terms of mortality. As a result, it was determined that Dosiflavone is healthy in terms of mortality rate (up to 300 mg/kg). It is concluded that Dosiflavone has promising anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, and analgesic activity along with no toxicity at the higher dose. It is considered safe, however, needs further lead optimization through computational predictions, and using suitable animal models to addres...

Muhammad Rafique1, Muhammad Azhar Iqbal2, Inam Ul Haq1*, Muhammad Ramzan Anser2, Humara Umar2 and Muhammad Ashraf Sumrah2

...ight intensity increased mortality with increased root length in both varieties with moderate callus formation. Up to three weeks, there was no root development under all treatments. The cuttings under light intensity (8484 lux) produced more numbers of roots, with early initiation in both varieties. Variation in varietal performance was observed under different treatments however 8000 lux light gave better results in all the parameters.

...
Hassan Shahzad Khan1, Muhammad Tariq1*, Tariq Mukhtar2 and Asim Gulzar1
...opictus. The maximum mortality of 88% of 3rd instar larvae of A. albopictus was caused by datura extract followed by neem and clove. On the other hand, neem and clove extracts caused the maximum mortality (80%) of 4th instar larvae followed by datura extract (78%). Similarly, the minimum mortalities of 3rd and 4th instar larvae were caused by bitter gourd extract. In cas...
Nabila Kousar1, Tanzeela Riaz2, Anum Feroz1, Abdul Rauf Shakoori3 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*
...st probably the cause of mortality of the pest.
...

Moheem Khan1, Arif Ali1*, Shafique Ahmed Memon1, Taimoor Khan Qambrani2, Ghulam Khaliq3, Jahanzaib Khan1, Saghir Ahmed1, Azmat Hussain Abro4 and Sohail Azeem Baloch1

...evealed that significant mortality was observed in eggs, larvae and pupal stage at all given timings of UV-B light compared with control. Incubation period of eggs, developmental period of larvae and pupae gradually increased as increasing exposure time of UV-B light. Statistically, no significant difference was observed between 5 minutes UV-light and control group on the incubation period of eggs and larval stages. Significantly, adult longevity of T. castane...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2*, Syed Shahid Ali2 and Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem1
...caused about 100 percent mortality when exposure period was prolonged to 120 h. The trehalose, glycogen, lipids and nucleic acid contents of both larval instars of these populations were significantly reduced, while trehalase and amylase activities were significantly increased in larvae of both populations throughout the phosphine exposure period with reference to their respective unexposed group values. In case of soluble proteins, an elevation was observed w...
Tanmoy Mandal1 and Sunil Kr. Ghosh2*
...eaf miner showing 79.24% mortality with imidacloprid 76.25% and in the mixed formulation imidacloprid+polygonum 73.74 %. It is concluded that lower dose of imidacloprid mixing with azadiractin/polygonam/spilanthes extracts will be environmentally sound and eco-friendly and is recommended for leaf miner control to promote organic farming.
...
Zhengyi Fu1,2,3,4, Rui Yang1,2,3, Shengjie Zhou1,2,3, Zhenhua Ma1,2,3* and Gang Yu1,2,3*
...tices. Huge variation of mortality in different size grade of juvenile fish has also been observed. In order to explore the effect of size heterogeneity on gene expression level of barramundi juveniles, we graded them according to body length and selected growth-related genes (GHRH, GH, GHR, IGF-I, IGF-II, MSTN-1 and MSTN-2), and immune-related genes (IL8, IL10, TGFβ1, TNF, INF-γ1, Mx, CRP, C3, C4, mTOR, mLST8, eIF4E, HSP70 and HSP90) to measur...
Liping Liu and Pengfei Liu*
...istory and difference in mortality and behavior of male and female. Sexual dimorphism indicates divergence selective pressure between two sexes. We determined the sex and age through plumage coloration and measured 6 body measurements of each bird in 122 Brambling Fringilla montifringilla individuals in a wintering roost, which were captured randomly with mist nets. We found both the sex ratios of juveniles and adults were male-biased in this roost, which poss...
Muhammad Bilal Tayyab1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Asam Riaz1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel2, Sylvain Nafiba Ouedraogo3, Muhammad Luqman4, Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1 and Mujahid Tanvir1
...assay showed the highest mortality of D. citri by 10% extracts of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. (93%), Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. (91%), Nerium indicum Mill. (89%), Datura alba L. (88%) and Salvia officinalis L. (81%). Second bioassay conducted against A. gossypii using different concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 40%) of the most effective botanical extracts revealed that the extract of S. officinalis was most toxic (LC50 = 18.59%), followed by N. indicum (LC...
Nagarathinam Arunkumar*, Jainullabudeen Gulsar Banu, Nagarajan Gopalakrishnan and Arkalgud Hiriyannaiah Prakash

 

... PSAD7 expressed maximum mortality percentage against the mealybugs. The results of this study will be helpful in developing lipase-based microbial insecticides for the management of waxy cuticle-protected insect pests.
...
Zafer Karslı1,*, Dilek Şahin1, Meryem Öz2, Ünal Öz2 and Orhan Aral2
...negative (sterilization, mortality, reproduction performance etc.) and positive (growth, sex conversation etc.) impacts of hormone administration were also assessed. This study had two experiments. In the first experiment, six experimental feeds were prepared by adding two different hormones (17α-Methyltestosterone (Mt), 17β-Estradiol (Es) at three different doses (20, 40, 60 mg kg-1) and control feed was without hormone. Al...
Dia Mamadou1,2*, Meissa Beyah1, Sow Amadou Harouna1, Ba Samba Alassane1, Bouzouma Moustapha1, Braham Cheikh Baye1 and Beibou Ely1
...roductive cycle and high mortality of the larval phases due to predation and/or climatic hazards), the lobster is considered a highly vulnerable species. Furthermore, its high market value is such has led to a rush to exploit it to such an extent that some coastal cephalopods fishing vessels are being transformed into lobster vessels and European chartered vessels are arriving in Mauritanian waters. Therefore, in order to make the exploitation of this species ...
Madiha Nawaz and Shoaib Freed


...bug with highest percent mortality and lowest LC50 and LT50 values. The study showed that Bb-08 can be used in the IPM of P. solenopsis.
...

Salma Javed1* and Daniyal Siddiq2

...ond-stage juveniles (J2) mortality was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation in concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 or 1%. Maximum mortality was achieved with ethanol extracts followed by aqueous and methanol extracts. In the greenhouse, leaf extracts at 60 days after inoculation produced reduction in root galling, egg masses, and nematode populations in plants in treated containers compared to untreated plants (control) with...

Asma Hanif* and Shahnaz Dawar

...anica using hatching and mortality test at different time intervals. Notable results were noticed by Kent-20 and Santonine-43 at all tested concentrations by reducing the hatching and complete mortality of M. javanica after 96 hours, while Cina (Q) showed greater reduction in hatching and mortality at 100% concentration followed by minimum hatching of eggs when used at 75 and 50% concentra...

Mohammed Abdel-Mageed Abdel-Aziz Abdel-Mageed1, Eman Alsayed Hammad2*, Nashaat Abdel-Aziz Mahmoud1 and Anas Farag El-Mesalamy1

...d the best percentage of mortality and inhibition of egg hatching compared to the acetonic and methanolic extracts. Whereas, aqueous extracts of deadly nightshade, winter cherry and chili pepper at concentration 500 ppm applied to the plants as foliar sprays alone, foliar sprays with chelates and soil drenches were tested against root-knot nematode M. javanica infecting tomato plants cv. Strain-B under greenhouse conditions. Almost tested materials have signif...
Rajesh Kumar Oad1, Nasir Rajput1, Imdad Hussain laghari1, Hidayatullah Soomro1, Muhammad Azhar Memon2, Abdul Sattar Baloch5, Qudratullah Kalwar3,  Mashhood Ahmed1, Zubair Ahmed Soomro2 and Waseem Ali Vistro4*

Muhammad Usman Hanif, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed*, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Irfan Ullah

... maximum mean cumulative mortality of hadda beetle grubs (i.e. 84.1 and 73.4%, respectively) and adults (i.e. 67.4 and 58.8%, respectively) recorded at 5th day of exposure. Combined application of both these effective treatments enhanced their toxicity to E. vigintioctopunctata and caused 88.9 and 77.6% cumulative mortality of grubs and adults, respectively. Based on overall study results, the combined application of spinosa...

Atef El-Sagheer1*, Anas El-Mesalamy1, Abdel-Monem Anany2 and Nashaat Mahmoud1

... hatching inhibition and mortality percentages increased with an increase in exposure time. At 24 hours, increased the mean number of J2 hatched slowly than in first stages of experiment. Similar patterns showed against M. javanica infecting squash plants under greenhouse conditions. Data indicated that treatment with P. guilliermondii filtrate (1012) caused best percentage of nematode reduction (71.46%). Followed by S. roseus at (1012) (42.95 %), then in thir...
Misbah Sarwar1*, Abdul Hamid2 and Iftikhar Hussain2
...e shows that significant mortality occurs during residence at summer quarters and return migration. In late August through September, they gather in flocks of up to 400 individuals and prepare for their flight to their winter range. During their migratory flight south, demoiselles fly like all cranes, with their head and neck straight forward and their feet and legs straight behind, reaching altitudes of 16,000–26,000 feet (4,900–7,900 metres). Alo...

Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1, Dilbar Hussain2, Muhammad Luqman3, Muhammad Qasim1, Gulfam Yousaf1, Hamza Latif1 and Muhammad Zeeshan1

...and exposure time on the mortality all insect pest individuals. The most effective differential chemistry insecticides against mango leafhopper, citrus psyllids, mango mealybugs and subterranean termites were nitenpyram, clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid (causing 74–79% cumulative corrected mortality), thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, clothianidin and spirotetramat (causing 78–85% cumulative

Rehman Shahzad1, Saba Irshad1* and Faisal Amin2

...op in egg production and mortality of birds since first reported in 1998. Influenza viral surface protein neuraminidase enhances both virus replication and its release from host cells. In this study we isolated nineteen H9N2 viruses from infected birds of various farms from Punjab, Pakistan. Neuraminidase gene of these viruses was amplified using RT-PCR and sequenced to perform mutational analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B2 sub-lineage is endemic ...

Ghulam Abbas, Sultan Mahmood*, Ahsan ul Haq and Haq Nawaz

...n the diet of layers. No mortality was observed in any group throughout the experiment.

...

Muhammad Khubaib Hameed, Muhammad Aziz ur Rahman, Muhammad Ashraf, Safdar Hassan, Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Qamar Bilal, Fawwad Ahmad, Muhammad Sharif*

..., weekly weight gain and mortality were recorded. Data on carcass characteristics like percentage of dressed meat, thigh meat yield, breast meat yield, relative organs weight (heart, liver and gizzard) and immune organs such as bursa, spleen and thymus weight were also recorded. Weekly feed intake (3506g, 3531g) and body weight (2080g, 2139g) were better (P<0.05) in group fed arginine supplementation as 0.4 and 0.6%, respectively as compared to control grou...

Khadim Hussain Memon1,*, Amir Mahmood Memon2, Tahira Jabeen Ursani3, Abdul Manan Shaikh1 and Sapna Waheed Memon1

...dingly. The annual total mortality (Z) was 1.03/year, natural mortality (M) was 0.635/year at mean annual surface water temperature of Indus River 21°C, fishing mortality (F) was 0.395/year and exploitation rate (E) was estimated at 0.384/year. The growth performances indices phi prime (Φ’) 3.429 was computed accordingly. The present fishing mortality...

Sameh Abdel-Moez Ahmed Amer1*, Mohamed Abdel-Aziz Kutkat1, Mohamed Mahmoud Abdel-Baki1, Asmaa Mahmoud Maatouq1, Omnia Mohamed Kutkat2, Hagar Magdy Ahmed1, Khaled Mohamed El-Bayoumi1 

...h was detected by embryo mortality after inoculation of all samples in one passage in embryonated chicken eggs and further testing by haemagglutination test. Whereas, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers to amplify 1681 base pair (bp) of the whole NDV F-gene was carried out to confirm the presence of NDV and then sequenced. Our results demonstrated that, RT-PCR was successfully detecting 62 NDV samples. While, Sequenc...

Yin-Hua Wang1,2, Yi-Bing Zhu1, Li Jiang1, Bin Du3 and Xiu-Ming Xi1*

... agent costs, short-term mortality, and adverse events potentially relevant to the study drugs. Data analysis will adopt an intention-to-treat approach. This trial will demonstrate the probability that remifentanil can reduce the duration of MV in long-term ventilated patients in critically ill patients compared to fentanyl.

...

Muhammad Abdullah1, Sana Zahoor1*, Akhtar Ali2 and Masroor Ellahi Babar3

...ch lead to morbidity and mortality in the population. The objective of the study was to look into single nucleotide polymorphism in upstream region of -238TNF-α and -308 by ARMS PCR technique in asthmatic and control group. It was a prospective study constituting 17 clinical diagnosed asthmatic patients (Diseased) and 19 non-asthmatic patients (Control). The female was 6 (31.6%) and males were 13 (68.4%) in control group while females were 9 (52.9%) and ...
Dyah Roeswitawati1*, Iva Kristova1, Muhidin Muhidin1, Otto Endarto2, Manar Fayiz Mousa Atoum3,4, Irum Iqrar5,6 and Luqman Ali Shah7
 
...as observed based on the mortality rate of the red mite phase of the imago. The results showed that the pesticide persistence test of imago had the highest mortality rate for the treatment 2 × 24 h after pesticide spraying. Each pesticide treatment showed significant differences in the persistence of imago red mite. Papaya leaf pesticide treatment of a concentration of 15 % was effective in suppressing imago red mite 8...
Dalia Khatun1, Md. Yeamin Hossain1,2*, Md. Firose Hossain3, Zannatul Mawa1, Md. Ataur Rahman1, Md. Rabiul Hasan1, Md. Akhtarul Islam1, Md. Ashekur Rahman1, Habib Ul Hassan4 and Sadicun Nahar Sikha1
...aturity (Lm) and natural mortality (MW) using multi-model indices from the Ganges River of northwestern Bangladesh. For each individual, the total length (TL), fork length (FL), standard length (SL), and body weight (BW) were measured by digital slide calipers and an electric balance, respectively. A total of 303 individuals (male = 140, female = 163) were collected from the fishers catch during January to December, 2016. The overall SR differed statistically ...
 Mian Abdul Hafeez1*, Adeel Sattar2, Faiza Aslam3, Muhammad Imran3, Kamran Ashraf1, Rashid Zia2 and M. Muntazir Mehdi1
...ere measured in terms of mortality, growth performance, oocysts count, coccidial lesion scoring and weight of lymphoid organs. Coccidial lesion scores and oocysts count was lower in group A, B and C than in group D. No mortality was observed in group E, while highest in group D as compared to A, B and C. Highest growth performance, a significant reduction in oocysts count and reduction in lymphoid organ body weight ratio was...
Afsheen Noman Saddar1, Anila Naz Soomro2*, Sadaf Tabasum Qureshi1, Syeda Saleha Hassaney1 and Mukhtiar Ahmed Mahar2
...24 h incubation to check mortality of brine shrimp nauplii. Mean comparison of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay revealed noticeable deviations from the both positive and negative controls. Alive percentage of nauplii observed in the aqueous extract of sweet flag root and radish seed ranged from 0 to 10%, land-calotrops root extract from 0 to 22.5%, peppermint leaves extract from 3 to 47.5% and for red cabbage extract ranged from 0 to 15%. Dose dependent death r...

Hassan Ali1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1* and Muhammad Imran Hamid2

...nificantly higher larval mortality (35 – 40%) than other botanical treatments. Similarly, the highest concentration (15%) of C. reticulata extract exhibited maximum repellency (88%) of larvae, followed by Datura stramonium (84%) and Azadirachta indica (79%) at 24 h post-exposure. Regarding bioassays with microbial insecticides, maximum mean mortality of larvae (i.e. 42.6 and 46.1%) were exhibited by the highest concent...
Aly M. Ghetas1*, Dalia M. Sedeek1, Hanaa S. Fedawy1, M.A. Bosila1, Asmaa M. Maatouq1, Hoda M. Mekky1, Kh. M. Elbayoumi1,2, Mohamed M. Amer3
... showing clinical signs, mortality and lesions of IBD in this study. The collected bursae showed pathological changes related to those of IBD infection. Furthermore, the isolates were molecularly characterized using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique and gene sequencing of partial portion of VP2 gene. The two isolates (Genbank accession numbers MW925051 and MW9250522) were characterized as very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV). The obtain...

Sana Shakoor, Tahir Rehman Samiullah, Naila Shahid, Abdul Qayyum Rao*, Aneela Yasmeen, Sana Tahir, Ayesha Latif, Saira Azam, Ahmad Ali Shahid and Tayyab Husnain

...vaccine to combat a high mortality rate is the need of time. As a step towards the development of the vaccine for the H9N2 strain of avian influenza virus HA gene was chosen as the immunogenic antigen because it is highly conserved among H9N2 strain of avian influenza virus. Moreover, immunogenic regions within HA gene may contain potential immunogenic epitopes. The specificity of HA protein produced from E. coli was confirmed through an antibody-antigen react...

Evrim Sönmez

...ces in literature on the mortality rates of Beauveria bassiana’s A. obtectus, studies on the effects on the biology of the pest, the number of eggs it lays and the number of adults emerging from beans after the application are limited. In this study, the effects of different concentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Nostalgist BL®) on the mortality rates of A. obtectus adults, the number of eggs they lay and the number...
El-Kholy, K.H.1*, Tag El-Din H.1, Seham N.E. Seleem1, A.M. El-Shhat2
...hatchability%, embryonic mortality, and internal and external of newly hatched ducklings. A total of 1560 fertile eggs used in the current experiment were obtained from Sudani ducks flocks of 33 weeks of age. The eggs were randomly distributed into of five different SV solution concentrates; the 1st group without any treatment and served as a control (C), the 2nd group was dipped into distilled water as a vehicle or positive control (SV1). The 3rd group (SV2),...

Magdy M. Fahmy1, Nisreen E. Mahmoud 1*, Mohamed R. Mousa2, Manal M. Zaki3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mai Abuowarda1 

... their role in mass fish mortality event in Manzala Lake and its corresponding fish farms. Fish samples together with water samples were collected from 3 affected farms and 6 locations along Manzala Lake. Field observations and physicochemical analysis of water revealed deterioration of water quality indicating marked pollution. Parasitological examination of fish samples showed high total prevalence of 68.18% with 10 different ectoparasite species (4 Crustace...

Taiwo Oladoye Akande*, Dayo Johnson Ogunyemi, Priscilla Funmilola Okunlola, Emmanuel Owolabi, Odetayo Olakanmi 

... obtained in control. No mortality was recorded throughout the experimentation period. It was concluded that the three PFAs and their mixture used in this study improved the performance, nutrient utilization, and carcass traits of broilers. The overall benefits accrued in birds fed with the blend of the PFAs. While garlic showed a higher anti-lipogenic tendency, moringa had a greater influence on the feed intake and growth of the experimental birds.

Ke...

Samah Samir, Amal Awad*, Gamal Younis 

...at causes a high rate of mortality in people with liver cirrhosis. The goal of this study was to explore the prevalence, virulence-related genes (edw1, cds1, qseC and pvsA), and antibiotic susceptibility profile of E. tarda in Nile tilapia collected from Egyptian fish farms. Between December 2019 and March 2020, 250 Nile tilapia were collected from five fish farms located at Dakahlia governorate. Organ tissue samples from liver, kidneys, gills, skin and spleen...

Tiyyabah Khan1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1*, Muhammad Rizwan Khan1, Muhammad Umer1, Adnan Akhter1 and Waseem Akram2

...d whether insects’ mortality could control fungal contamination in stored grains or not? Bioassays were performed on wheat grains artificially infested with C. ferrugineus or T. castaneum along with spores of Aspergillus flavus or A. parasiticus. The results revealed that all the tested insecticides proved to be more toxic against C. ferrugineus as compared to T. castaneum. C. ferrugineus showed complete mortality at t...

Rabia Bibi1, R. Muhammad Tariq2, Samir A.M. Abdelgaleil3 and Munawwer Rasheed1, 4*

...ptible with higher adult mortality than S. oryzae. The highest toxic effect was induced by dichloromethane obtained extract from A. taxiformis (DA) against C. maculatus (LC50 1.15 mg/cm2) after 24 h exposure and S. oryzae although resist for one day showed (LC50 1.44 mg/cm2) after 48 h. Neurotoxic effects were also determined after 12 and 24 h. L. karachiana was the second in toxicity against C. maculatus and S. oryzae population. In addition, all treatments o...

Asmaa S. Mohammed*, Ahmed F. Abou-Elnaga, Ahmed I. Ateya, Mohammed M. Fouda, Ragab A. Darwish, Usama A. Abou-Ismail 

...afe levels and decreased mortality rate of kits. Furthermore, the exposure to 8 hours of UVB radiations in particular improved reproductive indices including litter weight at weaning and Kits’ weight gain from birth to weaning, and up-regulated the relative expression levels of FSHR and ER-α genes. Therefore, based on the multiple measures approach used to evaluate the effect of UVB light on behaviour, reproductive and health status of rabbits, it ...

Xian Zhang1, Erjiang Lin1, Shizhe Hong1 and Zhengjie Zhu2*

... cell apoptosis rate and mortality rate. SSAT was successfully transferred into prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Compared to the blank cell group and the blank vector group, the expression of Akt, GSK-3β and β-catenin proteins in the SSAT transfection group was significantly down-regulated (P <0.05), the cell proliferation was significantly inhibited (P <0.05), and both apoptosis rate and mortality rate increased...

Aml M. Ragab1*, Maha R. Basyoni1, Enas A.I. Khoris2, Nadia A. Abd Elghany3 

...imental period, the high mortality rate was (80%) in the group (G2) - Reisolation of B. cereus in G2 was 83.3% and 91.6%, while in G3, it was 16.6% and 8.3% on the first and second week, respectively. The results of selected blood parameters and enzymes proved that B. cereus infection exhibit high levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and creatinine with reduced total protein, albumin, globulin, and albumin: globulin ratio. While in the treated group, reversible changes oc...

Ibrahim Samir Abd El-Hamid1*, Wafaa Adel Abd Fouda1, Hesham Attia Shedeed1, Safaa Ali Mostafa1, Ahmed Mohamed Elbaz2, Salah Abo Bakr2, Baliegh Hamdy Mosa1, Ali Saber Morsy1, Amal Mohamed Hasan1, Khamis Refaay Emam3 

...ta including conception, mortality rates, gestation length and litter size. Productive efficiency index and feed conversion of does significantly improved in treated rabbits as compared to control group. Litter weight at birth and weaning were higher (P<0.05) in rabbits treated with microalgae N. oculata compared to control. In conclusion, supplementation of microalgae N. oculata to rabbit diets has a positive effect on blood constituents and enhance reprod...

Saima Naz1*, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha2, Sajjad Ali2 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah3

...ave malformed growth and mortality rate affected by heavy metals, mainly with the exposure of pesticides. On the other hand, pesticides not only alter the behavior, growth and developmental physiology, gut microbiota, but also cause mitochondrial abnormalities. The use of different antibiotics is also posing threat to bees by causing changes in the structure, productivity and physiology of their gut microbiota. The current review compared the effect of these e...

Manish Gautam1*, Pravakar Kattel2 and Krishna Kaphle3

...gh this disease has less mortality rate it causes great economic losses by decreasing milk production, abortion, infertility, and other complication. The disease is comparatively new to Nepal but has already covered a wide geographical range but vaccination is yet to be introduced. The disease doesn’t have any specific treatment only treatment after infection is supportive therapy but it is reported that control and prevention are possible by immunizatio...

Saied Belal1, Ashraf Albrakati1*, Khalaf Alsharif2, Saad Al-Shehri2, Mohamed Alblihed3, Malik Almuqati4, Anfal Alsharif5, Alaa Albarakati6 and Anas Al-sharif7

...born health and neonatal mortality. This study aims to evaluate the effect of residence at high lands on the anthropometric measurements of newborns in Taif province, Saudi Arabia (high altitude area) to provide guidelines for neonatal assessment in high lands. A cross-sectional study included 1534 newborns in Taif city (2000 to 2400 meters above sea level), Western Province of Saudi Arabia, collected during a period of 6 months (from November 2014 through Apr...

Abdul Majeed1, Zhenlin Liang2, Lixin Zhu2, Chunli Liu2, Muhsan Ali Kalhoro1,* and Faisal Saeed1

...o analyze the growth and mortality rate parameters. The length-weight relationship values for male was W= 0.016xb2.906 (R² = 0.950) and female was W= 0.029xb2.724 (R² = 0.941). The combined data of both sexes were W= 0.021xb2.830 (R² = 0.945). The electronic length-frequency analysis (ELEFAN) method was used to estimate the VBGF parameters, which were L∞ = 39.9 cm (FL), K = 1.6 yr-1. However, total mortality...

Mujahid Tanvir1, Muhammad Asam Riaz1*, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Mazhar Iqbal Zafar2, Muhammad Tariq3 and Muhammad Bilal Tayyab1

...ted more than 50% larval mortality in 48 h exposure. The most effective botanical extracts were Maerua arenaria Forsk, Nerium indicum Mill., Withania coagulans Dunal, Suaeda fruticosa (L.) Delile, Olea ferruginea Wall., Adiantum capillus-veneris L. and Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees exhibiting 87, 84, 83, 81, 79, 78 and 77% larval mortality, respectively with minimum LC50 and LC90 values. Among the microbial and synthetic inse...

Sania Subhan Qureshi*,1, Baitullah Khan1, Shahid Khan1, Hanif Ur Rahman1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2

...tion, treatment cost and mortality. FMD is caused by 7 different serotypes of FMD virus having different virulence. To compare the virulence of various FMD serotypes the study was designed to propagate the virus on BHK-21 cell line. The results revealed that serotype ‘A’ virus virulence is more as compared to serotype ‘O’ and ‘Asia-1’. Although less virulence difference was found between serotype ‘A’ and ‘O...

Eman Alsayed Hammad1* and Mahmoud Mohamed Hassanin Hasanin2

...nd increased M. javanica mortality by 100%, in comparison to the non-treated control. In the greenhouse, thyme and spearmint essential oils nanoemulsions and emulsions (at 5000 ppm) affected significantly on the final population (Pf) of M. javanica (671.8 and 1072.4), while emulsions of spearmint and thyme nanoemulsion completely infection prevented after 50 days from planting in infested soil with F. oxysporum, but thyme and spearmint essential oils nanoemuls...

Tao Ren1, Guiqiu Cao2, Xiao Han3, Feng Tan1, Qiaoli Chen4, Shicheng Yang5 and Haiyan Zhang6*

...s a major contributor to mortality and morbidity worldwide and causes a serious threat to human life and health. Naringenin, a flavonoid possesses the potent antioxidant potential and it is proposed to be useful in the treatment of CVD. In this experimental study, we aimed to scrutinize the cardio-protective effect of naringenin against the I/R induced myocardial injury and elucidate the possible mechanism of action. In vitro studies, the H9c2 cardiomyocytes c...

Abdelrahman A. Abdelrahman1, Salama A. S. Shany1, Kareem E. Hassan1, Mansy A. A. Dardeer2, Ali A.1*, Magdy F. El-Kady1* 

...ken flocks with variable mortality rates in four Egyptian governorates (Fayoum, Beni-Suef, Giza, Minia). All samples were cultivated on PPLO media and detected under stereo-microscope for fried egg colonies. Forty-three samples were detected as Mycoplasma spp., using PCR for species identification, MG, MS, and Untyped strains, with a high prevalence of MG (27.9%) and lowest for MS (8.8%). An rRT-PCR used for detection of AIV-H9N2 and IBV showed high prevalen...

Barirah Rehman Talpur1, Zaheer Ahmed Nizamani1*, Imdad Hussain Leghari2, Mansoor Tariq1, Aisha Rehman3, Shahnawaz Kumbhar1 

.... The clinical signs and mortality were noted. Blood was collected at days 0, 5, 10, 15 and 18 of experiment, for evaluation of liver and kidney functions. Dose and time dependent significant (p<0.05) increase in serum Alanine aminotransferase (GPT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT), uric acid and creatinine levels and significant (p<0.05) decrease of serum calcium levels were noted in all treatment groups of both specie...

Ida Bagus Oka Winaya1*, Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi1, Putu Henrywaesa Sudipa2, I Gusti Ketut Suarjana2

... with high morbidity and mortality, especially in young pigs. This disease causes significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. This study aims to determine the histopathological changes of meningoencephalitis and arthritis in post-weaning piglets suspected of streptococcosis. The samples were 35 cadaver of post weaning piglets that showed muscle spasm and swollen joint at several villages in Badung Regency, Indonesia. Samples of the brain and s...
Luu Huynh Anh1, Huynh Tan Loc2, Nguyen Hong Xuan3, Le Minh Thanh1, Trinh Thi Hong Mo4, Ly Thi Thu Lan5, Nguyen Trong Ngu1*
...ered 24 hours later. The mortality rate of chickens in the PC+MHH6PR2 group was significantly lower (16.7%) than in the PC group (58.3%). The frequency of lesions and E. coli densities in the heart, liver, and spleen of chickens treated with MHH6 and PR2 phages were greatly decreased in infected chickens. After 98 days, the body weight of birds from the E. coli-infected groups treated with MHH6 and PR2 phages was lower than individuals in non-E. coli-infected ...

Aamir Ibrahim1, Bingyao Chen1, Hassan Ali2, Imran Ali3, Yang Cao1 and Guang Yang1*

...s to reduce conflict and mortality in areas where fishing is under practice.

...

Ghulam Murtaza1,6*, Muhammad Irfan Fareed2, Noshaba Munawar3, Muhammad Nadeem Khan4, Gul-E- Zahra5, Taskeen Ahmad6, Muhammad Daud6 and Taqi Raza6

...nst Aedes aegypti larval mortality under laboratory conditions. Result indicated that Spinosad (77.32% mortality) and pyriproxyfen (66.28% mortality) are more toxic to A. aegypti larvae as compared to matrine, chlorfenapyr and imidacloprid after 72-h exposure. While minimum mortality was recorded after 24-h exposure of insecticides in all treatments. So,...

Nishant Shah1*, Rakesh Kumar Yadav1, Anil Gautam1*, Shambhu Shah1 and Mohan Kumar Gupta2

...s done and morbidity and mortality rate was also recorded. The significantly minimum ammonia (ppm) was recorded in CRH (30.53±0.77); however, the maximum ammonia (ppm) was recorded in RH (49.78±0.42) with that compared to SD (33.42±0.25) and RS (43.22±0.56). Similarly, the mortality rate due to colisepticemia was recorded minimum in CRH (68.75%), however, the maximum was recorded in RH (86.25%) wi...

Arfan Ahmed Gilal1*, Lubna Bashir Rajput1, Muhammad Ibrahim Kubar1, Ghulam Murtaza Kaleri2, Tanzeela-ul-Zahra1,3, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi4 and Zeeshan Rasheed1

...s indicated that maximum mortality of FAW in both maize stems and leaves were recorded in pupa and 1st larval instar, respectively whereas, maximum survival was recorded in 4th and 5th larval instars. Almost, similar male to female sex ratio was recorded in leaves and stems with higher female longevity in leaves than stems. No significant difference was recorded in approximate and corrected generation time of FAW between leaves and stems. Innate capacity of in...

Nimra Altaf1, Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Hamza Latif1, Muhammad Zeeshan1, Gulfam Yousuf1 and Muhammad Afzal2

...f these chemicals on the mortality and consumption rate of FAW larvae. Results show that mortality increased in all treatments with time. Recommended dose of chlorantraniliprole (50 ml/100 litre water) insecticide showed 71.0% mortality of FAW on 5th day, which increased up to 82.0% on the 7th day after application of treatments. No significant (P > 0.05) difference in larval

Saima Mehar1 and Salma Javed2*

... and J2 juveniles’ mortality varied according to the concentration of plant extract. WC=1 showed 100% mortality after 48 hrs of exposure at 1% with the lethal concentration (LC50) values 0.168 mg/land all four concentration are 100 % toxic at 72 h of exposure. W-56D proved to be 100 % lethal at 0.1 and 0.5 % concentration after 48 h of exposure with (LC50) 0.065 mg/l. The lowest mortality

A. El-Shemy1*, Hoda M. Mekky2, M. A. Bosila2, A. M. Allam1, Kh. M. Elbayoumi2, M. M. Amer3 

...results inhigh potential mortality and great economic losses. We collected liver samples from three duck farms representing Muscovy and Pekin breeds at ages ranging from 2 to 4 weeks and located in two Egyptian governorates between August and October 2018. The affected ducks were suffering from a short course of nervous signs, and mortality was high, reaching 75% within 3–4 days. Implementation of one-step reverse tran...
Tariq Mehmood1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Ayesha Safder Chaudhry1, Kamran Ashraf2, Muhammad Mohsin Ali1,3, Muhammad Faisal Ayoob3*, Mudassir Hussain4, Farrukh Saleem3 and Muhammad Fayaz3
... increases morbidity and mortality risk.

...

Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Irfan Baboo2*, Arshad Javid3, Noor Khan4, Hamid Majeed5, Azra Anwer1, Zahid Farooq2, Muhammad Altaf6 and Moazam Jalees7

...e. There was recorded no mortality after 96h of exposure period. IONPs significantly affected the counts of WBCs, Hb, MCH and MCHC of experimental and control groups. The analysis of blood profile demonstrated that haematological parameters; the number of WBCs and Hb were increased in T1 and decreased in T2 in relation to T0. The counts of RBCs, HCT, MCV and PLT were found to be increased in both experimental groups as compared to control one. It is inferred f...

Tooba Ather1, Muhammad Rafiq Shahid2*, Muhammad Ahsin Ayub3, Javed Iqbal2, Muhammad Asim Bhutta2, Muhammad Akram2, Naveeda Anjum4, Muhammad Rizwan6, Hafeezur Rehman5 and Umar Farooq5

...he results revealed that mortality of 3rd instar of P. solenopsis increased with increase in concentration of Pyriproxyfen and Buprofezin at three days of post application interval (PAI). Pyriproxyfen 0.5% and Buprofezin at 2% concentration induced mortality of P. solenopsis up to (82.52%) and (87.60%) respectively at PAI of 3 days after application. At 0.25%concentration of Pyriproxyfen and 1% of Buprofezin

Peyman Mohammadzadeh1*, Aida Rasuli2, Bahman Noroozi Gorgani2, Sajjad Mohammadi3

...: justify;">The cause of mortality in macropods like kangaroos may not always be known, and in many cases, it is difficult to determine. According to necropsy results, a male red kangaroo with a history of chronic neuro-ocular toxoplasmosis had an extensive mixed fracture of the posterior and base of the skull. Direct deep and countercoup brain bruises, independent fractures of the top and roof of both orbits, subdural hemorrhage with edema and shifting of the...

Muhammad Haris Raza Farhan1*, Qamar Iqbal1, Tariq Jamil1, Muhammad Fayaz2, Abdul Kabir2,3, Eid Nawaz2, Marjan Ali2, Shumaila Manzoor2 

... farm owner revealed the mortality of 8 animals within the duration of 14 days following a pattern of anorexia, no fever, emaciation, recumbency, and ultimately death. A detailed physical and clinical examination of animals revealed signs of dehydration, emaciation, anorexia, nutritional stress, and high fever in animals. Tick infestation was found on the skin of animals while Babesia was found in the blood smears of some animals. Pox-like lesions were also fo...
Idrissa Sacko1, Madou Dao1, Souleymane Sanogo1,2*, B. Michel Orounladji2, Kaly Diakité1, Diakaridia Traore3, Mamadou D. Coulibaly1, Amadou B. Cisse1
... sperm concentration and mortality rate. The overall averages obtained for the different parameters studied were 0.92 ml for semen volume; 3.91 for mass motility; 73.69% for vitality; 2.11.109 spz/ml for sperm concentration, 2.11.109 spz and 26.54% for total sperm count in ejaculate and spz mortality rate respectively. March-April was found to be more suitable for semen collection. This study emphasized the high semen qualit...

Muhammad Rizwan, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza*, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed and Muhammad Arshad

...Results showed that mean mortality was higher (76.67%) after the application of A. indica extract, followed by E. camaldulensis (66.67%) at 72 h post-exposure. The least effective botanicals were C. citratus and C. album showing 26.67 and 20.0% mean mortality of mealybug, respectively. The mortality rate was increased by increasing the concentration of botanicals up to 25.0%. Furthermore, ...

Zhang Yan1,2 and Muhammad Mohsin3*

...t was found that fishing mortality (F) has increased from 0.510 (2007) to 1.099 (2018) whereas biomass t has decreased from 320,100 t (2007) to 68,890 t (2018), F-M in ASPIC. Estimated parameter values vividly signpost overharvesting of T. lepturus in Shandong, China. Thus, current management measures should be further strengthened for sustainable harvesting of this fishery resource and additional research on this topic.

...

Entesar Z. Eliraqy1*, Basant M. Shafik2, Yasser S. Hussein1, Abdelwahab A. Alsenosy3, Emad A. Abd allah1, Mohamed F. Saad1 

..., G2 and G3 with reduced mortality percentage than control group after cooling process. In addition, a significantly increased (P < 0.05) of progressive motility, acrosome integrity and alive spermatozoa percentage in groups treated with different concentrations of garlic extract than control group. While both the abnormality and chromatin value were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the groups treated with different concentrations of garlic extract than...

Iram Amin1,2*, Shazia Rafique1, Nadeem Ahmed1, Muhammad Shahid1, Samia Afzal1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah1, Mohsin Ahmed Khan1 and Muhammad Idrees1,3

...ses additional risks and mortality rate. Currently, there is no vaccine available for HDV, therefore, treatment of patients with dual infection is indeed a challenge for clinicians. A timely and accurate diagnosis is critical for treatment in this regard. Expression and purification of HDAg, which is the only protein of HDV of the local isolate is the primary objective of the study. This antigenic recombinant HDAg protein can be useful for both vaccine develop...

Hagar Magdy Ahmed1, Mohamed Mahrous Amer2*, Khaled Mohamed Elbayoumi1 , Sameh Abdel- Moez Ahmed Amer1, Asmaa Mahmoud Matoaq1 , Mohamed Abdel Aziz Kutkat1, Gomaa Abd El-Rhim Abdel-Alim2  

...uce clinical disease and mortality is necessary. The current study evaluated the efficacy of different NDV vaccines used in poultry flocks in Egypt: live attenuated NDV vaccines (genotype II) and live recombinant herpes virus of turkey (rHVT-ND-IBD) alone or in combination with inactivated NDV vaccines either of genotypes II or VII (commercially available or autogenously prepared). Different vaccination regimes are applied at various designated days to 260 com...

Abdul Latif1, Shahid Sattar1, Fazal Maula2, Imtiaz Khan4*, Asim Iqbal3 and Said Hussain Shah1*

...itions, the highest 100% mortality was caused by lamda-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin after 72hrs followed by A. indica seed extract (81.00) and P. hydropiper (78.80) when tested under laboratory conditions. Based on the current results, it is concluded that lamda-cyhalothrin and A. indica caused high mortality under lab and field conditions, which can be included in future IPM programs.

...

Midrar Ullah1, Nail Chand2, Abdul Kabir3, Muhammad Rasheed4, Hubdar Ali Kaleri5, Saqib Kakar5, Mubarak Ali4, Deepesh Kumar6, Asad Ali Shah1, Amir Shahb1, Muhammad Amir Khan1, Raza Ali Mangi7, Abdul Wahid Solangi5, Rameez Kaleri5,8*

...percentage, weight gain, mortality percentage, weight of goblet and TFT thyroid function test were performed. In this experiment total 9 hundred broiler chicks were purchased from local market and randomly divided into two groups 1 control and 1 irradiated. These groups were further distributed in two more replications with 50 birds per replication using the random treatment design. The findings our study showed that there was no significant influence of feed ...

Yasemin Yıldırım Meşepınar and İlker Kepenekci*

...(4.83±0.60) pupal mortality whereas S. feltiae caused 35.00% (3.5±0.72) mortality. 1.00±0.36 (10.00%) dead pupa was detected at the end of 10 days in the control groups. Although S. feltiae was more effective than H. bacteriophora against potato moth larvae, H. bacteriophora was more effective than S. feltiae in applications against pupae. This research, which is the first study carried out in greenhouse...

Muhammad Shuaib1*, Abdul Hafeez1, Naila Chand1 and Muhammad Tahir2

...y egg production (HDEP), mortality, and ash digestibility were recorded as non-significant, while nutrient digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), and fat were recorded higher in the control group during all the three phases. It is concluded that the different levels of soybean hull in the basal diet resulted in lower production performance and nutrient digestibility than the control group.

...

Nosheen Jehajo*, Nasreen Memon, Mansoor Ali Shah and Naheed Shah

...a (mung beans) including mortality, oviposition, and adult emergence using three replication for each treatment. Four concentrations viz; (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1%) each of the oil were prepared to observe the contact toxicity and surface protectant effect. Results showed that as percentage of concentrations increased mortality of adult beetles also increased with increased exposure time. In addition, among the dissimilar con...

Agha Mushtaque Ahmed1*, Fahad Nazir Khoso1, Ali Zachi Abdulqader Alhilfi2, Sohail Ahmed Otho1, Qurban Ali3, Din Muhammad Soomro1 and Zubair Ahmed Soomro1

...s was recorded on insect mortality, number of adult insects, seed damage (punctured seeds and weight loss of chickpea seeds), seed germination percentage, root length (cm) and seed vigour index. The insect mortality was recorded at different intervals such as 24, 48, 72 hrs and 1 week) and the results indicated that E. sativa gave a consecutively higher mortality at each interval, meanwhil...

Sara Magdy Hashim1, Elshaimaa Ismael2, Mohamed Tarek3, Faten Fathy Mohammed1*, Fatma Amer Abdel Reheem3, Rawhia Esawy Doghaim1 

...ng to the year examined, mortality rate, positive results of RT- qPCR with low Ct value (H5 and N8 were 15 and 20 respectively). The phylogenetic tree revealed that H5N8 field isolate clustering in clade 2.3.4.4b. The histopathological hallmarks, in H5N8 naturally infected ducks, included acute inflammatory, necrotic and vascular reactions that involve different tissues. The immunohistochemical characterization of viral antigen revealed direct relation between...

Sumaria Maqsood1*, Muhammad Ali 2, Amna Shoaib3, Shahbaz Ahmad2 and Noor-ul-Ain2

... in the pupal and larvae mortality rate as compared to the tomato paste diet and chickpea diet. The rearing expenses for 200 larvae on the modified diet (674/Rs) were 2.5 folds less than the expenses for rearing the same number of larvae on chickpea based diet (1749/Rs.) and almost equal to the tomato paste-based diet (669/Rs.). Therefore, a modified diet based on wheat germ and tomato paste is suitable for mass rearing of S. litura for six generations for lab...

Maha Mostafa1, Sohail Soliman1, Reham I. Mohamed2 and Wael M. El-Sayed1*

...ather than by increasing mortality. Male (20) and female (40) albino mice were orally administered testosterone at 25 mg/kg for 35 days. The males were allowed to mate with females to estimate the fertility index. After the end of treatment, mice were sacrificed, blood was collected for biochemical analysis, and sex organs were dissected out for histological preparations. Administration of testosterone has significantly increased the body weight and decreased ...

Ghulam Akbar1*, Muhammad Anjum Zia1, Amer Jamil1 and Faiz Ahmad Joyia2

...eveloping countries. The mortality rate with cardiovascular diseases is 85% in less developed countries and 75% prevalence is in women. The wild and mutant strains of Streptococcus mutans were used for this trace element optimization study. There are some salts like KH2PO4, K2HPO4, NaHCO3, CaCO3, CH3COONa.3H2O and FeSO4. 7H2O have been optimized for the production of SK. The K2HPO4 has shown the highest enzymatic activity with UV-Et mutant 680.0 UmL-1 and with...

Carla Meneguin Barbosa1*, Fabio Gregori2, Cairo Monteiro1, Thais Helena Martins Gamon1, Luciano Matsumiya Thomazelli1, Tânia de Freitas Raso2 and Edison Luiz Durigon1

...ible and presenting high mortality rate. Here we describe the investigation of 98 sudden deaths of birds, belonging to 8 Brazilian native psittacine species, divided in two outbreaks, one year apart between 2016 and 2017, in a breeding farm in São Paulo State, Brazil. PSHv-1 was detected in 6 species (61 birds) through Nested-PCR, that tested negative for Influenza, Paramyxovirus, Flavivirus, and Adenovirus. Genetic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis ...

H. M. Hassan† and S. A. Ibrahim

...insecticides caused less mortality to the tested entomopathogenic nematodes. Magic smart significantly surpassed other insecticides causing the mortality of 11.6 and 13.8 % to the entomopathogenic nematodes S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora, respectively as compared to Coragen that caused slight mortality, 2.5 and 4.4%, respectively and did not differ significantly than the check. Nomolt...

S. Ahmed†, Q. Liu and H. Jian

...xt-align: justify;">(J2) mortality assay in vitro. About 40.16 % isolates showed 40.0% J2 mortality during 12 hours. Significantly
increased upto 86.0% mortality was observed in 24 hour exposures. Among them twenty six Bacillus strains were
identified by morphological, physiological and biochemical carbon source utilization using API 50C...

L. Yue, S. Ahmed†, Q. Liu and H. Jian

...ates (CF) showed maximum mortality of second stage juvenile (J2) followed by Bacillus sp., at 12 h and 24 h duration of exposure time as compared to the control treatment containing medium (L.B). In the green house experiments Fosthiazate had significant increased the root length, shoot length and reduced the number of root-knot nematode galls on tomato roots followed by biocontrol agent S. rubrogriseus and Bacillus sp., as compared to the untreated control tr...
A.M. El-Baha1, A. A. El-Sherbiny2†, M. Z. M. Salem1, N. Shaarawy3 and N. H. Mohamed3
...(31.24–66.35%) and mortality of second stage juvenile. Inhibition of egg hatching (%) and mortality (%) of
J2 were increased linearly with increasing concentration of EOs. Corymbia citriodora EO was more effective than
E. camaldulensis in inhibiting egg hatchability and suppressing J2 viability. Probit analysis results showed median
inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 412.7 and...

M. T. Javeed†, A. S. Al-Hazmi and Y. Y. Molan

...egg hatch inhibition and mortality of juvenile (J2). The mortality of J2 and un-hatching of eggs increased as the
concentrations of the culture filtrates increased. In general, T. harzianum (isolate No.27), T. hamatum (isolate
No.5) and T. viride (isolate No.8) were the most effective among all tested isolates. Therefore, these three isolates
were further evaluated in the greenhouse test o...

Ahmed S.M.H. EL Roby

...ve the highest corrected mortality percentage in the infestation (from 68.59% to 70.83%). The
LC50 were 25.42 and 45.5 IJs/ insect for the two strains, respectively.
...

I. Kepenekci1†, S. Toksöz2, T. Atay1 and I. Saruhan2

...mperatures. The data for mortality was
recorded after 2, 4, 6 and 8 days intervals. Insect mortality of the adult was higher in all nematode treatments than
the control. Turkish EPN isolate S. carpocapsae (Black sea) and Kyrgyz EPN isolate S. feltiae (KG3) species
showed the highest mortality (98.66%).
...

K. Taimoor1† and F. Shahina2

...tory experiments highest mortality (100%) was
exhibited by the extract of Zatoria multiflora, Achillea santolina and Nepeta cateria against dose of 3.0g/liter
followed by Teucrium stocksianum and Ferula oopoda with mortality of 90 % and 89%, respectively at the same
dose of 3.0g/liter. Further, in pot experiments all tested plants showed significant effect on management parameters
<...

S. Ahmed†, Q. Liu and H. Jian

... against juveniles (J2s) mortality followed by the isolate of XZ 17-1, XZ 24-2-1, MH 58-60-10, MH 58-60-04 and isolate MH 01-04-01, respectively. Among them four Bacillus isolates were identified on molecular basis using 16S rDNA, physiologically and biochemically and grouped as plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). In the green house experiments identified isolates; B.cereus XZ 24-2-1, B. cereus XZ-33-3, B. weihenstephansis MH-58-60-01, B. thuringiensis MH ...

A. S. A. Saad1, M. B. Al-Kadi1, A. A. A. Deeabes2 and A. M. El-Kholy2

... inhibitory and juvenile mortality potential and to ascertain their role as organic amendments for the management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) affecting okra plants in vitro as well as in vivo conditions. Five concentrations of all chemicals were prepared. Data of in vitro studies showed a marked nematicidal and nematode hatching inhibitory activity against root-knot nematode (M. incognita). However, the nematicidal activity differed between t...

F. Shahina† and G. Mehreen

... were also influenced by mortality; days to death, infection cycle length and
reproductive potential. Highest mortality 100% was obtained on PAK.S.S.16 @ 75 IJs/cm2. The strains PAK.S.S.16
and PAK.P.S.9 showed shortest 1.21 and 1.2 days to death in termites, while the isolate PAK.P.S.9 showed the
shortest infection cycle length (4.65). Moreover, the strain PAK.S.S.16 showed highest rate of...
A.A. Tanimola and B. Fawole1
...ASV) on egg-hatching and mortality of
second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita was investigated in vitro. Extracts were tested at
concentrations of 50,000 mg/kg and 25,000 mg/kg in an experiment laid out in completely randomized design in the
laboratory. Data were collected on inhibition of egg-hatching, mortality of juveniles and analyzed using ANO...

S.A. Khan†, M. Abid and F. Hussain1

...
hatching and larval mortality tests) in vitro. Results revealed that seaweed biochemical potential in two different
solvents viz., water and methanol @ ratios 2.5, 5 and 10%. It is observed that Sargasssum tenerrimum, Padina
tetrastromatica and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii showed maximum egg hatching (96%) and larval mortality (99%)
and (100%), respectively in water and methanol extract...

I. Umar† and A. Mamman*

...ch inhibition and larval mortality was
observed over a period of 72 hrs. Sterilized loamy soil (4 kg) contained in 36 perforated plastic pots (30 cm dia.
and 40 cm depth) were separately mixed with 0, 30, 40, 50 and 60 g (equivalent to 0, 10 15, 20 and 25 tons/ha) of
the fruit powder. Carbofuran was applied at 0.060 g/pot. Control pots received no amendment. Two early maturing
cowpea varieties EX-Gurin and EX-Yob...

F. Shahina†, K.A. Tabassum and M.A. Habib*

... water were assessed for mortality percentage. All four species of insects,
viz., Helicoverpa armigera, Earias insulana, E. vitella and Pectinophora gossypiella were found susceptible to
infective juveniles of the four EPN species; S. pakistanense was the most virulent EPN species. There is a dire need
to focus further research on these EPN isolates to explore and exploit their potential as an alternative to synthetic
...

O. A. Fabiyi

...hest percentage juvenile mortality. The infrared analysis
of the fractions revealed the presence of anhydride and carbonyl stretching frequencies at 3638, 1702, 1735 and
1771 cm-1. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) of the fractions showed signals that agreed with ozoic and
daniellic acids. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaves revealed the presence of flavonoids, steroids,
terpenoids, reducing suga...

T.S. Rizvi and F. Shahina†

... of seed had the highest mortality (100%) at highest exposure time (72 hrs) while, the pulp and fruit extracts
showed 60 and 80% mortality, respectively. Among various extracts of creeper hexane extract (HH-CC) showed
100% mortality after 72 hrs at all concentrations as compared with standard carbofuran. Whereas, HE-CC and HWCC
showed 100%

O.A. Fabiyi†, G.A. Olatunji* and A.T. Aramide*

...div>
showed 51.42% mortality as compared to 39.38% after 24 hrs. Plants received brominated/oxidised oils were taller
with better yields than untreated and nematode infested plots in the field. The GC/MS result indicated that the major
constituents of the orange peel oils were limonene, octanal and citroneloll.
...

Jax Vincent Gamulo, Maye Pearl Bolina, Jessica Serena Brion, Via Crishiela Nicole Dela Rosa, Roxanne Francesca Maglaya, Carl Lexter Tan, Aimee Caye Chang* 

... years 2001 to 2021. The mortality time between tropical plant extracts and commercially available drugs posed a significant difference (P < 0.05), while ten (10) among the plant species differed in fasciolocidal activity (P < 0.05). Albendazole (62.5%) was the most used reference drug, along with Piperazine Citrate, and Triclabendazole, wherein ANOVA showed no significant difference in mortality time among them (P >...

Hina Safdar1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Sajid Aleem Khan2, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed3, Arif Mehmood3 and Muhammad Arshad4

...reatment, maximum larval mortality (59.40%) was exhibited by Xenorhabdus spp. against 2nd instar larvae followed by 52.80, 46.20 and 46.20% mortality of 5th, 3rd and 4th instar larvae, respectively. In case of Photorhabdus spp., maximum mortality (26.40%) was observed against 2nd instar larvae. In other bioassay, 40% suspensions of bacterial metabolites were evaluated against different lar...

Saima Mumtaz1,3*, M. Imran Kasana1, Riaz Alam1, Noorullah Khan1, Muhammad Noman1, Sanjeela Sabahat1 and Hussain Shah2

... heavier roots with less mortality rate compared to all other cultivars. 

...
Aulia Evi Susanti1*, Rudy Priyanto2, Muladno2, Dewi Apri Astuti3, Lucia Cyrilla2
... and female calf births, mortality rates, production costs and income. A business feasibility analysis is calculated by the value of net present value (NPV), benefit/cost (B/C ratio), and internal rate of return (IRR). Vensim software and powersim studio version 10 were used to compile causal loop (CLD) and flow chart diagrams, followed by dynamic system analysis. Based on the simulation results, the existing production model has not been declared feasible as ...
Hagar Magdy Ahmed1, Mohamed Mahrous Amer2*, Khaled Mohamed El-Bayoumi1, Ahmed Ali El-Shemy3, Mohamed Abd El-Rahman Bosila1, Gomaa Abd El-Rhim Abdel Alim2
...ups. Regarding signs and mortality in infected groups IBD signs varied from mild in lector®, moderate in Orego® while sever signs were in non-medicated group. The mortalities began at 5th day post-challenge (pch) in non-medicated groups with total 10-20%; while the mortalities in NDV began at 3rd day pch in group non-medicated with 50% to reach 100% mortality rate in 7th pch. At necropsy both IBD and NDV infection le...

Muhammad Shakil Ahmad1, Muhammad Afzal1, Liu Yu Feng2, Muhammad Shahroaz Khan1 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*

...d significantly the mean mortality or reduction of S. litura larvae recorded both at two and five days post-treatment. In laboratory bioassay, combinations of flubendiamide and A. indica, flubendiamide and N. tabacum and of spinetoram and A. indica formulations caused significantly high mortality (100%), followed by B. thuringensis and S. litura-NPV (94.92%) and A. indica and B. thuringensis (93.22%) and exhibited a synergiz...

Mutia Rizkia Shaffira, Nurhayati, Dwi Desmiyeni Putri* 

...ed conversion ratio, and mortality. Twenty samples were used to measure the observed variables in carcass quality including carcass percentage, abdominal fat, cholesterol, and cooking losses. The results showed that the addition of red ginger and brotowali extracts in drinking water both single or in combined application improved on body weight gain, conversion ratio, mortality, carcass percentage, abdominal fat, and cooking...

A. N. Mahar, N. D. Jan†, A. Q. Mahar and S. R. Gowen

...ignificant difference in mortality percentage among all isolates. All the nematodes were found more effective when exposure time increased up to 8 days. S. carpocapsae&nbs...

O. A. Fabiyi, G. A. Olatunji and O. Atolani

...tive in causing juvenile mortality. 75% concentrations of fraction being more active and showed significant differences from other concentrations. Fractions from A. boonei...
Ferzana Bhatti1, Fiaz Hussain2, Zain ul Abdin1*, Muhammad Arshad1, Saqi Kosar Abbas2 and Muhammad Zeeshan Shabbir3
...hosts. Venom caused 100% mortality of the host even in diluted forms; Dufour’s gland secretion did not cause any significant mortality. The secretions injected by an ovipositing female not only contributed to a reduction in egg mortality but also positively affected survival and development of immature insect parasitoids. These will be helpful to explore novel bioactive molecules use...

Ghulam Jelani1, Muhammad Haris Raza Farhan2, Rida Asrar3, Muhammad Ahmad1,4*, Chanda Naseem5, Zafar Ali Khoso6, Majid Hussain Soomro7* 

...ue to high morbidity and mortality. Chronic respiratory disease (CRD) had a high prevalence rate in the last decade and thus established itself as a disease of the major economic importance of the poultry industry. The eradication of this contagious disease remains a challenge to the poultry industry that can be transmitted from infected birds to healthy ones by respiratory routes. The lack of proper isolation and diagnostic methods as well as improper use of ...

Saleem Hussain1, Muhammad Tayyab1, Tauqir Anwar1, Talha Nazir2*, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed3, Zohaib Asad2,4, Muhammad Adnan3 and Tajwar Alam5

...lts showed a significant mortality and suppression of S. graminum individuals at 72 h after treatment in the laboratory and at 10th day post-treatment in the field. In laboratory bioassay, maximum aphid mortality was caused by the extracts of D. stramonium (92%), A. indica (84%), N. tabacum (78%) and M. azedarach (70%) at 72 h post-treatment at their highest concentration (1000 ppm). Results of field trial showed significant...

Dalia Mansour Hamed1, Mohsen Zaky El Dimerdash1, Ahmed Abdelatif Ali2, Samer Adel Abd El-Gaffar3, Mona Salim Abdallah1* 

... the causes and rates of mortality according to nursing programs is limited. This study aimed to highlight the bacterial and behavioral causes of mortalities among young rabbits and control such problems. A survey on 167 specimens collected from diseased and freshly dead young rabbits in some Egyptian provinces was conducted. In addition, an experiment was carried out on 15 pregnant does divided into 3 groups: (A) opened, (B) semi closed and (C) closed nursing...

Safaa Rhaimi1, Sara Brikat2, Mouloud Lamtai2*, Mohammed Ouhssine1

... was carried out for the mortality, food and water consumption, body weight changing and clinical signs. Biochemical parameters and organ weight were also examined. The behavior of rats was evaluated at the end of the experiment for anxiety-like and depression-like and memory. Accordingly, treatment with salvia officinalis essential oil at a dose of 2000 mg/kg showed no mortality or clinical signs, nor any changes in body, o...

Ahmed E.A. Mahgoob1, Wafaa M.A. El-Nagdi2, Mahmoud M.A. Youssef2*, Entesar H. Taha1, Mona M.S. Zayed3, Hassan Abd- El-Khair4 and Nora R.A. Saleh2

...e second stage juveniles mortality increased with increasing the concentrations and exposure periods. Generally, the highest egg hatching inhibition and juvenile mortality occurred after 96 and 72hrs exposure to the suspensions of the tested isolates of P. fluorescens depending upon their concentrations and exposure periods, respectively.

...

Usama Saleem1, Muhammad Asrar1*, Dilbar Hussain2, Saddam Hussain1, Abdul Ghaffar2, Hassan Usman1, Muhammad Imran1, Mubshar Saleem3 and Maryam Hamid1

...nd insecticides. Maximum mortality recorded after 168 hours was, 85.06% and 79.29% by Neem and Eucalyptus leaf extract followed by 72 hours 72.29% and 71.69%, 48 hours 63.35% and 62.45% and 24 hours 48.91% and 48.68% respectively. Among the botanical extracts, Neem leaf extract was more effective as compared to the Eucalyptus leaf extract and a significant difference between the treated and control plot was recorded. Carbosulfan and Imidacloprid showed 76.80% ...

Asim Faraz1, Amal AlKharusi2, Nasir Ali Tauqir3, Muhammad Shahid Nabeel4, Syeda Maryam Hussain5, Abdul Waheed1*, Muhammad Arslan Akbar6

...rtility and decrease the mortality percentage. Average birth weight was improved from 3.5 to 3.6, 4, 4.4 and 4.5 kg in 2014-15, 2015-16, 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19, respectively due to these adopted practices. Average weaning weight was improved from 27 to 28, 30, 32 and 33 kg in 2014-15, 2s015-16, 2016-ddddd17, 2017-18 and 2018-19, respectively. The fertility rate was improved from 97.5 to 162, 165, 172 and 183 % in 2014-15, 2015-16, 2016-17, 2017-18 and 20...

Yun Zhang*

...increasing morbidity and mortality. However, the effects of exosomes secretion and expression of ET-1 and Ang-II on PE progression has not been fully investigated. The PE (n=100) and normal (n=100) women with singleton pregnancy and in the second or third trimester of pregnancy were included in the present study. The healthy group included healthy women (n=100) aged 28 to 40. The blood samples were collected, and exosomes were isolated using commercial kit. Th...

Najamuddin Solangi1*, Mushtaque Ahmed Jatoi1, Adel Ahmed Abul-Soad2, Abdul Aziz Mirani1, Muhammad Aslam Solangi3 and Ghulam Sarwar Markhand1

...highest survival, lowest mortality and contamination in spikelet explants. The spikelet explants obtained from immature spathes (avg. 17 cm) resulted in significantly highest callogenesis in cvs. Begum Jungi (83.6%) and Ajwa (75.6%). Significantly highest callus induced in floral buds in cvs. Begum Jungi (87.3%) and Ajwa (84.3%) on medium comprising of 2,4-D (2.0 mg L-1), 2iP (0.5 mg L-1). Medium comprising of 0.05 mg L-1 2,4-D, 2.0 mg L-1 2iP, 3 g L-1 activat...

Tajul Islam Mamun, Jillur Rahman, Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Jamal Hossain, Md Wakil Mahmud and Kamruz Zaman

...s of cats and has a high mortality rate. The study finds out the prevalence of FIP in cats over Dhaka City Corporation. From October 2022 to December 2022, 479 cats were investigated at the Care and Cure Veterinary Clinic in Dhaka. The study showed that approximately 3% (15/479) of cats had feline infectious peritonitis base on clinical history, clinical examination, FIP antibody kit test, blood test and Rivalta’s test. The prevalence of young cats was 6...

Roy Malindo1, Anuraga Jayanegara2, Osfar Sjofjan3, Siti Chuzaemi3*

...as 26.1% per year, while mortality was 4.7% per year. The average value of Natural Increase (NI) in the cattle population in Pulukan was 21.4% per year. In conclusion, the feeding system in Pulukan did not provide adequate levels of dry matter, affecting the average daily gain (ADG) did not meet its target of 0.5 kg/head/d and a low level of Natural Increase.
 
Keywords | Average daily gain, Bali cattle, Body weight, Dry matter, Nu...

Saima Mehar1, Amtul Sami2 and Erum Iqbal3*

...xane on egg hatching and mortality of the juveniles of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. After 72 hours, C. cyminum (MeOH) demonstrated the maximum nematicidal activity in egg hatching (15%±2.10) of M. javanica, followed by N. sativa (Ether), 22.33±6.86%, at the lowest administered dose of 0.25 % concentration. After 72 hours of treatment, C. cyminum (MeOH) and N. sativa (BeOH) had a non-significant difference in nematotoxic impact (90.0&p...

Md. Rashedul Islam1, Abul Farah Md. Hasanuzzaman1*, Md. Latiful Islam2, Ghausiatur Reza Banu1 

...thus for reducing larval mortality within an acceptable range in captivity.

...

Rogia SA Gomez*, Said H Mbaga 

...its (41.7%). The average mortality rate recorded in these farms was 11.7%. Biosecurity Index Score ranged from 44-66% (mean 53.83 ±4.23). There was low adoption of biosecurity between the farm’s boundary and the poultry houses. The study concludes that in the Pwani region biosecurity was moderately applied, which shows that farmers in this region are aware of the need to exercise biosecurity measures to prevent disease outbreaks. Some challenges i...

Javeria Khourshid*, Ghulam Abbas, Shahnaz Rashid, Asma Fatima* and Abdul Malik

...R between treatments. No mortality was occurring during the whole experimental period. Comparative growth analysis of both fish species revealed that OxyAqua organic is highly suitable for enhancing the biological performance of fish in captivity. This study is recommended for intensive and semi-intensive fish cultivation technology development, water quality improvement and fish health management in aquaculture.

...

Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Imtiaz Khan1*, Ijaz Ahmad1, Javed Khan2, Shahid Sattar1, Bashir Ahmad Khan and  Muhammad Salim

... pupal stage. The lowest mortality was observed in 2nd instar stage. Sx was determined to be maximal during the second instar stage and minimal at the pre-pupal stage. The total mortality per generation (K-value) from all immature stages was 0.26. The total female fecundity was 379.0 eggs and the fertile eggs ratio were 144 and net reproductive rate (Ro) was 2.57 eggs per female/day. The intrinsic rate of natural growth (rm)...

Ahmad Shahzaib1*, Tabish Raza2 and Aisha Areej2

...rts of high mucormycosis mortality and disease severity in India raise global concerns. Several studies have been reported that describe different levels of superinfections and disease severity in COVID-19 patients. Perhaps, there is just not enough data to distinguish between the worst outcomes of COVID-19 alone and coinfections, particularly when it comes to CS. Current clinical use of immunosuppressive therapies, including cytokine blockade, JAK, and IL-6 i...

Lipigwe Lauya1*, Peace Nkiruka Okeke2, Chukwudi Chizorom Ibeh1, Bello Ozovehe Banimoh1 and Nanma Tongnan Cosmas1

...ied factors are the high mortality rate and loss to follow-up of HIV-2 patients, the pathogenicity of the HIV-2 virus, and the clinical picture of the disease depending on the sex of individuals.

...

Navjot Hothi 

...s have been analyzed for mortality and morbidity. The mortality rate in different districts in India varied between 5% and 45%. The morbidity rate calculated is, however, lower and averages around 4.94% in the top ten most affected states of India. Rajasthan is the state with the highest morbidity, as this state has the highest cattle population in the world. The state of Punjab had the highest morta...
Umara Amir ud Din1, Waqas Ahmed Khan1*, Khurrum Shahzad1,2, Basharat Ali3, Misbah Hussain1,4 and Fazli Rabbi Awan4
...g cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. A major cause of DKD is high blood pressure (hypertension) which remains uncontrolled chronically. Renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is a major regulator of the blood pressure, electrolytes and fluid homeostasis. RAAS plays a key role in modulating the sodium metabolism, vasoconstriction, vascular tone and renal hemodynamics. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a key member of RAAS pathway a...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 55, Iss. 3, Pages 1003-1500

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