David Kyle Johnson

...lief is justified by the occurrence of a miracle, that religious belief is justified only if the belief that the miracle occurred is justified. Hume famously argued that testimony cannot justify belief in the miraculous (and thus also cannot justify religious belief), but I will argue that nothing can justify the belief that a miracle has occurred—not even seeing a miracle for oneself. To establish this, I will explore two shortcomings in Hume’s ar...

Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

...the infected animal. The occurrence of CCHF outbreak in Pakistan is increased quite significantly near Eid-ul-Adha. Haemorrhages are the major signs of this fatal disease. No treatment of CCHF is available currently but Ribavirin antiviral drug is used to cure this disease. There is currently no commercially available vaccine for this disease. It is recommended that the disease can be controlled by adopting preventive measures such as avoiding of tick bites an...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...ore, given the continued occurrence of PPR and increasing global humans and animals movements,the virus has continued to be reported in previously PPR-free countries and thereby considered as an emerging pathogen.. However, the increased detection of the virus in the light of rinderpest eradication and the lack of awareness of the disease in areas where the virus has been detected for the first time in recent years given the educational status of farmers contr...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...ent and agriculture. The occurrence of bacterial “suprainfection” with tolerance to antibiotics has attracted the significant attention, mainly due to the consequences of multi drug resistance and potential threat to human health and the environment. With the increasing incidences of antimicrobial contamination, especially in food, dairy products, agriculture and environment, their regular monitoring is on prime interest. Aptamers are synthetic sho...

Tayiba Latif Gulraiz1, Arshad Javid1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Muhammad Shahbaz3, Irfan3 and Sharoon Daud4

...iations were recorded in occurrence of various fungal and bacterial genera. From bolus samples, two fungal Aspergillus and Fusarium and one bacterial Bacillus genera were recorded throughout the year while from guano Bacillus was the only genus with year round occurrence. Microbial analysis shows that Indian flying fox ejecta are an amalgam of beneficial and pathogenic microbes and its pH (6.7 to 7.4), high concentration of ...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...reas were 4.5-18.2%. The occurrence of FMD was higher in February (23.3%) than in January (13.5%) and March (18.5%). Younger cattle were more commonly affected (59.1%) than older ones. Almost 96% of the female cattle were FMD positive. Cattle with poor body condition score had higher FMD cases (77.3%) than cattle with better body condition score. The lactating animals and pregnant animals were more commonly affected (81.8% and 63.6%), respectively. The main cl...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...n) clearly indicated the occurrence of previous outbreaks of PPR virus due to persistency of virus in endemic regions.

...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...associated with mastitis occurrence except frequency of milking per day. Antibiogram of Staph. aureus indicated very strong resistance to oxacillin, ticarcillin, ampicilline, amoxicillin, azlocine, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, vancomycin, cefixinme, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime. In contrast to this sulphaphenazole, gentamicin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin were highly sensitive. Piperacillin, Tazabactam and cinxacin were moderately effective against Staph...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...ne of few studies on the occurrence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Salmonella in poultry slaughter slab (processing plants) in Nigeria. The relatively high prevalence rate documented in this study may be attributed to the generally poor infrastructure, lack of well-equipped poultry slaughter houses, lack or inadequate water supply at these markets which hampers the ability of handlers to maintain good sanitary and hygiene conditions of the carcass, en...
Nadeem Rashid1,*, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa1, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Tanvir Ahmad2, Majed Rafeeq1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Arif Awan1, Mohammad Ali1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Asad Ulah1 and Amanullah Khan3

Amitava Konar, Kiran A. More and Pradip Mondal

Efficacy of some insecticides against cutworm and molecricket of potato in West Bengal
...2ml/10L of water) on the occurrence of the pest (T6 ) than other treatments as well as control. Both the treatments (T5 and T6) were more or less equally effective to decrease the incidence of cutworm and molecricket. Yield of healthy tubers was recorded maximum (31.66 t ha -1) in T5 treatment succeeds by T6 than other treatments as well as control.


...

Rashid Pervez, Santhosh J. Eapen, S. Devasahayam and M. Dinsha

Characterization of entomopathogenic nematode, Stein-ernema carpocapsae from ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizosphere in India
...ies. This study reported occurrence of a isolate of S. carpocapsae from ginger rhizosphere from India. This indigenous isolate could be investigated further for managing insect pests of ginger.

...

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
...amics was determined for occurrence, intensity and severity of these diseases. The diseases (referred as pathogens) that were the highest and fastest during warm and wet (rainy) months were: Alternaria alternata on Polyanthes tuberosa; Alternaria alternata and Septoria chrysanthemella on Chrysanthemum indicum; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria sp. on Dracaena deremensis; Alternaria sp. and Cercospora hibisci-manihotis on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis; Col...
Yun Wang1,*, Lei Guan1, Jiding Chen1, Yaping Kong1, Lang Si2 and Asif Shah3
...nd 2015, we recorded the occurrence frequency, number of ungulates, and the perpendicular distance between QTH and QTR. To improve the protection mechanism for the four large ungulates viz., Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsonii, Tibetan gazelle Procapra picticaudata, Kiang Equus kiang) and Wild Yak Bos grunniens; we suggest that the distance between the proposed route for the expressway and the present highway and railway sh...
Oaj Khurshid1*, Naureen Aurangzeb1, Ayaz Khan1, Alia Naz1, Abdullah khan1, Sobia Nisa2 and Sehrish Sajawal3
...investigation showed the occurrence of great proportion of Decomposable organic matter, adequate moisture content and C/N ratio. On windrow composting, not only the bulk of the waste was compacted but also formed a powdery earthy stinking soil-like, compost material. All valued factors in the compost samples were found to be within the acceptable limits set by international standard. The pH fluctuated between 7.5-8.1, moisture 35% and organic matter 43%, and h...
Hassen Allaya1,2,*, Abderraouf Ben Faleh1, Manel Rebaya1, Sonia Zrelli3, Abdallah Hattour2, Jean-Pierre Quignard4 and Monia Trabelsi1
...ongruent and confirm the occurrence of two potential differentiated groups. This variation of morphometric and meristic characters in specimens from two populations could be caused by differences in genetic structure or environmental conditions.
...
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
...litter materials and FPD occurrence and severity were assessed weekly. First signs of FPD were observed in 21-day old chickens reared on chopped wheat straw (FPD score = 0.52±0.10) and a week later in a group of birds kept on pelleted straw (FPD score = 0.34±0.07). At the end of the experiment in both groups of broilers percentage of severe FPD was high. Severe lesions were significantly (p<0.01) more frequent (80%) in broilers reared on chopp...

Muhammad Ibrahim and Ahmad Khan*

...p stand and phenological occurrence is not well understood. Therefore field studies were conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan to quantify the effects of mulching techniques and nitrogen management on maize (Zea mays L) phenology and crop stand in 2013 and 2014. Treatments included mulching techniques (i.e. no-mulch, residue, transparent and blue colour plastic) and 250 kg N ha-1 sources (control, 100, 70, 50, 0% ...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

...eillance for yellow rust occurrence, distribution and impact on wheat landscape was carried out along with recent deployment status of cultivars during 2012 in northwest Pakistan located close to the center of diversity of P. striiformis f.sp. tritici. Around 1600 wheat fields were sampled covering a geographical area of little less than 5000 acres in the southern, central and northern zones located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. Yellow rust

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

...lative high frequency of occurrence of the studied viruses both in single or concomitant infection emphasizes the need for continued monitoring of poultry flocks to better understand its epidemiology and understanding the impact of one virus on the pathobiology of second virus 

...
Minmin Chen1, Xiaoke Zhang1, Kexiong Wang2, Zhigang Liu1, An Wan3, Daoping Yu1,*, Hong Ji3 and Fangzhen Peng1
... confluence. The average occurrence rate in the flow deflection and flow stagnation zones was 32% and 44%, respectively. Based on these observations, we concluded that the confluence of the Yangtze and Wanhe rivers is a popular habitat of the Yangtze finless porpoise in autumn and winter. Conservation measures should be taken to conserve this kind of habitat.
...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

... This study reported the occurrence of pathogenic E. coli isolated from Tibetan piglets with white score diarrhea which highlights the threat of pathogenic E.coli in free ranging Tibetan piglets, as the local herdsmen can directly suffer a great economic loss.
...

Imtiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Abbas Khan, Noorullah Khan, Naveed Ahmed, Abdul Waheed, Fazal Yazdan Saleem, Sajjad Khan and Sohail Aslam 

.... Data regarding disease occurrence, disease severity, plant height (cm), bulb weight (g), bulb diameter (mm), clove weight (g), number of cloves bulb-1 and yield (t ha-1) was measured. The result of the study reveals that plant spacing had significant impact on the occurrence of rust disease and its severity, yield and yield components. Plants with 10 cm spacing had more disease incidence and severity (79 and 55.66% respect...
Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Abdul Majid Khan1,*, Ghazala Roohi3 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...al stress. In this study occurrence of enamel hypoplasia in giraffids has been observed in species of all time intervals between 18.3-0.6 Ma except the time 11.2-9.0 (late Miocene) that has no giraffids with this dental defect. The comparative percentage for occurrence of enamel hypoplasia in giraffids of these Siwalik deposits is early Miocene-early middle Miocene (29%), middle Miocene (20%), late Miocene-early Pliocene (15...
Wen-Feng Li, Xiao-Yan Wang, Ying-Kun Huang*, Rong-Yue Zhang, Jiong Yin, Zhi-Ming Luoand Hong-Li Shan
...d caused by the combined occurrence of Tetramoera schistaceana (Snellen) and Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer) were measured in pesticide–treated and untreated areas during 2014-2016. The results indicated that the in untreated areas, percent dead-heart was 8.30% - 58.83%, the percent stalk injured was 26.73% - 96.67%, the percent internodes bored was 4.40% - 25.87%, and the effective stem number was reduced by 4440-21900 stalk/ha. Measur...
Syed Kashif Nawaz*, Faiza Zubair and Sidra Kanwal
...f overlapping genes. The occurrence of these overlapping genes is not solely dependent on the size of the chromosomes.
...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
...ing the epidemiology and occurrence of EI is lacking in Pakistan. We hereby attempted to determine the seroprevalence, investigating the EI outbreak 2015-16, and describing the demographic and management risk factors associated with seroprevalence of EIV. Using ELISA kit and HI as serological methods for diagnosis, we found a 24.13% (168/696) overall seroprevalence, where the seroprevalence for H3N8 was 14.51% (101/696), for H7N7 6.03% (42/696), and 3.59% (25/...
Alan R. Rhoda
...ble foreknowledge of the occurrences of causally indeterministic events.
...

 Md. Nazirul Islam*, A. K. Azad**, Leon O. Namuco***, Teresita H. Borromeo***, Maria Lourdes O. Cedo*** and Edna A. Aguilar***

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF A MAKAPUNO COCONUT POPULATION IN U.P. LOS BANOS
...ted as 88%. Simultaneous occurrence of male and female phases allows self-pollination, which favors higher yield of makapuno. The principal component analysis revealed that fruit, nut and husk weight accounted for 99 % of the observed variation. Twelve morphological variables, grouped the population into 6 clusters. Common characters of palm belonging to cluster I are lower weights of fruit, nut and husk with shorter fruit equatorial diameter and shorter inter...

 Muhammad Mohsin Raza*, Muhammad Aslam Khan*, Irfan Ahmad**, Ali Ahsan Bajwa***, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam*, Badar Ahsan Ullah****, and Kashif Riaz*

FOREST PATHOGENS AND DISEASES UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE -A REVIEW
...likelihood, frequency of occurrence, types and severity of forest diseases caused by diverse pests, resultantly altering the forest ecosystems. The present review covers the relationship between climate and diverse cases of forest diseases and potential shocks of climate change on pathogens and diseases. Biotic diseases, cankers, decays, declines, foliar diseases, root diseases and stem rust of pine have been reviewed with some illustrations of potential disea...
Wazha Mugabe1,3,Gaolebale Segolame Mpapho1, John Kamau1, Wameotsile Mahabile2, Shalaulani James Nsoso1, Kealeboga Dipheko1 and Assar Ali Shah3,*
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Muhammad Kashif Prince1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*, Mian Saeed Sarwar2, Hazrat Ali2, Tahir Usman2, Asadullah Khan2, Siffat Ullah Khan3 and Shahid Zaman5
...tors responsible for the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in lambs and has been known to cause human infection. Three hundred and sixty fecal samples (n=360) were collected through convenient sampling from apparently healthy lambs and were examined using the modified Ziehl Neelsen acid fast staining. Prevalence was calculated along with different risk factors associated with the disease (month, age, sex and season). Results showed highest prevalence (P <...
Aitezaz Ahsan1*, Muhammad Usman1, Ihsan Ullah2, Aamer Bin Zahur3 and Adnan Rasheed Malik4
...nsboundary disease whose occurrence hampers the trade and consequently causes an enormous economic losses. It is a disease of sheep and goat, particularly in the regions of Africa, Middle East and Asia. Besides clinical signs and symptoms of PPR various diagnostic assays, both serological and molecular, have been developed and are applied for estimating the current status of the disease. This review article focuses on the development of different molecular dia...
Naimat Ullah1,3,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Avais1, Nisar Ahmad2, Sana Ullah3, Muhammad Shuaib Khan3, Khalid Mehmood5, Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Ikramul Haq1
...rkers concerned with the occurrence of theileriosis in sheep. Total 600 blood samples were taken each 200 from districts Bannu, Tank and Dera Ismail Khan of southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan and screened through blood microscopy. The current study revealed an overall prevalence of ovine theileriosis as 27.5%, 13% and 19.5% in districts of Dera Ismail Khan, Tank and Bannu, respectively. Sex, tick infestation, animal keeping conditions, herd size, season and ...
Abdul Majid Ujjal2, Sharmin Akter1* and Suman Paul1 
...he information of weekly occurrence of FMD showed consistent occurrence of this disease round the year with peaks during winter season. Similar analysis was also done for HS and like FMD, highest prevalence (16.14%) found in Jaintapur upazila. HS prevalence also found significantly higher in young buffalos (18.56%). HS prevalence was significantly higher in male (12.73%) than female. Epidemic curves of HS showed a clear year...
Ye Gong, Nehafta Bibi and Haitao Wang*
...nitored the frequency of occurrence and the fate of eggs in those nests and recorded fourteen cases of mixed clutches that contained Mandarin duck eggs. Nine cases were classified as successful nest usurpation: in six cases nests of other birds were usurped by Mandarin duck and in three cases nests of Mandarin duck were usurped by other birds. The remaining mixed clutches may be incomplete usurpation. For the nests taken over by Mandarin ducks, all heterospeci...
Nausheen Irshad1,*, Imran Yousaf1, Tariq Mahmood2 and Muhammad Saeed Awan1
...y. Results confirmed the occurrence of leopard at six out of twelve sampling sites surveyed, in the form of evidences including pug marks, cave/ den, and dead bodies (two carcasses and one skin) of the animal. Moreover, three kill records of the animal in a short duration of six months are indicative of its illegal hunting for its skin or in self-defense. Therefore, immediate conservation measures are needed to protect the species. The other aspects of leopard...
Hasina Baloch1, Rahmatullah Rind2,*, Muhammad Rafique Rind3, Viram Kumar4, Nazia Baloch5 and Rajesh K. Oad6
...er month (August) on the occurrence of apparent and non-apparent mastitis in buffaloes was determined. The soil bedding material played significant role in the prevalence of both, clinical and subclinical mastitis. Significantly higher prevalence of clinical mastitis was observed in August (52, 10.74%), while the overall prevalence (26.65%) was determined during hot humid summer season. Similarly significantly higher frequency of non-appare...
Nadeem Munawar, Iftikhar Hussain and Tariq Mahmood*
...t study investigated the occurrence of different rodent species inside the crop fields and at field edges, associated with four major crops (wheat, groundnut, millet and maize) in the Pothwar Plateau. In all four crops, maximum number of rodent burrows was recorded at maturity stages of the crops. The maturity stage of wheat crop coincided with spring breeding season while the maturity stages of millet/maize and groundnut matched with monsoon/autumn breeding p...
Adel A. Basyouny Shahin,1,* Amira M. Metwally Mohamed2 and Abd El-Reheem A. El Shatter2

 

...the recent hypothesis of occurrence of new species in N. ehrenbergi. Divergence between the two species would have occurred during Pleistocene (ca 1.26 million years ago).
...
Ali Zaman1,*, Abdul Haleem1, Sajjad Ur Rahman2, Adnan Amin3 Asma Saeed1, Sana Ullah4 and Naimat Ullah4
...0.05) association of occurrence of the infection with the type of season, health status, vaccination, housing system, biosecurity and housing zones and non- significant (P>0.05) association with rearing system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first sero-prevalence report of avian influenza (H5) in broilers in these districts of the province. Necessary measures are required to overcome the situation and improve vaccination and hygiene.
Qaisar Jamal1, Muhammad Idrees1, Saif Ullah2, Muhammad Adnan1, Farrah Zaidi1, Qaiser Zaman1,3 and Syed Basit Rasheed1,*
...ed gradually reaching to occurrence of only four species at 2500-2900 meters above sea level. District Dir lower, primarily sub-tropical, was found more diverse regarding squamate species than the mountainous, temperate Upper Dir.
...
Muhammad Shaheer1*, Asad Aslam Khan2, Nasir Ahmed3, Tehseen Mahmood Mahju4, Ummarah Rasheed5
...dicinal treatment on the occurrence of macular edema remained elusive.
Objectives: This study was designed to determine the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients of diabetic macular edema.
Methods: An interventional study was conducted on patients that underwent pre-injection and one-month post-injection OCT for RNFL thickness. OCT was performed by researchers and findings were recorded accordingly. The retinal ne...
Qudrat Ullah1,*, Huma Jamil1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Muhammad Saqib2 and Heinrich Neubauer3
... the study indicates the occurrence of antibodies to C. burnetii at the government livestock farms included in the study.
...
Amjad Islam Aqib1,*, Shagufta Nighat2, Rais Ahmed3, Saba Sana3, Muhammad Ameen Jamal4, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar2 , Naimat Ullah Khan5, Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Muhammad Asif Hussain5, Asadullah5, Attaur Rahman5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman5,*
... factors associated with occurrence of SCM and results were analyzed using non-probability statistical analysis. Results indicated that an overall 63.28% (243/384) of goats were found positive for SCM, of which 58.85% (143/243) revealed Staphylococcal growth among them 69.93% (100/143) were CPS, while 30.07% (43/143) were found as CNS. Drug susceptibility against penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides and other drugs showed that 50% of CPS and 30% of C...

Sadaf Niaz1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Asif Nadeem1, Misbah Hussain1, Riffat Mehboob3*, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad3

Mutation analysis of RING1 domain of Parkin in early onset of Parkinson’s disease in Pakistani patients-a pilot study
...y be responsible for the occurrence of
disease in local population. It may be due to genetic changes in any other part of the gene or due to other
environmental factors. However, we have limitation of sample size due to less occurrence of disease in this area. The
current study is very important for successive researches in Pakistan as the disease ratio is increasing continuously
due to consanguin...

 Abdul Majid Khan*

Review report on mammalian dental defect (enamel hypoplasia) in different groups of mammals
...ing positive results for occurrence of this tooth malady. The present
review correlates the research studies that have been conducted in deciduous as
well as permanent dental material of modern, archeological and palaeontological
animals belongs to multiple orders of class Mammalia and also provides a road
map for comparative analysis of dental health in different mammalian taxons.

...

Saman Fatima* and Shazia Iram 

...uch problem includes the occurrence of various skin disorders which leads to the rejection of fruit in international market. This study was designed in order to identify the pathogens that ruin the peal of Citrus reticulata Blanco (kinnow) in order to improve its quality. About twenty six sampled fruits of Citrus reticulata having damaged skin were obtained from the orchards of Sargodha. The samples were classified into groups on the basis of physical appearan...

Muhammad Shahzad Khattak1*, Amjad Khan1, Mahmood Alam Khan1, Waqas Ahmad2, Shafiq ur Rehman3, Mohammad Sharif4 and Sajjad Ahmad1 

...a indicated an increased occurrence of droughts in the last 12 years, which may be attributed to climate change. Extreme drought events were observed at Tarbela during October-September and at Mangla during October-June with SDI value of -2.36 and -2.74, respectively. Moderate to severe wet conditions were also detected in the analysis period. Several strategies for the mitigation of adverse impacts of droughts in the study region are recommended. 

...

 Tung-Yi Kho

... general nature of their occurrence, they are not typically associated by the Chinese with well-being or the good life, appearing instead to be unselfconscious practices that are deeply rooted in the Chinese consciousness. The Relationist mode of well-being stands in contrast to the Modernist variant in both its nature and objectives, prompting us to ask: what makes the good life in China and beyond?

...

Arjumand Nizami1, Jawad Ali1 and Muhammad Zulfiqar2* 

...te change. Understanding occurrence and impacts of hydro-meteorological disasters on people’s well-being and which livelihood assets are significant for identifying coping strategies to deal with disasters are important ingredients to increased resilience of communities living in disaster prone areas. This study relies on the data collected using the Community-based Risk Screening Tool – Adaptation and Livelihoods (Cristal) to map major risks and v...
Tianlong Cai1, Falk Huettmann2, Kisup Lee3 and Yumin Guo1,*
...d on 115 every year used occurrence points (1990-2013) and 14 environmental layers as predictors. Results show that the Songnen Plain and Korea Peninsula are the most important stopover habitats. Four other major areas are also suitable for stopover: (i) the coastal area of the Bohai Sea, (ii) the Three Rivers Plain-Amur River Basin, (iii) the Torey Lake Basin and the (iv) Zeya River-Heilongjiang River. The gap analysis revealed that existing nature reserves c...

Muhammad Ijaz, Sayed Rashad Ali Shah*, Muhammad Izhar-ul-Haq and Amir Afzal 

...pread, and consistent in occurrence disease of groundnut worldwide. LLS is the imperative factor while developing resistance varieties along with agronomic characteristics. In total, 153 groundnut botanically different genotypes namely Virginia, Spanish, and Valencia were screened under filed conditions and detached leaf assay against LLS pathogen. Most of genotypes during three years of study at early assessments under field conditions showed resistant respon...
Jing Hu1,2, Yan Liu2,3, Gang Yu1,2, Changping Yang2,3, Binbin Shan2,3, Shengnan Liu2,4 and Dianrong Sun2,3,*
...lumn originated from the occurrence of neural arch and hypural on 5DPH (SL2.4-3.4mmm, NL1.8-2.4mm), then skeletal ossification and Segmental bone formation occurred on 11DPH (SL3.6-4.0mm, NL2.6-2.8mm) and finished on 21DPH (SL9.6-11.6mm, NL7.4-8.6mm); Neural arch developed earlier than haemal arch, while haemal spine earlier than neural spine, consistent with the ossification; The development and ossification of neural arch and neural spine occurred in the bac...
Shafqat Husnain Khan1, Shah Jahan2, Irshad Ahmad3,4, Sadeeq ur Rahman5,* and Tayyab ur Rehman4,*
...udy, we investigated the occurrence of carbapenemase- and MBLs-producers among a collection of 100 carbapenem resistant E. coli obtained from a tertiary hospital at Lahore Pakistan. All carbapenemase producers were further investigated to identify frequency of blaIMP and blaVIM encoding genes. Results of modified hodge test identified 81% carbapenemase producers, while combined disc diffusion test identified 28 isolat...
Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Shahid Yousaf1, Salman Khurshid1*, Qurrat Ul Ain Akbar1, Saqib Arif1, Nasreen Fatima2 and Ali Murad Rahoo3
...rties in relation to the occurrence of pathogenic diseases. Fruit samples (injured and healthy) were taken from the three different local markets of Karachi. Some of the fungal species viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Alternaria alternata have been identified in citrus samples. However, major incidence was recorded for Aspergillus niger (41.6%) followed by Fusarium oxysporum (27...

Wajid Khan* and Raziuddin 

... plant-1, signifying the occurrence of considerable variability in the tested material. Mean performance identified parental genotype AUP-21 being the best for early maturity (167.0 days), pods main raceme-1 (65.3), 1000-seed weight (7.1 g) and seed yield (30.6 g). F1 cross combination AUP-10 × AUP-18 had high seed yield (36.5 g) and moderate days to maturity (177.0). Desirable significant negative best parent and commercial heterotic effects were observ...
Rais Ahmed1,2,*, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor1,2, Iftikhar Hussain1, Muhammad Saqib3, Muhammad Hammad Hussain4, Amjad Islam Aqib5, Haleema Sadia6, Javed Muhammad7, Asma Irshad8, Kashif Prince5, Muhammad Zain Saleem9 and Abdul Whab Manzoor10
...vely associated with the occurrence of the disease. These data will not only help in screening of animals but will also be instrumental in future for isolation of MAP to make vaccine against paratuberculosis using local isolates.
...
Muhammad Raza Khan1, Tariq Mahmood1,*, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim2, Shaista Andleeb1 and Abdul Hamid1
...ct. Results revealed the occurrence of grey wolf at an elevational range between 2332 m to 2926 m above mean sea level (amsl); a total of 7 dens, 30 pug marks and 33 scats of the species were recorded. A careful estimate gave a population density of 0.45 individuals/km2 in the study area. Scat analysis for diet composition showed 5 domestic and 8 wild prey species in its diet menu, with major share (53 %) from livestock and relatively less (46%) fro...
Sajida Sabahat1, Asif Nadeem1,*, Maryam Javed1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor1, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ghulam Yasein2 and Ghulam Abbas1 
...nificant finding was the occurrence of a T→C polymorphism in exon 5 that causes a substitution of an amino acid from Cysteine to Arginine.That Cys/Arg polymorphism may serve as authoritative genetic marker for selective improvement of growth traits in camel. These results suggest that Marecha camel has genetic variability in the IGF-1 and may be helpful for preservation strategies and future selection programs.  

 

...

Muhammad Abdul Rahman1*, Abdul Saboor1, Gulnaz Hameed1, Ghulam Bilal2 and Farooq Tanwir3 

...ised key CEHFs affecting occurrence of security hazards to dairy production in the scenario of changing climate. Experts ranked lack of genetic research and fodder security on top among various critical factors that drive and increase occurrence of security hazards to health and production of dairy animals. Lack of labs to identify diseases, sensitiveness of buffaloes to temperature, slow and reduced weight gain and effect o...

Shwe Yee Win1, Lat Lat Htun1, Myint Myint Hmoon1, Hla Myet Chel1, Yu Nandi Thaw1, Nyein Chan Soe1, Htet Lin Oo3 and Saw Bawm2* 

...ucted to investigate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in village chickens from four Townships (Mawlamyine, Nyaung U, Zay Yar Thi Ri and Katha) of Myanmar from April to June 2019. A total of 200 faecal samples were randomly collected from village chickens. Centrifugal sugar floatation and sedimentation methods were carried out to detect the gastrointestinal parasites. The overall occurrence of gastrointestinal par...
Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Abdul Majid Khan2*, Ayesha Iqbal2, Amtur Rafeh2, Muhammad Tahir Waseem2 and Muhammad Ameen2
...the first ever report on occurrence of enamel hypoplasia in extinct tragulids. The dental defect, enamel hypoplasia is caused by suppressed function of enamel forming cells called ameloblasts. It is used as a reliable stress marker in different extinct mammalian taxa to trace out the level of ecological stress faced by these animals during their life histories. We have studied this defect in three extinct Siwalik tragulid species including; Dorcabune anthra...
Nahed H. Ghoneim, Maha A. Sabry, Zeinab S. Ahmed and Esraa A. Elshafiee*
...wide. To investigate the occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of this pathogen, a total of 360 chicken cloacal swabs and 15 water samples were gathered from different localities in Giza and Cairo Governorates. An additional 50 stool specimens were collected from individuals in contact with the examined chickens. Eleven Campylobacter isolates were recovered through bacteriological examination. Campylobacter spp. were identified by polymerase ch...
Abdul Kabir¹, Amjad Hussian Mirani¹, Jam Kashif1, Shumaila Manzoor2, Abdullah Iqbal3*, Ihsan Ullah Khan4 and Muhammad Abubakar2
...led a comparison of PPRV occurrence in the different production system of small ruminants and on-going disease outbreaks in the target area.
...
Abdurakhim Kuchboev1, Mehmonjon Egamberdiev2, Rokhatoy Karimova1, Oybek Amirov1 and Mitsuhiko Asakawa3,*
...zbekistan.
...
Ahsan Numan1,4, Khadija Irfan Khawaja2, Abdul Basit Qureshi3Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf4, Imtiaz Rabbani4, Hafsa Zaneb5 and Habib Rehman4*
Tasbihullah1, Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*, Tariq Ali3 , Umer Saddique1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Shafiq4, Sultan Ayaz2, Hamayun Khan1, Ijaz Ahmad1 Asadullah2, Raheela Taj5, Hafiz Nidaullah6 and Alamgir Khan7
Anila Naz Soomro1*, Hiroshi Suzuki2, Sadaf Tabassum Qureshi3 and Wazir Ali Baloch1
...cy histograms showed the occurrence of large number of juveniles at St. 3, 4 and 5 in smaller length groups. Also C. typus ovigerous females exhibiting spawning migration to the downstream and its juvenile also migrate back to upstream after completing the larval development in Urbaru stream were also observed. Presence of C. sakishsimensis at only St. 1 indicates the species is not using the river continuum for migration. Due to cave dwelling ha...
Muhammad Waseem, Tariq Mahmood*, Abid Hussain, Abdul Hamid, Faraz Akrim, Shaista Andleeb and Hira Fatima
...try. We investigated its occurrence, population and human conflict in Mansehra District during 2016-2017. A total of 66 indirect signs of Asiatic black bear were recorded with an altitudinal variation of habitat ranging from 1511m to 2570m elevation including 17 dens and 44 scats of the bear from 10 different sampling sites. The sign density of black bear ranged between 17/km² (Paris MRF site) and 1.2/km² (Sharan site). Sign density was high in habit...
Hina Habib Syed1, Muzafar Shah2*, Shahid Sherzada3 and Masroor Elahi Babar1
Samia Afzal*,Sadia Zahid, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Idrees
...recent reports about the occurrence of Chikungunya outbreak in the southern region of Pakistan has been highly controversial. In order to further confirm the circulation of the virus and put an end to the speculative claims for the corresponding outbreak in Pakistan, a study was conducted at the Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology in Lahore. The study included 500 suspected serum samples. All clinical specimens were tested for IgM and IgG specific antibo...
Yuhong Li1, Dongxue Wu1, Xue Wang1, Mi Zhang1, Hanyu Zhu1, Zhe Shi1 and Fumin Feng1,2*
... changed, indicating the occurrence of liver injury. Compared with the baseline group, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in each drug group gradually increased, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) gradually decreased, suggesting that oxidative stress reaction occurred in all drug groups. Compared with the baseline group, the mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB and TNF-α in the H group showed an increasing trend, and p-NF-κB and p-I...
Majeeda Rasheed1*, Tanveer Akhtar1, Nadia Mukhtar2, Muhammad Furqan Shahid2, Muhammad Imran3, Saima Yaqub2
...GB province. We reported occurrence and risk factor analysis of PPR in small ruminants (n=1000) originating from different places in district Gilgit using Hem agglutination Inhibition (HI) test followed by risk analysis through Open-Epi software. Serum samples including goats n=500 and sheep n=500 were collected from different herds situated at Naltar lake, Tattovat, Fairy meadows, Bangle, and Naltar. Overall a comparable prevalence was identified for both goa...

Hasaan Aziz*, Fariha Altaaf, Attia Bashir, Abdul Basit, Syed Anam Masood Gardazi and Farah Haider 

...ed live vaccine to dogs, occurrence of disease is not uncommon. Here, we sequenced and phylogenetically analysed the complete hemagglutinin gene of CDV from a male dog (14 months old) exhibiting clinically suggestive symptoms. With a characteristic amino acid residue for dog at Y549, sequence analysis showed geographically distinct pattern clustering the study strain to clade Asia-2 but clearly distinct from vaccine strains. Though limited and preliminary data...

A.N. Ashfaque1, F. Shahina1 and S. Dawar2

 

Diversity of nematode fauna associated with cotton fields of high temperature areas of Sindh, Pakistan
...una in relation to their occurrence in high temperature cotton growing areas of Sindh by using Euclidean distance has been estimated. The fauna obtained in June2017 and June 2018 surveys of cotton fields of five Districts Sanghar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Mitiari and Tando Allah Yar of Sindh where temperature in May to July raised up to 40ºC -50ºC.The data was subjected to construct the dendrogram for interpretation on the basis of their prevalence. In o...

M. Rufai1† , A. A.Wahab2 , Q. O. Adeshina1 , J. C. Umehokoh1 and O. O.Ologunro1

Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria
...> In this study the occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) was determined in three senatorial districts of Osun State in relation to soil texture, vegetation, moisture and pH. A total of 110 soil samples were randomly collected from various cultivated fields in different locations. The soil samples were baited twice using last instar larvae of the Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth) for presence of entomopathogenic nematodes. Four EPN isolates...

Behram Khan1, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Said Qasim3, Atta-ur Rahman4

ANALYSIS OF HUMAN PERCEPTIONS AND ADAPTATIONS TO FLASH FLOODS IN KHYBER AGENCY, FATA
...e investigated about the occurrence of flash floods, flood damages, nature of affinity towards flood prone areas and adaptation strategies. Cartographic and statistical techniques were applied to process and analyze the data. As a result, the data were analytically discussed and presented in the form of tables, maps and plates. The analysis reveals that people of the area perceived about the recurrence of future flash floods during rainy season. Most of the pe...

 Muhammad Shahzad1, Arif Iqbal Umar1, Syed Hamad Shirazi1, Muhammad Tariq Pervez2*, Zakir Khan1, Waqas Yousaf1

HCDP: HEPATITIS C DATA BANK OF PAKISTAN
...ion reveals that rate of occurrence of HCV in Sindh and KPK is high with respect to other provinces. An annotated database of HCV genome sequences allows the researcher to investigate the structural and genetic variability of the sequences efficiently and effectively. HCDP is a specialized database that mainly focuses on the HCV strain from Pakistani community. It helps virologists in drug designing and vaccine development.

...

Mohammad Enamul Hoque Kayesh1,2*, Mohammad Tufazzal Hussan3, Md. Abul Hashem2,4, Mohammad Eliyas5 and A.K.M. Mostafa Anower1

Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Infection: An Emerging Threat to Cattle Health in Bangladesh
...ember 15, 2019 the first occurrence of LSD outbreak in Bangladesh has been reported to the OIE (World Organization for Animal Health). LSD is a vector-borne disease, and climatic conditions of Bangladesh are favorable for the propagation of vectors, which should influence the rapid transmission of LSD in the cattle population of Bangladesh. Therefore, LSD may appear as a big challenge to cattle health in Bangladesh in the near future. Consequently, it is very ...
Dibyendu Biswas1*, Shib Shankar Saha2, Shankar Biswas3 and Md. Abu Sayeed4
Outbreak of Lumpy Skin Disease of Cattle in South-West Part of Bangladesh and its Clinical Management
...s a cofactor for disease occurrence. Further researches are needed to find out better clinical management of LSD, identification of risk factor and molecular characteristics of this disease in Bangladesh.

...
Kui Li1, Lijun Li1, Jialun Fu2, Yi He2, Zhaohui Song2, Shuiping Zhou2Luobu Gesang1* and Rui Liu2*
...ng CDDPs indicated lower occurrence than those in the placebo (CON) group. It is noteworthy that, on day 3 (arrival at Lhasa, altitude 3658 m), AMS symptoms (LLSS=3.79) in the CON group had clearly aggravated (P=0.0475) in contrast to those in the group with administration of CDDPs (LLSS=2.31). Besides, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) value for those taking CDDPs was significantly higher than that in the CON group (87.86% vs. 85.72%, P=0.0388) on ...
Hari Prasad Sharma1*, Shova Adhikari1, Yogesh Rai1, Rajkumar Sijapati1, Sapana Chand1, Manisha Karki1, Rubina Thapa Magar1, Ashik Husain1Khadka Bahadur Khatri1, Melina Karki1, Samiksha Badu1, Sushila Bajracharya1, Somika Pathak1, Rachana Shah2 and Chiranjibi Prasad Pokheral2
...imals that are of common occurrence, geographically rare species, attractive species, trafficked animals seized by the authorities, and injured and orphaned animals. The presence of visitors and their activities affect the behavior of animals in the zoo due to the structural design and the attractiveness of animals. The more attractive bird, ostrich Struthio camelus in Central Zoo of Nepal is suffering from visitors’ activities. Both male and fema...
Tabassum Yaseen1*, Shehzad Ahmad1, Khushnood Ur Rehman2, Fayaz Asad1, Abdul Waheed1, Rani Gul3, Hussain Gulab4 and Naveed Akhtar2
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Spore Density and Root Colonization in Weeds of Carrot field at Charsadda, Pakistan
...onducted to evaluate the occurrence and distributions of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizospheric soil of major weeds of District Charsadda. In the present study roots and rhizospheric soil of 15 weeds species belonging to 12 families were collected from Carrot field of District Charsadda and was investigated for the sporulation and root infections types. From the recorded results the highest spore density was found in Melilotus indica having spore num...
Atef  Mohamed El-Sagheer
Status of Phytonematodes in a Main Commercial Banana Production of Upper Egypt
...on density, frequency of occurrence and prominence value of some plant parasitic genera e.g., Meloidogyne in Abo-Teg and East Mangabad has the most prominence value (17.20 and 19.80) followed by Longidorus and Radopholus in Manfalot (17.20 and 15.36), respectively. The lowest prevalent genus was Heterodera which was absent in two surveyed localities viz., Abo-Teg and Assiut regions but present in Manfalot and East Mangabad with the prominence value 1.82 and 0....
Sukhpreet Kaur Sidhu*, Gurkirat Singh Sekhon, Randeep Kaur Aulakh and Tejdeep Kaur Kler
...correlated high with the occurrence of bird species in the habitat, rather than their individuals. The results of this study indicated that vegetation complexity in pond surroundings influenced the abundance and number of water dependent and terrestrial bird species directly and indirectly in agricultural habitats.
...
Chaojie Yang1,2,3, Haishan Wang1,2,3, Le Ye1,2,3 and Zhi Chen1,2,3,*
....This study confirms the occurrence of Muraenesox bagio (Hamilton, 1822) misreported as Congresox talabonoides (Bleeker, 1853) for the first time. Muraenesox bagio was diagnosed by: (1) head narrower, interorbital width (IOW)<10% HL; (2) lateral-line pores before anus (PALL) 33 to 39; (3) dorsal-fin rays before anus (PADR) 49 to 57; (4) vertebrae 131 to 140; (5) red-brown to red color on the pectoral fin; when fresh the body is pale yel...
Maria Syafiqah Ghazali1, Azlan Che’ Amat2 and Nor Azlina Abdul Aziz1*
...conducted to observe the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in large felines in a Malaysian zoo. Ten faecal samples were collected from pumas (Puma concolor, n = 5), African lions (Panthera leo, n = 3), a spotted leopard (Panthera pardus, n = 1), and a black panther (Panthera onca, n = 1). All faecal samples were examined for parasite eggs, larvae, and oocysts by simple faecal floatation and formalin – ether sedimentatio...
Luka Anthony*, Olugbenga Omotayo Alabi, Elizabeth Samuel Ebukiba and Vandi Gamba
...e herdsmen attack, flood occurrence, transportation problem, poor storage facility, inadequate capital, lack of land/ tractor, poor price, high cost of chemical, inadequate fertilizer, lack of improved seed, inadequate extension officers, and lack of credit facilities. This study recommends that new innovations and technology that targets increased productivity should be promoted, provision of adequate extension officers is needed, input market supply for prov...

Muhammad Arslan Ibrahim1*, Aneeqa Aleem2, Farkhanda Manzoor2, Shahbaz Ahmad1, Hafiz Muhammad Zahid Anwar1, Talia Aroob2 and Mansoor Ahmad3 

...erved, the fall armyworm occurrence was spotted on ten variable locations. The highest level of infestation recorded was 19.39 % followed by 18.69 % while the lowest damage in percentage was 9.28. The present study was also directed to investigate the mortality factors in a lab-based experiment on the life table study of fall armyworm. A sub-lethal dose of 4µl of entomopathogenic NPV suspension containing 4×106 polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) was...
Abdul Muhaimin Wahab1, Basit Zeshan2,*, Naveed Ahmed2, Muhammad Afzal2 and Muhammad Naveed2
...tors associated with the occurrence, identification control and preventive measure to reduce the prevalence in broiler chicken farms in Kelantan state located at east coast region of peninsula Malaysia. Eighty cloacal swab samples were collected from 4 different broiler chicken farms in district Tumpat, Machang and Bachok. The samples were processed for identification of C. jejuni followed by PCR to detect the presence of C. jejuni. Overall, 65% ...

Salma Javed, Samreen Khan*, Nasira Kazi and Tabassum Ara Khanum 

...Pakistan. The percentage occurrence of these genera was found as 50% each. These species were identified on the basis of morphological, as well as morphometric characters. In addition, brief description, measurement, line drawings, as well as photomicrographs for Pakistani population of these species are reported.

...
Tariq Mahmood1*, Luqman Ullah Khan1 and Muhammad Naeem2
...ding of the study is the occurrence of white-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis) in the study area, which is critically endangered and is surviving at only a few places in the country. Species richness was high in winter season than in summer. Similarly, diversity index of avifauna was also high in winter season. The study concludes that Manglot Wildlife Park contains a diverse and rich avifauna, especially the population of white-rumped vulture that need...

Allah Bakhsh1, Attiq Akhtar1*, Fiaz Hussain1 and Shabbir Ahmed2

...f removal, decreases the occurrence and severity of bunch rot to less than 5%.This method is extremely useful for maintaining grape quality and quantity without the use of chemicals to combat disease. As a result, this strategy is both environmentally and health-friendly. In Pakistan, we consider using leaf removal therapy to treat grape bunch rot disease because it is the least expensive.

...
Sajid Ali1, Muhammad Avais1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Kamran Ashraf2, Saira Jabeen1, Sajid Hameed3, Muhammad Awais1, Jawaria Ali Khan1 and Imtiaz Ahmad4 
...mercial dairy herds. The occurrence of lameness could be reduced in dairy herds if producers become aware of the associated risk factors, and improve management practices related to cows, environment and facility design.
...

Md. Mukthar Mia1 and Mahamudul Hasan2

...ing contemporary disease occurrence with causes and transmission imperative for management practice. Besides, the study converged on afresh advanced treatment procedures, vaccine progressions, and public awareness efforts, which can be a baseline for the policymaker, veterinarians and pet owner to limit further outbreaks.

 

...
Rahma Mohamed, Sara Nader, Dalia Hamza and Maha A. Sabry*
...evealed that the overall occurrence of Cryptococcus spp. was 11.5%. The highest proportion was in El-Fayoum Governorate (25). Phenotypic identification of Cryptococcus indicated that 13.2 % and 7.1% among healthy and diseased donkeys were positive for this pathogen, respectively.The study of the potential risk factors associated with Cryptococcus colonization in the donkeys did not show any statistically significant differences. Molecular ...
Arshad Ali1, Muhammad Nasir Khan Khattak2*, Muhammad Ali Nawaz3 and Shoaib Hameed3
...Pakistan to estimate the occurrence of brown bear and conflicts with humans. Data about the presence-absence and depredation in five years (2009-2013) were collected from 86 households in the area. Total losses in Kalam Valley during the five year period were 72 animals. The brown bear predation was estimated as 29% of total predation in the area that killed 15 goats, 2 sheep, and 4 cattle. The snow leopard and wolf predation was 31% and 39%, respectively. To ...

Mohamed I. Azzam1, Safaa M. Ezzat1, K. A. El-Dougdoug2, Badawi A. Othman2

...The study elucidates the occurrence of enteric viruses at various locations in
Rosetta Branch of the Nile River in addition to five main drains located on its sides which
selected for confirmation the eco-diversity of aquatic viral isolates. The evaluation was
carried out using real time-quantitative reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction
(rt-qRT-PCR). Eight coliphage isolates were detected in both Ros...
Eman A. Ahmed1, Osama Y. Shalaby2, Emad F. Dwidar2, Samah A. Mokbel1, Ahmed K. El-Attar1 
...>
to determine the occurrence and distribution of phytoplasma associated with diseased
tomato plants (Solanum lycopersycum L.), and to identify and classify the phytoplasma
involved. A detection of infected tomato plants, which showed symptoms of big bud,
witches'-broom and phyllody, in all regions of the screened governorates, reacted
positively when assayed by nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) using...

Megahed, A.A.1; Kh. A.El-Dougdoug2 and B.A. Othman2

...g areas to determine the occurrence and incidence of Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV), Beet mosaic potyvirus (BtMV), Beet necrotic yellow vein benyvirus (BNYVV), Beet curly top geminivirus (BCTV) and Beet yellows closterovirus (BYV) symptomatology and serologically by double antibody sandwaich Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). The survey of sugar beet viruses achieved in 15 field locations belonging to 5 different Governorates, which performed by...

Serageldeen Sultan1, Nabila Osman2

...esults revealed that the occurrence of avian HEV was 15.7% (80/510) and 66.7% (16/24) of the examined flocks. HEV antibody prevalence increased as age dependent and most commonly occurred among broiler breeder flocks (10/24). In conclusion, the occurrence of avian HEV was confirmed for the first time among chicken flocks in Egypt.

...

Salama M. El-Saghir1, 2

...carried out to study the occurrence of PNRSV-phytoplasma disease complex
and their corresponding insect vectors.
...
Allam A. Megahed, Badawi A. Othman, Samar S. El Masry, Abeer A. Faiesal and Mohamed A. Nasr Eldin

Fahima Khatun1, Abdullah-Al-Maruf2, Md. Mizanur Rahman2, Afroja Yasmin1, Mohammad Ali Zinnah3, Md. Aminul Islam4 and Mohammad Shah Alam5*

...hest degree of parasitic occurrence (45.55%) compared to summer (32.12%) and winter (22.42%) seasons. A higher incidence of Fasciola spp. (46.66%) was found in the rainy season whereas Toxocara spp. (45.94%) in winter and Haemonchus spp. (15.09%) in summer. The percentages of Fasciola spp. (57.14%) infection was more in adult cattle while Toxocara spp. (68.88%) were predominant in calves. A higher percentage of infection was recorded in females than in males. ...

Aiman Amur1*, Nasreen Memon1, Pervaiz Khan2 and Fozia Gull3

...ated about pest alarming occurrence time, correlation of environmental factors and suggesting future pest management strategies for controlling Pest.
...
Manar M. Farouk1*, Amal El-Molla1, Fayez A. Salib1 and Yousef A. Soliman2
...tors associated with the occurrence of salmonellosis in some diarrheic sheep and goats belonging to mixed reared flocks in Giza governorate, Egypt, 2) Investigate the presence of enterotoxin(stn) gene in the recovered Salmonella spp. strains, and 3) Build a phylogenetic tree for the partial codon sequence of stn gene of some recovered strains in order to provide a scientific basis for the implementation of practical preventive measures. A ...
Shoaib ur Rehman1, Jabbar Khan2*, Raaza Malja Khan3, Maimoona Azam4 and Zeeshan Mutahir5
... contributed to the high occurrence of β-thal and miserable life of the patients.
...

Yaregal Tilahun1*, Benyam Tadesse1, Getachew Mekonnen2  and Tilahun Bekele3

...roductivity (88.1%), the occurrence of pest and disease (80.7%), climate change (80.7%), weak market linkage (88.1%), monopoly market (69.2%, output price fluctuation (88.9%), and lack of centralized processing facilities (80.7%) were the key restraints on tea out-growers production and selling activity in the research area. The Cobb Douglas model indicated that labor force, fertilizer, land size, and improved seed all had an impact on tea productivity. While,...

Samreen Khan*, Salma Javed, Tabassum Ara Khanum, Nasira Kazi

...his research established occurrence result of EPNs from four sites of Lakki Marwat district. In future, these discovered nematodes may be applied in captioned district as biocontrol agents against insect pests of agricultural systems. One of the alternative method against insecticides for better management of plant health under greenhouse and field circumstances in integrated pest management program. Being potential of these nematodes as biopesticides may be d...

Md. Sanjid Hasan1, A K M Humayun Kober1, Eaftekhar Ahmed Rana2, Md Saiful Bari1,3,4* 

...were associated with the occurrence of SCM in dairy cows. Therefore, udder damages should be managed carefully to minimise SCM prevalence in dairy cows.

Keywords | Bovine mastitis, Causal agents, CMT, Prevalence, Risk factors 

...
Longjun Guo*, Jiaqi Teng, Juan Wang and Yukun Chen
...le identification of the occurrence of LA symptoms to a certain extent. Its combined use with DTI, an important tool for non-invasive analysis of the internal brain structure, is playing an increasingly important role in medical clinical and basic research.
...
Muhammad Anwarullah1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Muhammad Usman1*,Muhammad Zahid Iqbal1Muhammad Husnain1,Ahsan Anjum3, Qurratulain Ashraf4 and Ghulam Mustafa3

...p<0.05) effect on the occurrence of MAP in cattle and buffalo. Moreover, hematological profile of MAP-positive animals showed significantly (p<0.05) lower values of RBCs, Hb, and PCV; whereas, levels of MCHC showed non-significant (p>0.05) rise in MAP-positive animals as compared to control animals. Thus, findings of the current study depict alarming situation of Johne’s disease in Punjab, and help in understanding its associated risk factors an...
Ardi Prasetio1*, Christina Maria Sri Lestari2, Sutaryo Sutaryo2, Manar Fayiz Mousa Atoum3,4Muhammad Zahoor5, Asma Nisar6 and Muhannad Illayan Massadeh7
...licated the inflammation occurrence. The body responded to chitin as Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) to trigger the inflammation. BSLF can substitute SBM. However, it needs further study to eliminate the inflammation response caused by chitin in BSLF.
...

Ijaz Rasool Noorka1,2*, Bilal Ahmad Khan3*, Kafeel Ahmad4, Zafar Iqbal Khan4, Muhammad Ather Nadeem3, Amer Nawaz2, Tasneem Ahmad5 and Humayun Bashir4

...ods were worker to check occurrence of the heavy rock’s metals in the forage and soil samples. The Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used to check Iron (Fe). The results revealed that Fe were found in safe limit, as per WHO. 

...

Amjad Ali Channa1, Mansoor Tariq1*, Zaheer Ahmed Nizamani1, Nazeer Hussain Kalhoro2 

...that revealed the higher occurrence of H9 virus (5.33%) as compared to H7 (1.16%) and H5 (0.31%). However, the coinfections of H7/H9 (0.73%) was higher than H5/H9 (0.21%) and H5/H7/H9 (0.21%). In conclusion, the H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza viruses are circulating in broilers of Karachi, Pakistan; moreover, the prevalence of H9 virus and the H7/H9 coinfections are common than other subtypes of AIV.

Keywords | Avian influenza, Prevalence, Coinfection...

Saeed Ahmed Essote1, Asim Iqbal1, Muhammad Kamran Taj2*, Asmatullah Kakar1, Imran Taj2, Shahab-ud-Din Kakar1 and Imran Ali 3,4*

...as been on the second in occurrence with four genera viz., Echis (4.5%), Eristocophis (2.4%), Psudocerastes (2.9%) and Vipera (3.5%). The Typhlopidae (Ramphotyplops 5.8%, Typlops 4.6%) and Elapidae (Bungarus 6.3%, Naja 5.3%) families were represented with two genera each. While Boidae (Eryx 4.48%) and Leptotyphlopidae (Leptotyplos 7.5%) families had only one genus each. The highest diversity was recorded in Sibi Division and the lowest diversity in Kalat Divis...

Mohamed S. Hussein1*, Hanan A. Fahmy2, Ashraf A. Abd El Tawab3 

...a (6′)-Ib-cr genes occurrence was 54.2%, 16.7% and 4.2% respectively, while qnrA was not detected in any isolate. The high prevalence of fluoroquinolones resistance, and transferable fluoroquinolones resistance determinants in E. coli from apparently healthy broilers in this study could pose a serious public health hazard, which highlights the need for effective monitoring and surveillance programs and cooperation between the sectors related to the epide...

Martha Echioda Ogbole*, James Agbo Ameh, Samuel Mailafia, Olatunde Hamza Olabode and Bridget Jessica Adah

Arif Mehmood*, Muhammad Naeem and Ata-ul-Mohsin

Heba Mohamed Shaheen1, Ali Meawad Ahmed1*, Hosny Abdelltief Abdelrahman1, Rania Helmy Abohatab Abdou2, Aya Salama Mohamed Kamel1
...ng chicken in Egypt. The occurrence of antibiotic residues in broiler chicken is the chief causes of the development of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens. Antibiotic resistance is setting the achievements of present day medication at chance. Therefore, in this study 300 chilled broilers carcasses were collected from different poultry markets in Ismailia City, Egypt to evaluate qualitative, quantitative and tetracycline levels. Qualitative determina...

Sharjeel Saif1, Asghar Ali Kamboh1*, Ghulam Mustafa Solangi2, Rehana Burriro3, Hasina Baloch1, Atta Muhammad Memon2  

...data is available on the occurrence of mycoplasma mastitis in farm animals. Therefore, current field investigation was conducted first time in centre-west Balochistan to get the preliminary data on mycoplasma mastitis. Milk samples (n = 579) were collected from three districts viz., Jaffar abad, Sohbat pur and Naseer abad from mastitis suspected buffaloes. The samples were collected from those animals which had abnormal milk or physical signs (like swelling, a...

Doaa Khairy1, Mohamed Ali Osman2 and Fatma Abdel Mohsen Mostafa1*

...extract demonstrated the occurrence of a number of flavonoids (21) and phenolic compounds (23) including Hespiridin, Naringin, Rosmarinic acid, Pyrogallol, Salicylic acid and Gallic acid which are implicated in plant preservation and hence induce strength against nematode infection. The results of current study indicated that aqueous leaf extracts of neem, moringa and canola parts in mixture can act as plant growth promoters and potentially be developed into a...

Mashakgene Isaac Senoamadi, Thobela Louis, Tyasi Teedzai Chitura* 

...nducted to determine the occurrence of clinical haemonchosis and methods of controlling Haemonchus contortus and other internal parasites in a communal farming system of Limpopo province, South Africa. Twenty-six sheep and one-hundred and sixty-three goats were evaluated for clinical haemonchosis using the FAMACHA© diagnostic system. Information on the methods of control used by the smallholder farmers was gathered through a questionnaire-based survey tha...

Muhammad Zahid Iqbal1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Usman1,*, Abdul Jabbar1, Saba Usman3, Ahsan Anjum3, Muhammad Husnain1, Nadeem Raza1 and Anwar-ul-Haq4

...ious risk factors in the occurrence of Coxiella burnetii, determine phylogeny and genetic variability of various isolates identified during the study, and report hematology of the affected bovines. The incidence of coxiellosis was estimated as 32.12% and 12.5% in cows and buffaloes, respectively. The association of selected clinical biomarkers was also ascertained and all of these were found significantly (p<0.05) associated with the incidence of coxiellosi...
Nadeem Raza1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Ali Ahmed Sheikh2, Muhammad Usman1*, Quratulain Mujahid3, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal1 and Muhammad Rizwan4
...t; 0.05) associated with occurrence of borreliosis in camels. This study may play an important role in the transmission of borreliosis in understanding of other animal species as well as humans in Pakistan.

...

Muhammad Ali Raza1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Kamran Ashraf2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali3, Kumayl Hassan Akhtar4 and Nazia Rubab5

...91.1% believed about the occurrence of ABs in milk, meat and yogourt, and 76.8% opined that there happens misuse of ABs which is against the Animal Welfare. The OH requires an institutional paradigm shift and dire attention of all the aforementioned stakeholders i.e. legislative, administration, policy makers, corporate sector, and the OH professionals. The research can be expanded prospectively at a provincial and national level as an emerging challenge, pros...

Uzochukwu Ephraim Emeto, Chukwuemeka Calistus Okolo* and Nwakaego Ernestina Nweze

...n the region; hence, the occurrence, risk-factors and nature of cestodiasis and nematodiasis of horses at Obollo-Afor southeastern Nigeria were investigated. Horses billed for slaughter were randomly selected (N = 304) for sampling. About 5grams of faeces and 2ml of blood were collected from each horse into labeled containers for faecal floatation test and haematocrit determination. Gender and body condition scores (BCS) of horses were noted, while age groups ...

Bridget Adah1*, Clara Kwanashie2, Haruna Kazeem2 and Samuel Mailafia1

...ty of information on the occurrence of porcine leptospirosis in Kaduna State, Nigeria predicated this study. The research was conducted to isolate Leptospira species from pigs. The organisms were isolated using Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH) enrichment and basal medium, and identified using dark field microscopy. A total of two hundred (200) blood samples and two hundred (200) urine samples each were collected from pigs in Kaduna state, Nigeria....

Maria Qibtia1, Sehrish Faryal1, Muhammad Wasim1, Farzana Chowdhary1, Muhammad Tayyab1, Ahmed Mansovuri2, Zeeshan Ahmed2, Muhammad Hamid3 and Ali Raza Awan1,*

...m (SNPs) associated with occurrence of LP/LNP are different for European, Asian, African-American, Northern African and Arab populations. In this study, we studied, the association of these SNPs with LNP in Pakistani patients. Our analysis has evaluated the association between the development of LNP trait and two common variants in intron 13 and 9 (13910-C/T and 22018-G/A) along with the P-value significance level. Therefore in this study, we aimed to access g...

Amreen Zahra1, Mushtaq A. Saleem1*, Hasnain Javed2 and Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan3

...CV). Here, we present co-occurrence of HCV and HIV in male IDUs from four major cities of Central Punjab, Pakistan. Initial screening for HIV and HCV was performed using ELISA and real-time PCR. A high HCV and HIV co-infection was revealed in Lahore (80.77%) followed by Faisalabad (81.93%), Sargodha (76%) and in Nankana (62%). A strikingly high level of co-infection was observed compared to single infection. These results suggest a high rise in HCV and HIV co-...

Nausheen Irshad1, Maria Akhter1, Tariq Mahmood2*, Faraz Akrim3, Muhammad Rafique Khan1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem4

...fy;">We investigated the occurrence and diet of the Altai weasel (Mustela altaica), a “Near Threatened” mammal, in Bunjosa Game Reserve, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The species occurrence was confirmed by direct field sightings (live and kill), and indirect signs (pugmarks, burrows, fecal droppings, and reported sightings by local community). During one-year study period (September 2015-August 2016), a tota...

Tariq Mahmood1*, Shakeela Ismail1, Faraz Akrim2, Muhammad Farooq1, Nadeem Munawar1 and Muhammad Raza Khan1

...country. We investigated occurrence and diet composition of grey wolf in Deosai National Park, Pakistan to record how much proportion of its diet comprises of livestock, leading to human-wolf conflict. Field surveys were made on monthly basis from July 2018 to December 2019 for data collection. The distribution of the species was determined by surveying the potential habitats and recording its direct and indirect field signs (such as scats, pug marks, prey rem...

Asmaa A. Badr, Eman A. Abo Elfadl, Mohammed M. Fouda, Sayed M. Elsayed

...013-2021 during COVID-19 occurrence. The study employed stationary of data by checking out Autocorrelation Function (ACF) and Partial Autocorrelation Function (PACF). After confirming stationarity, Akaike information Criteria (AIC), Schwartz Bayesian Information Criteria (SBIC), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) were used to test the reliability of the model. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was used ...
Mohamed Lebdah1, Sahar Abd El Rahman2*, Ahmed Attia3, Reham Karam2, Naglaa Fathy Saeed Awad1, Mohamed Ibrahim El Bagoury1
... investigate the natural occurrence and pathological changes of ND in quails in Egypt. The diseased quails were collected from eleven flocks in Egypt exhibited respiratory, nervous signs and whitish green diarrhea in addition to egg abnormalities and lower production with mortalities. No characteristic gross lesions were observed except heamorrhages in brain, congested liver, spleen, brain and muscles besides greenish content of the gizzard. The histopathologi...

A. El-Shemy1*, Hoda M. Mekky2, M. A. Bosila2, A. M. Allam1, Kh. M. Elbayoumi2, M. M. Amer3 

...se isolates revealed the occurrence of differentiation between our field DHAV-1 isolates and the vaccine strain. Therefore, applying an appropriate vaccination program for breeder duck flocks is significant in controlling DHAV-1 infection. Thus, we recommend the application of further studies to detect the efficacy of the used vaccine against the current field strains of DHAV-1

Keywords | Nervous signs, DHAV-1, RT-PCR, Nucleotide sequences, Phylogenet...

Muhammad Zaeem Abbas1, Khurram Ashfaq1, Amjad Islam Aqib2, Mughees Aizaz Alvi1*, Muhammad Haleem Tayyab1, Muzafar Ghafoor1, Muhammad Usman Naseer3, Ali Abbas4 and Ali Hassan1
...dy was aimed to estimate occurrence of ketosis and associated risk factors in dairy buffaloes. In this regard, milk and urine samples were individually collected from 96 buffaloes and analysed by Ross Modification of Rothera’s test and Abbott Precision Xtra™ meter to assess the ketone bodies levels. We observed a total of eight out of 96 (8.33%) buffaloes positive for ketosis. The peak prevalence (13.3%) of ketosis was detected during the third wee...

Veronica Ngozi Emenuga1, Clara Idara Eleazar2*, Seto Tunrayo Aladenika1  

...rucosum had highest occurrence rate (24.2%) in cattle samples followed by the T. mentagrophytes (21.2%). Candida albicans was the most prevalent specie in milk (46.3%), followed by F. solani (31.7%). The correlation coefficient(r) in the bedding and the cattle was 0.695 (P>0.05), that of the cattle and the milk was 0.000 (P<0.05). The r value of the bedding and the milk was 0.322(P>0.05). Fluconazole inhibited the growth of all the dermatophytes...

Journal of Animal Health and Production

June

Vol. 10, Iss. 2, Pages 135-272

Featuring

Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits


Subscribe Unsubscribe