Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
...extensive human to human transmission is not present for Japanese encephalitis virus, there is evidence of urban virus transmission. Thus, considering increasing urbanization rates and intense contact between humans and pigs within the growing urban agriculture, there remains a risk for future emergence of Japanese encephalitis within cities as well as in rural areas.


Masood ur Rahman1*, Zahid Mahmood2, Taj Ali2, Muhammad Aziz Irfan Mufti3, Jehangir Khan Seyal4, Munir Ahmad5

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Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 31, Iss. 1 a problem of frequent transmission failure. The machine is used for mechanical weed control and hoeing. It was observed that the worm gear used in its transmission often failed due to surface wear of gear teeth. Worm gears made from three different copper alloys were tested against soil resistance in sandy loam soil bin. The gears were formed of commercial gun metal (Cu 87.76%, Sn 7.74, Zn 1.52%), gun metal (Cu 88%, Sn 7....

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3


...limit the chance for its transmission and outbreaks. Many disinfectants have been evaluated for their inactivation ability, but there is still a need for their evaluation under different conditions and in different ways. In the present study, representative disinfectants from chlorine and non-chlorine oxidizing agents have been evaluated for their virucidal ability against two distinct Egyptian subclades of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian infl...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2


...performed on the risk of transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and identification of the main breeding sites of Culicoides. From April 2009 to March 2010, the study was carried out at 14 sites distributed across the country. Results indicated that the two most abundant Culicoides species were Culicoides imicola (94.2-95.85%) and Culicoides newsteidi (2.21-2.72%). The rate of prevalence of these species was bi-phasic and higher from April t...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El Naggar2, Ahmed M. Helal3, Hussein Ahmed Hussein1 and Neil LeBlanc4

...ld birds can play in the transmission and evolution dynamics of PPMV-1.


John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...ion of the infection and transmission determinants for urban Leptospirosis in developing countries. This study aims to source dynamic ecological and epidemiological field parameters to describe a slum household-based pathogenic Leptospira population dynamics simulation model. The model will be analyzed to assess the role of slum-based biotic (human and animal) and abiotic (soil, water and weather) habitats in Leptospira propagation. Influential habitats would ...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

...res solving the germline transmission problem of the phenotype.


Gökhan Kuş1,*, Hatice Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Emre Comlekci3 

...tructural alterations by transmission electron microscopy. Our data clearly shows that ceranib-2 is more effective than C2 ceramide in promoting apoptosis. The cytotoxic effects of these components cause ultrastructural changes in A549 cells.
Farkhanda Manzoor1, Iram Amin2,*, Muhammad Shahid2,Samia Afzal2,Hania Ramzan1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah2 and Muhammad Idrees3

Pam D Luka, Frank N Mwiine, Bitrus Yakubu, Joseph Erume, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez, Hermann Unger and David Shamaki

...hodoros, involved in its transmission. Tick involvement has been reported in Europe, East and Southern Africa to be part of ASFV transmission cycles. Ticks in an ASFV infected area have been reported to influence the emergence of genetic variation and long-term persistence of the virus in an area. Since the first report of ASF in Nigeria, periodic outbreaks have continued to occur among domestic pigs with a few incidences in...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
...nvestigated the vertical transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in the Aedes mosquitoes and its (DENV) transmission through other factors mainly tyres trade. DENV was detected in Aedes aegypti (57%) and Aedes albopictus (43%) adults (n=1050) and larvae (n=550). The samples were collected from four (Shuba Bazaar, Tarnab Farm, Wazir Bagh and Hayat Abad) dengue suspected locations of district Peshawar, Khyber ...
Cansu Akbulut1,*, Tuğba Kotil2, Burcu Öztürk1 and Nazan Deniz Yön1
...valuated using light and transmission electron microscopy. Numerous degenerated follicles with cytoplasmic vacuolization, mitotic catastrophe in mitochondria , chromatin condensation, mitochondrial vesiculation and dispersion at ooplasm were observed. In mitochondria, mitotic catastrophe , vesiculation, swelling and loss of organization of cristae were detected.Here we showed that TiO2 exposure trigger paraptotic type cell death in zebrafish ovary.<...
Wali Khan*, Ghazal Mumtaz, Saima Bibi and Salma Afzal
...e the possible source of transmission of intestinal parasites.

Mustafa Cengiz1*, Jama Hussein Ali2, H. Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Adnan Ayhanci3
...en D-GaIN, the following transmission electron microscopic and light microscopic results were found: degenerative changes in the liver tissue, significant decreased in the number of activated Bcl-2, while increased in the number of Bax and caspase-3-positive hepatocytes, a significantly increase in levels of the activities of biochemistry markers (serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)). In contrast, in th...

Bushra Afreen, Geetesh Baghel, Akil A. Khan and Q.A. Naqvi

Virus- vector relationship of yellow vein disease of calendula and the whitefly
...required for 100 percent transmission. The minimum acquisition access feeding period and minimum inoculation access feeding period for the present virus were 10min and 30min, respectively. Acquisition access feeding period and inoculation access feeding period was 100 percent at 6hr and 3 hr respectively. A pre-acquisition access feeding period of 3hr or more gave 100 percent transmission. Post acquisition access feeding per...

Madhuban Gopal, Rajesh Kumar and Arunava Goswami 

Nano-pesticides - A recent approach for pest control

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...odid (hard) ticks in the transmission of lumpy skin disease (LSD), which is an economically important disease of cattle and is caused by the LSD virus (LSDV). LSD is endemic in most countries of Africa and Middle East and can be transmitted either by mechanical as well as intrastadial and transstadial routes. Since capripoxviruses are serologically identical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. In this study, we anal...
Usman Waheed1,*, Humayoon Shafique Satti2, Muhammad Arshad3, Ahmed Farooq3, Abdul Rauf4 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer1,5
...ncreases the risk of HIV transmission by two to five times, and this co-infection is common among HRGs. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis among selected HRGs. During a period from September 2015 to February 2016, community-based sampling was done from 134 Hijra sex workers (HSW), 101 female sex workers (FSW), 104 jail prisoners and 48 intravenous drug users (IDUs) through community outreach, peer referring a...

Rabia Tahir1*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muti-u-Rehman Khan2, Farah Khan1, Hassan Bin Aslam1 and Arslan Mehboob

...y was to investigate the transmission pattern of avian adenovirus serotype 4 (AAV-4) causing hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) by transovarian route. For this purpose, liver and spleen samples (n=90) were collected from day-old-chicks derived from breeders at 14, 21 and 30 days of post-infection with AAV-4. The presence of AAV-4 DNA was detected through PCR. Chicks from virus-challenged breeders failed to show a clear and expected PCR positivity. The connotation...

Aneeza Jamshed1* and Syed Amir Gillani2 

...patitis C, its source of transmission (contaminated syringes) and its secondary prevention. Only 3% knew that it can be prevented. About 61% thought that it is a disease of adults. Only 21.1% students thought it can be cured. In post awareness assessment after 3 sessions of interactive learning, 92% students understood the prevention of hepatitis C disease, its transmission (syringes 88.7%, blood transfusion 91%), signs (eff...

Muhammad Yahya Noori1*, Saharish Rizwan2, Zaheer Ali3 and Shaheen Sharafat4 

... evaluate the pattern of transmission in patients suffering from Multidrug resistant (MDR) Tuberculosis by assessing their contact information. Data were obtained and analyzed from 164 individuals suffering from MDR TB. Records were scanned to evaluate the presence of a close contact with known history of Tuberculosis. Tabulations and analysis were performed in Microsoft Excel® and online calculators. Analysis of contact data showed that only 36% of the pa...

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

...etter assess the disease transmission dynamics and future control strategies. 


 Umar Ijaz Ahmed*, Liu Ying**, Muhammad Khalid Bashir***,
Muhammad Amjed Iqbal*, Muhammad Rizwan*, Muhammad Mazhar
Iqbal****, Muhammad Rafi Qamar***** and Aftab Nazeer******

...igates the spatial price transmission among major wheat and rice markets of Pakistan using their monthly retail prices. For analysis Vector Error Correction Model and Co-integration approach were employed. Results showed that wheat and rice market prices are integrated. Some markets have positive or negative transmission shocks on each other due to the different geographical locations and transport infrastructure. All the wh...

Osama Elshazly1, AbdelSatar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2, Ismaeil M. Reda2 and Hussein A. Hussein2*

...derstand the prevalence, transmission, persistence and evolution of the virus, and to monitor the circulating AIV strains and emergence of new AIV subtypes in Egypt. The wide circulation of the subclade, carrying triple mutations (120, 129∆, I151T) associated with increased binding affinity to human receptors, is an alarming finding with public health importance.
Jehangir Khan1,*, Rasheedullah1, Bakht Tarin Khan2, Ayaz Ahmad3, Muhammad Salman4 and Khalid Khan5
...s. The main route of HCV transmission in males is the sharing razors (33.33%), while in females, is the reuse of contaminated syringes (42%) at maternity homes respectively. These alarming results call for initiation of an emergency based awareness campaign about HCV among the public of district Shangla to prevent the impending epidemics of HCV. Additionally, for proper and actual results, the ELISA and RT-PCR techniques are suggested to be recommended instead...

Ghufran ul Haq1*, Muhammad Arif2, Asad Ali2 and Mian Inayatullah3 

...baci), and determine the transmission properties of the prevalent isolate of the virus in the major tomato growing areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). For this purpose, surveys were conducted in the hilly areas of Mohmand Agency and Malakand Agency and plains of Shabqadar, Charsadda and Peshawar during 2011, 2012 and 2013, to determine the incidence of TYLCV and the population of its vector. Triple antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) ...
Xiaojie Ding, Xiling Sun, Zuien Wang, Qiusheng Zheng, Xiaofei Yu, Wenjin Hao, Kejun Wang, Wenjuan Xu and Zhengping Dong*
...dotoxins by blocking the transmission of TLR4/9-NF-kB signaling pathway so that Wumei Pill has a significant therapeutic effect on IBS-D.

*Nageen Fatima1, Sadia Murawwat1 and Syeda Ameena Rizvi1

EVALUATION OF IMAGE COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES: AN IMPLEMENTATION OF TRUE COMPRESSION ON 2-D IMAGE requirements and transmission cost. It increases transmission rate by decreasing redundancy of image data in either lossy or lossless compression means. In this research work, comparison of compression techniques is done using Compression Ratio (CR) and Bit-Per-Pixel (BPP) ratio as performance parameters. Image compression by Huffman encoding, Embedded Zero tree Wavelet (EZW) and Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Tree...
Emel Banu Buyukunal1,*, Rojan Ibrahim Albazaz1 and Mehmet Ali Bal2,3
... considered an important transmission source for both direct and indirect transfer of those bacteria to human. For this reason, 45 cloacal samples comprising from 23 Japanase quails and 22 chickens were analyzed by conventional and molecular methods for E. coli isolation in this study. Subsequently, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of E. coli isolates (n=71) were determined against thirteen agents; amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-t...
Zhimin Yuan1, Yan Yu2, Yanmei Wang1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...greater study to prevent transmission of diseases from bats to humans.
Qudrat Ullah1,8,*, Huma Jamil1, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Shakeeb Ullah1, Tariq Jamil2, Iahtasham Khan3, Shahbaz Bashir4, Qudratullah5, Inamullah Wazir6M. Abdus Sallam1 and Muhammad Zubair7
...d prevention of zoonotic transmission.
Tahir Iqbal1, Umer Rashid1*, Naveed Shahzad2, Amber Afroz1Muhammad Faheem Malik3 and Muhammad Idrees4


... zoonosis and food borne transmission if aHEV emerges as zoonotic HEV. 
Irfan Irshad1, Asim Aslam1,*, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Kamran Ashraf2, Beenish Zahid3 and Abdul Wajid4 needed to monitor the transmission of these viruses. 

Farheen Shafique1, Shaukat Ali2,*, Saiqa Andleeb1, Abdul Rauf1,3, Syed Ayaz Kazmi1,3, Sadia Idrees4, Faisal Farooq1,3, Faiq Nawaz Khan3,4, Muhammad Saad-ul-Hassan1,3, Raja Awais Mumtaz1,3, Saba Khalid1, Zaheem Ashraf1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2 and Fazal-ur-Rehman5

...tors are involved in the transmission of theses deadly viral infections but blood transfusion in Beta thalassemic patients is working with two faces, one as remedy and the other is key risk factor in the spread of silent killers. Thalassemia patients registered in Combine Military Hospital (CMH) Rawalakot and Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan Hospital, Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir Pakistan were studied for the viral hepatitis B and C prevalence. A tota...
Abdul Samad1, Raheela Asmat2, Muhammad Naeem1, Hamida Ali3, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa1, Ferhat Abbas1, Jannat Raza1,3 and Muhammad Tauseef Asmat1*


...s and its subsequent transmission to food chain, plant material and animals. In present study, 800 food samples consisting of beef and chicken meat, milk, salads and fresh vegetables were collected from retail markets of Quetta, Pakistan. Multiplex PCR was employed to identify the prevalent species and genes associated with virulence. Only 10 (1.25%) samples were found contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Milk samples were the most contaminated...
Nahed H. Ghoneim, Maha A. Sabry, Zeinab S. Ahmed and Esraa A. Elshafiee*
... focus on preventing the transmission cycle of such emerging pathogens between different ecosystems to avoid public health hazards.

Shilong Chen1,2, Shifeng Xiao1,2, Shao Wang1,2, Fengqiang Lin1,2, Xiaoxia Cheng1,2, Xiaoli Zhu1,2, Dandan Jiang1,2, Shaoying Chen1,2* and Fusong Yu3* 

...hanisms of cross-species transmission, retardation and beak atrophy are still needed to be elucidated. 

Majeeda Rasheed1*, Tanveer Akhtar1, Nadia Mukhtar2, Muhammad Furqan Shahid2, Muhammad Imran3, Saima Yaqub2
... factors involved in the transmission of PPR disease in four distinct locations of GB province. We reported occurrence and risk factor analysis of PPR in small ruminants (n=1000) originating from different places in district Gilgit using Hem agglutination Inhibition (HI) test followed by risk analysis through Open-Epi software. Serum samples including goats n=500 and sheep n=500 were collected from different herds situated at Naltar lake, Tattovat, Fairy meado...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1 and Onyemocho Audu2 

... Among the routes of HCV transmission; intravenous drug addiction or injection drug use accounts for the majority of many cases apart from hemodialysis patients, unprotected sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and vertical transmission. Therefore, there is a need for government commitment for HCV elimination program through making the DAAs available and its affordability to general population to curb the catastrophic cost ...

M. Hammouchi1*, G. Sebbar1, N. Touil2, C. Loutfi1, Y.S. Malik3, M. El-Harrak1 and O. Fassi-Fehri4 

...e peak of infection. The transmission of the disease to animals (Timahdid breeds) brought into contact without manifestation of clinical signs, may indicate that local breeds of sheep might play an important role in the prevention of dissemination of PPR by virtue of its natural immunity. 


 Gulzar Mehmood1*, M. Zahid Khan1, Haseeb Ur Rahman1, and Sohail Abbas2

and secure data transmission, efficient required medical decision can be taken. As a result, on the spot health-care
operation can be performed by utilizing different health-care units. The proposed scheme is dynamic in nature, i.e.
if a node in the network is compromised or a new node joins the network, the process of session key establishment
is re-initiated. The proposed scheme has been evaluated through extensive simulation, a...

Muneeb Abrar1, Shabbir Majeed Chaudhry2 

the use of transmission gates and transistors as capacitors to reduce switching error and clock feed through. The
proposed design has a symmetric structure in terms of W/L ratios,transistor positioning and number of transistors in
both up and down network, which produces a stable charging operation and reduces the spurious jumps in the output
voltage. The overall output noise including thermal and flicker noise of the complet...

Gul Rukh*, Iftikhar Khan* M. Naeem Arbab*, Uzma Nawaz*

...ilable and where cost of transmission and distribution is high. The location where it has been installed and tested is village Kandar, Tehsil Mathra, Peshawar. The present project is compared with the existing and is much cost-effective and highly efficient.

Gulzar Ahmad*, Sahibzada Faheem*, Amjad Ullah*, Waqar Shah*, S.M. Majid Ashraf*

...p;destination point. The transmission path is modeled as a frequency non-selective Rayleigh fading in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The results show that at high SNR decode-and-forward performs well, while at low SNR amplify-and-forward works well. A selective relaying scheme called selective detect-and-forward is also simulated which shows better performance than its fixed counterparts for a wide range of SNR.

Inayat Ullah*, Shah Khusro**, Saeed Mahfooz**, Azhar Rauf**


 S.W. Shah*, M.I. Babar*, L. Khan**, M.N. Arbab*, H. Ullah*** and R.A. Syed***

...use of UDP for data transmission. Reliable transmission means that there should be no packet loss, no disordering and no duplication of packets at the receiver side. The focus of this paper is to implement Reliable Multicast using Java, which is mainly used for one-to-many connections. This work focuses on reliable multicast in a local area network (LAN) environment. The reliability has been introduced at...

Parakriti Gupta1, Kapil Goyal2 and Mini Pritam Singh3*

Hepatitis E Virus and Zoonosis
...there is a need to study transmission dynamics of HEV in context to humans, animals and the environment so as to develop better prevention control measures through ‘One Health’ concept. The clinical manifestations of HEV can vary from self-limiting acute viral hepatitis which occurs in apparently healthy individuals to acute liver failure which leads to high mortality among pregnant women. Recently, chronic infections due HEV genotypes 3 and 4 have...

Mohammad Enamul Hoque Kayesh1,2*, Mohammad Tufazzal Hussan3, Md. Abul Hashem2,4, Mohammad Eliyas5 and A.K.M. Mostafa Anower1

Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Infection: An Emerging Threat to Cattle Health in Bangladesh
...ould influence the rapid transmission of LSD in the cattle population of Bangladesh. Therefore, LSD may appear as a big challenge to cattle health in Bangladesh in the near future. Consequently, it is very important to take strategic plans and immediate control measures for LSD outbreak control and prevention in Bangladesh. In this review article, we will focus on epidemiology and modes of LSDV transmission, and its effectiv...
Zumama Khalid1, Muhammad Abrar Yousaf2, Abeedha Tu-Allah Khan1Farah Rauf Shakoori2, Muhammad Munir3 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori1*
... only research about its transmission, prevalence and causes but also to spread its awareness in the maximum possible ways. Although the complete disease-causing mechanisms of COVID-19 remain to be fully elucidated, active research is being conducted continuously in the field to gather as much information about every aspect of this disease as possible. Also, a clear difference is prevalent in different regions of the world about the rate of deaths and survival...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Obinna Oragwa Arthur2, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1, Sarah Joseph1, Geoffrey Chibueze1, Joshua Adetunji1, Joseph Ameh Okwori3, David Ochola Amanyi4, Otobo I. Ujah5 and Onyemocho Audu6

Seroprevalence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection among Slaughtered Ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria
... with a complex cycle of transmission that makes it difficult to predict. The risk of infection in humans is more with livestock handlers who get occupationally exposed to Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) because of frequent contact with infected vectors, animal body fluids and other tissues. We aimed to determine the prevalence of antibodies against RVFV in slaughtered ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 100 livestock (ca...

Md. Sahidur Rahman

Origin and Spillover of Coronaviruses: Prospects of One Health Action
...critical role in disease transmission as they are found seropositive against different coronaviruses. At least seven coronaviruses are known to have been spilled over from animal to human. SARS-CoV-2 is the recent one that showed pneumonia-like syndrome named COVID-19. It was assumed that SARS-CoV-2 was initially a spillover from bats due to its genomic similarity with Bat-CoV-RaTG13, where pangolins may have acted as an intermediate host. Wild trade, ecotouri...

Christian Marco Hadi Nugroho1 and Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan2,3,4*

Production of Antibody for Direct Fluorescence Antibody Assay against Avian Influenza H9N2
...s highly contagious, and transmission can occur from chicken to chicken, chicken to humans through the air, or sometimes from humans to humans. H9N2 belongs to alpha influenza virus genus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. It has a minus sense RNA genome of eight segments. This fact makes the virus to easily re-assort, which might yield a new virus strain, and causes an outbreak in unimmunized humans or chickens. In reducing losses due to H9N2 infection, rapid di...
Ye Ge1,2,3, Qiucheng Yao1, Hongliang Chai3, Yuping Hua3* and Guohua Deng2*
...roles in influenza virus transmission and reassortment. To further evaluate the potential infection risk of H6 AIVs from wild birds, we inoculated these viruses into A549 cells, which showed that these wild bird H6 AIVs have acquired the ability to cross interspecific barriers and have the potential to infect mammals. We analysed the level of cytokine expression in response to four H6 AIVs in CEFs and DEFs using real-time PCR. The results showed that the virus...

 Shafii Abdullahi Mohamed1, Abdiaziz Idiris Mohamud2*, Yonis Abukar Mohamed3, Pravin Mishra4 and Osman Sheikh Ali Jama5

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Population Towards Brucellosis in Benadir Region, Somalia was 45% (n=54), while transmission of animal to human was 43.33% (n=52). The majority of participants would take actions to ensure the animal is healthy when they buy 95% (n=114), all participants would like to receive more information about the disease and majority of participants have good practices when they handling the domesticated animals and their secretions 96.66% (n=116). Populations who are connected with livestock management or eating livestock p...
Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1,2, Zaheer Ahmed Nizamani1, Asghar Ali Kamboh3, Mansoor Ayoob4, Waseem Ali Vistro3 and Abdul Sattar Baloch3*
...tigate the pathology and transmission of experimental velogenic viscerotropic newcastle disease (VVND) in Japanese quails and mynas. Both birds were divided into Q1, Q2, Q3, M1, M2 and M3 group each of four bird. The birds of group Q1, M1 and Q2, M2 were administered with 0.3ml of VVND virus (1.8×109 EID 50)via intramuscular and oral routes, respectively, whereas, birds of group Q3 and M3were kept in contact exposure with VVND virus...
Saima Yaqub1, Tahir Yaqub1*, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir2, Asif Nadeem3Aziz-Ul-Rahman1, Muhammad Furqan Shahid1, Zarfishan Tahir4 and Nadia Mukhtar4
...ay have potential of HIV transmission among general population through different ways. Therefore, an understanding towards current status of HIV prevalence and genomic characteristics of circulating strains is crucial to devise and implement necessary interventions to control disease in developing countries like Pakistan. A total of 201 plasma samples were collected from IDUs. Samples were first screened using HIV-1 Ag/Ab Combo test and then antigen positive s...
Rehman Akhtar1, Khizar Azam2, Abdur Rehman Babar1, Qazi Salman Khalid1, Rashid Nawaz1 and Imran Ahmad1 
Ayesha Alam1,* and Labeeb Ali2
Nosheen Basharat1, Usman Waheed2,3*, Muhammad Arshad1, Noor e Saba4, Iram Masood1, Akhlaaq Wazeer1, Ahmad Farooq1, Sadaf Moneeba1Abdul Rauf5 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer2,3


...trategy to control virus transmission in healthy population.
Eman Khalifa1*, Riad Khalil2 and Haitham Elaadli3
...ential risk for zoonotic transmission to man as well as economic losses. So, strict hygienic regulations and novel diagnostic tools should be used for prevention and detection of tuberculous mastitis in buffaloes’ farms. The general public health should also be intensely warned from consuming raw or unpasteurized milk. All these prophylactic measures will eventually lead to a positive impact on public health.
Roland Eric Yessinou1*, Alain Richi Kamga Waladjo2, Nestor Noudeke1, Ignace Dramou3, Justin Adinsi1, Victorien Tamègnon Dougnon4, Elsie Yélognisê Sangnidjo5, Razack Osse5, Alfred Dansou6 and Souaïbou Farougou1
...ts and limit the risk of transmission, both locally and internationally. This study is also important in order to guide interventions, public health authorities and inform on the evolution of the disease.
Canan Vejselova Sezer*
...chanism and confocal and transmission electron microscopies for morphological and ultrastructural changes. Based upon our findings, it can be concluded that silymarin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles significantly reduced the growth of A549 and MCF-7 cells compared to silymarin. Also these nanoparticles induced apoptosis both in A549 and MCF-7 cells in higher percentages than that of silymarin. In microscopic investigations, it was shown clearly that apoptotic...
Naimat Ullah Khan1*, Muhammad Hassan Saleem2, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Shafee3, Ayesha Hassan2, Mumtaz Ali Khan2 and Nadeem Rashid3
...ce and possible zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis in southern parts of KPK, Pakistan.

Md. Mukthar Mia1 and Mahamudul Hasan2

...;s statewide spread. For transmission, the fecal-oral pathway is deemed the most obvious route than other permissible routes. Moreover, spreading through contact interactions, environmental pollutants, and the host reservoir, like a stray dog, could be feasible. Distressingly, such a pathogen is currently endemic in Asian nations, including India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and China. Thus, the literature review encompassed comprehensive knowledge concerning contem...
Ala’audin Hakami,1AusamaA Yousif,2* Mohamed Zaki,3 Mahmoud Ismail,4,5 Ahmed Al-Ali,5 Abdu-Rahman Al-Ankari5 
... indicating interspecies transmission.

Om-Hashem M. El-Banna1, Maisa A.E. Awad2, M.S. Abbas3, Hoda M. A. Waziri2 and Huda S. A. Darwish2

Mohamed I. Azzam1, Safaa M. Ezzat1, K. A. El-Dougdoug2, Badawi A. Othman2

Eman A. Ahmed1, Osama Y. Shalaby2, Emad F. Dwidar2, Samah A. Mokbel1, Ahmed K. El-Attar1 
...Different techniques for transmission of
phytoplasma to healthy tomatoes and periwinkles in an insect-proof greenhouse were
tested, including mechanical inoculation, wedge grafting, parasitic plant dodder (Cuscuta
campestris), insects in the family Cicadellidae (leafhopper, Empoasca decipiens) and in
germinated seeds within the fruit, suggesting mechanical inoculation and seedtransmissible
were not fe...
M. A. Kararah1, Om-Hashem M. El-Banna1, Salwa N. Zein2 and Abd-Elrehiem, A.F.3 
... symptomatology and seed transmission through cowpea and different
hosts belong to Fabaceae.The results indicated that the host range of the
virus was expanded to seven different plant families. The virus was
mechanically transmitted, and the percentage of seed transmission was 6%.
PMV was partially purified for its antiserum production. The absorption
spectrum of t...

Abd El-Hamid, M.I1; Seham, A. ElZeedy1; El-Sanousi A.A2, Reda, I.M2, Nehal, S. Saleh1., Abbas, A.M1

Lamiaa M. Omar, Mohamed A. Abdrabo, Dali M. Omar, Nermeen A. Marden

... of bird infection virus transmission by reducing virus
shedding. Challenge of vaccinated birds with AI vaccines under strictly controlled condition with
virulent HPAI virus may also be used to predict flock response to AI infection. The reduction in
challenge virus replication can be quantified using classical virus isolation (VI) and titration methods
in (ECE) or by molecular assay for detection AI virus specif...
Rasha M. Mahrous1,4, Ahmed K. El-Attar2, Ahlam A. AlWatban1, Sohair I. EL-Afifi3,
Nagwa M. Aref1,3

Maha A. El-Abhar1, Moustafa A. Elkady1, Khaled M. Ghanem2, Hussieny A. Bosila3

transmission and serological diagnosis, in addition to the ultrastructural changes produced in potato
leaf cells infected with AMV .
Results: Reaction of thirteen plant species and cultivars belonging to four families (Amaranthaceae,
Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Laminaceae) to AMV infection was demonstrated. The presence or
absence of the virus was verified by back inoculation onto healthy in...

Shimaa M. Mansour, Reham M. ElBakrey, Ahmed Orabi, Haytham Ali, Amal A. Eid

...e importance of vertical transmission in the field spread of ARV infections.
Sahar Mubashar*, Tariq Mukhtar and Nasir Ahmad Khan
...but involves the risk of transmission of blood borne pathogens. As Pakistan lacks medical facilities. the government has to get testing kits and primers from other countries. Only few quarantine centers are available and there is shortage of drugs, beds, trained doctors and paramedical staff. Unfortunately, no vaccine is available yet so the only management strategy is the prevention of infection by wearing masks and following social distancing. Cleanliness, h...
Allam A. Megahed, Badawi A. Othman, Samar S. El Masry, Abeer A. Faiesal and Mohamed A. Nasr Eldin
... section was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Finally, the PVM
isolate was detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the sprouts
after dormancy breaking for the harvested potato tubers.
Results: The obtained results demonstrated that, PVM isolate causes severe symptoms on potato plants
under the greenhouse conditions. The infected potato cv. Diamant gave positiv...

Ahmed K. El-Attar1, Samah A. Mokbel1 and Om-Hashem M. EL-Banna2

used were the transmission electron microscope for rapid diagnosis, host reactions, serological
double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and nucleotide
sequence determination. Ultra-structural responses of basil leaf cells infected with a
morphologically distinct RNA virus, AMV, were studied. Molecular characterization and
phylogenetic analysis were performed for the AMV coa...

Youssef A. Elgharbawy1, Mervat M. Ali1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Mohamed A. Shalaby2

...void viral reversion and transmission of the virus by the blood feeding arthropods.

Ahmed A. ElWakil1, Ausama A. Yousif2 , Adel A. Fayed3, Ibrahim M. elsabagh2, Mahmoud
El Gamal2, Omnia H. Refaei3
...div>LSDV maintenance and transmission. Mechanical transmission of LSDV is well documented;
however, evidence of transovarian and transstadial transmission is a tick warrants an investigation into
the replication capacity of the virus in ticks. Transstadial occurs when virus remains with vector from
one life stage to the next and transovarian is
Karim M. Selim1, Abdullah A. Selim1, abdelsattar Arafa1, Hussein A. Hussein2, Ahmed A. El-Sanousi2
...enge, virus shedding and transmission in contact
non vaccinated chickens using qRT-PCR test.The genotype VII (GVII) vaccine group
induced higher HI titer by using GVII monospecific antigen and decreased virus shedding
than other group. The vaccinated group with genotype VII significantly reduced the virus
shedding at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post challenge unlike the genotype II vaccinated group that
did n...

Samah A. Mokbel, Eman A. Ahmed, Hanan F. El-Kammar, Ahmed A. Kheder

... of such gene. Light and transmission
electron microscopy were used to study the cytological and histological changes that occurred in the
leaves of the sugar beet plant by the pathogen, as well as, to determine some morphometric parameters
such as upper and lower epidermis thickness, midrib thickness, blade thickness, palisade tissue
thickness, spongy tissue thickness, height and width of the vascular bundle.
Jehan Dastagir, Muhammad Amir*, Bilal Ur Rehman, Shahid Hameed and Majad Ashraf
...omparative bandwidths, retransmission rates and window sizes. Simulations in this regard were carried through using NS-2 (Network Simulator-2) simulation software. From simulation results, as evident in this paper, TCP Westwood was found to be the best candidate for innovation out of the mentioned flavors based on its output performance. The most active objective of the proposed research presented in this paper was to modify the already chosen TCP Westwood pro...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Vol. 53, Iss. 5, Pages 1603-2000


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