David Kyle Johnson

...lief is justified by the occurrence of a miracle, that religious belief is justified only if the belief that the miracle occurred is justified. Hume famously argued that testimony cannot justify belief in the miraculous (and thus also cannot justify religious belief), but I will argue that nothing can justify the belief that a miracle has occurred—not even seeing a miracle for oneself. To establish this, I will explore two shortcomings in Hume’s ar...

Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

...the infected animal. The occurrence of CCHF outbreak in Pakistan is increased quite significantly near Eid-ul-Adha. Haemorrhages are the major signs of this fatal disease. No treatment of CCHF is available currently but Ribavirin antiviral drug is used to cure this disease. There is currently no commercially available vaccine for this disease. It is recommended that the disease can be controlled by adopting preventive measures such as avoiding of tick bites an...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...ore, given the continued occurrence of PPR and increasing global humans and animals movements,the virus has continued to be reported in previously PPR-free countries and thereby considered as an emerging pathogen.. However, the increased detection of the virus in the light of rinderpest eradication and the lack of awareness of the disease in areas where the virus has been detected for the first time in recent years given the educational status of farmers contr...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...ent and agriculture. The occurrence of bacterial “suprainfection” with tolerance to antibiotics has attracted the significant attention, mainly due to the consequences of multi drug resistance and potential threat to human health and the environment. With the increasing incidences of antimicrobial contamination, especially in food, dairy products, agriculture and environment, their regular monitoring is on prime interest. Aptamers are synthetic sho...

Tayiba Latif Gulraiz1, Arshad Javid1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Muhammad Shahbaz3, Irfan3 and Sharoon Daud4

...iations were recorded in occurrence of various fungal and bacterial genera. From bolus samples, two fungal Aspergillus and Fusarium and one bacterial Bacillus genera were recorded throughout the year while from guano Bacillus was the only genus with year round occurrence. Microbial analysis shows that Indian flying fox ejecta are an amalgam of beneficial and pathogenic microbes and its pH (6.7 to 7.4), high concentration of ...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...reas were 4.5-18.2%. The occurrence of FMD was higher in February (23.3%) than in January (13.5%) and March (18.5%). Younger cattle were more commonly affected (59.1%) than older ones. Almost 96% of the female cattle were FMD positive. Cattle with poor body condition score had higher FMD cases (77.3%) than cattle with better body condition score. The lactating animals and pregnant animals were more commonly affected (81.8% and 63.6%), respectively. The main cl...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...n) clearly indicated the occurrence of previous outbreaks of PPR virus due to persistency of virus in endemic regions.

...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...associated with mastitis occurrence except frequency of milking per day. Antibiogram of Staph. aureus indicated very strong resistance to oxacillin, ticarcillin, ampicilline, amoxicillin, azlocine, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, vancomycin, cefixinme, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime. In contrast to this sulphaphenazole, gentamicin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin were highly sensitive. Piperacillin, Tazabactam and cinxacin were moderately effective against Staph...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...ne of few studies on the occurrence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Salmonella in poultry slaughter slab (processing plants) in Nigeria. The relatively high prevalence rate documented in this study may be attributed to the generally poor infrastructure, lack of well-equipped poultry slaughter houses, lack or inadequate water supply at these markets which hampers the ability of handlers to maintain good sanitary and hygiene conditions of the carcass, en...
Nadeem Rashid1,*, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa1, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Tanvir Ahmad2, Majed Rafeeq1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Arif Awan1, Mohammad Ali1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Asad Ulah1 and Amanullah Khan3

Amitava Konar, Kiran A. More and Pradip Mondal

Efficacy of some insecticides against cutworm and molecricket of potato in West Bengal
...2ml/10L of water) on the occurrence of the pest (T6 ) than other treatments as well as control. Both the treatments (T5 and T6) were more or less equally effective to decrease the incidence of cutworm and molecricket. Yield of healthy tubers was recorded maximum (31.66 t ha -1) in T5 treatment succeeds by T6 than other treatments as well as control.


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Rashid Pervez, Santhosh J. Eapen, S. Devasahayam and M. Dinsha

Characterization of entomopathogenic nematode, Stein-ernema carpocapsae from ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizosphere in India
...ies. This study reported occurrence of a isolate of S. carpocapsae from ginger rhizosphere from India. This indigenous isolate could be investigated further for managing insect pests of ginger.

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T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
...amics was determined for occurrence, intensity and severity of these diseases. The diseases (referred as pathogens) that were the highest and fastest during warm and wet (rainy) months were: Alternaria alternata on Polyanthes tuberosa; Alternaria alternata and Septoria chrysanthemella on Chrysanthemum indicum; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria sp. on Dracaena deremensis; Alternaria sp. and Cercospora hibisci-manihotis on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis; Col...
Yun Wang1,*, Lei Guan1, Jiding Chen1, Yaping Kong1, Lang Si2 and Asif Shah3
...nd 2015, we recorded the occurrence frequency, number of ungulates, and the perpendicular distance between QTH and QTR. To improve the protection mechanism for the four large ungulates viz., Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsonii, Tibetan gazelle Procapra picticaudata, Kiang Equus kiang) and Wild Yak Bos grunniens; we suggest that the distance between the proposed route for the expressway and the present highway and railway sh...
Oaj Khurshid1*, Naureen Aurangzeb1, Ayaz Khan1, Alia Naz1, Abdullah khan1, Sobia Nisa2 and Sehrish Sajawal3
...investigation showed the occurrence of great proportion of Decomposable organic matter, adequate moisture content and C/N ratio. On windrow composting, not only the bulk of the waste was compacted but also formed a powdery earthy stinking soil-like, compost material. All valued factors in the compost samples were found to be within the acceptable limits set by international standard. The pH fluctuated between 7.5-8.1, moisture 35% and organic matter 43%, and h...
Hassen Allaya1,2,*, Abderraouf Ben Faleh1, Manel Rebaya1, Sonia Zrelli3, Abdallah Hattour2, Jean-Pierre Quignard4 and Monia Trabelsi1
...ongruent and confirm the occurrence of two potential differentiated groups. This variation of morphometric and meristic characters in specimens from two populations could be caused by differences in genetic structure or environmental conditions.
...
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
...litter materials and FPD occurrence and severity were assessed weekly. First signs of FPD were observed in 21-day old chickens reared on chopped wheat straw (FPD score = 0.52±0.10) and a week later in a group of birds kept on pelleted straw (FPD score = 0.34±0.07). At the end of the experiment in both groups of broilers percentage of severe FPD was high. Severe lesions were significantly (p<0.01) more frequent (80%) in broilers reared on chopp...

Muhammad Ibrahim and Ahmad Khan*

...p stand and phenological occurrence is not well understood. Therefore field studies were conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan to quantify the effects of mulching techniques and nitrogen management on maize (Zea mays L) phenology and crop stand in 2013 and 2014. Treatments included mulching techniques (i.e. no-mulch, residue, transparent and blue colour plastic) and 250 kg N ha-1 sources (control, 100, 70, 50, 0% ...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

...eillance for yellow rust occurrence, distribution and impact on wheat landscape was carried out along with recent deployment status of cultivars during 2012 in northwest Pakistan located close to the center of diversity of P. striiformis f.sp. tritici. Around 1600 wheat fields were sampled covering a geographical area of little less than 5000 acres in the southern, central and northern zones located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. Yellow rust

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

...lative high frequency of occurrence of the studied viruses both in single or concomitant infection emphasizes the need for continued monitoring of poultry flocks to better understand its epidemiology and understanding the impact of one virus on the pathobiology of second virus 

...
Minmin Chen1, Xiaoke Zhang1, Kexiong Wang2, Zhigang Liu1, An Wan3, Daoping Yu1,*, Hong Ji3 and Fangzhen Peng1
... confluence. The average occurrence rate in the flow deflection and flow stagnation zones was 32% and 44%, respectively. Based on these observations, we concluded that the confluence of the Yangtze and Wanhe rivers is a popular habitat of the Yangtze finless porpoise in autumn and winter. Conservation measures should be taken to conserve this kind of habitat.
...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

... This study reported the occurrence of pathogenic E. coli isolated from Tibetan piglets with white score diarrhea which highlights the threat of pathogenic E.coli in free ranging Tibetan piglets, as the local herdsmen can directly suffer a great economic loss.
...

Imtiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Abbas Khan, Noorullah Khan, Naveed Ahmed, Abdul Waheed, Fazal Yazdan Saleem, Sajjad Khan and Sohail Aslam 

.... Data regarding disease occurrence, disease severity, plant height (cm), bulb weight (g), bulb diameter (mm), clove weight (g), number of cloves bulb-1 and yield (t ha-1) was measured. The result of the study reveals that plant spacing had significant impact on the occurrence of rust disease and its severity, yield and yield components. Plants with 10 cm spacing had more disease incidence and severity (79 and 55.66% respect...
Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Abdul Majid Khan1,*, Ghazala Roohi3 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...al stress. In this study occurrence of enamel hypoplasia in giraffids has been observed in species of all time intervals between 18.3-0.6 Ma except the time 11.2-9.0 (late Miocene) that has no giraffids with this dental defect. The comparative percentage for occurrence of enamel hypoplasia in giraffids of these Siwalik deposits is early Miocene-early middle Miocene (29%), middle Miocene (20%), late Miocene-early Pliocene (15...
Wen-Feng Li, Xiao-Yan Wang, Ying-Kun Huang*, Rong-Yue Zhang, Jiong Yin, Zhi-Ming Luoand Hong-Li Shan
...d caused by the combined occurrence of Tetramoera schistaceana (Snellen) and Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer) were measured in pesticide–treated and untreated areas during 2014-2016. The results indicated that the in untreated areas, percent dead-heart was 8.30% - 58.83%, the percent stalk injured was 26.73% - 96.67%, the percent internodes bored was 4.40% - 25.87%, and the effective stem number was reduced by 4440-21900 stalk/ha. Measur...
Syed Kashif Nawaz*, Faiza Zubair and Sidra Kanwal
...f overlapping genes. The occurrence of these overlapping genes is not solely dependent on the size of the chromosomes.
...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
...ing the epidemiology and occurrence of EI is lacking in Pakistan. We hereby attempted to determine the seroprevalence, investigating the EI outbreak 2015-16, and describing the demographic and management risk factors associated with seroprevalence of EIV. Using ELISA kit and HI as serological methods for diagnosis, we found a 24.13% (168/696) overall seroprevalence, where the seroprevalence for H3N8 was 14.51% (101/696), for H7N7 6.03% (42/696), and 3.59% (25/...
Alan R. Rhoda
...ble foreknowledge of the occurrences of causally indeterministic events.
...

 Md. Nazirul Islam*, A. K. Azad**, Leon O. Namuco***, Teresita H. Borromeo***, Maria Lourdes O. Cedo*** and Edna A. Aguilar***

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF A MAKAPUNO COCONUT POPULATION IN U.P. LOS BANOS
...ted as 88%. Simultaneous occurrence of male and female phases allows self-pollination, which favors higher yield of makapuno. The principal component analysis revealed that fruit, nut and husk weight accounted for 99 % of the observed variation. Twelve morphological variables, grouped the population into 6 clusters. Common characters of palm belonging to cluster I are lower weights of fruit, nut and husk with shorter fruit equatorial diameter and shorter inter...

 Muhammad Mohsin Raza*, Muhammad Aslam Khan*, Irfan Ahmad**, Ali Ahsan Bajwa***, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam*, Badar Ahsan Ullah****, and Kashif Riaz*

FOREST PATHOGENS AND DISEASES UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE -A REVIEW
...likelihood, frequency of occurrence, types and severity of forest diseases caused by diverse pests, resultantly altering the forest ecosystems. The present review covers the relationship between climate and diverse cases of forest diseases and potential shocks of climate change on pathogens and diseases. Biotic diseases, cankers, decays, declines, foliar diseases, root diseases and stem rust of pine have been reviewed with some illustrations of potential disea...
Wazha Mugabe1,3,Gaolebale Segolame Mpapho1, John Kamau1, Wameotsile Mahabile2, Shalaulani James Nsoso1, Kealeboga Dipheko1 and Assar Ali Shah3,*
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Muhammad Kashif Prince1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*, Mian Saeed Sarwar2, Hazrat Ali2, Tahir Usman2, Asadullah Khan2, Siffat Ullah Khan3 and Shahid Zaman5
...tors responsible for the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in lambs and has been known to cause human infection. Three hundred and sixty fecal samples (n=360) were collected through convenient sampling from apparently healthy lambs and were examined using the modified Ziehl Neelsen acid fast staining. Prevalence was calculated along with different risk factors associated with the disease (month, age, sex and season). Results showed highest prevalence (P <...
Aitezaz Ahsan1*, Muhammad Usman1, Ihsan Ullah2, Aamer Bin Zahur3 and Adnan Rasheed Malik4
...nsboundary disease whose occurrence hampers the trade and consequently causes an enormous economic losses. It is a disease of sheep and goat, particularly in the regions of Africa, Middle East and Asia. Besides clinical signs and symptoms of PPR various diagnostic assays, both serological and molecular, have been developed and are applied for estimating the current status of the disease. This review article focuses on the development of different molecular dia...
Naimat Ullah1,3,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Avais1, Nisar Ahmad2, Sana Ullah3, Muhammad Shuaib Khan3, Khalid Mehmood5, Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Ikramul Haq1
...rkers concerned with the occurrence of theileriosis in sheep. Total 600 blood samples were taken each 200 from districts Bannu, Tank and Dera Ismail Khan of southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan and screened through blood microscopy. The current study revealed an overall prevalence of ovine theileriosis as 27.5%, 13% and 19.5% in districts of Dera Ismail Khan, Tank and Bannu, respectively. Sex, tick infestation, animal keeping conditions, herd size, season and ...
Abdul Majid Ujjal2, Sharmin Akter1* and Suman Paul1 
...he information of weekly occurrence of FMD showed consistent occurrence of this disease round the year with peaks during winter season. Similar analysis was also done for HS and like FMD, highest prevalence (16.14%) found in Jaintapur upazila. HS prevalence also found significantly higher in young buffalos (18.56%). HS prevalence was significantly higher in male (12.73%) than female. Epidemic curves of HS showed a clear year...
Ye Gong, Nehafta Bibi and Haitao Wang*
...nitored the frequency of occurrence and the fate of eggs in those nests and recorded fourteen cases of mixed clutches that contained Mandarin duck eggs. Nine cases were classified as successful nest usurpation: in six cases nests of other birds were usurped by Mandarin duck and in three cases nests of Mandarin duck were usurped by other birds. The remaining mixed clutches may be incomplete usurpation. For the nests taken over by Mandarin ducks, all heterospeci...
Nausheen Irshad1,*, Imran Yousaf1, Tariq Mahmood2 and Muhammad Saeed Awan1
...y. Results confirmed the occurrence of leopard at six out of twelve sampling sites surveyed, in the form of evidences including pug marks, cave/ den, and dead bodies (two carcasses and one skin) of the animal. Moreover, three kill records of the animal in a short duration of six months are indicative of its illegal hunting for its skin or in self-defense. Therefore, immediate conservation measures are needed to protect the species. The other aspects of leopard...
Hasina Baloch1, Rahmatullah Rind2,*, Muhammad Rafique Rind3, Viram Kumar4, Nazia Baloch5 and Rajesh K. Oad6
...er month (August) on the occurrence of apparent and non-apparent mastitis in buffaloes was determined. The soil bedding material played significant role in the prevalence of both, clinical and subclinical mastitis. Significantly higher prevalence of clinical mastitis was observed in August (52, 10.74%), while the overall prevalence (26.65%) was determined during hot humid summer season. Similarly significantly higher frequency of non-appare...
Nadeem Munawar, Iftikhar Hussain and Tariq Mahmood*
...t study investigated the occurrence of different rodent species inside the crop fields and at field edges, associated with four major crops (wheat, groundnut, millet and maize) in the Pothwar Plateau. In all four crops, maximum number of rodent burrows was recorded at maturity stages of the crops. The maturity stage of wheat crop coincided with spring breeding season while the maturity stages of millet/maize and groundnut matched with monsoon/autumn breeding p...
Adel A. Basyouny Shahin,1,* Amira M. Metwally Mohamed2 and Abd El-Reheem A. El Shatter2

 

...the recent hypothesis of occurrence of new species in N. ehrenbergi. Divergence between the two species would have occurred during Pleistocene (ca 1.26 million years ago).
...
Ali Zaman1,*, Abdul Haleem1, Sajjad Ur Rahman2, Adnan Amin3 Asma Saeed1, Sana Ullah4 and Naimat Ullah4
...0.05) association of occurrence of the infection with the type of season, health status, vaccination, housing system, biosecurity and housing zones and non- significant (P>0.05) association with rearing system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first sero-prevalence report of avian influenza (H5) in broilers in these districts of the province. Necessary measures are required to overcome the situation and improve vaccination and hygiene.
Qaisar Jamal1, Muhammad Idrees1, Saif Ullah2, Muhammad Adnan1, Farrah Zaidi1, Qaiser Zaman1,3 and Syed Basit Rasheed1,*
...ed gradually reaching to occurrence of only four species at 2500-2900 meters above sea level. District Dir lower, primarily sub-tropical, was found more diverse regarding squamate species than the mountainous, temperate Upper Dir.
...
Muhammad Shaheer1*, Asad Aslam Khan2, Nasir Ahmed3, Tehseen Mahmood Mahju4, Ummarah Rasheed5
...dicinal treatment on the occurrence of macular edema remained elusive.
Objectives: This study was designed to determine the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients of diabetic macular edema.
Methods: An interventional study was conducted on patients that underwent pre-injection and one-month post-injection OCT for RNFL thickness. OCT was performed by researchers and findings were recorded accordingly. The retinal ne...
Qudrat Ullah1,*, Huma Jamil1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Muhammad Saqib2 and Heinrich Neubauer3
... the study indicates the occurrence of antibodies to C. burnetii at the government livestock farms included in the study.
...
Amjad Islam Aqib1,*, Shagufta Nighat2, Rais Ahmed3, Saba Sana3, Muhammad Ameen Jamal4, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar2 , Naimat Ullah Khan5, Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Muhammad Asif Hussain5, Asadullah5, Attaur Rahman5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman5,*
... factors associated with occurrence of SCM and results were analyzed using non-probability statistical analysis. Results indicated that an overall 63.28% (243/384) of goats were found positive for SCM, of which 58.85% (143/243) revealed Staphylococcal growth among them 69.93% (100/143) were CPS, while 30.07% (43/143) were found as CNS. Drug susceptibility against penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides and other drugs showed that 50% of CPS and 30% of C...

Sadaf Niaz1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Asif Nadeem1, Misbah Hussain1, Riffat Mehboob3*, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad3

Mutation analysis of RING1 domain of Parkin in early onset of Parkinson’s disease in Pakistani patients-a pilot study
...y be responsible for the occurrence of
disease in local population. It may be due to genetic changes in any other part of the gene or due to other
environmental factors. However, we have limitation of sample size due to less occurrence of disease in this area. The
current study is very important for successive researches in Pakistan as the disease ratio is increasing continuously
due to consanguin...

 Abdul Majid Khan*

Review report on mammalian dental defect (enamel hypoplasia) in different groups of mammals
...ing positive results for occurrence of this tooth malady. The present
review correlates the research studies that have been conducted in deciduous as
well as permanent dental material of modern, archeological and palaeontological
animals belongs to multiple orders of class Mammalia and also provides a road
map for comparative analysis of dental health in different mammalian taxons.

...

Saman Fatima* and Shazia Iram 

...uch problem includes the occurrence of various skin disorders which leads to the rejection of fruit in international market. This study was designed in order to identify the pathogens that ruin the peal of Citrus reticulata Blanco (kinnow) in order to improve its quality. About twenty six sampled fruits of Citrus reticulata having damaged skin were obtained from the orchards of Sargodha. The samples were classified into groups on the basis of physical appearan...

Muhammad Shahzad Khattak1*, Amjad Khan1, Mahmood Alam Khan1, Waqas Ahmad2, Shafiq ur Rehman3, Mohammad Sharif4 and Sajjad Ahmad1 

...a indicated an increased occurrence of droughts in the last 12 years, which may be attributed to climate change. Extreme drought events were observed at Tarbela during October-September and at Mangla during October-June with SDI value of -2.36 and -2.74, respectively. Moderate to severe wet conditions were also detected in the analysis period. Several strategies for the mitigation of adverse impacts of droughts in the study region are recommended. 

...

 Tung-Yi Kho

... general nature of their occurrence, they are not typically associated by the Chinese with well-being or the good life, appearing instead to be unselfconscious practices that are deeply rooted in the Chinese consciousness. The Relationist mode of well-being stands in contrast to the Modernist variant in both its nature and objectives, prompting us to ask: what makes the good life in China and beyond?

...

Arjumand Nizami1, Jawad Ali1 and Muhammad Zulfiqar2* 

...te change. Understanding occurrence and impacts of hydro-meteorological disasters on people’s well-being and which livelihood assets are significant for identifying coping strategies to deal with disasters are important ingredients to increased resilience of communities living in disaster prone areas. This study relies on the data collected using the Community-based Risk Screening Tool – Adaptation and Livelihoods (Cristal) to map major risks and v...
Tianlong Cai1, Falk Huettmann2, Kisup Lee3 and Yumin Guo1,*
...d on 115 every year used occurrence points (1990-2013) and 14 environmental layers as predictors. Results show that the Songnen Plain and Korea Peninsula are the most important stopover habitats. Four other major areas are also suitable for stopover: (i) the coastal area of the Bohai Sea, (ii) the Three Rivers Plain-Amur River Basin, (iii) the Torey Lake Basin and the (iv) Zeya River-Heilongjiang River. The gap analysis revealed that existing nature reserves c...

Muhammad Ijaz, Sayed Rashad Ali Shah*, Muhammad Izhar-ul-Haq and Amir Afzal 

...pread, and consistent in occurrence disease of groundnut worldwide. LLS is the imperative factor while developing resistance varieties along with agronomic characteristics. In total, 153 groundnut botanically different genotypes namely Virginia, Spanish, and Valencia were screened under filed conditions and detached leaf assay against LLS pathogen. Most of genotypes during three years of study at early assessments under field conditions showed resistant respon...
Jing Hu1,2, Yan Liu2,3, Gang Yu1,2, Changping Yang2,3, Binbin Shan2,3, Shengnan Liu2,4 and Dianrong Sun2,3,*
...lumn originated from the occurrence of neural arch and hypural on 5DPH (SL2.4-3.4mmm, NL1.8-2.4mm), then skeletal ossification and Segmental bone formation occurred on 11DPH (SL3.6-4.0mm, NL2.6-2.8mm) and finished on 21DPH (SL9.6-11.6mm, NL7.4-8.6mm); Neural arch developed earlier than haemal arch, while haemal spine earlier than neural spine, consistent with the ossification; The development and ossification of neural arch and neural spine occurred in the bac...
Shafqat Husnain Khan1, Shah Jahan2, Irshad Ahmad3,4, Sadeeq ur Rahman5,* and Tayyab ur Rehman4,*
...udy, we investigated the occurrence of carbapenemase- and MBLs-producers among a collection of 100 carbapenem resistant E. coli obtained from a tertiary hospital at Lahore Pakistan. All carbapenemase producers were further investigated to identify frequency of blaIMP and blaVIM encoding genes. Results of modified hodge test identified 81% carbapenemase producers, while combined disc diffusion test identified 28 isolat...
Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Shahid Yousaf1, Salman Khurshid1*, Qurrat Ul Ain Akbar1, Saqib Arif1, Nasreen Fatima2 and Ali Murad Rahoo3
...rties in relation to the occurrence of pathogenic diseases. Fruit samples (injured and healthy) were taken from the three different local markets of Karachi. Some of the fungal species viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Alternaria alternata have been identified in citrus samples. However, major incidence was recorded for Aspergillus niger (41.6%) followed by Fusarium oxysporum (27...

Wajid Khan* and Raziuddin 

... plant-1, signifying the occurrence of considerable variability in the tested material. Mean performance identified parental genotype AUP-21 being the best for early maturity (167.0 days), pods main raceme-1 (65.3), 1000-seed weight (7.1 g) and seed yield (30.6 g). F1 cross combination AUP-10 × AUP-18 had high seed yield (36.5 g) and moderate days to maturity (177.0). Desirable significant negative best parent and commercial heterotic effects were observ...
Rais Ahmed1,2,*, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor1,2, Iftikhar Hussain1, Muhammad Saqib3, Muhammad Hammad Hussain4, Amjad Islam Aqib5, Haleema Sadia6, Javed Muhammad7, Asma Irshad8, Kashif Prince5, Muhammad Zain Saleem9 and Abdul Whab Manzoor10
...vely associated with the occurrence of the disease. These data will not only help in screening of animals but will also be instrumental in future for isolation of MAP to make vaccine against paratuberculosis using local isolates.
...
Muhammad Raza Khan1, Tariq Mahmood1,*, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim2, Shaista Andleeb1 and Abdul Hamid1
...ct. Results revealed the occurrence of grey wolf at an elevational range between 2332 m to 2926 m above mean sea level (amsl); a total of 7 dens, 30 pug marks and 33 scats of the species were recorded. A careful estimate gave a population density of 0.45 individuals/km2 in the study area. Scat analysis for diet composition showed 5 domestic and 8 wild prey species in its diet menu, with major share (53 %) from livestock and relatively less (46%) fro...
Sajida Sabahat1, Asif Nadeem1,*, Maryam Javed1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor1, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ghulam Yasein2 and Ghulam Abbas1 
...nificant finding was the occurrence of a T→C polymorphism in exon 5 that causes a substitution of an amino acid from Cysteine to Arginine.That Cys/Arg polymorphism may serve as authoritative genetic marker for selective improvement of growth traits in camel. These results suggest that Marecha camel has genetic variability in the IGF-1 and may be helpful for preservation strategies and future selection programs.  

 

...

Muhammad Abdul Rahman1*, Abdul Saboor1, Gulnaz Hameed1, Ghulam Bilal2 and Farooq Tanwir3 

...ised key CEHFs affecting occurrence of security hazards to dairy production in the scenario of changing climate. Experts ranked lack of genetic research and fodder security on top among various critical factors that drive and increase occurrence of security hazards to health and production of dairy animals. Lack of labs to identify diseases, sensitiveness of buffaloes to temperature, slow and reduced weight gain and effect o...

Shwe Yee Win1, Lat Lat Htun1, Myint Myint Hmoon1, Hla Myet Chel1, Yu Nandi Thaw1, Nyein Chan Soe1, Htet Lin Oo3 and Saw Bawm2* 

...ucted to investigate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in village chickens from four Townships (Mawlamyine, Nyaung U, Zay Yar Thi Ri and Katha) of Myanmar from April to June 2019. A total of 200 faecal samples were randomly collected from village chickens. Centrifugal sugar floatation and sedimentation methods were carried out to detect the gastrointestinal parasites. The overall occurrence of gastrointestinal par...
Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Abdul Majid Khan2*, Ayesha Iqbal2, Amtur Rafeh2, Muhammad Tahir Waseem2 and Muhammad Ameen2
...the first ever report on occurrence of enamel hypoplasia in extinct tragulids. The dental defect, enamel hypoplasia is caused by suppressed function of enamel forming cells called ameloblasts. It is used as a reliable stress marker in different extinct mammalian taxa to trace out the level of ecological stress faced by these animals during their life histories. We have studied this defect in three extinct Siwalik tragulid species including; Dorcabune anthra...
Nahed H. Ghoneim, Maha A. Sabry, Zeinab S. Ahmed and Esraa A. Elshafiee*
...wide. To investigate the occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of this pathogen, a total of 360 chicken cloacal swabs and 15 water samples were gathered from different localities in Giza and Cairo Governorates. An additional 50 stool specimens were collected from individuals in contact with the examined chickens. Eleven Campylobacter isolates were recovered through bacteriological examination. Campylobacter spp. were identified by polymerase ch...
Abdul Kabir¹, Amjad Hussian Mirani¹, Jam Kashif1, Shumaila Manzoor2, Abdullah Iqbal3*, Ihsan Ullah Khan4 and Muhammad Abubakar2
...led a comparison of PPRV occurrence in the different production system of small ruminants and on-going disease outbreaks in the target area.
...
Abdurakhim Kuchboev1, Mehmonjon Egamberdiev2, Rokhatoy Karimova1, Oybek Amirov1 and Mitsuhiko Asakawa3,*
...zbekistan.
...
Ahsan Numan1,4, Khadija Irfan Khawaja2, Abdul Basit Qureshi3Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf4, Imtiaz Rabbani4, Hafsa Zaneb5 and Habib Rehman4*
Tasbihullah1, Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*, Tariq Ali3 , Umer Saddique1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Shafiq4, Sultan Ayaz2, Hamayun Khan1, Ijaz Ahmad1 Asadullah2, Raheela Taj5, Hafiz Nidaullah6 and Alamgir Khan7
Anila Naz Soomro1*, Hiroshi Suzuki2, Sadaf Tabassum Qureshi3 and Wazir Ali Baloch1
...cy histograms showed the occurrence of large number of juveniles at St. 3, 4 and 5 in smaller length groups. Also C. typus ovigerous females exhibiting spawning migration to the downstream and its juvenile also migrate back to upstream after completing the larval development in Urbaru stream were also observed. Presence of C. sakishsimensis at only St. 1 indicates the species is not using the river continuum for migration. Due to cave dwelling ha...
Muhammad Waseem, Tariq Mahmood*, Abid Hussain, Abdul Hamid, Faraz Akrim, Shaista Andleeb and Hira Fatima
...try. We investigated its occurrence, population and human conflict in Mansehra District during 2016-2017. A total of 66 indirect signs of Asiatic black bear were recorded with an altitudinal variation of habitat ranging from 1511m to 2570m elevation including 17 dens and 44 scats of the bear from 10 different sampling sites. The sign density of black bear ranged between 17/km² (Paris MRF site) and 1.2/km² (Sharan site). Sign density was high in habit...
Hina Habib Syed1, Muzafar Shah2*, Shahid Sherzada3 and Masroor Elahi Babar1
Samia Afzal*,Sadia Zahid, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Idrees
...recent reports about the occurrence of Chikungunya outbreak in the southern region of Pakistan has been highly controversial. In order to further confirm the circulation of the virus and put an end to the speculative claims for the corresponding outbreak in Pakistan, a study was conducted at the Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology in Lahore. The study included 500 suspected serum samples. All clinical specimens were tested for IgM and IgG specific antibo...
Yuhong Li1, Dongxue Wu1, Xue Wang1, Mi Zhang1, Hanyu Zhu1, Zhe Shi1 and Fumin Feng1,2*
... changed, indicating the occurrence of liver injury. Compared with the baseline group, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in each drug group gradually increased, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) gradually decreased, suggesting that oxidative stress reaction occurred in all drug groups. Compared with the baseline group, the mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB and TNF-α in the H group showed an increasing trend, and p-NF-κB and p-I...
Majeeda Rasheed1*, Tanveer Akhtar1, Nadia Mukhtar2, Muhammad Furqan Shahid2, Muhammad Imran3, Saima Yaqub2
...GB province. We reported occurrence and risk factor analysis of PPR in small ruminants (n=1000) originating from different places in district Gilgit using Hem agglutination Inhibition (HI) test followed by risk analysis through Open-Epi software. Serum samples including goats n=500 and sheep n=500 were collected from different herds situated at Naltar lake, Tattovat, Fairy meadows, Bangle, and Naltar. Overall a comparable prevalence was identified for both goa...

Hasaan Aziz*, Fariha Altaaf, Attia Bashir, Abdul Basit, Syed Anam Masood Gardazi and Farah Haider 

...ed live vaccine to dogs, occurrence of disease is not uncommon. Here, we sequenced and phylogenetically analysed the complete hemagglutinin gene of CDV from a male dog (14 months old) exhibiting clinically suggestive symptoms. With a characteristic amino acid residue for dog at Y549, sequence analysis showed geographically distinct pattern clustering the study strain to clade Asia-2 but clearly distinct from vaccine strains. Though limited and preliminary data...

Hosts and Viruses

April

Vol. 7, Iss. 2, Pages 20-38

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