Qin Zhao1,2, Yani Sun1,2, Gaiping Zhang1,3, Frederik Widen4, En-Min Zhou1,2,*

zhouem@nwsuaf.edu.cn

...of HEV.

...

Dana Kay Nelkin

...an be meaningful and perhaps even better in certain important respects than life on the assumption that we have it. At the same time, there are some subtle shifts in particular commitments, new ways of framing certain issues, and detailed responses to a good number of the very many challenges to the view as originally set out in Living Without Free Will and related articles. The responses to challenges serve to elaborate, extend, and deepen the view. The re...

Liz Goodnick

...the problem of evil (perhaps better understood as the problem of pain and/or suffering): it is difficult to understand why an all-knowing, all-powerful, and perfectly good being2 would allow his creatures to suffer: “Epicurus’s old questions are yet unanswered. Is he willing to prevent evil, but not able? then is he impotent. Is he able, but not willing? then is he malevolent. Is he both able and willing? whence then is evil?” (Hume 1993, 100...

Marcus Mann

...dquo; a term meant to encapsulate a 21st century religious skepticism characterized by its vitriolic and unapologetic stance toward religion and the moral relativism that the new atheists claim protects it. Following Harris’s example, evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins published his book, The God Delusion, cognitive philosopher Daniel Dennett came out with Breaking the Spell and journalist and literary critic Christopher Hitchens concluded the moveme...

Rick Repetti

...eadership, but is of perhaps equal value to Buddhist philosophers insofar as it articulates many of Buddhism’s core philosophical values, to and for Western philosophy, and in a distinctly recognizable Western philosophical voice, but one that does no damage to the often radically different frameworks, methods, and modes of discourse that are distinctively Buddhist, much of which it presents in its own modality.

Kang-Seuk Choi

...) comprising only viral capsid proteins mimic the naive configuration of authentic IBD virus particles. The VLPs show intrinsic immunogenicity and a high safety profile.  Thus, VLPs are considered one of the most promising approaches to vaccine development and are an alternative to inactivated IBD vaccines. In addition, VLP technology has many applications. This paper reviews the potential of VLPs as an alternative to IBD vaccines, along with their specif...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

... opened lot of research gaps for the development of vaccines and diagnostics for differentiating infected and vaccinated animals. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, recombinant protein based vaccines and/or diagnostics are being tested in various heterologous systems across the globe for development of vaccines and/or diagnostic antigens. The recombinant viral proteins, virus like particle based vaccines, bivalent/multivalent vaccines, recombinant ...

 Shaoling Lin and Jiamiao Hu

... essential component of capsid, the minor capsid protein (mCP, pUL85). Interaction was determined and confirmed with yeast two-hybrid, GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. This interaction may serve as a link in the processes of HCMV capsidation and tegumentation. This study provides further evidences in the functions of tegument proteins in the assembly of HCMV virons.

...

Muhammad Aslam

...vity through yields and gaps of five major crops; wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane. The review discusses major constraints, identifies future prospects and makes policy recommendations for enhanced agricultural productivity in Pakistan. The review revealed that in Pakistan, on average current yield of wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane is 2.26, 1.87, 2.88, 1.77 and 48.06 tons per hectare, respectively against 6.80, 4.30, 5.20, 9.20 and 300 tons p...

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

...t drugs is a chronic, relapsing multifactorial disorder of brain and, if left untreated, major medical, social, and economic problems arise. Drug addiction is among major health issues faced by the World including Pakistan with an alarming annual increase in heroin addicts. The study was designed to identify the socio-demographic risk factors contributing to increasing susceptibility to heroin addiction in Pakistani populations. In this epidemiological study s...

Halide Nihal Açikgöz1*, Serdal Kenan Köse2 and Ali Açikgöz3

 

 

...Eight small liver bait traps were used for catching flies. Chicken liver was used in the study to attract blowflies. Eggs and larvae of the flies that oviposited on the liver were raised and identified. Six different indices were used to determine diversity (Shannon-Wiener [H’], Simpson Dominance [Sd], Simpson Diversity [S], Margalef Species Richness Indices, Pielou’s Evenness [EH], and Simpson Resiprocal Indices). Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvo...

Robina Karim and Dawood Jan

... in the world arena, perhaps due to less restrictions on trade after WTO’s arrival, relative to pre-WTO period. Compared to exports, Pakistan imports’ coefficient of variation does not show significant declines; rather it appears largely static, suggesting Pakistan imports trade could not be benefited much by reductions in trade restrictions associated with the implementation of WTO in Pakistan domestic market. This stated analysis thus supports pa...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...as observed with White traps than with modified Baermann trays. Maximum juveniles of S. feltiae emerged at 50 IJ dose followed by 100 IJ. The emergence of IJ decreased significantly at the dose of 200 IJ and then increased with 400 IJ dose. The minimum number of juveniles emerged at the dose of 200 IJ. The relationship between inoculation dose and emergence of IJ by using both methods was non-significant. Similarly, with an increase in inoculum dose and time, ...

Taghreed A. Hafiz1, Murad A. Mubaraki1*, Mohamed A. Dkhil2,3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy2

...nti-viral activities of Capsicum annuum methanolic extracts. The extract of Capsicum annuum was prepared by maceration method and the total polyphenolic and flavonoids contents were determined using a spectrophotometric method. The antiradical scavenging property and the maximum nontoxic concentration of the extract was determined using DPPH assay and MTT method, respectively. Serial concentrations of the extract not ex...

Fukuan Du1,2, Yan Li2, Zhixin Wen1, Ruguo Chen1 and Pao Xu2*

...y, constructing genetic maps, and marker assisted selection.

...
Lingtong Ye1, Chao Cao1,2, Bin Tang1,2, Tuo Yao1, Ruixuan Wang1 and Jiangyong Wang1*
...%. Such large barcoding gaps between intra- and inter-specific distances indicate that the COI is a suitable gene marker for molecular identification of polydorid species. Our results demonstrate that not only did all COI sequences from the larvae show greater than 99% sequence identity to those from adults, but some larvae share the same haplotypes as adults. These findings clearly indicate that the larvae collected from sea waters around an oyster farm belon...
Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Ghulam Sarwar1, Waqar Ahmad1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1, Ammara Balouch1 and Muhammad Khalid Rafique1
...one month using pollen traps fitted at the entrance of the hives and left for a period of 8 h. The pollen loads were weighed fresh and preserved in the compact/ air tight containers in the refrigerator. Our results showed maximum foraging ratio (59.88 ± 2.89) and pollen collection (145.8±8.79) during 1000-1200 hours followed by the duration of 1200-1400 hours when foraging ratio was 58.24 ± 3.03 and pollen collection was 134.4±5.49 ...
Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed
...d using methyl eugenol traps during the year, 2015. Occurrence and population dynamics of the fruit fly were compared with meteorological factors, such as temperature, relative humidity and sunshine. The highest mean population of fruit fly remained at 499 in the month of August. It started to decline afterwards and remained at 348 in the month of September. The lowest population was recorded at 26, 3, 2 and 1 for November, December, January and February, resp...

Tuli Dey, Sonnet Poddar and Mukti Barua

...n: justify;">Uterine prolapse is most common and important reproductive disease of dairy cattle. A crossbreed cow of 3rd lactation came to Madras veterinary college with the clinical sign of complete uterine prolapse which calved one day before. The cow was handled and the prolapsed mass was corrected so carefully that there could be saved the life without any complication. The prol

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...er processed to develop maps by using Geographic Information System (GIS). The impacts of agriculture encrachment were determined by means of group discussions, household’s interviews and personel observations. The results showed that crops cultivation occupied 18 % of the bottomlands in Naran valley, where this cultivation is gradually extending towards steeper slopes without any soil conservation measures. The alpine open pastures (45%) is available in...

Zain-ul-Aabdin Abro1*, Naheed Baloch1, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2, Waseem Akbar Qazi2, Noor Abid Saeed3

... using cue-lure baited traps. The male lure baited traps were arrayed at three meter height and replenished on fortnightly basis in experimentation sites. Results revealed that significantly highest (124.86) population was recorded on L. acutangula and lowest (104.725) on L. siceraria at both experimental sites throughout the course of experiment. Moreover, significantly higher population densities of B. cucurbitae were obse...

Honnur Basha, Vinaya Hemannavar, B.Ramanujam, R. Rangeshwaran and S.Sriram 

Screening of chilli microflora and other biocontrol agents for their antagonistic effects on Colletotrichum spp. infecting chillies
... gloeosporioides and C. capsici by dual culture test. Among the isolates of chilli microflora tested, Aspergillus flavus showed 70.2% inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and 54.9% inhibition of C. capsici.Among the isolates of Trichoderma sp. tested, T.virens (Tvs-KSD isolate) and T. pseudokoningii (Tpk-1) showed highest percent inhibition of C. gloeosporioides (69.7%) and T. viride (Tv-5 isolate) showed highest percent inhibit...

1N. Johnson Singh, 2Amitava Konar and 3Palash Mondal

Incidence of aphids in different traps on potato in Gangetic plains of West Bengal
...were first observed in traps during third week of December and the population of pests gradually increased to reach the peak in second week of February in the first year of study (2006-07) while in second year of study (2007-08) the aphid population appeared in second week of December and attained its peak by the end of February. The abiotic factors viz., temperature (maximum & minimum), relative humidity% (maximum & minimum) and bright sunshine hour h...

1Parvin Noor and 2Md. Nashir Uddin

Morphological changes of different castes of the subterranean termites (Odontotermes proformosanus) in fungus combs of termitophiles
...h, head length and head capsule width are significantly correlated at 0.01 level in their five different development stages.

...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...heat treatments, light traps, use of bio-pesticides, bio-control agents and sex pheromone trap need to be given more importance in pest management programme. A tentative IPM strategy for tea cultivation in Bangladesh has been proposed in this paper. Thus the proposed integrated pest management (IPM) strategy should help tea industry for successful long lasting plantations which will ensure consistent crop with much care but lesser cost.

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...ntrol of Colletotrichum capsici, fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose disease in bell peppers (Capsicum frutescence L.). The results showed that all the selected plants have potential to inhibit the radial mycelial growth of C. capsici in-vitro. The plant extract from C. aromaticus at 50% concentration showed 42% radial mycelial growth inhibition in poisoned food technique, whereas ...

Madhuban Gopal, Rajesh Kumar and Arunava Goswami 

Nano-pesticides - A recent approach for pest control
...e were prepared using encapsulation technique. The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) studies, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies confirmed the nano-structure of nanopesticides. Nanoparticles of sulphur and hexaconazole thus characterized were estimated for the presence of active ingredient in the formulation adopting analytical techniques like Gas Chromatography / High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The b...

M. A. Al-Helal, K. N. Ahmed, N-E-P. Khanom, and S. Bulbul 

Observations on papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) damag-ing some crops in Bangladesh
...ous insect pest sucking saps from the attacking fruits and leaves. P. marginatus passes through egg and three nymphal stages to become adult. Generally, three and four nymphal instars occur in case of female and male mealybug, respectively. The adults are most active in warm, dry and humid weather. The male adult mealybugs possess two pairs of wings. Female have no wings and move by crawling short distances or by being blown in air currents. Female usually lay...

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...r botrytis L.), chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with culture filtrate of biocontrol agents and found both positive and negative effect on seed germination, plant growth and vigour. Maximum increase in germination by 13.64% (chilli), shoot length by 59.69% (tomato), root length by 84.51% (cauliflower) and biomass by 46.55% (cauliflower) were obtained by the isolate B16 followed by B14 and B13. However, the isolate, B18...

Rashid Pervez, Santhosh J. Eapen, S. Devasahayam and M. Dinsha

Characterization of entomopathogenic nematode, Stein-ernema carpocapsae from ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizosphere in India
...te as Stein-ernema carpocapsae. This was further confirmed by ITS-rDNA sequences analysis. Phylogenetic was constructed for studying relationship with known isolates. Pathogenic potential of the isolate of S. carpocapsae (IISR-EPN 06) on the larva of shoot borer (Conogethes punctiferalis), hairy caterpillar (Euproctis sp.) and greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) was found under in vitro condition. Further this isolate dis...

Anjan Bhattacharyya, Suhrid Ranjan Barik & Pritam Ganguly

New pesticide molecules, formulation technology and uses: Present status and future challenges
...dust, macro and micro encapsulated suspension, hollow fibers, monolithic matrix, laminated structures etc can avoid these problems. The prime motto for these developments is to give protection to the crops along with safety to the natural enemies of different pests as a whole safety to environment.
 

 

...

Goutam Samui and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal incidence and management of Apsylla cistellata Bucton. on mango in West Bengal

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...geo-referenced thematic maps, image analysis, geostatistics for spatial analysis, land, soil and physiography, farmers’ socio-economic status, meteorological data, crop suitability, crop and pest management, processing strategy and transport, market arrival, demand and price are provided, farmers’ decision-making as individuals and members of a given community may become easier and more precise than without.
 

 

...

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
...spora sp. on Pothos scindapsus aureus; Alternaria alternata and Cercospora gerberae on Gerbera jamesonii; Glomerella cingulata on Ficus elastica; Alternaria tenuissima on Bougainvillea glabra were at their highest and fastest during hot and dry (summer to pre-rainy) months. A generalized 0-9 point scale was prepared and used to determine severity (= Percent Disease Index, PDI). Strongly predictive equations for severity in terms of intensity in all cases but o...

N. Mandi and A. K. Senapati 

Integration of chemical botanical and microbial insecticides for control of thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood infesting chilli
...Hood) infesting chilli (Capsicum frutescens). The effectiveness of four insecticides acetamiprid 0.004% (Dhanpreet – 20% SP), thiamethoxam 0.005% (Avant-25% WG), neem pesticide 0.4% (ultineem 1% W/W) and Bacillus thuringiensis, subsp. kurstaki (BT) at gL-1 was evaluated in the field of Coastal Saline Zone of West Bengal against thrips. It is evident from the result of present investigation that acetamiprid and thiamithoxam were most effective to minimize...

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

...lobosum, Colletotrichum capsici, Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia lunata, Curvularia tuberculata, Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium sp. and Gibbago trianthemae were isolated by inoculation of parasitized weed propagules like infected leaves, stems, root and floral parts on different fungal growth media. The diagnostic characteristic features of each isolate were critically studied using relevant literature. The pathogenicity of the isolates ...
Noor Islam1, Muhammad Amjad2, Ehsan ul Haq3, Elizabeth Stephen1 and Falak Naz4
...sitic mites, Tropilaelaps clareae is causing greater damage to Apis mellifera colonies and major economic losses (a serious threat) to beekeeping industry in Pakistan. Seven treatments including five essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), oregano (Origanium vulgare), lemon (Citrus lemon) and thyme (Thymus linearus), formic acid at three different concentrations of 25%, 50% ...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Wasiullah1 and Wiqar Ahmad

...Gloeobacter-MMF-4 (Gloeocapsa) and Microcoleus-MMF-5 (Cryophilus) were applied randomly to flooded rice in pots. Rice seedlings were transplanted to each pot on July 18, 2016. The data were recorded on agronomic parameters of rice crop, plant tissue and post-harvest soil analysis. But in this paper, data on availability of major plant nutrients, soil organic matter and plant dry weight are presented. The data revealed that cyanobacteria strains had significant...
LX Ye1,2, JX Wang1,2,*, P Li1,2 and XT Zhang1,2 
... ostrich consisted of a capsule and parenchyma. The capsule was divided into three annular layers, and the parenchyma consisted of tubular compartments and interstitial tissue. The tubular compartments were comprised of the seminiferous tubules, straight seminiferous tubules and rete testis, without any distinct boundary tissue between them. The interstitial tissue between the tubules contained many Leydig cells, tiny veins ...
Abu ul Hassan Faiz1,*, Fakhar-i-Abbas2 and Lariab Zahra Faiz2
...ember, 2015 using snap traps by applying line transect technique in wild area by using over 3840 trap nights in eight type of soil (sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, sandy clay loam, loam, clay loam, silt loam, silty clay loam). A total of 1571 animals were captured belonging to species of Nesokia indica, Mus musculus, Mus budooga, Millardia meltada, Tatera indica and Golunda elliotti. The maximum number of rodents was captured in loamy soil type wit...

 Addishiwot Fekdu, Afework Bekele and Demeke Datiko*

...rol sites. Twenty-five traps were used to capture the rodents. Four hundred sixty two (462) individuals of small mammals were captured and one recorded as observed species during both dry and wet season. They were identified into six species. Among these, 458 (99.1%) were rodents and 4 (0.9%) were insectivores. The trapped species were: Lophuromys melanonyx (242), Stenocephalemys albocaudata (126), Arvicanthis blicki (86), Mus Mahomet (3), Dendromus lovati (1)...
Ali Murad Rahoo,1,2,* Tariq Mukhtar,1,3 Shoukat Ibrahim Abro,4 Barkat Ali Bughio5 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo6
...e, S. kraussei, S. carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and H. indica) were compared in Galleria mellonella larvae. The production of infective juveniles (IJ) in G. mellonella was significantly affected by nematode species. Significantly higher numbers of IJ were produced by Heterorhabditid species than Steinernematid species in the cadaver. The production of IJ was the maximum in the case of H. bacteriophora which was not...

 Mohammad Siddique Munawar, Shazia Raja, Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure* and Muhammad Barkat**

...the control colonies collapsed. It is therefore concluded that shook swarm method should be incorporated for prevention as well as curing of AFB.

...

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

...e (M), spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) and non-structural protein 3b genes. Out of the samples collected, 40.17% were positive for CCoV; 57.45% of CCoV-infected animals showed enteritis and most of these (76%) were younger than 3 months and unvaccinated. Distance genealogy using CCoV sequences from GenBank for M gene showed that eight strains were CCoV-II twenty-six were CCoV-I. These findings show some genetic features of CCoV in Brazil and may require future stu...
Jaime Molina-Ochoa1, 2, 6,*, Edelmira Galindo-Velasco2, Ana María Rosales-Gutiérrez2, Martín González-Ramírez3, Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez3, Wilberth Chan-Cupul3, Steven R. Skoda4, Muhammad Irfan Ullah5, Luis Jorge García-Márquez2 and  John E. Foster6
...e collected from White traps, and pooled in canted neck vented plastic flasks. The susceptibility of an important livestock arthropod, the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus Canestrinito JMO71 was determined. Ticks were manually collected from cross-bred beef cattle, and then the heterorhabditid nematodes assayed against these ticks using the Petri dish assay. Concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 IJs were applied in 1 mL of sterile dist...
Hina Safdar1,*, Nazir Javed1, Sajid Aleem Khan1 and Muhammad Arshad2
... harvested using White Traps. Multiplication of entomopathogenic nematodes was also recorded in all larval instar. The maximum number of H. bacteriophora was harvested from 5th larval instar which was 25,786 followed by 17,500, 12,642 and 9,652 from 4th, 3rd and 2nd larval instar, respectively.
...

 Shahida N.Khokhar*

CROP INOCULANTS- AN UNDEREXPLORED POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURE
... reviews these efforts, lapses and unfolds new strategies in research and extension in future.

...

 Muhammad Tahir*, Muhammad Irfan* and Aziz-Ur-Rehman*

EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ZINC ON YIELD AND OIL CONTENTS OF FLAX
...ud initiation and after capsule filling stage of flax. Zinc was used as a source of ZnSO . All the zinc treatments significantly improved plant height, stem 4 -1 length, fruiting zone length, fruiting branches, number of capsule plant , -1 number of seed capsule , 1000-seed weight, straw yield, seed yield, and seed oil contents compared to control. Therefore, for producing a higher seed yi...

 Gul Zamin Khan*, Imtiaz Ali Khan**, Inamullah Khan* and Mian Inayatullah**

OUTDOOR BREEDING OF MOSQUITO SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
... flood waters, etc. Ovitraps were used as monitoring tools in urban areas of the selected sites. Results showed that mosquitoes are active throughout the year with their most active season during May, September and October. The mean relative abundance of Culex species in different districts were: Peshawar (32.3), Nowshera (18.8), Mardan (20.3) and Charsadda (21.0). Higher numbers of Aedes mosquitoes were observed in Nowshera (19.3), Peshawar (16.4), Charsadda ...

 Anwar Hussain* and Muhammad Rahman**

ROLE OF TRAININGS ON FARMERS' PROFITABILITY OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF DISTRICT SWAT, KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2,*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza2, Muhammad Afzal2,Hafiz Salah-ud-Din2, Imtiaz Sarwar2, Muhammad Yahya2 and Khurram Shehzad3
... monoliths and pitfall traps. Results revealed that land-used types exert a differential impact on the diversity and population abundance of macrofaunal communities. Highest indices of macroinvertebrate diversity, richness and evenness were exhibited by Lychee (2.39, 12.00 and 1.00, respectively) among cultivated and grassland (2.44, 13.00 and 0.95, respectively) among natural land-use types. Rice-wheat crops and barren lands exhibited minimum values. Ants (Fo...
Waqas Ali1,*, Arshad Javid1, Syed Mohsin Bhukhari1, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Hira Rafique1
...consideration. Pitfall traps are more effective for collection of ground dweller amphibians and reptiles having less jumping and climbing ability. Whereas, highly mobile species are captured through destructive means that cause disturbance to natural habitat. Cover boards are most likely to be used for long term surveys of amphibians. Furthermore, not even a single sampling technique can record all possible species in particular area. Researchers need to ident...
Pei-Ying Peng1,2, Xian-Guo Guo1,2,* and Dao-Chao Jin2
... of gamasid mite, Laelaps jinghaensis sp. nov., was described. The new species was collected from the body surface of red spiny rat, Maxomys surifer Miller, 1900 in Jingha, Yunnan province of southwest China. The sternal shield of L. jinghaensissp. nov. is deeply concave anteriorly with serrate internal sides. There are many distinct transverse lines in the presternal area where the sternal shield is deeply concave. By these morphological ...
Felicia NkechiEkeh*, Ifeanyi Oscar Ndimkaoha Aguzie, Joy Ihuoma Nzei, Chinenye Maria-Goretti Ohanu, Godwin Ikechukwu Ngwu and ChukwudiebubeUgolo
...er guineense and Capsicum annum in prevention of Dermestes maculatus infestation on sundried catfish, Clarias gariepinus was studied. Ethanolic extracts of P. guineense and C. annum fruits were prepared using Soxhlet extractor. In a split-plot design comprising the two extracts in different concentrations, a total of 63 sundried adult C. gariepinus of mean weight 111.47 ± 2.34g were randomized into three tre...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Zahir Shah1 and Farmanullah Khan1 

...Gloeobacter-MMF-4 (Gloeocapsa) and Microcoleus-MMF-5 (Cryophilus) were applied randomly to flooded rice in pots. Five seedlings of rice (Kianat cv.) were transplanted to each pot on 18th of July 2016. The growth of rice crop was maintained for about 3 months and 12 days and shoots harvested on October 30, 2016. The data were recorded on agronomic parameters and rice shoots and roots tissue analysis for various nutrients uptake/concentration. The data revealed ...
Mehmet Aydın*

 

...a species (Pachygrapsus marmoratus, Carcinus aestuarii, Liocarcinus depurator, Liocarcinus navigator, and Eriphia verrucosa) living in the Black Sea. The crab samples were obtained between 2010 and 2016 by SCUBA, trawl, trammel net, and dredges at six locations (Kastamonu, Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, and Trabzon). Total carapace length (CL) and weight (W) of each individual were recorded with an accuracy of 0.01 cm and 0.01 g, respecti...
Thomas W. Clark
...ular neuroscience as it maps the brain processes that mediate choice and behavior. Where the soul once presided, there are, it turns out, only neurons in fantastically complex structures which somehow maintain the coherent psychological and behavioral pattern – character, beliefs, desires – that constitutes each of us as a person. The feeling of being a singular self that owns these characteristics is real enough, but there’s no indivisible t...

Malik Muhammad Yousaf1*, Mumtaz Hussain1, Muhammad Jahangir Shah1, Bashir Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeshan1,2, Muhammad Mohsin Raza1 and Kazim Ali

...ht, branches per plant, capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule and yield was taken into account at maturity and statistically analyzed. All yield contributing traits showed positive response with increase in fertilizer rate. Maximum yield was found at T6 (NPK @ 40:30:15) and T6 and T7 (NPK @ 40:30:30) showed parity for seed yield. Significant difference was not observed in increase in yield due to the addition of po...
Masood Nizam Tabassum1*, Muhammad Ather Khan2, Saira Afzal3, Amir Gilani4, Abdul Wahab Gureja5, ShafaqTabassum6
...4 (89.64%) cases were relapsed and 116(10.36%) were new cases. 366(32.68%) cases had pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 754(67.32%) cases had extra pulmonary tuberculosis. 
Conclusion: There were 830(74.11%) cases that belonged to Lahore while 25.895 were from other cities. Majority of the cases were relapsed after treatment. The extra pulmonary lymph node was the most frequent site for involvement.
Maaz Ahmad1*, Mussab Ahmad2 and Tehreem Munir3
...psia (FD) is a set of relapsing or chronic dyspeptic symptoms in the absence of structural organic lesions. Approximately 15-20% of the general population in many developed countries suffers from dyspeptic symptoms at any time in a year, whereas in Pakistan, 14-22 % of general population suffers from FD. 
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of carica papaya extract (CP) in preventing functional dyspepsia in ...
Qudsia Yousafi1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Aslam3 and Allah Ditta Abid4
... in plots having light traps was not significantly different. Seasonal means for fruit infestation reduced fruit infestation by 16.1, 9.6 and 19.5 percent in T1, T2 and T3, respectively as compared to control.
...
Arifa Mehreen1, Iram Liaqat2,Muhammad Arshad3, Muzzamil Waheed4 and Najma Arshad1,*
...81%) and proportions of capsular polysaccharides (CPs8), clumping factor A (clf A) andintracellular adhesion A (ica A) were 78%, 68.5% and 40%, respectively. ica D and CPs5 could not be amplified from any isolate. Toxin genes were present in 43.5% isolates. Among toxin genes, enterotoxins (SEs) were most frequently detected followed by enterotoxin (ETs) (24.09 %) and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1<...

Asma Sohail1*, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi1, Maryum Arif2 and Fatima Najam1 

...th the extraction and encapsulation of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo). Pumpkin seeds contain many active ingredients including polysaccharides, vitamins, proteins, essential amino acids, carotenoids, fatty acids like linoleic acid and linolenic acid, lignans, minerals and various phytochemicals. Due to the presence of two unsaturated fatty acids, these oils can reduce their biological activity on heating, volatilization, and other parameters like oxidation ...
Muhammad Mohsin1, Dai Guilin1,*, Chen Zhuo1, Yin Hengbin1 and Muhammad Noman2
...tware significantly overlaps. However, ASPIC results showed higher values of R2. On the basis of obtained results, it is concluded that this fishery resource is overexploited which confers several economic disadvantages. In order to manage this fishery resource recommended target reference point (TRP) for MSY in Pakistani marine waters along the Sindh coast is between 1500-1700 t. Moreover, the harvest of this fishery resource beyond 1750 t s...

 Hafiz Muhammad Awais Sarwar, Muhammad Tahir Waseem, Abdul Majid Khan*, Rana Manzoor Ahmad

Propotamochoerus hysudricus remains from late Miocene deposits of Hasnot, Pakistan
... characters. This is perhaps the only known species of the genus Propotamochoerus in the
Siwaliks. The specimens are collected from the outcrops of Hasnot type locality, Punjab, Pakistan. The present
findings will strengthen the previous records of the species Propotamochoerus hysudricus from the Late Miocene
Siwaliks of Pakistan. This species can act as a marker suid species of the Late Miocene Siwalik deposits.

...
Hao Gu*, Zhi Yang, Weiqiang Yu, Kan Xu and Yuan-fei Fu*
...eptococcus sanguis. Capsaicin extracted from chili peppers were selected to explore the antibacterial activity against the four cariogenic bacteria in terms of acid producing and biofilm. The antibacterial activity of capsaicin was evaluated by the minimal bactericidal concentration, change of pH in the first 12 h and OD values of biofilms. Besides, fluorescent images of exopolysaccharides and living bacteria of Strep...
Doğukan Ölmez1 and Gonca Alak2,*
...d MAG-DAG started to collapse, the TAG ratio in total fat content increased relatively.
...

Muhammad Usman Ghani1*, Muti Ur Rehaman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Zubair Shabbir2, Li Bo3 and Naveed Anwar4 

...of Orf virus. Crusted scraps and biopsies from different portion of skin and blood were taken as sample for PCR. Gross, histopathological, hematological examination was carried out to rule out possible cause of infection and adopt preventive measure so that further losses may be avoided. 96 out of total were clinically positive with strong clue of contagious ecthyma. In current study 12 (25%) goats out of 48 were PCR positive. In case of sheep, 7 (14.58%) out ...
Hayat Zada and Ahmad-ur-Rahman Saljoqi*
...h catch (1.46) through traps and maximum percent parasitism of Ascogaster quadridentata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Hyssopus pallidus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were 40.11 and 30.09%, respectively, in the said cropping system. Likewise, highest yield (kg/ plant) were produced by the plots having Apple + Trifolium intercrops (76.62±1.11), whilst minimum yield were attributed to Apple + Wheat (61.47±1.11) followed by sole (52.75&plus...

Usman Zubair1*, Anjum Shehzad2, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi3 and Khalid Mahmood1 

...arighel) using McPhail traps during the years 2016-2017. Specimens were identified up-to species level using taxonomic key by Mahmood and Hassan (2005) and pictorial key by Prabarker (2012). A total of 09 species of fruit fly of family Tephritidae from study sites were identified. Among these nine species, Bactrocera scutellaris, B. tau, B. nigrofemoralis, B. correcta, Dacus sphaerodalis are reported first time from Azad Jammu and Kashmir while D. longicornis ...
Tian-Yi Zhao1, Zi-Qing Liu2, Bo Yang1, Qiao Gao1, Hong-Yu Zhang1, Pei-Yu He1, Ming-Hua Duan1* and Yu-Li Yan1*
Qihang Liu1,2, Yueli Jiang1, Jin Miao1, Zhongjun Gong1, Tong Li1, Yun Duan1 and Yuqing Wu1*
... such as photo-induced traps are elusive. In this report we investigated locusts visual sensitivity to different spectral lights after orange light stimulation. Results showed that after 10, 20, and 40 min of 1000 lx post-orange light stimulation, locusts visual response intensity was stimulated by green, violet, and blue lights. However, post-64600 lx orange light stimulation for 30, 20, and 10 min, the response intensity was the strongest. Moreover, orange l...
Tahir Iqbal1, Umer Rashid1*, Naveed Shahzad2, Amber Afroz1Muhammad Faheem Malik3 and Muhammad Idrees4

 

... bps, 2769-2954 nt) and capsid (280 bps, 5461-5741 nt) domain in the bile fluids of two birds. The histological data demonstrated pathological changes in liver and spleen tissues of layer chickens positive for viral RNA. The extensive phylogenetic analysis on the basis of partial helicase domain (ORF1) and capsid protein (ORF2) revealed clustering of Pakistani aHEV (Pak aHEV) strains with members of Orthohepevirus ...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 51, Iss. 5, Pages 1599-1997

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