Hayat Badshah1*, Farman Ullah1, Abid Farid2, Ahmad-U-Rahman Saljoqi1, Sajjad Ahmad3

... conditions for the mass scale production of Aenasius bambawalei. However, further study is suggested to identify if there are any detrimental effects on the reared parasitoid i.e. a tri-trophic effects on parasitoid- Aenasius bambawalei.

...

Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho1*, Isreal Ogunlade1, Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde2

...ptive statistics, Likert scale and the regression analysis. The study revealed that farmers perceived the level of accountability of extension to farmers in the study area as poor. Level of education, access to training and membership of farmer-groups negatively influenced accountability at p<0.05. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that agricultural extension policies that will ensure accountability of extension to farmers should be put ...

Ryan T. Cragun1*, Joseph H. Hammer2, Michael Nielsen3

...ional Religious Morality scales). In summary, the NRNSS may work as an initial attempt to address the limitations of other scales for capturing how religious/nonreligious/nonspiritual individuals are.

...

Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

...pidemic spread on a microscale, creating a unique opportunity for the application of phylogeography at the intra-host level, which has until recently been limited by dataset quality and the lack of a rigorous statistical framework. As recently described in studies using the SIV-macaque model of neuroAIDS, the incorporation of
spatial, temporal, and demographic inference into intra-host evolutionary analysis using Bayesian phylogeogra...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

... though on a much bigger scale. For instance, the metagenome of a lake would include all the fish, ducks, plants, fungi, bacteria and everything else that belongs to the lake. If we apply this approach to clinical samples we can identify the community of etiological pathogens, without any knowledge on the targets in advance. However, clinical specimens usually comprise an overwhelming amount of host nucleic acids, which by far exceeds the number of pathogen nu...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

...ependable till the large-scale primary survey estimates are available in India.

...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud1, Muaz Abdellatif 2, 3*, Luai Shazali1

...and warrant future large-scale surveillance studies to better assess the situation of the disease in the region.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...ere measured on a 0 to 5 scale, where 0 = no gall or egg masses, 1 = 1-2, 2 = 3-10, 3 = 11-30, 4 = 31-100, and 5 = >100 galls or egg masses per root system. The nematode reproduction rate (Pf/Pi, where Pf = final nematode population / initial nematode population) decreased proportionately with the increased initial fungal conidial Pi. Foliage growth was directly related to fungal Pi and inversely to nematode Pi. Our results showed that the higher Pi of L. m...

Fukuan Du1,2, Yan Li2, Zhixin Wen1, Ruguo Chen1 and Pao Xu2*

... However, the production scale does not meet the market demand. This resulted in excessive fishing, which almost caused extinction of the species in the the Yangtze River. Therefore, it is very urgent to carry out genetic breeding to improve yield. In this study, we developed SSR markers by transcriptome, which could be used to genetic research. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of six libraries from hepatopancreas samples in E. sinensis. Af...

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

...g a decreasing return to scale in milk production. These results suggest that small sized dairy farms are more productive and profitable; however, farmers need to utilize each input at its allocatively efficient level in order to get maximum profit.

...

Qamar Ali, Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan

...efficiency and return to scale in off-season cucumber production in Punjab, Pakistan. Primary data were collected from 70 off-season cucumber growers by using simple random sampling. Cobb-Douglas was good on the basis of R2 (0.748) and f-statistics (17.505). Production elasticity was positive for education, polythene sheet, fertilizers, chemical, irrigation and labour days. Under utilization of resources was found for polythene sheet, fertilizers, chemicals, i...

Naushad Khan1*, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Munir Khan1, Shaista Naz2, Javeria Tanveer1 and Muhammad Kaleem3

...households. Due to small scale farming in the province the maize growers are always in need of loan for the purchase of inputs. The present study examined the effect of ZTBL credit program on maize productivity in district Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. For this, a sample of 226 farmers was selected by employing multi stage sampling technique. At first stage, all the three tehsils (i.e.; Mardan, Takht Bhai and Katlang) of the district were selected. A...

Muhammad Afzal1 and Murad Khan2*

... reported from the large scale poultry farms in spite of high mortality in large farms. Proper vaccination and medication was proposed to decrease losses due to high mortality particularly in large firms.

...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
...critical requiring large-scale molecular epidemiology and entomological surveillance. Moreover, transportation of mosquitoes via tyre trade necessitates more conservative mosquitoes control strategies in Pakistan especially in the unrestricted transport of tyres from southern part of the country to the northern parts.
...
Muhammad Afzal1,Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi1,*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Irfan Hussain1
...ccording to (AWPA, 1997) scale, mass loss, wood consumption per termite and mortality rate were determined to evaluate resistance of wood against H. indicola. Populus euramericana and Dalbergia sissoo were observed most palatable and resistant wood species, respectively, in no-choice laboratory and field trials. Five different wooden pairs were evaluated in choice bioassays in laboratory and field conditions. In force feeding field bioassa...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...ep tanks on a commercial scale. Biomass from the liquid fermentation can be made into different formulations like, dusts, granules, pellets, wettable powders. Trichoderma formulations can be applied to the seed either by dry seed treatment or by seed biopriming for control of several soil-borne diseases of some field crops. Similarly, seedlings of horticultural crops and rice are treated by dipping the roots in Trichoderma suspensions before planting. Granular...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
...bug. The cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Mask. (Homoptera: Margarodidae) is a soft-bodied mealy bug infesting guava leaves all over Bangladesh. It is reddish-brown and lays up to 600-700 eggs during her lifetime. The life cycle is completed within 46-240 days depending on different environmental conditions. The females develop parthenogenetically. It is a sucking pest and mainly feeds on citrus. Its secondary hosts include fig, apple, almond, guava etc....

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
... A generalized 0-9 point scale was prepared and used to determine severity (= Percent Disease Index, PDI). Strongly predictive equations for severity in terms of intensity in all cases but one viz. Alternaria leaf spot of Dracaena deremensis in terms of occurrence were developed. Such relationships helped prior assessment of severity before the disease reaches the predicted level. Thus, although crop losses were neither determined nor sought to be predicted, a...

S. Pal and I. Sarkar

Pests infesting ornamental plants in hilly region of West Bengal
...fhopper on Gladiolus and scale insect (unspecified) on Anthurium. Amongst the thysanopteran pests Taeniothrips simplex was very much serious on Gladiolus and another species of thrips (unspecified) was found infesting Carnation. Amongst the lepidopteran pests, gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) was found most important inflicting serious damage to Carnation, Gerbera, Gladiolus, Chrysanthemum and Straw flower. The green semilooper, Plusia orichalcea caused d...
Muhammad Ashfaq,1 Shamim Akhtar,2 Saleem Akhtar2,* and Mariyam Masood2
...ld populations at larger scale. The current study used morphology and DNA sequences from mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I) and nuclear (internal transcribed spacer I) genes to identify the hyperparasitoid Promuscidea unfasciativentris. The successful PCR-based detection of hyperparasitism is promising for designing strategies for the biological control program of cotton mealybug.
...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...ed it very low on likert scale. It can be concluded that FSC had developed the linkages of the respondents with agriculture research and water management department in the study area. Top learned skills from this approach were fertilizer application, improved agricultural technology and sowing methods. It is suggested that there is a need that FSC has to establish the linkages of the farmers with the entire line department associated with the farming. FSC shou...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
...g-masses indices (from a scale of 0-10). Hence, present study shows that none of the available chili cultivars are resistant to attack from M. incognita and S. rolfsii. The moderate tolerance was found in C-302 followed by 5-2010 and 28-2010. The most susceptible cultivar (C-33) was selected for further evaluation of management sources. All three management sources were applied individually as well as in combination. After six weeks, all treatmen...
Rahat Naseer1*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Zulfiqar-ul-Hassan2, H. Rehman1, Saima Naveed1, F. Masood1 and M. Tayyab1
...rocessed moiety on pilot scale. All these processed materials were included in experimental ration at a fixed level (20 %). All iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous rations were offered to experimental animals (n=36, 22 male 14 female Lohi sheep almost evenly distributed in experimental groups) having almost uniform body weight (BW). During 60 days of the trial, no significant difference (p =0.067) in the daily feed intake among the different experimental groups wa...
Tanveer Ahmad1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Azeem Khan2 and Shahid Zia3
...sign and develop a small-scale portable sisal decorticator for extracting fibre from sisal leaves. A prototype of sisal decorticator was designed and fabricated at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. The prototype machine was tested for fibre extraction. Results indicated that sisal fibre production capacity of this machine was 15.94 kg h-1 (dry fibre). Average yield of dry sisal fibre...
Rana Muhammad Aadil1,2*, Xin-An Zeng1, Saqib Jabbar3, Akmal Nazir2, Abid Aslam Mann2, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan2, Abdullah2, Amna Ramzan2
...applicable at industrial scales.
...
Carolina A. Bonin1,2, Eric A. Lewallen2,3, Andre J. van Wijnen3, Marta Jussara Cremer4 and Paulo C. Simões-Lopes5*
...ate both local and broad-scale efforts to preserve critical habitats for this population of dolphins, and by extension may help inform management plans for ecologically vulnerable S. guianensis populations in other parts of their distribution.
...
Fahad Tanveer1, Adnan Afzal2, Muhammad Adeel3*, Sana Shahid4 and Maham Masood5
...ough numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) for pain intensity, neck disability index (NDI) for functional status,goniometer for range of motion and manual muscle testing for muscle strength of neck. The subject in each group were given twelve sessions, with three sessions a week. Data were analyzed through statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) 21. The results of each group showed pre-treatment pain intensity for group 1 was 7.04+1.338 that changed to 3.52+0...
Shumaila Ashfaq1, Liaqat Ali2*, Muhammad Ashraf Zia2, Rizwan Ahmad Khan2 and Mehtash Butt3

Afsheen Masood1*, Rubab Musarrat2, Shama Mazahir3 and Adeela Ashraf4  

Zehra Mohsin1*, Sarah Shahed2 and Talat Sohail

...relationship with the subscales of Professional Quality of Life (compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout). Perceived Social Support had a significant correlation with compassion satisfaction, r=.222, n=160, p<.01. It was concluded that the relationship between age, experience and compassion fatigue of nurses was significantly positive. The greater the age and experience of the nurses the more likely they are to have compassion fatigue. Perce...

Uzma Zahid 

...iration and its three subscales (leadership, achievement, educational) and their relationship with life-satisfaction in final year medical school students of both genders. This cross-sectional study was carried out in final year students of a medical college in Rawalpindi, Pakistan using 24 items revised English Version of Career Aspiration Scale (CAS) and 5 items Satisfaction with Life Scale<...
Alptug Sari*, Ahmet Arpacik and Sagdan Baskaya
...and international (IUCN) scale. Deterioration of habitats of birds as well as other forms of life has been considered to be the most important factor. Even though the importance of wetland ecosystems is well known, no remarkable effort for saving the Erzurum Marshes, was observed.
...

Rahila Nizami1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Intzar Hussain3 and Khalid Rashid

...e (T-P leadership rating scale) was applied. The age of subjects was 37.42±11.91 years; 29(49.15%) were males and 27(45.76%) were femalse whereas 3(5.1%) were undisclosed gender. The mean age of males was 41.28±12.85 years and average age of females was 32.83±9.03 years. A total of 36(61.02%) of participants were married and 17(28.81%) were unmarried whereas 6(10.2%) did not disclose their marital statuses. Regardless of the gender, age an...

Sadaf Ghulam Rasul1*, Uzma Yaqub2, Maida Manzoor1 and Hafsa Mubasshar

...rease in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score with Danazol versus Letrozole for the pain management of endometriosis in females. A total of 140 females fulfilling inclusion criteria were registered and an non-probability purposive technique of sampling was used. Diagnostic laparoscopy was conducted to make a diagnosis of endometriosis. Females were divided into two groups. Females in group A received treatment with Letrozole tablets (2.5 mg/day) and in group...

Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai and Samina Khalil*

...align: justify;">A small scale survey of Islamabad bakeries was conducted to determine the microbial contamination in the most commonly consumed bakery products i.e., biscuit, cake, and bread. Samples were randomly collected from 12 sectors (main markets and sub-sector markets). These samples were analyzed for total plate count (TPC), total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, yeasts and moulds. None of the sample was found contaminated with E. coli, contamina...

 Sarfraz Ahmad, Shaista Koukab, Nayyar Razzaq, Muhammad Islam, Aneel Rose*, and Muhammad Aslam**

...rginal lands. Commercial scale production of M. recutita is possible in highlands of Balochistan. However, further studies are required to evaluate different genotypes/varieties, essential oil contents at various growth stages, oil extraction techniques, mechanized flower picking, drying/storage techniques and cultivation practices in the existing cropping patterns.

...

 Gulzar S. Sanghera and Wassem Hussain*

HETEROSIS IN RELATION TO COMBINING ABILITY PER SE PERFORMANCE IN TEMPERATE RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
...ds to be tested on large scale for their commercialization under temperate conditions. 

...

 Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure-Camphor* and Mohammad Irshad**

SURVEY OF MANAGED F. (APIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) POPULATION IN GALIAT, MURREE AND ISLAMABAD
... is not only useful to upscale honey production by this hill bee but also for pollination purpose. People interviewed were of the opinion that there is still some potential for these bees. Abbottabad area was having comparatively more population of than other areas.

...

Ayesha Tahir* and Sonila Hassan**

ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF SMALL SCALE BUTTON MUSHROOM PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...e profitability of small scale button mushroom production at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. The cost of production methodology was used for this study. The yield and gross return of mushroom was estimated at 155.6 kg ha and Rs.77,800 ha , respectively. The results indicated the fact that mushroom production is very much remunerative to its producers as it can give maximum net return by reducing their cost of production as its...

 Mustaring,* I. Subagyo,** Soebarinoto** and Marsetyo*

 
GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NEW INTRODUCED BRACHIARIA SPECIES AND LEGUME HERBS AS RUMINANT FEED IN CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA
...es are potentially to be scaled up in broader tropical region.

...

 Naheed Zahra*, Hassnain Shah*, M. Azeem Khan* and M. Zubair Anwar* 

LIVELIHOOD ASSETS AND POVERTY NEXUS: A CASE STUDY FROM RAINFED POTHWAR AREA OF PAKISTAN
...other assets, even small scale irrigation was significant and an effective tool to improve income. Therefore along with improvement in irrigation practice through using high efficiency irrigation systems, other water harvesting techniques being demonstrated in the watershed project could also improve livelihood in the area. Better utilization of available resources would also improve livelihood and decrease poverty in the area. 

...

 Quratulain*, Muhammad Aslam**, Muhammad Khalid Rafique*, Mian Atiq Ahmad* and Rashid Mahmood***

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF ROSE APHID MACROSIPHUM ROSAE L. ON DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF ROSA INDICA L. IN PAKISTAN
...ng roses on a commercial scale should grow Christan Diar to avoid aphid attack. Maximum average number of aphid nymph, winged and wingeless adults on leaves, buds and flowers were 11.11, 4.97 and 10.13, respectively observed on Perfecta variety

...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Umme Rubab* and Abass Ullah Jan* 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER ANALYSIS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
...ved increasing return to scale i.e., 1.90 (Ep>1), hence economies of scale exists. The variance parameter lambda (λ) and gamma (Γ) both were significant indicating the good fitness of model and inefficiency impact, respectively. The estimated value for Γ was 0.77 underscores that 77% variation in the production frontier was explained by technical inefficiency effect. The inefficiency indices showed that...

 Sidra Majeed*, Mubbashira Nazir*, Sumia Bint Zaman * and Waqas Farooq*

POTENTIAL OF SUGAR BEET PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN: A REVIEW
...cultivated on commercial scale. The government is in favor of beet sugar but sugarcane mill owners are reluctant to encourage sugar beet cultivation due to some technical barrier. Beet growing experiment at different sites of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) and Sindh have revealed encouraging results.

...

Basharat Hussain Shah*, F. S. Hamid*, Shams ul Islam*, Fayaz Ahmad*, Sohail Aslam*, and Noorullah Khan*

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR YIELD AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES AT SHINKIARI, MANSEHRA
...ted in the area at large scale in order to increase the production and give more financial benefits to the farmers of the area. Advance lines PF-400 & 9375 which performed well in the experiment and bear bright future prospects should be considered in designing future hybridization programs.

...
Wazha Mugabe1,3,Gaolebale Segolame Mpapho1, John Kamau1, Wameotsile Mahabile2, Shalaulani James Nsoso1, Kealeboga Dipheko1 and Assar Ali Shah3,*
...ction was at subsistence scale and a secondary product from meat type breeds. With a commercial mindset, improved goat management and cooperative pooling and marketing of milk the current farming setup of using meat breed for milk could prove beneficial to both the meat and dairy sectors.
...
Sabah Mansoor1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Amna Jawad1, Bushra Munir2, Sehrish Firyal1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3 and Muhammad Wasim1
...bacillus. Laboratory scale production of reducing sugars from cloth-starch makes AMYSBS a suitable candidate to be used in Textile industry.
...
Noor Fatima1, Muhammad Irfan2,*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
...lulosic biomass at large scale biofuel production. 
...

Murad Khan1* and Muhammad Afzal2 

... reported from the large scale poultry farms followed by medium and small firms. The results of the multiple regression model for profit shows that profit of a poultry farm is positively affected by education, experience, age of the respondent and farm size while negatively affected by mortality of chicks. All the variables were significant except age of the respondents. Proper vaccination and medication is required to decrease the high mortality rate so that ...
Ghulam Muhae-ud-Din1,4, Anam Moosa1, Umer Farooq Ghummen1, Muhammad Jabran1, Amjad Abbas1, Muhammad Naveed2, Abdul Jabbar1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1,3,*
... established 0-4 galling scale.  The highest galling index and reproductivity of nematodes, i.e., total number of egg masses, juveniles and females, were observed in highly susceptible plants. The values of canopy length, dry root weight, fresh root weight, root length, dry shoot weight and shoot height was variable for all plants and the maximum canopy length was recorded in C. macrocarpa, while maximum fresh root weight, dry root weight, r...
Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq1, Amer Jamal Hashmat1, Ejazul Islam1, Muhammad Afzal1, Abid Mahmood2, Muhammad Ibrahim2,*, Muhammad Nawaz3,*, Shahid Nadeem4 and Qaiser Mahmood Khan1
...ical techniques on pilot scale (70 L). One of the major problems encountered in the textile industry is the production of large volumes of highly colored wastewater. The scope of this new electrochemical treatment is a significant advance to the existing technologies. There were four different treatments employed as; T1: wastewater, T2: wastewater with 0.1% electrolyte, T3: diluted wastewater (50% tap water), and T4: diluted wastewater (50% tap water) with 0.1...
Muhammad Shahid Saeed1, Adeela Shahid2, Samia Jawed3, Muhammad Akram4, Irshad Hussain Qureshi5 
... recorded. Modified Borg scale was used to determine the grade of dyspnea from 0-10. A total of 2ml of venous blood was taken to determine the serum magnesium levels. All patients were given Salbutamol inhalation and intravenous (I/V) Hydrocortisone. The study group was given 2gm of MgS04 intravenously in 20 minutes in a burette and Placebo group was given placebo (0.9% normal saline). Salbutamol inhalation was given at regular intervals and Sp...
Komal Mushtaq1, Shoaib Waqas2*, Hafiz Muhammad Asim3
...eks. Numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) was applied to assess the pain severity levels before treatment and after treatment. Data were normally distributed and therefore, change in pain intensity was measured by “t” test using SPSS version 23.0. 
Results: The calculated mean pain score on NPRS before treatment was 3.90 (standard deviation, 0.3038) and after treatment it was 1.65 (standard deviation, 0.8638). The calcula...
Maaz Ahmad1*, Mussab Ahmad2 and Tehreem Munir3
...symptoms rated on Likert scale. Dyspeptic symptoms were assessed at the start of trial then after 2, 4 and 6 weeks. 
Results: In this trial, 200 patients fully participated in this study (age 36.31±9.711 years, range 18-55, 60% female). Compared with placebo, Carica papaya extract (CP group) showed a clinically significant improvement. The GIS significantly decreased in CP group during the first 2 weeks, compared to the placebo (...
Nimra Naseer, Adeela Fatima and Imran Sajid*
...s can be grown on larger scale to obtain high yield of potentially useful secondary metabolites.
...

Muhammad Israr1*, Saeed Ullah1, Shakeel Ahmad2, Asif Yaseen3, Urooba Pervaiz4 and Nafees Ahmad5 

...h the extent of severity scale in terms of LD dimensions and indicators resulted from water, tillage, soil, salinization, and overgrazing. Moderate (0.49) index of water degradation and the changing climatological index were light but the reduction of drainage density of water runoff and slope gradient reduction of soil index was severe. The tillage degradation index value moderate (0.57), overgrazing index (0.32) fall in the severity ...

Inzimamul Haq1*, Shahid Sattar1, Bashir Ahmed1, Qamar Zeb2 and Amjad Usman

...the basis of leaf injury scale from 1 to 5 and percent dead hearts. Results showed that Imidacloprid + T. chilonis resulted in significantly lower leaf injury m-2 (1.32) and dead hearts (4.16 %) closely followed by the plots treated with emamectin benzoate + T. chilonis with leaf injury m2 (1.74) and dead hearts (7.50 %) while significantly higher leaf injury m2 (3.64) and dead hearts (20.0 %) were recorded in control plots. Yield data followed almost the same...
Mouslim Bara1,2,* and Luciano N. Segura3
...and richness along large-scale environmental gradients, but mechanisms by which climate influences the bird abundance are still unknown. We analyzed seasonal variations on the bird community structure of Rallidae and Anatidae families in the northeastern Algerian Garaet Hadj Tahar for three consecutive years (September 2012 to August 2015). We studied the effect of air temperature and water depth on bird abundance and two ecological diversity indices (Shannon ...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Arif1, Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi3, Muhammad Munir4 and Imran Khan

...is recommended for large-scale cultivation under the agro-climatic conditions of Dera Ismail Khan 

...

Khwaja Tariq Ziad1, Umar Hayat1, Muhammad2 and Muhammad Suleman Bacha3* 

... supply chains for small-scale dairy farmers in Pakistan. The study aimed at explaining the costs of the chosen supply channels and their transaction costs, the role of the mid-agent opportunistic behaviour in the relative milk supply chain. Using case study and qualitative method approach, eight key informants including five farmers, one local middleman, and representatives of two dairy companies were interviewed during the study, focusing the social aspects ...

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

... have been used, on wide scale, to control the helminths infections.But the parasite worms have developed multiple resistances against the synthetic anthelmintics. Hence, various biological controls, vaccines and local medicinal plants are being explored to control the parasitic worms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic potential of two local plants, Albizia lebbeck L. and Camellia sinensis L against H. contortu...

Muhammad Ali1,2*, Norsida Man2 and Farrah Melissa Muharam2 

...n of respondents, likert scale items comprising 1 as strongly disagree to 5 as strongly agree were used. The research findings reveal that farmers were motivated to manage their agricultural risks and overall their motivation level was high. Nevertheless, still efforts are required by all stakeholders to keep the motivation level high of farming community at local, regional and international level. Agricultural extension workers as change agents are required t...

Ragia S. Mohamed1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mamdouh. M. Hamoud1, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shimaa A.E. Nasr1, Manal M. Zaki1, ElShaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

Zhaochao Deng1, Jingchen Chen1, Na Song2, Yongzhen Li3 and Zhiqiang Han1,*
...ructure within the large-scale geography distribution, we added 169 sequences of the mitochondrial control region already genotyped from northern Australia. The South China Sea and northern Australia groups were successfully distinguished by the NJ tree with significant genealogical branches of haplotypes. These results indicated that there might have only one fishery management units of C. leucas in the South China Sea and genetic heterogeneity among <...
Yuyu Wang, Gangchun Xu*, Zhijuan Nie, Quanjie Li, Nailin Shao and Pao Xu*
...nic stress in commercial-scale in-pond raceway systems under this experimental conditions.
...
Muamber Shah1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi1, Rifat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mobashar1, Mubashar Ali Khalique2, Irfan Khattak3, Ambrina Tariq4, Ijaz Ahmad1 and Shabana Naz5,*
...ndition score (BSC) at a scale of (0-5). The results showed that mean semen volume was significantly (P<0.05) high in Friesian bull. Sperm concentration and motility were significantly (P<0.05) high in Jersey bull while live sperm percentage was significantly (P<0.05) high in Jersey bulls and sperm abnormality was significantly (P<0.05) high in Sahiwal and Friesian-Sahiwal cross. In addition, semen quality was improved in all the breeds after suppl...

Arshad Mahmood Malik1*, Khalid Mahmood Mughal2 and Abdul Saboor3 

...s in Pakistan. Return to scale was calculated by adding all betas, which indicate the stage of production function of hydroponics system. Domestic resource cost indicates relative efficiency of hydroponics products in domestic resource use. Results indicated that labor used in production of hydroponics products and supply chain management of hydroponics products both in the domestic market and in regional markets has significantly affecting total value product...

Mustasim Famous*, Obaidul Islam, Shameema Khatun, Mohammed Mustafizur Rahman and Tania Ferdoushi 

...ers rear turkey in small scale semi-intensive system (50%) was generally practiced by the rural farmers. They have very little idea about breed and variety of turkey and prevention of diseases of turkey. But farmers have very little knowledge about turkey management procedure. There is no specific feeding standard for turkey. Farmers used to feed their turkey according to broiler and layer feeding manual. So, research needed to improve the status of turkey.&nb...

Muhammad Ali1*, Norsida Man2 and Farrah Melissa Muharam

... through 5 points Likert scale (ranging from 1 as strongly disagree to 5 as strongly agree) based statements. The result exhibited that farmers had realized the significance of ICTs which helped them in staying connected with fellow farmers and extension service providers. Furthermore, majority of the farmers had a high level of subjective norms influence to use ICTs for agricultural risk management. However, it seems that still a lot to be done in order to so...
Min Li1,2, Jingjing Wang3, Suxian Hu3, Philip Stott4, Baoqing Lin5, Lianshan Li5, Hui Liu1, Heng Bao1, Duoying Cui6 and Guangshun Jiang1,* 
...les at different spatial scales. We undertook point counts of birds in the Xianghai wetland reserve of northeastern China from 2000 to 2009, and used remote sensing and GIS technologies to map land cover types. We linked cover types to avian species richness, evenness, and Shannon’s diversity using a stepwise linear regression model and regressions of proportions of cover types at different spatial scales. We recorded ...
Muhammad Waseem1, Ahmed Raza1, Hamera Aisha1, Muhammad Naeem Awan1, Tariq Ahmad2, Rabia Nazir2 and Tariq Mahmood2,*
...udy, we investigated the scale of its poaching and illegal trade in the country. Results revealed that poachers use spotlight and tracking techniques (42% respondents). Summer is the best season for poaching the pangolins (44% respondents). Forest is best preferred habitat of pangolin (54% respondents) and pangolins selling and buying points are located outside the villages (63% respondents). Nomads, semi-settled people at different locations in the Potohar Pl...
Ihsanullah*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Sohail Akhtar and Syed Muhammad Suhail
...were analyzed at a large-scale state dairy farm from 1997 to 2013. Genetic groups consisted of HF 50.0%, HF 62.5%, HF 75.0% and HF 87.5%, having the respective levels of Holstein Friesian blood were studied in different seasons of the year. No significant differences were found between the groups with different exotic blood level in calving interval, age at first calving, postpartum ovulation interval and dry period. Calving interval, postpartum ovulation inte...
Aqsa Pervaiz1*, Rukhshanda Afridi1, Zahra Pervaiz1, Rabia Masood1 and Hira Pervaiz2
...uption, bulging of eyes, scales erosion, mucous secretion, hemorrhage, color change, slow down swimming, lake of balance, restlessness, swimming side-wise, retardation of opercular movement and quick sudden movements. The fish was anesthetized and liver were removed after 48 and 96 hours for histopathologicalstudies. The histopathological changes observed in liver were degeneration of hemopoietic tissue, destruction of hepatocytes, degeneration of bile duct, i...
Taimoor Khalid*, Asad Ullah and Mussawar Shah
...ed on three level likert scale. Chi-square test was applied to test the association between the study variables. The results show that poor forest governance had highly significant association with people cut trees by legal permits (P=0.000), due to illegal forest use the environmental services are greatly reduced (P=0.000), people are illegally occupying forest land (P=0.000), implementation of forest law is not same for all (P=0.000), timber permits are issu...
Po Bunnika, Khalid Khan and Guo Xiangyu*
...and decreasing return to scales, respectively. As a result, a cooperative tend to cut costs by concentrating on TE, AE, and OE instead of lowering costs. Furthermore, the study has introduced the ordinary least squares (OLS) model to examine the relationship between profitability ratios and performance measures, which indicates that return on assets and equity are linked to technical and distribution efficiency. The cooperatives could increase their profits by...
Azra1* and Shaukat Hussain2
...ased on disease severity scale 14 genotypes were categorized as moderately resistant, 14 moderately susceptible and the remaining eight genotypes were grouped as highly susceptible. Significant differences were recorded for grain yield among all tested genotypes during kharif season 2015 and 2016 as well as data pooled over two years. Moderately resistant genotypes CS-2Y10, EVY-1 and EHY-2 scored highest yield. Conversely, the lowest yield was observed for the...
Muhammad Qasim1*, Said Qasim2, Muhammad Naeem1, Amir Nawaz Khan3 and Shahid Iqbal4
... on livelihoods of small-scale inland fishers for the years 2001 and 2016, in district Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Three types of fishers were selected for the study i.e. farming fishers, fishing farmers and occasional fishers, through two stage cluster sampling. Livelihoods asset pentagons were used for the analysis. Considerable decline in physical and economic assets were noted among all the three types of fishers, whereas the total value of li...
Tahsin Razzaq*, Muhammad Fareed Khan and Shahid Iqbal Awan
... of 0-5 disease severity scale. The percent disease incidence ranged from 20-60% and area under disease progressive curve (AUDPC) 22-362dsu (Development stage unit). On the basis of disease rating scale and pathological traits, it was reported that three parental genotypes Karamat-Bar-25, SZP-13200, NCEV-1530-11 had lowest values for all pathological traits and severity rating of 5R, 5R and 10R and marked as highly resistant...

Abdul Razzaq1*, Muhammad Islam2, Zahra Islam3, Zahida Fatima1, Munib Hussain4 and Farmanullah5,6 

...concluded that, on small scale assessment no drug resistance observed against few worms in sheep and goats in Pakistan. A broader study is recommended for assessment of drug resistance and also evaluation of available or practiced anthelmintic. 

...

Saifullah* and Ihsan Mabood Qazi 

... milled using laboratory scale flour mill. Part of the flour of each variety was passed from mesh to remove the bran and get fine flour. Both whole and fine flour of the selected wheat varieties were subjected to qualitative study. The data disclosed that L* value was more in FWF than WWF. FWF had high Water absorption index (WAI) 9.19-9.25g/g, Swelling Index (SI) 6.6-8.7g/g, Water Solubility Index (WSI) 5.7-9.77% and gluten (20.76-34.45%) content while WWF wa...

Raheel Saqib1*, Muhammad Luqman2, Iqbal Javed3, Abdur Rehman4, Muhammad Yaseen2, Saleem Ashraf5 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed2 

...hood strategies of small-scale farmers in rain-fed areas of Pakistan. The targeted area of the study was Potohar region of the Punjab Province. Quantitative data were collected from 200 households and analyzed by using SPSS. Results highlighted that the situation of livelihood assets possessed by the respondents was not satisfactory. Majority of the households had limited human, financial, physical, social and natural capitals. In the scenario of climate chang...

Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1*, Javed Iqbal Qazi2, Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry2, Muhammad Irfan3, Muhammad Khan1, Shaukat Ali4 and Saima Shahzad Mirza5 

...n) and iron (Fe) in fish scales. A study was conducted on total 216 fish specimens, comprised of 3 fish species (Catla catla (thaila), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Cirrhinus mrigala (mori)) from river Ravi during two flow seasons at four sampling locations including upstream Lahore Siphon = A, Shahdera = B, Sunder=C and downstream Balloki headworks = D. All the metal contents in fish scales were highly significantly different (P&...

Kalpana Polisetty1* and Kiran Kumar Paidipati2 

...asis of time and spatial scale of major wheat producing states of India. This study has considered various prominent non-parametric methods i.e. Pettitt’s, Standard normal homogeneity (SNH) and Buishand’s range tests. The core purpose of these three techniques is to capture the mutation point in time series data connected to wheat production during the period 1980-2016. Consequently, Sen’s slope estimator has been used to measure the magnitud...

Gulfam Hassan1*, Ijaz Ashraf2, Muhammad Qavi Irshad3, Shafiq-ur-Rehman Zia2 and Muhammad Idrees

...ables are grown on large scale in Pakistan. Among different provinces of Pakistan, Punjab holds the largest share of 63 and 74% in vegetables’ area and production, respectively. Peri-urban vegetable production is gaining importance in all over the world as it helps the farmers to access inputs and market outputs easily. Lack of sufficient training and low technical efficiency are some common barriers in low productivity of vegetables in Pakistan. This st...
Nafeesa Batool1*, Javed Iqbal Qazi1, Nida Aziz1, Ali Hussain2 and Syed Zawwar Hussain Shah3
...on systems for the field scale applications especially in framework of developing countries.
...
Savas Atasever*, Huseyin Erdem and Ibrahim Cihangir Okuyucu
... obtained using a 1 to 5 scale and a 1 to 4 scale, respectively, where lower points indicate thin body condition or relatively empty rumen. Animals were examined in two subgroups by parity (1= lactation number 1 and 2; and 2= lactation number ≥ 3) and stage of lactation (1=≤121 d, and 2= ≥122 d). While both BCS and RFS were not affected by non-genetic factors (farm, parity and stage of lactation), moderate corr...
Zhi Yi Jin and Shao Ming Qin*
...dscape and micro-habitat scales, from November 2017 to March 2018 and November 2018 to March 2019. At landscape scale, the main foraging habitats of this species include woodlands and farmlands. The largest proportion of woodland in the habitats was 88.70%. Proportion of shoals in foraging habitats at 500-m, 1000-m, 1500-m and 5000-m scales were larger than that in control plots, indicatin...
Jiantong Feng, Xueping Wen, Yahong Guo, Yingying Ye*, Jiji Li and Baoying Guo
...kii on large spatial scales in the period of late Pleistocene (0.1-0.12 Ma).
...
Asim Faraz*
...lves was done by digital scale. Data collected on different parameters was subjected to statistical analysis with 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments under completely randomized design. After 120 days trial period the mean body weight and average daily gain (ADG) of male and female calves was significantly increased (P<0.05) in IMS as 80.8±2.7, 77.8±2.7 kg and 0.67±0.02, 0.65±0.02 kg/d than EMS as 64.7±2.6, 52.3...
Muhammad Rizwan Ashraf1, Asif Nadeem1,2, Eric Nelson Smith3, Maryam Javed1, Utpal Smart3, Tahir Yaqub4, Abu Saeed Hashmi1 and Panupong Thammachoti3
...gs to genus Echis is saw scaled viper (Ehcis carinatus). Molecular techniques have made it easy to elucidate phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary histories of different groups of organisms. This study is the first attempt to find the phylogenetic relationship and diversity through mitochondrial genes in saw-scaled viper from Pakistan. Tail tip biopsies of Saw-scaled vipers we...

Arjumand Nizami1, Muhammad Zulfiqar2*, Jawad Ali1, Naushad Khan2 and Imran Sheikh

... technology should be up-scaled to address water constraints in agriculture sector. 

...

Bahadar Sher Khattak1, Muhammad Kaleem1, Waqas2*, Humaira Naz1 and Muhammad Yasir

...s, fertilizers and small scale modern technology. These innovations brought substantial enhancement in their farm productivity and income that ultimately improved those farmers’ socioeconomic position. However, 16.7% of the respondents’ remains deprived of acquiring the micro-credit facilities of the project where no change in their livelihood conditions was observed. Overall, this study has significant association between the socioeconomic develop...
Yan-Guo Han, Jia-Yuan Wu, Ri-Su Na, Wei-Jiang Si, Yu-Qin Han, Yan Zeng, Yong-Ju Zhao and Yong-Fu Huang*
...e promising in the large-scale preparation of immunocastration vaccines because of simple operations and low cost.
...
Mubashar Hussain1*, Misbah Younas1,Muhammad Faheem Malik1, Muhammad Umar1, Maimoona Kanwal1, Moazama Batool2
...tle assemblages on local scales. The sampling was accomplished by surveying grassy fields, croplands, old dung piles and fresh dung pats from selected localesofSialkot during 2016. Specimens were collected by hand picking and cattle dung baited pitfall traps. Sixteen species representing three guilds i.e. Paracoprid (10 species), Endocoprid (4 species) and Telecoprid (02 species) were recorded. Onitis excavatus (27.68 %)and Onitis crassus (9.59 %...

Iram Fatima1*, Imran Pasha1, Ambreen Saddozai2, Shahid Nadeem3, Amer Mumtaz4 and Saqib Jabbar4 

...slation at this low scale patronage. 

...
Majeeda Rasheed1*, Tanveer Akhtar1, Nadia Mukhtar2, Muhammad Furqan Shahid2, Muhammad Imran3, Saima Yaqub2
...h as vaccination on mass scale, animal movement control etc for disease management in future.
...

 Abdus Salam* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...domly. Five point Likert scale was used to record responses of the respondents. The results of the study clearly showed that majority of the farmers in the study area were literate (73%) and comparatively was greater in district Mansehra (77%), while least in district Swabi (64%) using ICT for agricultural purposes and observed a significant correlation between the literacy and ICT i.e. 0.77. The results also showed that 39% respondents from District Mansehra,...

 Tajwali Khan1*, Ihtzaz Qamar1, Feroz Shah2, Kareem Akhtar2, Rehman Akhtar3

MODEL FOR FUEL DROPLET EVAPORATION IN COMBUSTION CHAMBER OF LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES
...el is applied on a small-scale combustion chamber of bi-propellant liquid rocket engine where fuel
concentration away from droplet is not zero. A code is generated and applied. The results of the model show that
fuel droplet diameter, combustion chamber pressure, chamber diameter, mass flow rate and droplet relative velocity
with hot gas has significant effects on the life of droplet and characteristic length. Effects of chamber pressure a...

Khizar Azam1*, Abdul Shakoor1, Shahid Maqsood2, Muddasar Habib3, Muhammad Fahad4, Akhtar Zaib1 

IDENTIFICATION OF SITES FOR ESTABLISHING PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR FARMS IN PAKISTAN USING SOLAR GEOMETRY
...tan. 

...

Ebtisam Mirza1, Nadeem Ehsan1 

DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECT EXECUTION COMPLEXITY INDEX
...r projects. A complexity scale starting from 0 = least complex to 10=highly
complex has also been proposed in order to rank and compare the projects. This ranking will help the decision makers
to decide which projects to include in their portfolio and which projects to give priority while assigning resources
more efficiently. Moreover, project managers will be able to manage their projects better, by first comparing them in
order of...

Farid Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Iqbal1 

DEVELOPMENT OF A TESTING RIG FOR VIBRATION AND WIND BASED ENERGY HARVESTERS
...acterization of a medium scale vibration shaker and a wind tunnel
for testing of micro and meso scale vibration based, wind based and hybrid (using combined vibration and wind)
energy harvesters. The mechanical shakers used for vibration and shock testing are the most versatile, inexpensive
and easy to operate, however, due to their fixed displacement, single frequency and sinusoidal behavior, usage of

Sajjad Hussain, Nisar Mohammad, Zahid Ur Rehman, Noor Mohammad, Ishaq Ahmad, Naseer Muhammad Khan, Salim Raza 

EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND SILVER BY CYANIDATION PROCESS FROM COMPLEX ORE OF SHOUGHUR AREA CHITRAL, KYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...akhtunkhwa on laboratory scale testing. The research work was carried out into two parts. In first part the cyanidation parameters like grinding time, dosage of pH, cyanidation time, dosage of sodium cyanide (NaCN) and dosage of lime Ca (OH)2 were optimized. The samples were subjected to differential grinding time varying from 20 to 35 minutes, pH of slurry adjusted from 9 to 11 by adding Ca (OH)2 from 0.5 to 1.5 gm/kg , dosage of NaCN varies from 0.1% to 0...

Wisal Shah*, Muhammad Nafees**, Muhammad Iqbal***

EVALUATION OF MARBLE SLURRY WASTE FOR PREPARATION OF COMMERCIAL GRADE CEMENT
... of cement on commercial scale. Waste marble slurry was obtained from marble processing units
and compares it with the calcium carbonate used in the cement industry by analyzing it for physical and chemical
characteristics. Cement was made in the laboratory according to standard formulation. Commercial brand available
in the market was used as cont...

 Muhammad Nafees*, Asim Nawab*, Wisal Shah**

STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGNED FOR INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS
...that the installed small scale treatment plant is not enough in its present form and needs to be
upgraded by adding a coagulation step.
...

 Sajjad Hussain1*, Nisar Mohammad1, Zahid Ur Rehman1, Noor Mohammad1, Ishaq Ahmad1,

Naseer Muhammad Khan2 and Salim Raza1
EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND SILVER BY AGITATION CYANIDATION PROCESS FROM COMPLEX ORE OF SHOUGHUR AREA CHITRAL, KYBER PAKHTUNKHWA PAKISTAN
...
out at laboratory scale. The three representative samples ground at time 25, 30 to 35 minutes and roasted at 650 oc
for 1 hour were subjected to agitation cyanidation process at varying dosage of pH from 10 to 11.13 , CaO from 0.5
to 1.5 gm/kg, NaCN varies from 1 gram to 5.93 gram and cyanidation time varies from 0 to 39 hours. The maximum
grade of 71.82 ppm with 99.03% extraction/recovery of gold and 34.34 ppm with 7...

Azam Khan*, Irshad Ahmad**

TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY ISOLATED FIXED BASE OFFSHORE PLATFORM
...treme earthquake records scaled for the DLE event.
...

Muhammad Irfan*, Saeed Gul*, Mohammad Younas*

SOLAR STILL PERFORMANCE FOR SEA WATER PURIFICATION: A STATISTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
...ng solar energy. A pilot scale solar still has been designed, fabricated and optimized for maximum evaporation rate of model sea water. The various parameters such as water depth in still, average day temperature and average water temperature in still were studied experimentally and verified statistically though ANOVA (analysis of variance). It was found that the water temperature in the still is the most significant parameter that largely ...

Mumtaz Shah*, Hashim Nisar Hashmi* Naeem Ejaz* Abdul Razzaq Ghumman*

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AQUATIC MACROPHYTES FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
...ewage treatment. A bench scale laboratory model was developed and used for experimentation. Six experimental runs were conducted and each run laps over thirty (30) days. In each experimental runcontinuous monitoring of municipal sewage was done for each macrophyte specie. The aquatic macrophyte species used for the performance comparison were Water Hyacinth, Duckweed and Water Lettuce. Forperformance comparison four parameters including BOD...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Saima Sadaf1, Adnan Ahmad1, Usman Rafique1 and Muhammad Arshad Javed1

An Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness Level Regarding Integrated Farming System in District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...vestock. IFS helps small scale farmers to increase cash income, improve quality and quantity of food produced by methodical exploitation of resources. Purpose of the study was to assess the awareness of the farmers to determine the impact of integrated farming system (IFS) on agricultural development and improving the livelihoods in the study area. To accomplish these objectives, an interview schedule was developed as a research instrument to record the opinio...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Saima Sadaf1, Adnan Ahmad1, Usman Rafique1 and Muhammad Arshad Javed1

An Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness Level Regarding Integrated Farming System in District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...vestock. IFS helps small scale farmers to increase cash income, improve quality and quantity of food produced by methodical exploitation of resources. Purpose of the study was to assess the awareness of the farmers to determine the impact of integrated farming system (IFS) on agricultural development and improving the livelihoods in the study area. To accomplish these objectives, an interview schedule was developed as a research instrument to record the opinio...

Markus I. Francis1*, Paul I. Ankeli2, Clara N. Kwanashie1, Jibril Adamu1, Lushaikyaa Allam1, Mashood A. Raji3, Godwin O. Egwu4, Flavio Sacchini5 and Massimo Scacchia5

Detection of Mycoplasma bovis from Cattle Presented for Slaughter in Adamawa and Taraba States, Northeastern Nigeria
...y area. Therefore, large scale epidemiological studies that will reveal the true prevalence and distribution of M. bovis infection in cattle population in Nigeria are recommended.

...

Zakeer Ahmed Khan Abbasi* and Allah Nawaz 

...necessarily identical in scale and forms . In developed countries, climate change awareness is much advanced therefore, their climate change adaptations are also far better than those employed by farmers in the developing countries like Pakistan. The climate change awareness obviously determines the nature, quality and strength of climate change adaptations. The current study measures the impact of climate change awareness on climate change adaptation and clim...
Abdul Waheed*, Asim Faraz, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq
...f households. This small-scale entrepreneurship might bring higher income to rural households and may help in alleviation of poverty a mass scale in rural areas. 
 
Yan Wen1, Liu Lian2, Zhuang Xun3, Murong Jiaying4, Cui Shuyi1, He Wanwen1, Mai Guanghuai5, Huang Wenzhu1, Chen Gang1,* and Wang Zhijun1,*

Olugbenga Omotayo Alabi1*, Ayoola Olugbenga Oladele2 and Ibrahim Maharazu3

Profitability Analysis and Marketing Efficiency of Soyabean (Glycine max) Value Chain among Actors in Abuja, Nigeria
...lysis, five point Likert scale and principal component analysis. The results revealed that most (86.33%) of the soyabean marketers were between the ages of 31-60 years, about 83.33% of soyabean marketers had less than 5 years marketing experiences. Cost of transportation constitutes 47.56% of the total variable cost. Estimated costs and returns analysis gave the gross margin and gross income of N15,513,400 and N 16,249,000 per annum respectively. Estimated mar...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2

An Empirical Analysis of Economic Efficiency and Farm Size of Cotton Farmers
... small, medium and large-scale cotton farmers was estimated using Stochastic Frontier Approach of district Rahim Yar Khan Punjab, Pakistan. Empirical findings of the study indicated that medium farm size cotton farmers were more allocative, technically and economically efficient (0.90, 0.94, 0.85) rather than small farm farmers (0.79, 0.92, 0.76) and large farm farmers (0.70, 0.97, 0.68). Farmers schooling years, formal credit access, own tubewell availability...
Aatif Amin1,*, Zakia Latif2, Arslan Sarwar1, Basit Zeshan1 and Mushtaq A. Saleem1
...t endonucleases. A small scale reservoir of Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with 30 μg/mL of HgCl2 was designed to check the detoxification ability of the selected strains. The results demonstrated 83% detoxification of mercury by both B. cereus AZ-2 and B. cereus AZ-3, and 76% detoxification by Bacillus sp. AZ-1 (p<0.05).
...

Muhammad Siyar1, Anwar Saeed Khan2*, Fazlur Rahman2 and Muhammad Jamal Nasir2

Spatio-temporal Assessment of Reliability in Pehur Main Canal System, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...ability is measured on a scale of 0-1, 1 for complete reliable and 0 for unreliable services. The analysis shows the majority of reliability values closer to 0. Rabi season has better reliability than the Kharif Miana. The spatial reliability in different sections of the system as a whole, distributaries and minors are unpredictable. This situation points towards lack of operational maintenance of the canal system.

...
Ayesha Talib1,2, Khanzadi Nazneen Manzoor1, Wajahat Ali1, Maria Saeed1, Muhammad Asif Gondal1, Malik Badshah3 and Abid Ali Khan1*
..., eco-friendly and large-scale production possibilities exist. Copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have been synthesized from the aqueous fruit extracts of Ficus sycomorus and their physico-chemical properties as well as antimicrobial activity against Multidrug Resistant (MDR) bacteria is evaluated. The total formation of the Cu nanoparticles was observed visually with a color change and confirmed by the appearance of peak through UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis....
Zhi Chen1, Toshifumi Minamoto2, Longshan Lin3 and Tianxiang Gao4,*
... eDNA samples with large scale, which sometimes required hundreds of filter membranes and a mass of extraction kits. Combined the price and effectiveness, using AxyPrep DNA Gel Extraction Kit as an substitute for DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit could remarkably cut the eDNA extracting cost. AxyPrep DNA Gel Extraction Kit might be an optional low-cost method of extracting environmental DNA of macro-organisms from filter membranes in large s...

Syed Muhammad1*, Badar Naseem Siddiqui2, Farhat Ullah Khan1 and Nawab Khan3

Self-perceived Constraints of Extension Field Staff Affecting their Working Efficiency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...dents. Five-point Likert scale (Likert 1967) was used to record the response of respondents. Results showed that a majority of the respondents (85.3 %) were FAs by designation, almost half of them (50.5 %) were of middle age (> 35 to 50 years), majority (48.4 %) had education up to SSC with Diploma in agriculture, majority (81.1 %) were of rural background, and all had received trainings of different duration. Important constraints which affected the effici...
Hannan Nasib Hamid1,*, Muhammad Rais1, Muhammad Arif2 and Rubina Noor2
...as Indian Monitor, Large-scaled Rock Agama and Agror Agama. Common Leopard Gecko was identified as the flagship reptile species. The most frequently encountered reptilian species were Large-scaled Rock Agama and Agror Agama. Common threats include habitat degradation, fuel wood cutting, human encroachment, grazing, stone quarries and cement factory.
...

Inam Ul Haq1*, Humara Umar2, Naeem Akhtar3, Muhammad Azhar Iqbal2 and Muhammad Ijaz1

Techniques for Micropropagation of Olive (Olea europaea L.): A Systematic Review
...research and development scale besides having basic infrastructure and necessary facilities. Therefore, authors planned to document different critical stages of olive micropropagation like; media preparation, culture establishment, shoot and root proliferation and acclimatization which would be applied for micropropagation of olives at Barani Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Chakwal. Resultantly, olive expansion through micropropagation can be predicted...

Hillary M.O. Otieno

A Review of White Mango Scale (Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead; Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Sub-Saharan Africa: Distribution, Impact and Management Strategies
...n: justify;">White mango scale (Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead) pest is threatening mango production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Being a new pest, there are no clear adaptable management practices ready for farmers to implement. This has caused farmers to rely on nature and sometimes adoption of crude and ineffective traditional control methods. Farmers capable of using pesticides apply very toxic products that are not only harmful to the applicators but al...
Abdul Hafeez1*, Akhtar Nawaz Khan2 and Zahid Ullah3
...variety of micro and nanoscale devices and systems. Unfortunately, these biomedical applications suffer from huge amount of data. That is, the data generated by such systems is so large that a typical computer workstation cannot handle it in real-time. Traditional approaches rely on unloading raw data to off line storage and suffer from the trade-off of an insufficiently rigorous sampling rate. Furthermore, the phases leading to useful decision-making often fo...
Tariq Mahmood Khalil1,2*, Muhammad Ajmal3, Iftikhar Zeb1,4 and Muhammad Azeem Khan1,5
 
 
...igation. This laboratory scale study was aimed to investigate the effects of saline water irrigation on development of total water potential within coarse and fine textured soils using a novel method based on water potential dynamics. Chilled mirror dew point hygrometer accurately captured the water potential dynamics when soil samples were irrigated with saline water. The instrument output showed that soil texture has profound effect on soil total water poten...
Grace Okongor, Chukwudi Njoku*, Pauline Essoka and Joel Efiong
...etter opportunities to upscale yam production in the area and gives room for better planning by farmers and policy makers.

...
Sana* and Abbas Ullah Jan
 
... over three points Likertscale(Neverinvolved,Part-time involved and Full-time involved). Data analysis revealed that 34.7 percent of children of the sampled farm households were full-time involved and 41.9 percent were part-time involved in different agricultural activities. The most frequent of them were animals grazing, fodder cutting and carrying, crops weeding, harvesting and firewood collection. Multinomial Logistic analys...
Ahmad Abrar Khan* and Muhammad Idrees
...50% of the cases aphids, scale and flat-headed borer insect/pest attacks were reported on the apricot crop. Besides scab, brown rot and shot hole were reported by more than 60%, apricot growers.Regarding dormant practices, 65.2% apricot growers pruned their trees, 67.4% applied winter oil and 69.7% Bordeaux mixture while unfortunately,60.6% of the respondents were not doing hoeing practice. The Regression analysis results reported application of chemical ferti...
Chen Tongde1, Fakher Abbas1, Jiao Juying1, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz2*, An Shoshan1, Muhammad Ansar3, Qaiser Hussain2, Mah-Noor Azad2 andAyaz Ahmad2
...oil erosion at different scales should be strengthened in order to protect the land resources in Pakistan.
...
Asma Chaudhary1, Qurat-ul-Ain Ahmad1, Afia Muhammad Akram1, Sadia Roshan2 and Javed Iqbal Qazi3*
...g of the belly and anus, scale damage etc. The pathogen challenged fish were administered with Sphingomonas sp.AsCh-P3 (group-G1) and B. aerius AsCh-A7 (group-G2) treated feed in different experimental set ups. Highest Relative Percent Survival (80-90%) was recorded for fish receiving probiotic feed prior and after injection (G1b, G2b). Provision of probiotics was evident to alleviate pathogen virulence in fish. The emerging multi-drug resistance...

Anwar Ali1,5*, Horia Shaukat2, Munir Ahmed3,5, Ahmed Bostani4 and Syed Ashiq Hussain3

...d properly on commercial scale in few countries. It has different impact on different type of muscles, so basic know how of changes occurring when it is applied to different kind of muscles should be known to get maximum benefits from this technology.

...

Oluseyi A. Olayinka1, Temitope O.C. Faleye2, Oladipo O. Omotosho3, Oladapo A. Odukaye3, Bolaji Oluremi4, Ibipeju H. Ibitoye1, Oludayo O. Ope-Ewe1, Uwem E. George5, Oluwadamilola A. Arowolo6, Ijeoma M. Ifeorah7, Ewean C. Omoruyi8, Emmanuel Donbraye9, Olufunke P. Adeniji10, Olubusuyi M. Adewumi1,11* and Johnson A. Adeniji1,11,12

...ome of Pigs from a small-scale Piggery in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. Three fecal pellets were randomly picked from the floor of unit pens containing a minimum of three pigs per unit in selected piggery in Ibadan, Nigeria. The samples were pooled and resuspended in phosphate buffered saline. The suspension was then subjected to nucleic acid extraction, cDNA synthesis and Illumina sequencing. Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) in the raw reads were determined a...

Ch. Muhammad Rafiq1, Qasim Raza1*, Awais Riaz1, Misbah Hanif2, Wajiha Saeed2, Shawaiz Iqbal1, Tahir Hussain Awan1, Syed Sultan Ali1 and Muhammad Sabar1

...reatly hampers its large-scale adaption. To address subordinate germination issues, we investigated the effects of five salicylic acid (SA) concentrations (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 ppm) on polyethylene glycol (PEG) induced drought stress conditions (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa). Highly significant (p < 0.01) effects of drought, SA and their interactions were observed on seed germination. Interestingly, varying SA concentrations imparted more pronounced ...
Abdul Muhaimin Wahab1, Basit Zeshan2,*, Naveed Ahmed2, Muhammad Afzal2 and Muhammad Naveed2
...ors which includes small scale, not using probiotic and poor biosecurity were not significant enough in association to occurrence of C. jejuni. Based on the risk factors that have been identified, control measure to reduce the occurrence was; by changing the open housing system into close housing system, using treated water source, use of probiotics, implementing strict biosecurity and good hygiene practices. In conclusion, the prevalence of C. jejun...
Celalettin Gözüaçık1, Ecevit Eyduran2 and Mohammad Masood Tariq3*
...ce. In conclusion, a new scale developed by CHAID indicated that height of eggs was found higher as the plant height increased from Node 1 (plant height < 23 cm) to Node 10 (plant height > 74 cm), and in MARS, number of egg cluster and plant height affected height of eggs (P<0.05), which may help to describe egg laying behaviour of alfalfa weevil, H. postica.
...

Syed Muhammad Aun Naqvi1, Sara Tahir1, Tanveer Ahmed2*, Huma Naz3, Amara Gilani4, Atif Liaqat5

...dy. Three variant weight scales including ≤350g (W1), 351-550g (W2) and 551-750g (W3) were selected. Among the weight groups, W1 revealed maximum values of percent moisture compared to the W2 and W3. Fish of the W3 weight group showed higher levels of crude protein and lipid percentage compared with W1 and W2. Highest ash (percentage) was measured in the gills of the weight group W3 as compared to W1 and W2. Generally, total carbohydrates are determined by ...

Shujaa Arshad1, Muhammad Umair1*, Rana Shahzad Noor1, Chaudhry Arslan2, Arslan Afzal1 and Zafar Islam3

...n this research, a small scale solar-driven desiccant cooling system was developed with 3 feet length, 2 feet width and 2 feet height and tested for local environmental conditions of Pakistan. Pakistan has blessed with an abundance of solar energy in most parts of the country and desiccant cooling technology in an environment as well as user-friendly technology. The objective of this study was to test the developed system for local conditions of Pakistan so th...

Muhammad Ashraf Sumrah1*, Muhamad Jan1, Azhar Hussain2, Shoaib Akhtar1, Hussain Nawaz1, Muhammad Afzal3 and Humara Umar1

...ntial varieties for mass scale cultivation in Pothwar region. The proposed varieties can be grown for commercial processing and product development.

...

Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar*, Sania Waliat, Shafaat Yar Khan, Naila Amjad

...icides are used on large scale for the effective and quick management of this pest but it has developed resistance against various insecticides in many countries of the world. This study was designed to check the resistance in M. domestica against selected insecticides from Bhalwal as no previous work has been reported from this area. Flies were collected from two different localities i.e., location 1 (L1) was Chak 07 SB Bhalwal (32°14’52.3”N 7...

Muhammad Rafique1, Inam Ul Haq1*, Humara Umar2, Muhammad Jan2 and Muhammad Azhar Iqbal2

...ng. In recent past, mass scale olive plantation over an area of 10,000 acres was done in these parts of the country. So, in order to ensure the sustainability of olive orchard development in Pakistan, a research trial was conducted to improve the rooting ability of olive cuttings to strengthen the local olive nursery setup. A practical problem is that the commercial production of potentially important olive cultivars is limited by poor rooting. Therefore, this...
Amreen Zahra1, Mushtaq A. Saleem1*, Hasnain Javed2, Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan3, Muhammad Naveed1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori4
...help in performing large scale studies and also in the development of novel medicines for the cure of HIV-1.
...
Sajid Ali1, Muhammad Avais1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Kamran Ashraf2, Saira Jabeen1, Sajid Hameed3, Muhammad Awais1, Jawaria Ali Khan1 and Imtiaz Ahmad4 
...-point locomotion rating scale. A cow with a locomotion score of 3 or higher was considered to be lame. Lame cows were investigated for hoof and claw disorders based on clinical assessment. The prevalence of lameness at the herd-level ranged from 3.08% to 33.08% (overall = 14.20%). The prevalence based on severity showed that on all farms, the majority of cows were mildly lame (7.71%) followed in order by moderately lame (4.61%) and severely lame (1.88%). Prev...
Guangyu Wang, Xu Tian, Lintao Liu, Junyang Liu, Bo Zhang and Jingming Dong*
...on of Lysholm knee score scale, WOMAC score, and joint VAS score between the two groups showed that the study group had a significant advantage over the reference group after treatment, p<0.05. Comparison of synovial fluid inflammatory factors before and after treatment between the two groups indicated more obvious improvement in the study group than in the reference group, p<0.05. Comparison of overall treatment efficiency of the two groups showed signi...

Mehnaz Safdar1, Urooba Pervaiz1* and Dawood Jan2

...oultry. A 5 point Likert scale was used, showed that women farmers had various constraints out of which Pardah, mobility and lack of information source were ranked on top with Likert score value of 4.12, 4.00 and 3.94, respectively. Due to male dominant society, 62.8% of the decisions were taken by spouse. Results of Chi-square analysis showed a significant association for age and decision making which means with increasing age of the women, their involvement ...
Nilgun Dogan1,* and Hakan Adanacioglu2
...ented constant return-to-scale (CRS) analysis indicated an average efficiency value of 59.34%. The output- and input-oriented variable return-to-scale (VRS) analysis showed average efficiencies of 75.42% and 78.95%, respectively. The efficiency of the beekeeping farms and the beekeeping experience were positively correlated. Both the output- and input-oriented VRS analysis showed that a significant part of the beekeeping far...

Ain-ul-Abad Syed1*, Zaheer Ahmed Khan1, Shakeel Hussain Chattha1, Irfan Ahmed Shaikh2, Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali1, Zohaib ur Rehman Bughio3, Shahzad Hussain Dahri2 and Ghous Bakhsh Buriro4

...ht 25 percent, and steam scale 24 percent greater than geoponic. Statistically, there was a substantial (p<0.05) variation in the leaf area, height, and steam scale of plants, suggesting that hydroponic technology could also increase crop yields by up to 25 percent. It is inferred from this analysis that hydroponic cultivation is successful in saving water and fertilizer and increasing crop yields at the desirable limit. ...

Nashwa M. Helmy1 and Ahmed S. A.2

... a short
timescale during emergencies. Current study on serum samples and epithelial tissues
demonstrate the circulation of the FMDV type A and O in Sharkia and Fayoum
Governorates.
...

Samah A. Mokbel, Soad H. Taha, Mahmoud M. Abd-El Hamid, Ali H. Hamed

...lets for rapid and large scale in vitro production.

...

Md. Abdullah Al Mamun1,2*, Shamima Nasren1,3, Sanjay Singh Rathore1 and Kavalagiriyanahalli Srinivasiah Ramesh1

...s eye opacity, fin rots, scale loss and severe histopathological alterations in catla. 

...

Gulnaz Ismaylova

...). The distribution map (scale of 1: 500000) of O. japonica in the study areas was prepared in a digital database using geographic spatial analysis using the ArcGIS (Geographic Information System) program. 

...

Bakhtiar Gul*, Saleetha Rabial and Haroon Khan

...nt of duckweed for large scale infestation.

...

Javed Anwar Shah1, Azhar Iqbal1, Muhammad Tariq Mahmood2, Muhammad Aslam3, Muneer Abbas4 and Ilyas Ahmad5*

Hui-Ming Li1, Bi-Ze Yang1, Xue-Jun Jin1,2, Lin-Miao Li1, Hai-Ying Jiang1
Xiu-Juan Zhang1 and Jin-Ping Chen1*
...ammal species exhibiting scales characteristics. The conservation and management of this species could benefit from a better understanding of its genetic diversity and structure. In this study, 24 novel SSRs were isolated from full-length transcriptome and they were used for assessing of parent-offspring relationship for M. javanica. All SSR markers were highly polymorphic with a mean of 6 alleles per locus, ranged from 2 to 10 alleles. The average poly...
Yanhong Hu* and Linkai Cui
...zation of EpFAR from the scale insect Ericerus pela using an immunofluorescence assay of the insect cells and a bioinformatics analysis. The result of immunofluorescence assay showed EpFAR to be localized to the cytoplasmic region, and the observed fluorescence pattern was characteristic of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins. Comparative analysis of the prediction results showed EpFAR was localized to the ER membrane. These results, combined with the l...
Amal E. Abdel-Hady*, Sara M. El-Amir, Noura S. Al-Muttri and Heba M. El-Hariri
...;">The outer surfaces of scales have provided significant adaption and functional value in lizards. In this paper, we examined the microornamenation of the outer surface of the dorsal scales from the mid-body region of Acanthodactylus opheodurus (Lacertidae), Mesalina guttulata guttulata (Lacertidae) and Trapelus ruderatus blanfordi (Agamidae). Skin specimens were prepared and investigated by using scann...

Shahid Ali1*, Murtaza1, Waqas Ahmad1, Muhammad Israr2, Aftab Khan3, Hamdullah1 and Syed Attaullah Shah1

...th decreasing returns to scale. Findings of this endeavor revealed that a percent increase in labor hours, urea fertilizer and irrigation has enhanced rice productivity by 0.41%, 0.23% and 0.11%, respectively. Therefore, farmers need to increase labor hours, application of urea fertilizer and irrigation for accelerating rice output. Decreasing return to scale (DRS) was found in the use of all inputs, therefore reallocation o...

Theophilus Miebi Gbigbi* and Rodney Akpoviri Isiorhovoja

...is increasing returns to scale. This paper concludes that poultry farmers were inefficient in the application of productive resources and recommends capacity building on resource use for farmers. We recommend that credit facilities and specific training opportunities on resource use be extended to farmers to enhance their exotic chicken production efficiency.

...

Tajnees Pirzada1*, Weenghar Ali Chandio1, Mansoor Ali Kalhoro2, Mir Munsif Ali Talpur1, Waheed Ali Mirbahar1, Abdul Ghafar Solangi1, Zulfiquar Ali Jumani1 and Rehana Kerio1

...ify;">Utilization of nanoscale materials in agribusiness are as yet in earliest stages contrasted with clinical and mechanical areas. The effect of, zinc oxide nanoparticles and humic acid (HA) coated nanoparticles were evaluated for Brassica campestris seed germination. A simple one-pot method was used to synthesize HA/ZnO NPs involving zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) core (20-35 nm in diameter) and humic acid shell. HA/ZnO NPs were used to investigate the eff...
Shoaib ur Rehman1, Jabbar Khan2*, Raaza Malja Khan3, Maimoona Azam4 and Zeeshan Mutahir5
...urrence in future, large scale mutation screening and PND not only for Kohat region but also the whole community of KP province. Such study could provide valuable information regarding thalassemia prevention like prenatal diagnosis (PND), genetic counseling and carrier screening for controlling the affected births in the population. Consanguinity, lack of awareness and non-availability of health facilities have thus contributed to the high occurrence of β...
Misbah Sarwar1*, Abdul Hamid2 and Iftikhar Hussain2
...egally hunted at a large scale in the study area resulting in decline in their population. There is a dire need of law enforcement to conserve the bird species in the study area.
...

Md. Sanjid Hasan1, A K M Humayun Kober1, Eaftekhar Ahmed Rana2, Md Saiful Bari1,3,4* 

...s under study were small scale (94%) except a few were medium-scale (6%). Very few farms used quarantine and isolation shed (6%) for the disease affected cows. Among the risk factors identified; type of farm, floor type, quarantine facility, isolation shed used, adequate drainage facility were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) to causing both SCM and udder lesions. Predominant causal agents isolated were Staphylococcus...
Muhammad Taqi1, Shazia Erum2, Shamaila Rasheed2, Sadar Uddin Siddiqui2 and Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi2*
...proficient way for large-scale and fast propagation of C. tuberculata through in-vitro organogenesis was carried out at in-vitro lab, Bio-resources Conservation Institute, NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan. Nodal-tips as explants were grown on MS salts enriched with diverse plant growth regulators including BAP, NAA, Kin and 2,4-D, alone as well as in combinations. The highest growth response for callusing 78.3% was observed in BAP (0.5mg/L) in combination with Kineti...

Sanjeela Sabahat1*, Juliya Abbasi2, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Saima Mumtaz1, Taj Naseeb Khan1, Sudheer Tariq1 and Muhammad Imran1

...mostly produced by small scale farmers. However, the changing climate from the past few years has affected strawberry production in Pakistan. Heavy rainfall, along with hailstorms causes damage at the fruit initiation stage. Moreover, the rainfall also lead to the leaching down of the essential micronutrients in strawberry farms. In this study we have tested the foliar application of four micronutrients, iron, zinc, copper and boron, at different concentration...
Samaria Nisar1, Tariq Manzoor Khan1, Muhammad Ahsan Iqbal1, Rahmat Ullah2, Muhammad Asim Bhutta3*, Saghir Ahmad3, Amna Bibi3, Hafeez ur Rehman4, Umar Farooq4 and Muhammad Zubair Ishaq5
...of mechanization and the scale of cotton production in Pakistan is an urgent need of the hour. A thorough examination of F2 populations may reveal important information for the development of various breeding programmes. This study was on F2 populations, derived from four parents of upland cotton, i.e. CRIS-134, VH-329, IUB-222, CIM-240 which were sown in the Plant Breeding and Genetics section, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad; Pakistan, during the norma...
Stefan Pratama Chandra1, Yoanes Maria Vianney1, Theresia Liliani Christie2, Merlyn Wongso2, Melisa Widjaja2, Deok-Chun Yang3, Se Chan Kang4, Manar Fayiz Mousa Atoum5,6 and Johan Sukweenadhi1*
...eng on an industrial scale to sufficiently supply the demands for P. ginseng in the country. Furthermore, this laboratory also intends to make standardized Indonesian herbal materials by using plant tissue culture.
...
Romaan Hayat Khattak1, Zhensheng Liu1*, Liwei Teng1* and Ejaz ur Rehman2
... existing fauna on local scales to strengthen the conservation practices. Twenty-one species representing 18 genera, 12 families and six orders of mammals were recorded in Nowshera district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (KP), Pakistan from an inventory conducted from November 2018 to July 2019. Selected locations were scanned by walking and grey literature was used. Five of the recorded species were found in captive breeding facilities while rest of the species...

Mohammed Sirajul Islam1,2*, Nurhusien Yimer1*, Wahid Haron1 , Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse1, Mark Hiew Wen Han1, Mamat-Hamidi Kamalludin3, Wan-Nor Fitri1, Ubedullah Kaka4, Abdul Quddus1,5 

...;digital animal weighing scale. Age at sexual maturity was determined by the time of semen ejaculation and quality. The results revealed significantly (p<0.05) greater body weight in KK × Brangus bulls (230.50±9.3 kg) as compared to the pure-bred KK bulls (204.5 ±13.2 kg) at 24 months of ages. KK bulls attained sexual maturity at an earlier age of 21.5±0.4 months, while KK × Brang...

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