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Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
...so increase the risks of vector-borne diseases, and the mosquito-borne Dengue virus is one of the pathogens benefitting from this. The related virus Japanese encephalitis virus is the most important cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in the world, and is maintained in avian reservoirs and amplified by pigs. The occasional spill-over of the virus into humans results in more than 60 000 clinical cases of Japanese encephalitis annually, with high case fatality ...

James Ayukepi Ayukekbong1,2

E-mail | james.ayukekbong@microbio.gu.se

...utics. The virus and its vector are widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics regions of the world. Dengue and malaria are endemic in Nigeria. Two independent studies among febrile patients revealed dengue IgG seroprevalence of 73% and malaria prevalence of 80% in some areas of the country. The diagnosis of the disease is further complicated by the fact that, dengue fever mimics malaria fever and the prevalence of dengue-malaria co-infection is ...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...opogonidae) biting midge vectors from April 2009 to March 2010 in Morocco. In order to assess the implementation of integrated control measures and disease risk analysis, this entomological survey was performed on the risk of transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and identification of the main breeding sites of Culicoides. From April 2009 to March 2010, the study was carried out at 14 sites distributed across the country. Results indicated...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...cines, recombinant viral vectored vaccines, RNA interference as a therapy, suicidal DNAs, synthetic epitopes and peptides, reverse genetics, anti idiotypic antibody based vaccines and helper cell dependent diagnostics represent the present vaccine/diagnostic development strategies for the effective control and eradication of PPR. This review comprehend the current scenario of recombinant technology based vaccines and diagnostics, virus like particles (VLPs), r...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

...era: Glossinidae) vector control measures can rely upon knowledge of genetic diversity between species’ population. Two species were studied: Glossina palpalis palpalis and Glossina morsitans submorsitans using two mitochondrial DNA fragment primers- Cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and Cytochrome b (CytB). Twelve samples of laboratory-reared population of each species were used for the study. Sequencing data were used to calcula...

Wenmin Cheng1,2*, Weirong Pan1,2, Yubo Qing1, Yingchao Liu1, Xingqin Zha1,2, Yan Huang2, Jige Xin1,2, Hongjiang Wei1 and Yangzhi Zeng2

...A). We chose the pMD18-T vector for Npm expression and transformed E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells to construct a prokaryotic expression system. The results showed that the recombinant Npm protein of 32 kDa could be obtained. Recombinant Npm or PGA was injected into porcine oocytes at different concentrations. The results showed that the blastocyst rates in injection 560 ng/μL Npm and 1000 ng/μL PGA groups were higher than those of other groups. Moreover, the b...
Farkhanda Manzoor1, Iram Amin2,*, Muhammad Shahid2,Samia Afzal2,Hania Ramzan1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah2 and Muhammad Idrees3

Pam D Luka, Frank N Mwiine, Bitrus Yakubu, Joseph Erume, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez, Hermann Unger and David Shamaki

... virus with an arthropod vector of the genus Ornithodoros, involved in its transmission. Tick involvement has been reported in Europe, East and Southern Africa to be part of ASFV transmission cycles. Ticks in an ASFV infected area have been reported to influence the emergence of genetic variation and long-term persistence of the virus in an area. Since the first report of ASF in Nigeria, periodic outbreaks have continued to occur among domestic pigs with a few...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
...logy in mosquito (dengue vectors) is limited. Here, we investigated the vertical transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in the Aedes mosquitoes and its (DENV) transmission through other factors mainly tyres trade. DENV was detected in Aedes aegypti (57%) and Aedes albopictus (43%) adults (n=1050) and larvae (n=550). The samples were collected from four (Shuba Bazaar, Tarnab Farm, Wazir Bagh and Hayat Abad) dengue suspected locations of distri...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...wood products as well as vectors of tree ailments. The alien species related to hardwood packing substances have been remarkable tree destroyers in the urban and semi-urban areas of China. In forests flora and fauna inhabitant species take action against disturbances, for instance fires in addition to windstorms, and start the bio-worsening of woody tissue. The females lay eggs on the bark surface of the stems and branches of trees as a result rotten wo...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

... into the pCAGGS plasmid vector under the control of the chicken β-actin promoter. The in vitro expression of recombinant plasmid DNA was performed by transfection of 293T (HEK) cell line. The HA protein was analyzed using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. The pCAGG-optiH9 vaccine efficacy was evaluated by intramuscular immunization of SPF chickens with different concentrations of plasmid DNA and the sera were collected week...

Waqar Islam

...ent management of insect vectors can reduce this disastrous problem. However, in developing countries such strategies are rarely applied due to lack of farmer’s knowledge about plant virus diseases. Therefore, here we reviewed about this issue by highlighting that what farmers know about plant viruses, what is their perception about yield losses by virus diseases and what management strategies they choose to apply against viruses. We further added our su...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

.... Current study employed vector auto regression models (VAR) along with times series data from 1980 to 2013 for Pakistan to estimate the potential effects of climate change on Maize production. Result professed that average temperature will affect Maize crop negatively bringing about 6% reduction in maize production till the year 2030. Average minimum temperature brought about 9% increases in maize production till 2021. Increase in overall rainfall will also b...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...ent of viruses and their vectors, transforming the diagnostic landscape. Geminiviruses are a group of plant viruses characterized by circular, single-stranded (ss) DNA genomes (~2.7 kb size) and twined icosahedral virions (18 x 30 nm). Based on genome organization, host range and insect-vector, geminiviruses are divided into four genera:Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus and Begomovirus. Begomoviruses are transmitted by wh...

Shams Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif and Abdul Mateen 

 

Soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Pakistan
...(PMTV and TRV) and their vectors was calculated by using Jaccard index of similarity. The association of PMTV to its vector Spongosporsa subteranea in Hazara division was found 27.0% while their association in Malakand division was found 24.4%. The TRV associated to its vectors Trichodorus in Hazara division was found 8.94% while in Malakand division was 20.70%. It was concluded that molec...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...GGS mammalian expression vector under the control of chicken β-actin promoter. The construct was transfected into 293T HEK (Human Embryonic Kidney) cell line for in vitro expression of the recombinant plasmid DNA. The confirmation of H5 protein expression was performed using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. The humoral immune response was evaluated by intramuscular immunization of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens w...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
..., and indirectly it is a vector to 16 plant viruses. The study presents data referring to the external morphological characteristics, to the biometrical measurements and to the life cycle of Aphis nasturtii. The researches have been carried out for a period of four years on the potato and for a period of two years on the orchards from Romania. At the Aphis nasturtii species the smallest length of the body found for aphids captured in Romania was ...

 Gul Zamin Khan*, Imtiaz Ali Khan**, Inamullah Khan* and Mian Inayatullah**

OUTDOOR BREEDING OF MOSQUITO SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...ol of breeding of dengue vectors in the target sites.

...

 Usman Shakoor*, Abdul Saboor*, Irfan Baig*, Anila Afzal** and Abdul Rahman***

CLIMATE VARIABILITY IMPACTS ON RICE CROP PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN

 Umar Ijaz Ahmed*, Liu Ying**, Muhammad Khalid Bashir***,
Muhammad Amjed Iqbal*, Muhammad Rizwan*, Muhammad Mazhar
Iqbal****, Muhammad Rafi Qamar***** and Aftab Nazeer******

SPATIAL PRICE TRANSMISSION IN PAKISTAN: THE CASE OF WHEAT AND RICE MARKETS

 Tasawar Sultana*, Farah Deeba* and S.M. Saqlan Naqvi*

HIGH-THROUGHPUT AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA IN COMPARISON TO TWO EXPRESSION VECTORS
...ation efficiency of this vector was compared with expression vector from pCAMBIA series over-expressing same gene (pCOsRGLP1). A lower number of explants generated hygromycin resistant plantlet for instance, 18.3 with pGOsRGLP1 vector as compared to 35.5% with pCOsRGLP1 vector. Transformation efficiency of PCR positive plants generated was 9.4% for pGOsR...
Basit Zeshan1,2,*, Mushtaq A. Saleem2,Javed Iqbal Wattoo2, Mohd Mokhtar Arshad1 and Maizan Mohamed1
...and cloned into transfer vector. Truncated S1 gene designated as Sf200 (containing five antigenic sites located at 24–61, 291–398 and 497–543 amino acid residues of S1 glycoprotein) were amplified by overlap PCR, cloned into prokaryotic expression vector resulting pET-Sf200 and confirmed the construct by sequencing. The recombinant plasmid was identified by restriction enzyme and seque...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
Farhan Ahmad1,*, Muhammad Waris Sanjrani1, Shah Nawaz Khuhro1, Asif Sajjad2, Abid Ali3, Rashad Rasool Khan3, Farooq Ahmed3 and Junhe Liu4,*
...sia tabaci G.) being vector of CLCuV in Pakistani cotton crop is responsible to cause an economic damage. A survey of whitefly populations and its parasitism with connection to temperature and relative humidity was conducted in fourteen cotton growing districts of Sindh province (southern Pakistan) for 2012 and 2013 seasons. There was a significant difference in whitefly population and percent parasitism among the fourteen districts. The highest average wh...
Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam1, Iram Gull1, Zaigham Abbas2,* and Muhammad Amin Athar1
... coli using pET-SUMO vector and determination of its biological activity. SUMO-IFNα2-Tα1 was successfully expressed in soluble form with IPTG induction to final concentration 0.5 mM at 37oC for 4 h and purified using affinity chromatography. SUMO tag was removed from SUMO-IFNα2-Tα1 by SUMO protease and recombinant IFNα2-Tα1 was collected in flow through by affinity chromatography. The MW (~23 kDa) of IFN&alpha...

Ghufran ul Haq1*, Muhammad Arif2, Asad Ali2 and Mian Inayatullah3 

...nd the population of its vector, whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), and determine the transmission properties of the prevalent isolate of the virus in the major tomato growing areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). For this purpose, surveys were conducted in the hilly areas of Mohmand Agency and Malakand Agency and plains of Shabqadar, Charsadda and Peshawar during 2011, 2012 and 2013, to determine the incidence of TYLCV and the population of its

Muhammad Fiaz1*, Muhammad Afzal1 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2 

...us plants and a putative vector of Huanglongbing worldwide. Treatments were comprised of label-recommended (FD) and its half (HD) dose rates of spirotetramat and I. fumosorosea formulations. Both treatments were applied either alone or in binary combinations. There was a significant reduction in psyllid population for all treatment combinations as compared to control (F8, 107 = 70.36; P-value = 0.001 for 2016 and F8, 107 = 63.58; P-value < 0.001 for 2017). ...

Dilshad Ahmad1*, Muhammad Irfan Chani1 and Muhammad Afzal2 

 Saiqa Andleeb* , Shaukat Ali

RNA interference; A tool for treatment of human diseases
...olled through RNAi. Some vectors and inducible systems are available now to treat numerous disorders. This review paper provides the basis for further development of RNAi technology as a drug therapy against various human disorders.

...
Huseyin Cetin1,*, Oner Kocak2, Emre Oz1, Samed Koc1, Yesim Polat1 and Kalender Arıkan2
...is known as a mechanical vector of many pathogenic bacteria, fungi and parasites. The use of synthetic pyrethroid (SP) insecticides is recommended by the World Health Organization for the control of adult houseflies. Despite the fact that SPs have been used effectively, this insect has developed resistance in many regions/countries of the world. The use of synergistic substances to overcome insecticide resistance is widespread. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is used...
Aisha Khalid1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Tahir Yaqub2, Ali Raza Awan1, Muhammad Wasim1, Shagufta Saeed1, Sehrish Firyal1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori3
...and pET28a as expression vector. Effect of various concentration of Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), post induction time, effect of temperature and pH were examined for the maximal production of recombinant cellulase. The effect of supplementation of LB medium with additional carbon and nitrogen sources was also analyzed for maximal production of recombinant protein. Higher level enzyme activity was recorded at 25°C, pH 7.0 when the cells...
Yan-Guo Han1,2, Jun-Hua Ye1, Qin-Tao Zhao1, Yong-Jie Huang2, Kai Li2, Yong-Fu Huang2 and Li Xu1,*
...) was orally given empty vector vaccine. Blood samples were collected before primary immunization and at weeks 3, 5 and 7 after primary immunization and body weight of offspring were weighed at weeks 0, 2 and 4 after birth. Both SS-14 and SS-28 DNA vaccines induced humoral immune response, however, antibody response in T1 group were significantly stronger than that in T2 and C groups. Serum GH levels in T1 group was significantly higher than thos...
Hong Ma*, Bo Fu, Liang Wang, Zhong-qiu Li and Di Liu*

 

...e embryos with pcDNA 3.1 vector, (69.7 ± 3.5% vs. 64.6 ± 1.8%, and 24.8 ± 2.2% vs. 15.9 ± 4.3%, respectively). However, blastocyst cell number was not different between groups. Furthermore, proto-oncogene was reported to play roles in embryo development, thus we assessed c-Fos, c-Jun, Raf-1, and c-Myc mRNA expression in HSPC117 transgenic and pcDNA 3.1 blastocysts. It was revealed that over-...
Rana Waqas Arshad1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Kamran Ashraf2 and Raheela Akhtar1,*
...ficantly greater in live vector vaccine group than other vaccinal groups. ELISA revealed high antibody titre in live vector vaccine group and a partial protection was observed in birds vaccinated with immune complex or intermediate plus vaccines. Consistently, histopathological lesions of IBD were less evident in live vector vaccine group in comparison to other groups. In addition live
Gul Afshan1,2,*, Soumble Zulfiqar2, Sumaira Mehboob2, Muhammad Tahir Javed Khan1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,*
... cloned first in cloning vector pTG19 and subcloned in expression vector pET21a. E2 protein, expressed in insoluble form, was purified by repeated sonications, followed by denaturation and refolding through fractional dialysis with urea. Multiple alignment with other sequences showed nucleotide variations of HCV3a E2 compared with already reported sequences. A total of 140 (11%) point mutations were found in Pakistan’s...
Uzma Rafi*, Asmat, Muqaddes Niaz, Syeda Shazia Bokhari and Aisha Waheed Qurashi*
... for the growth of these vectors.
...
Shou-Hong Zhang1*, Ying Zhang1, Kun-Ming Wen2, Wei Wu3 and Wen-Yan Li3
...s an effective and novel vector for gene delivery in vivo. Further, we confirm that HGF represents a valid liver anti-fibrotic molecule. PWI might be an effective method for quantifying the severity of liver fibrosis.
...

Betül Ayça Dönmez, Sarbesh Das Dangol and Allah Bakhsh* 

... harboring pBIN19 binary vector that further contains gusA gene, interrupted by an intronic sequence, under the control of 35S CaMV promoter. After transformation, we analyzed the transformation efficiencies of each of the Agrobacterium strains using the histochemical GUS analysis. The highest gusA gene transfer efficiency rate both for leaf (60%) and internode (100%) explants was observed in cv. Desiree using Agrobacterium strain GV2260, while the highest gen...

Waseem Abbas1, Shakeel-ur-Rehman2, Abdul Rashid2, Muhammad Kamran3, Muhammad Atiq2 and Muhammad Ehetisham ul Haq3* 

...e cotton leaf curl virus vector (Bemisia tabaci) and indirectly the disease incidence. Leaves extracts of four plant extracts i.e. Calotropis gigantea, Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa and Azadirachta indica were evaluated at 3 % concentration against eggs hatchability and adult emergence of the whitefly in lab condition. Two consecutive sprays were applied to assess the relative impact of different plant extracts against adult whitefly population and the dise...
Yan-Guo Han, Yu-Qing Han, Jia-Yuan Wu, Jia Guo, Ri-Su Na, Yan Zeng, Guang-Xin E, Yong-Ju Zhao and Yong-Fu Huang*
...roup (Group T) and empty vector group (Group C), and these vaccines were given orally into the ewes at weeks 0, 3 and 6 of the research. Blood samples of ewes or offspring lambs were collected at week 6 or 9 of lactation, respectively. Serum SS, prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations were detected by radioimmunoassay. The offspring lambs in T group showed significantly lower serum SS and higher PRL concentr...

Hamoudi Naoual1, Alloui Nadir2*, Barberis Abdelhak2 and Boudaoud Amine2 

Yan-Guo Han, Jia-Yuan Wu, Ri-Su Na, Wei-Jiang Si, Yu-Qin Han, Yan Zeng, Yong-Ju Zhao and Yong-Fu Huang*
...T1 and T2) and the empty vector groups (groups C1 and C2) for immunisation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 10 and 14 weeks after primary immunisation for the detection of kisspeptin antibodies and testosterone by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Scrotal circumference was detected from week 0 to week 14 after primary immunisation, and the testes were weighed at week 14 after primary immunisation after slaughter. The concentrations of 4-meth...

Tingting Li, Shuangshuang Geng, Long Xie, Huiyan Xu, Aolin Luo, Pengwei Zhao, Huan Yang, XingWei Liang, YangQing Lu, XiaoGan Yang* and KeHuan Lu*

...ac eukaryotic expression vector, which was stably expressed in Sertoli cells, thus establishing a PB-GDNF-Sertoli cell line. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results showed that the GDNF gene expression in the PB-GDNF-Sertoli cell line was significantly increased compared with that in the control Sertoli cell line (p<0.01). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results showed that GDNF gene secretion was also significantly incr...

Atta Ur Rehman, Laiq Hassan, Nasir Ahmad, Kashif Ahmad, Shakirullah

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE AND HAMMING DISTANCE USED FOR IRIS RECOGNITION

 Fcroz Shah*~ Mohammad A. Irfan**, Rizwan Gul*~ Abdul Shakoor*

ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR NUMERICAL DETECTION OF HOT SPOTS IN CASTING GEOMETRY
...hese sections from where vectors are generated which interact with surround- ing edges, comers, curved surfaces, holes etc. of the geometry. These vectors develop a

Inayat Ullah*, Shah Khusro**, Saeed Mahfooz**, Azhar Rauf**

IMPACT OF NETWORK SCALABILITY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF RIP AND IGRP FOR EMAIL SERVICES
...e classified as distance vector and link-state routing protocols. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) are examples of distance vector while Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) are link-state routing protocols. Both RIP and IGRP are using different metrics to evaluate best route to a destination in the network. RIP us...
Sitara Nawaz1, Shamaila Irum1, Haroon Ahmed2, Shazia Shamas1, Sadia Roshan1, Muhammad Ather Rafi4, Irfan Ullah5*, Gulnaz Parveen3*
...elonging to dipteran are vectors of human disease called leishmaniasis. It is one of most neglected diseases in our country. The main purpose of the study was to identify the prevalence of sandflies in selected regions of Panjab and their relationship with hospital-reported cases of Leishmaniasis. Clinical information of 124 patients was recorded. Observable factors of prevalence include age group, gender, financial status, clinical symptoms, and travel histor...

Usman Ghani*, Naeem Ijaz* and Daulat Khan**

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MEANDERING OPEN CHANNEL FLOWS
...s and secondary velocity vectors over different sections along the meander wavelength for the four cases to enhance the understanding of the primary and secondary flow fields and boundary shear stresses using numerical simulation. It was observed that the direction of secondary currents depends upon flow depth and their strength increases with increasing depth of flow. In compound channel flow cases, the overbank flow velocities are stronge...

Mohammad Enamul Hoque Kayesh1,2*, Mohammad Tufazzal Hussan3, Md. Abul Hashem2,4, Mohammad Eliyas5 and A.K.M. Mostafa Anower1

Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Infection: An Emerging Threat to Cattle Health in Bangladesh
...Animal Health). LSD is a vector-borne disease, and climatic conditions of Bangladesh are favorable for the propagation of vectors, which should influence the rapid transmission of LSD in the cattle population of Bangladesh. Therefore, LSD may appear as a big challenge to cattle health in Bangladesh in the near future. Consequently, it is very important to take strategic plans and immediate control measures for LSD outbreak c...
Dibyendu Biswas1*, Shib Shankar Saha2, Shankar Biswas3 and Md. Abu Sayeed4
Outbreak of Lumpy Skin Disease of Cattle in South-West Part of Bangladesh and its Clinical Management
...ct or through biological vectors such as mosquitoes, flies and ticks. Sporadic cases of LSD have been observed in cattle elsewhere. The aim of the present study was undertaken to evaluate the present scenario of LSD and its clinical management at different house-holds at south-west region of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was developed and data were collected from the two upazila (Monirampur and Abhaynagar) at Jessore district. A total of 52 small hous...
Muhammad Rizwan1*, Bilal Atta1, Ana Maria Marino de Remes Lenicov2, Roxana Mariani2, Arshed Makhdoom Sabir1, Muhammad Tahir3, Misbah Rizwan4, Muhammad Sabar1, Ch. Muhammad Rafique1, Muhammad Afzal5
...Delphacids are primarily vector of the viruses, whereas Cixiids are vectors of phytoplasmas, mycoplasmas and prokaryotes-like associated to the class Mollicutes. Specimens of planthoppers were collected from the rice fields and surrounding weeds. A list of Fulgoromorpha is provided, with distributional and biological records as well. Records are extracted primarily from field data and specialized reference sources. Seven spe...
Zengwen Huang1,2, WuReliHazi Hazihan2*, Baheti Bodai2, Kadyken Rizabek3, Nuralieva Ulzhan3, Omarova Karlygash4, Juan Zhang1 and Yaling Gu1*
...aryotic siRNA expression vector was constructed with the cloned gene as the target and validated at the cellular level.Three RNA interference fragments at different sites were designed based on obtained cDNA of the target gene and the siRNA expression vector pGenesil 10-3p-siRNA was constructed. The siRNA expression vector was digested, identified and sequenced, and then transfected into Y...

Iram Bilqees1, Yasir Iftikhar1, Mustansar Mubeen1,2*, Qaiser Shakeel3, Ashara Sajid1, Zahoor Hussain4, Aqleem Abbas2, Muhammad Aamir Sohail2, Judith Jeruto Kiptoo5 and Shehzad Iqbal2

Use of Nutrients and Plant Extract to Manage Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease (OYVMD) in Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...sistant to OYVMV and its vector. The growers are advised to apply micronutrients along with the plant extracts to control these diseases to enhance the okra production.

...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Obinna Oragwa Arthur2, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1, Sarah Joseph1, Geoffrey Chibueze1, Joshua Adetunji1, Joseph Ameh Okwori3, David Ochola Amanyi4, Otobo I. Ujah5 and Onyemocho Audu6

Seroprevalence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection among Slaughtered Ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria
...nt contact with infected vectors, animal body fluids and other tissues. We aimed to determine the prevalence of antibodies against RVFV in slaughtered ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 100 livestock (cattle and goats) at selected slaughter locations in Jos Metropolis. Questionnaires were administered to obtain information on animal species, sex, and localities of origin. The blood samples were screened for RVFV antibod...

Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed Youssef* and Suzan Abd-Elazeim Hassabo

The Role of Genetic Engineering in Management of Plant Parasitic Nematodes with Emphasis on Root-Knot Nematodes: A Review
...cteria, plasmid or other vector system in which they are capable of continued propagation. Azotobacter spp. with nematicidal activity could control root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. The development of such strains by genetic manipulation by transferring gene (s) required for saponins production is effective in increasing crop yield together with fixing nitrogen. Escherchia coli is still used as a host for the recombinant DNA technology – based i...

Masoud Hassani1* and Omid Madadgar2,3

Serological Evidence of Bluetongue in Iran: A Meta-Analysis Study
...ology and BTV serotypes, vector control, animal movement restrictions and vaccination program to reduce.

...
Muhammad Shoaib1, Imran Rashid1*, Haroon Akbar1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi3, Muhammad Asif3, Mumtaz Ali Khan4, Shakeel Mahmood5 and Farhan Anwar Khan6
...t-size: small;">Ticks as vectors of various human, livestock and companion animal diseases are most important globally. In accordance to its economic impact the current study was conducted in three districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan i.e. Mardan, Kohat and Swat. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ixodid ticks and associated animals’ related risk factors. A total of 434 tick infested cattle from three districts wer...
Nasir Rashid1,2*, Javaid Iqbal1,2, Umar Shahbaz Khan1,2, Mohsin Islam Tiwana1,2 and Amir Hamza1,2
...ved. Variants of support vector machine (SVM) have been used for classification of four movements. Significant improvement in results has been exhibited by quadratic multiclass SVM (Q-mSVM) in terms of classification accuracy. The technique shows average accuracy percentage of 78.48% and maximum accuracy of 88.19% for one of the subjects. The proposed method has shown superior experimental results as compared to the previous studies using the same dataset for ...

Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar*, Sania Waliat, Shafaat Yar Khan, Naila Amjad

...is a pest that acts as a vector of various diseases. Chemical insecticides are used on large scale for the effective and quick management of this pest but it has developed resistance against various insecticides in many countries of the world. This study was designed to check the resistance in M. domestica against selected insecticides from Bhalwal as no previous work has been reported from this area. Flies were collected from two different localities i.e., lo...
Mansour, L. L.*; Othman, B. A. **; Abd-EL Ghaffar, M. H. **; Eman, M. Marai** and Sahar, A. Youssef* 
...d into PCR™-4-TOPO vector (3.956~kb) and were
transformed using minipreperation method. Component-6 was sequenced to
determine the phylogenetic with other published isolates. Phylogenetic tree showed
the identity percentage of Egyptian isolate group of BBTV-component- 6 with
component 6 of Indian, Taiwanese and Pakistani isolates group was 97%, whereas
it was 84% in case ofChinese isolate group....

Aya El-Turkey1, A. K. El-Attar1, A. E. Aboulata1, B. Othman2 and K. A. El-dougdoug2

... PCR2.1/TOPO/ TA cloning vector. HSV-2gD fragment was liberated from 1 μg recombinant plasmid by using the restriction endonuclease EcoRI. HSV-2gD was successfully sub-cloned into binary plant expression vector PBI-121. HSV-2gD subunit-containing binary vector PBI 121 were transformed into Agrobacterium tumifaciens LBA 4404 strain for Agro-inoculation. Tomato plants were transferred int...

Ahmed K. El-Attar; Samah A. Mokbel; Ali H. Hamed

...nced in the TOPO cloning vector. The
CP gene sequence has been submitted to the GenBank and compared to other available
isolates of OYDV. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that the
Egyptian isolate of the OYDV is related to other isolates from Japan, Netherlands, Israel,
Brazil, China, India, and Poland with a similarity ranged from 70 to 93% among those
isolates available on GenBank...
Amro A. Farrag1; Ahmed K. El-Attar1; Om-Hashem M. El-Banna2; Ibrahim A. I.2; H. M. Mazyad 1 
.../div>
pJET cloning vector and directly sequenced. The sequence alignment and phylogenetic
analysis showed a relatively high diversity among the three different isolates that the
identity ranged from 89 to 94%.
...

Aly M. Abdel-Salam

...s
and in its vector Saccharicoccus sacchari and in another unidentified
Pseudococcidae- mealybug. Amplicons for the RT/RNaseH motifs of the two virus
isolates were cloned, sequenced, and submitted to the GenBanak. Pair-wise nucleotide
identity indicated 86% identity between the Giza and Assiut isolates. NCBI-blastn
analysis for the two isolates with four SCBV accessions retrieved from the GenBank

Amira A. Mazyad1; A. A. Kheder1; Ahmed K. El-Attar1; W. Amer.2; Mahasen, H. Ismail.2; Amal, A.F.1

...ma americanumas nematode vector or mechanically from infected strawberry plants onto 16 host species belonging to seven families. Typical leaf curling, chlorosis, vein clearing and stunting were appeared on indicator host (cucumber) 3 weeks post inoculation. Stability experiments of SLRSV showed that the thermal inactivation point was 48-62°C; the dilution end point was 10-4 to 10-6 and the longevity in vitro 10 - 18 days at room temperature. The diagnosis...

A. A. Rezk1,3, K. A. Alhudaib2 and A. M. Soliman2,3

...oned into the expression vector upon induction; the viral protein was expressed as 6XHis-tagged CYSDV fusion protein in Escherichia coli cells BL21 strain. The purified protein was immunized by injecting to New Zealand white rabbit using 6 injections at weekly intervals intravenously and subcutaneous. The rabbit blood was collected by bleeding and the antiserum was obtained. IgG was purified and conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. The conjugated antiserum was ...

Maha A. El-Abhar1, Moustafa A. Elkady1, Khaled M. Ghanem2, Hussieny A. Bosila3

...iv>in some regions where vectors easily move into potato fields from reservoir host, particularly if a tuber
necrosis-causing strain is involved.
Objective: : The purpose of this study is to characterize biologically and serologically AMV infecting
potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Egypt. Moreover, the study described the histological and cytological
effects of AMV infection in potato leaf cells.
Metho...

Ahmed K. El-Attar1, Samah A. Mokbel1 and Om-Hashem M. EL-Banna2

...
into pCR®4-TOPO vector before proceeding to DNA sequencing and the alignment of
sequences.
Results: Electron microscope examination of negatively stained preparations from
symptomatic basil leaves revealed viral particles have a bacilliform structure with particles size
of 112.5 nm in length and 57.5 nm in width. Initial microscopic analysis suggested that the
described symptoms are caused by...
Ahmed A. ElWakil1, Ausama A. Yousif2 , Adel A. Fayed3, Ibrahim M. elsabagh2, Mahmoud
El Gamal2, Omnia H. Refaei3
... when virus remains with vector from
one life stage to the next and transovarian is transmission of virus from parent vector to its egg.
Objective: Investigation of LSDV replication capacity in ticks uses targeted detection of the viral
DNA polymerase mRNA and metagenomics analysis using MinIon technology.
Methods: A total of 34 adult female ticks were collected from three LSD ...
Shourok E. Aly 1, Karim Zaki1, Soad E. Elsayed2, M. Elgamal2, Ausama A. Yousef1, Mohamed A. Shalaby1
...in Egypt is dependent on vector control and
yearly vaccination of livestock using an aluminum hydroxide gel-adjuvanted inactivated Rift Valley
fever virus (RVFV) vaccine.
Objective: Herein, we aimed to enhance the immunogenicity of the conventional vaccine by
developing a smaller particle size vaccine formulation through ultrasonic dispersion of aluminum
hydroxide adjuvant.
Methods: This w...
Hassan Shahzad Khan1, Muhammad Tariq1*, Tariq Mukhtar2 and Asim Gulzar1
...lbopictus is a known vector of many diseases such as Dengue, Chikungunya, Zika and Yellow fever. Many control measures have been adopted to manage the vector of these diseases. The excessive use of insecticides has led to development of resistance in Aedes albopictus and negative impact on the environment and non-target organisms. To overcome these problems, emphasis is being laid for alternatives such as biopesti...
Azhar Abbas Khan*, Humaira Kanwal, Sumair Batool, Zeshan Hassan, Jawad Munawar Shah, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif, Ahmad Nawaz, Hasan Taha and Yasir Ishfaq
...">Insect pests and their vectored diseases are the most common factors which cause severe damage to the cotton crop. In this two year study, the effectiveness of Commando plus®, Oshin®, Talstar®, Radiant®, Movento® and Maximal® was evaluated against Thrips tabaci, Amrasca biguttula and their impact on bio-control agents in Bt cotton. More reduction in T. ...

Syed Rashid Ali1*, Saad Uddin Khan1 and Ahmed Raza ul Mustafa2

Farrukh Ilyas1, Durdana Qaiser Gillani2, Mudassar Yasin3, Muhammad Amjed Iqbal4, Iqbal Javed5*, Shahbaz Ahmad6 and Iftikhar Nabi7

Farhat Iqbal1, Abdul Waheed2*, Zil-e-Huma3 and Asim Faraz2
... random forests, support vector machine and gradient boosting machine methods have been used to predict the live body weight (target variable) of the animal. The predictors (independent variables) included in the current study were sex of the animal, neck length, diagonal body length, head girth above eyes,shank circumference, belly sprung, and rump height measurements of beetal goats (1 – 7 years in age) of Pakistan. In order to test the performance of ...
Wei Luo 1,2,3, Yongtao Jin 1,2,3, Xuqing Li 1,2,3 and Ke Liu 1,2,3*
...Furthermore, the contour vector of the herbivores is obtained by extracting the mask generated in the detection of the MASK R-CNN, following which the information of both the population number and the distribution of all kinds of large herbivores can be estimated. According to the data of domestic herbivores on hand provided by the General grassland station of Qinghai province, the difference percentage of Tibetan sheep, yak, and horse is 7.5%, 8.1%, and 18.7%...
Abdul Sattar*, Hasan Orooj and Muhammad Iqbal Afridi
...adopted WHO strategy for vector control, however, a new strategic tier was additionally introduced i.e. high risk mapping and response. The team of DHS (Health) envisaged that the load of disease followed by precise micro plan/ mapping that details out distribution of disease, vector (pre-adult and adult stage), as well as sectors vulnerable for dengue be earmarked for timely interventions in window period (winter). The resu...
Abdul Sattar*, Hasan Orooj and Muhammad Iqbal Afridi
...adopted WHO strategy for vector control, however, a new strategic tier was additionally introduced i.e. high risk mapping and response. The team of DHS (Health) envisaged that the load of disease followed by precise micro plan/ mapping that details out distribution of disease, vector (pre-adult and adult stage), as well as sectors vulnerable for dengue be earmarked for timely interventions in window period (winter). The resu...

Mustafa Ozan Atasoy

...t of safer and efficient vector vaccines, which convey immunogenic genes of interest obtained from vitally important diseases. Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has long been considered a versatile tool owing to its non-pathogenic characteristic, relatively higher transgenic capacity, and enabling the DIVA strategy. Numerous bivalent and multivalent HVT constructs have been generated by various methods and some of these constructs have been made commercially availa...

Hongqun Li1,*, Liganag Xing1, Xiaoli Liu2, Yonglan Pu3, Yuqing Yang3 and Yongyao Fu1

...mented. Moreover, insect vector control actions should be conducted on suitable and moderate suitable habitats.

...

Lin Huang1, Ling Mai2, Keyan Zhong1 and Xinjun Chen3*

...o prokaryotic expression vector. The recombinant plasmid pET-30a(+)-SeFABP was constructed, then transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) and induced by IPTG. The purified SeFABP was obtained by Ni-IDA resins affinity chromatography, and were finally confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The results showed that SeFABP, a stable intracellular protein without signal peptide and transmembrane region, was composed of 130 amino acids (AA). It contained 10 phosphorylat...

Yongjie Xue1, Jinling Yan1, Huifeng Zhao1*, Haijing Zheng2 and Changhai Ma1

Sajad Ali Solangi1, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1*, Rehana Naz Syed1, Sohail Ahmed Otho2, Khadim Hussain Wagan1, Agha Mushtaque Ahmed2, Fahad Nazir Khoso2, Aftab Raza Jarwar3 and Suman Tarique Qazi1

...ip among the disease and vector insect was determined. The minimum incidence of the disease was recorded in variety Advanta-1211 (13.85%) and Lima (18.85%) followed by T-1359 (23.30%), Early king (25.51%), TO-1057 (27.21 %), Advanta-1225 (29.41%). Minimum 1-rating score was recorded in Advanta-1211, Lima and T-1359 varieties. Significantly minimum number of whiteflies was recorded in variety Lima (2.3 whiteflies), Advanta-1209 (2.3 whiteflies), Kiara (2.4 whit...

Arif Mehmood*, Muhammad Naeem and Ata-ul-Mohsin

...occurred due to mosquito vector. This pattern informs about the active period, favorable temperature and humidity ranges of the mosquitoes, hence the clues for controlling.

...

Bikash Puri1, Anil K. Tiwary2, Bharata Regmi3,4, Dinesh K. Singh1, Doj R. Khanal5 and Manoj K. Shah3*

...ciation (p<0.01) with vector density and resulted in 46.5% of seropositivity. It was concluded that bluetongue disease exists in the international border areas of Nepal and its prevalence was widespread among cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat. The present study showed sex, age and vector population as the main influential risk factors for BTV infection. Further studies are imperative to identify the

Sana Khalid1,2*, Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman2,3, Usman Hameed2,4, Shabnum Shaheen1, Muhammad Naveed Shahid5, Khajista Jabeen1, Farah Khan1, Muhammad Saleem Haider1

... an important element of vector specificity and mandatory for insect transmission as well regardless of the type of gemini virus. This study was planned to conduct virus acquisition and transmission experiments using screen cages in an insectary for the period of one month. For this purpose non-viruliferous whiteflies (B cryptic species) were reared and used to acquire the viruses for 48-72 h from the agroinfiltered symptomatic tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana D...

Ramy S. Yehia1,3, Essam A. Shaalan2* and Hashem M. Al-Sheikh1 

...portant insect acting as vector of some diseases. Entomopathogenic fungi, particularly Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, and botanical oils have shown potential as synthetic insecticides alternative for house fly control. In the present work, local isolates from both fungi as well as their mixtures with essential oils were evaluated against house fly larvae under laboratory conditions. Batches of house fly larvae (25 individuals per replicate and ...

Djadouni Fatima* and Meliani Amina

...eir spreads are contact, vectors, air, water, feeds, wastes, and pollution. Environmental conditions play an important role in increasing the spread of disease, which is often found in humid and warm seasons compared to temperate zones and Saharan zones. So through this review article, we try to show the different ancient and modern methods of treating these diseases and to share them with other societies.

...
Aqsa Fayyaz1, Muhammad Kashif Zahoor1*, Asma Ashraf2, Muhammad Asif Zahoor3, Azhar Rasul2, Humara Naz Majeed4, Muhammad Zulhussnain1, Kanwal Ranian1, Bushra Riaz1, Nazia Khalil1 and Attaullah1
...y serves as a mechanical vector for Newcastle disease. During the current study, houseflies were captured and examined for the presence of NDV. A total of 80 samples were collected from eight different poultry farms located around Faisalabad city with ten samples from each farm viz. Khurrianwala road, Shahkot road, Faisalabad road, Satyana road, Jhumra road, Nankana sahib road, Lahore road and Jaranwala road. Homogenate from house flies was first harvested in ...

Xian Zhang1, Erjiang Lin1, Shizhe Hong1 and Zhengjie Zhu2*

...cell group and the blank vector group, the expression of Akt, GSK-3β and β-catenin proteins in the SSAT transfection group was significantly down-regulated (P <0.05), the cell proliferation was significantly inhibited (P <0.05), and both apoptosis rate and mortality rate increased (P <0.05).Transfection of SSAT can reduce the proliferation and increase the apoptosis and necrosis rate of prostate cancer LNCaP cells by inhibiting the expressio...

Manish Gautam1*, Pravakar Kattel2 and Krishna Kaphle3

... transmitted by both the vector and non-vector routes and is mainly seen in the rainy season. It mainly affects cattle and buffalo manifesting nodules in skin and mucous membrane with a high fever. Since the first report of this disease from the Morang district of Nepal in 2020, the disease has been spreading in various parts of the country. Cattle are comparatively more affected in Nepal than buffalo. Though this disease ha...

Nkiru E. Ekechukwu, Felicia N. Ekeh, Chinenye M. Ohanu, Hope C. Ezinwa and Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie*

...ify;">Insects act as the vector for various microorganisms. They have the potential for spreading diseases in the environment where they are found. Many insects are associated with animal feces and manure, and abattoirs are one of the important sources for such contacts and disease dissemination. We assumed that understanding the diversity of insect fauna might help to shade light on vector insect-borne diseases, prevalence ...

Mujahid Tanvir1, Muhammad Asam Riaz1*, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Mazhar Iqbal Zafar2, Muhammad Tariq3 and Muhammad Bilal Tayyab1

... the important arthropod vectors of diseases such as malaria, dengue, filariasis and systemic allergic reactions in humans. Southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say is found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and transmits many zoonotic diseases in humans and in wild and domestic animals. It is primarily controlled by the extensive use of conventional synthetic insecticides against most of which it has developed resistance. This study w...

Feng Xu, Weijing Fan and Guobin Liu*

... NEXN-AS1 overexpression vector, and then treated with ox-LDL for 24 h before detecting the activity, apoptosis rate and oxidative stress level of HUVECs. The low concentrations (25, 50, 100 μmol/L) of rutin had no toxic effect on HUVECs, and the activity of HUVECs was significantly reduced after intervention with high concentrations (200, 400 μmol/L) of rutin. ox-LDL treatment significantly reduced HUVECs activity, CAT and SOD levels,NEXN-AS1 expression...

Aiman Batool1, Muhammad Sohail Sajid1,2*, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan3**, Asif Iqbal4, Imaad Rashid5, Ibadullah Jan6, Faiza Bano7, Fiaz Ahmad8, Waqas Ahmad1, Muhammad Nisar Khan1 

... parasitic infection and vector transmitted diseases in a better way.

Keywords | Prevalence, Ecto-parasites, Endo-parasites, Risk factors, Small ruminants 

...

Ghulam Murtaza1,6*, Muhammad Irfan Fareed2, Noshaba Munawar3, Muhammad Nadeem Khan4, Gul-E- Zahra5, Taskeen Ahmad6, Muhammad Daud6 and Taqi Raza6

...ince it is the principle vector of several arboviruses. Insecticide application is the most essential component of the present global strategy for the control of mosquito-associated diseases, and vector control is a critical component of that strategy. However, the present study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of five different insecticides (Spinosad 100%EC, chlorfenapyr 36%SC, pyriproxyfen 10% EC, matrine 0.5 AS and ...

Liyun Chang1, Aiju Liu2, Jianshuang Zhang3, Yingbin Chen1 and Zhiyong Liu4*

...a prokaryotic expression vector, pET-21a-SAG2, which was constructed and induced to express a recombinant protein (SAG2), identified using SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. The purified protein was then used as a coating antigen to establish an indirect ELISA method for detecting the T. gondii antibody in pet cats, whose reaction conditions were optimized. The SAG2 gene was successfully cloned into a pET-21a (+) prokaryotic expression <...

Xiangli Dong1,2, Shilin Mikhail Borisovich2, Jiji Li1,*, Jianyu He1, Zeqin Fu1, Yingying Ye1, Julia N. Lukina3, Olga V. Apalikova4 and Jianshe Zhang1

...yotic protein expression vectors (MRC1 (1044bp)-pET32A and MRC2 (993bp)-pET32A). We performed SDS-PAGE analysis of the expressed L.c-MRC1 and L.c-MRC2 proteins and demonstrated high protein expression levels and purity. This study generates some essential molecular biology tools for the study of L. crocea MRC1 and MRC2 protein structure and function. These tools will enable us to better understand the biological functions of MRC1 and MRC2 in defending against ...

Qi Zhuo, Yuanchun Yao, Meisongzhu Yang*, Jinhua Chen and Miao Tian

...trol group and the empty vector group, the HDAC8 gene knockout group had less colony formation (P<0.05). Compared with the miR-216b-5p mimic group, the expression of HDAC8 protein and HDAC8 mRNA increased in the miR-216b-5p inhibitor group (P<0.05). The miR-216b-5p mimic group had lower HDAC8 protein expression and HDAC8 mRNA expression than the control group(P<0.05). It is concluded that HDAC8 is an oncogene that can promote the proliferation and dev...

Iram Amin1,2*, Shazia Rafique1, Nadeem Ahmed1, Muhammad Shahid1, Samia Afzal1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah1, Mohsin Ahmed Khan1 and Muhammad Idrees1,3

... in bacterial expression vector. The expression of recombinant protein was checked by SDS-PAGE and after the purification of protein by using Ni-affinity column. antigenic protein was confirmed with Western Blot analysis. The study demonstrates the expression and purification of HDAg recombinant protein of HDV local isolate in the bacterial expression system. The purified protein has potential to be useful as an antigen in Diagnostic ELISA and as a vaccine can...

Farheen Shaikh*, Saima Naz and Nadir Ali Birmani

...lue, and also serve as a vector of some bacteria and helminthes parasites. Presently only one type of host, guinea fowl Numida meleagris (Linnaeus, 1758) was selected and examined for parasites examination, investigation, identification, population density, means and rate of infestation of from different urban and rural localities of Sindh, Pakistan. There were 15 guinea fowl Numida meleagris (Linnaeus, 1758) were captured and brought to the Parasitological la...

Monu Karki, Amit Kumar and Gnanavel Venkatesan*

...ators, antivirals, viral vectors, and recombinant vaccines.

...

Muhammad Afzal1,3*, Shafqat Saeed1, Hasan Riaz1, Muhammad Ishtiaq1, M. Habib ur Rahman2

...tegies for CLCuD and its vector whitefly.

...
Aadil Sultan, Mohsin Ahmad Khan*, Nadeem Ahmed, Muhammad Hassan, Rashid Bhatti, Hafsa Naeem, Muhammad Islam Khan, Saad Tahir,  Samia Afzal* and Ahmad Ali Shahid
...reased by increasing the vector copy number. However, increased number of expression vector poses some metabolic burdens on bacterial cells. The current study provides gene multimerization strategy as an alternate way to amplify the gene dosage and explores its effect on the expression of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) by constructing three types of expression vectors i.e., pET28-EGF...

Muhammad Ahsan Riaz1, Ayesha Riaz2, Muhammad Asif Mahmood3, Muhammad Uzair Mukhtar3*, Zaib Un Nisa1, Beenish Ijaz4 and Muhammad Shahid Rasool5

...ce of Aedes aegypti as a vector of several medically important pathogens, evaluating the body length variation of Aedes aegypti larvae with the changing seasonal temperature is important. The study was conducted to observe the difference in body size and different body structures of Ae. aegypti larvae in two seasons, i.e., southwest monsoon (June through September) and retreating monsoon (October and November). The fourth instar larvae were collected from area...
M. A. Abou El- Nasr1, Kh. A. Dougdoug1, Hayam S. Abdelkader2, and Rehab A.
Dawoud2
... cloned into pGEM-T-Easy vector and hybridized to PPV DNA specific probe labeled with Dig-I 1dUTP. DNA sequencing using fluorescent dideoxy nucleotides showed that the capsid protein region of PPV-EA strain had about 65% sequence homology with other strains of PPV and 45% similarity to the CP or PPV-D strain. A PCR fragment coding for the 43 C-terminal amino acids of the Nib and the N-terminal part of the CP (complete variable region plus 19 amino acids of the...

M. A. Amer1; M. H. El-Hammady2; H. M. Mazyad1; A. A. Shalabyl and F. M. Abo-El-abbas

... Xa-l protein expression vector. The accury of each PCR amplified PVY CP gene was tested by PCR, restriction analysis, and translation. Analysis by in vitro translation using western blotting assay on nitrocellulose membrane using monoclonal antibodies verified that the PVY-CP gene correctly encoded and expressed a protein reacting with PVY antibodies. The CP gene, approximately 32 KDa reacted successfully with P VY specific monoclonal antibodies in dot blot i...

A.S. Gamal El din1; Sohair I. El-Afifi2; A. S. Sadik 2; Nashwa M. A. Abd El-Mohsen1; and H. M. Abdelmaksoud1

Hala A. Amin1; A. Barakat2; A.A. Abou Zeid1

...ncoded by the expression vector plasmid (Pinpoint™ Xa3, Promega) with a fragment of biotin binding protein (BBP-rCTV-CP) was highly expressed and purified from E. coli cell culture. Antiserum obtained from rabbits after injection with the BBP-rCTV-CP fusion protein showed comparable reactivity in the serological detection of CTV. This antiserum could be used at dilution or 1: 10.000 at the detection stage in an indirect ELISA (IDAS-ELISA) and was efficie...

S.A. El-Kewey1; R.A. Omar1; S.A. Sidaros2 and Samaa Abd El-Khalik3

...een the virus and insect vectors were studied.

...
A.l. Abd El-Fattah; A.s. Saclik M.M. El-Kholi; I.A. Åbdcl-Hmnid and M.A. Madkour
...ned into the pGEM-T easy vector and introduced into Escherichia coli strain DH5_ and the plasmid was then isolated. purified for sequencing the nested PCR product. The similarity between the present sequence (SCMVEgvl) and that or the 14 overseas strains belonging to dillërent SCMV groups " as determined.
...

Atena Azarniush1, Majid Moghbeli2*, Farshid Kafilzadeh1, Mohammad Kargar1 and Hooshang Jamali1

...na) and delivered to pGS vector. The vector was transferred to DH5α, then the gene was subcloned onto pHT43 shuttle vector and transformed into the Bacillus subtilis WB600. The vector containing the cloned gene was induced within the WB600 by IPTG. The SDS-PAGE also indicated the successful expression of IL-11 in B. subtilis. A band of about 22 kD ...

Somia Eissa Sharawi

...hows the roles of insect vectors in aiding the transmission of viral pathogens and the possible roles of some insects in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. In this study, we briefly review the possibility of biological or mechanical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by insects in the environment.
 
Keywords | Insects, Biological transmission, Mechanical transmission, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2
...

Navjot Hothi 

...ndirect transmission via vector movement, which peaks during the summer and monsoon months. Direct transmission of the virus is found to be effectively low. Appropriate precautionary measures need to be implemented now to curb the re-emergence of the disease. 

...

Salman Ahmad1*, Muhammad Asim1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed2, Muhammad Atiq3, Yasir Ali4, Hafiz Bashir Ahmad5, Malik Abdul Rehman6 and Naeem Akhtar7

...of Diaphorina citri, the vector of CG, and (2) to record the incidence of CG in different citrus growing areas of Punjab and estimation of losses caused by this disease. To study the dynamics of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), a comprehensive survey of kinnow (Citrus reticulate cv. kinnow), musambi (Citrus sinensis cv. musambi) and feutrell’s early (Citrus reticulate cv. feutrell’s early) orchards was conducted in tehsil Sargodha during 2017 and 2018. ...

Kinza Javed1, Muhammad Ali1, Waqas Farooq2, Majeeda Rasheed1*, Farkhanda Yasmin3, Samiya Rehman3, Sadaf ul Hira1 and Jawad Ali3

...n a place of no entry of vectors, arthropods. The recent review investigated new knowledge on several facets of the disorder, including its distribution, transmission, origin, pathophysiology, host vulnerability, diagnosis, preventiand therapeutic approaches.  Lumpy skin disease virus belongs to Poxviridae family and genus, Capripoxvirus. It cause acute to fatal infection in cattle. Lumpy skin disease results in loss of weight, infertility, abortion in co...
Burarah Arooj1, Zeeshan Mutahir1, Moazzam Ali1, Mohsina Akhter2, Malik Siddique Mahmood1, Arslan Hamid3 and Mahjabeen Saleem1*
...1 cells using the pRSETB vector. Gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography were used to purify the recombinant 52 kDa protein. Purified chitinase showed optimum activity at 60°C and pH 5.5 with colloidal chitin breakdown. Enzyme showed stable residual activity within pH range of 4.5–6.5 and >70% thermal stability upto 60°C for 2.5 h. The activity of chitinase increased in the presence of Mn+2, SDS, and methanol. Chitinase has Km and Vmax ...

Saad Tahir, Nadeem Ahmed*, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Akram, Rabia Abbas and Kausar Malik

...integrated into -pPICZaB vector, cloned and transferred into Pichia pastoris strain GS115. The transformants showing highest resistance for Zeocin™ was selected for protein expression which produced to >350mg/L HSA-SK fusion protein. Further, affinity chromatography was carried out for the purification of the HSA-SK fusion protein. SDS-PAGE, western blot, and RP-HPLC analysis were also conducted, which confirmed the 98% purity of the product with 40% ...

Nguyen Thi Thu Hien1, Dong Huu Rin2, Nguyen Xuan Hoa1, Le Viet Tuan Khanh2, Phung Thang Long1*, Dinh Thi Bich Lan1

...ed into pGEM®-T Easy vector for sequencing, and then was inserted into pET28a vector to express the protein. The cloning result revealed that the gene encoding the M. hyopneumoniae P36 protein was 432 bp in length, and 99.07% similarity to the nucleotide sequence of P36 gene from strain M. hyopneumoniae 7448 recorded in GenBank (accession No. AE017244.1), corresponding to 144 amino acids. Expression of this protein in E....

Abdul Kabir1*, Anees Ur Rahman2, Inzamam Ali Shah2, Ibad ur Rahman2 

...n buffaloes, humans, and vectors. The review also highlights the gaps in research and the need for improved surveillance, molecular characterization, and vaccine development for buffalopox.
 

...

Abida Mushtaque1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh1, Aamir Ghafoor1*, Wasim Shehzad2 and Nadeem Ahmad3

...cloned into pET 40-b (+) vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) competent cells using heat shock transformation method to get expression. The product size was confirmed by restriction digestion. The rOmpH protein was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography by using His-Ni resins to get desired protein and characterized qualitatively by SDS-PAGE by using His antibodies and western blotting. Once purified the immunogenicity of rOmpH was eva...

Bakr3 *, Youssef M.; Nour El-Din3, Hanan A.; Abd EL-Wahed2, Waiel F. and Hemeidal , Aläa A.

...pitopes based on support vector machine (SVM) and subsequence string kemel. The obtained models were tested by 10 fold cross validation method. We applied the obtained models to Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) as a case study using Epitopes Model Applier Software (EMAS) which was developed as open source software and released under general public license (GPL) to predict immunogenic peptides suitable for antibodies production. The thirty amino acids peptide whic...

Soliman*, Ahmed M.; Mahmoud**, Sabry Y. M. and Dawood*, Rehab A.

...cloned into pGEM@-T Easy vector, and transformed into Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain DH5a. The recombinant plasmids were obtained and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The sequence analysis showed that; nucleotide sequence of OYDV-EG [Egyptian isolate (HM473189)] had 82-96% similarity compared with ten reported OYDV isolates. Thus, a method of identification and detection by ...

El-Dougdoug, Kh.A.; Rezk , A.A.; Dawoud, Rehab A. and Sofy, A.R.

...oned into the PCR Il TOPOvector then it was sequenced. Partial sequence 199 bp of CSVdEG is almost identical to that of the prototype 199 bp Canada and USA isolates of CSVd with 96% homology. The sequence of CSVd-EG can be arranged into viroid specific rod like structure. CSVd-EG differ from the prototype isolates Canada and USA at sites occur in regions corresponding to the conserved, variable and right terminal domains which are believed to control viroid pa...

*El-Helaly, Sahar H.; ** Ahmed, Amal A.; * Awad, M.A. and ** Soliman, A.M.'

... cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector, and transformed into Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain DH5a. The recombinant plasmids were obtained and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The analysis showed that nucleotide sequence of the Egyptian isolate of AMV (GenBank Accession No. HQ288892) had percentage of similarity ranged from 97-98% with eight reported AMV isolates. Thus, a method of i...

Karl Maramorosch

...seased plants and insect vectors and the temporary recovery of diseased plants treated with tetracycline antibiotics. The recognition of mycoplasma-like structures was made accidentally by a veterinarian, Kaoru Koshimizu, but no credit was given to his crucial role. The simultaneous announcement of the detection of phytoplasmas in a leafhopper vector by Japanese entomologists was not mentioned by Tokyo plant pathologists. At...

El-Sabagh, I.M.; Hussein, H.A.; Amer, H.M.; El-Sanousi, A.A.; Reda,I.M. and M.A. Shalaby

...o a baculovirus transfer vector under the control of the polyhedrin promotor. A recombinant baculovirus carrying the VP7 gene was constucted through homologous recombination between the baculovirus transfer vector carrying the VP7 gene and Autographa californica Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (AcNPV). Infection of Spodoptera frugiperda (SD) cells with Baculovirus recombinants expressing VP7 protein revealed high reactivity with ...

Amer, H.M.; Hussein, H. A.; El-Sabagh, I. M.; El-Sanousi, A. A. Saber,M.S. and Shalaby, M. A.

... TA baculovirus transfer vector and transformed in chemically competent E. coli. A modified colony PCR assay was utilized to identify the positive bacterial colonies that harbor the recombinant plasmids carrying N gene in correct orientation. Generation of recombinant baculoviruses was achieved by co-transfection of Spodopetra frugiperda (Sf-9) insect cells with a linearized replication-defective baculovirus DNA (Bac-N-BlueTM) and the transfer

Amina A. II. and M.K. Amin

... generalized transducing vectors of genetic material play role in natural ecology.

...

Manal A. El-Shazly1, A. s. 2 Abdel Wahab and Salwa N. Zein3

...ccidentallis Pergamde as vectors of TSWV and IYSV were discussed. Franklinella tritici L. and Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal did not play a role as vectors of these plant viruses. Both TSWV and IYSV had a wide host range the differences in host reactions were studied. TSWV differed in its stability properties from IYSV in dilution end point (DEP) and longevity in vitro (LIV) but the two viruses are heat-inactivated at 55 oc. ...

Mohga M. El-Tahlawey, A. Mandour and AE Aboulata

...on fluctuations of aphid vectors. Infection curve studies and infection rate matching with aphid population fluctuations could help in getting integrated disease management (IDM) strategic manipulation during the growing season. 

...

S.Y.M. Mahmoud1 and M. Hashem2

...lymyxa betae Keskin as a vector and by seed coating with viruliferous cystosori. the thick-walled resting spores of P. betae. as well as by root vortexing in virus inoculum containing carborundum. The virus is not adsorbed to the exterior of the fungal vector but is internalized. Our results indicated that BNYVV is a widespread in sugar beet in Kafr EI-Sheikh Governorate. thus, precaution methods must be taken for reducing v...

A. E. Aboul-Ata, Mohga, M. El-Tahlawey, M. A. Amer and A.M. Mandour

...Of FBNYV (920 bp). Virus-vector relationship was recognized as follows: AAP is 2 hr. IAP is 0.5 hr. Latent period in the aphid is 18 hr. and retention period is 18 days. FBNYV was tested for incidence in the FBNYV-virulefirous aphids (A. craccivora) using PCR products of amplified replicase gene of FBNYV (290 bp) It is not trans-ovarially transmitted through new progenies of A craccivora. The virus has been able to be transmitted by five different aphid specie...

A-New-Whitefly-Transmitted-Geminivirus

..., the viral causal agent vector of the two types of symptoms was found to be Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Based on diagnostic host species and back inoculation assay two different types of symptoms were found. The first consists of identical Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) symptoms such as severe leaf chlorosis and distortion on tomato plants. named TYLCV-Giza isolate, and the other one showed yellow mosaic symptoms on tomatoes, named Tomato yellow mosaic...

Nurlan Akhmetsadykov1*, Tanatar Kydyrov2, Moldir Akhmetzhanova1, Gulnazi Akhmetova3, Maxat Berdikulov4 

...nto the pET28 expression vector after synthesis. The obtained sequences were checked by sequencing for correspondence to the matrix molecule. For transformation E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain was used. To assess the efficacy of the antigen, immunoassay analysis and blot-hybridization techniques were employed. Obtained results showed that 1mM isopropyl ß-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside induction at 2℃ for 18 hours was the most optimal condition for expression of r...

Babi Kyi Soe1*, Toe Win Naing2, Su Lai Yee Mon1, Nay Chi Nway3, Hiroshi Sato4

...ntracellular rickettsial vector-borne pathogens that impact on livestock farmers with major economic constraints and eventually threaten human health in cases of zoonotic species involvement. Therefore, our study aimed to identify Anaplasma spp. infection in a bovine host using both microscopy and molecular techniques. A total of 59 samples were collected from Mingaladon township, Yangon region, and the presence of infection was assessed using a Giemsa-stained...

Kalsoom Abdulrazaq1*, Bisma Arif1, Rimsha Mehboob2, Asma Mehboob3 

Kashif Abdaal, Aneeza Batool, Muhammad Tariq Navid*, Saeed Ahmed, Asma Saleem Qazi, Waseem Safdar, Haidar Ali, Mobeen Ur Rashid, Somia Rafaqat 

...ologies along with viral vector-based vaccines containing specific DNA segment(s) of an infectious pathogen(s), nanoparticle-based and plant-based delivery mechanisms have proven as more targeted and adaptable approaches to boost immune responses. Hence, it proves the vaccines as a big breakthrough in preventive and therapeutic medicine over 200 years and named “Future Medicine”. To assess vaccine safety and efficacy, scientists are now using vario...

AMBASH RIAZ1, SHAHID RAZA2* & HIRA MUBEEN3

...g it into the expression vector. Furthermore, a computational approach was used to understand evolutionary relationships among Cry1AB gene and to identify conserved protein domains in Cry1AB proteins. Use of insilico approach provided new insights of understanding functional characteristics of Cry1AB gene and its variants.

...

Anisa Mushtaq1, Murtaz ul Hasan1*, Asim Shamim2, Muhammad Ali Abdullah Shah1, Muhmamad Arif Zafar3, Abdul Asim Farooq4, Aayesha Riaz1, Muhammad Kamran1 and Saif ur Rehman

...f animals which serve as vector of different types of pathogens like viruses, bacteria, rickettsia and protozoa and cause mortality in humans and animals. This study was focused on morphological and molecular identification of ixodid ticks, using morphological keys and an internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Moreover, the presence of Babesia and Theileria species was also investigated in ticks using 18S rRNA gene. Identification of ...

Qurrat ul Ain Shafique1, Sana Batool2, Hanfa Ashfaq2, Asima Tayyab2, Roquyya Gul3 and Mahjabeen Saleem1*

...current study presents a vector/host combination (pET28a(+)/IL-2) and optimization of expression in LB,TB and M9 media with varying concentrations of inducers (IPTG and lactose) and post induction time. Maximum expression of IL-2 was achieved in LB with 0.5 mM IPTG for 6 hours post induction time. A denaturing purification scheme (Immobilized metal affinity chromatography) was employed for the purification of IL-2. The refolding of the purified IL-2 was achiev...

Arif Mehmood1*, Muhammad Naeem2, Abu Bakkar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1, Muhammad Asam Riaz1, Ikram ul Haq1 and Waqas Raza1

...l in controlling disease vector in case of epidemic. In this study, microhabitats were specified, surveys were conducted to explore specified microhabitats in Chakwal district of Pothwar region, Punjab, Pakistan. After qualitative and quantitative sorting, checklist of mosquitoes along with diversity indices and quantitative habitat web were prepared, which point out the hotspots of different mosquito species. In this study, a total of 580 specimens, comprisin...

Syed Basit Rasheed*, Farrah Zaidi, Samiullah and Tehmina Jan

..., an important neglected vector borne disease, endemic in the northern parts of Pakistan. The disease mainly exist in cutaneous form while sporadic cases of visceral leishmaniasis has also been reported from the affected areas. Present study was designed to know the species composition, relative abundance and seasonal variation of leishmaniasis vector in an emerging endemic focus of Nowshera. Sand flies collected by flit met...
Muhammad Arif Chaudhary, Muhammad Akbar and Muhammad Ajmal Khan
...eshawar > Charsadda. The vector map for road network and major settlements of the basin showed that Peshawar was the most interlinked district than the other four ones. Image processing for drainage network depicted 8 large and small rivers / streams draining out eventually in to the Indus river. All the rivers/ streams were run through Charsadda and Mardan districts except the Shah Alam in the northern part of Peshawar district.

Keywords: Visual Interpr...

Pakistan Journal of Forestry

June

Vol. 73, Iss. 1

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