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 David F. Bradley*, Julie J. Exline, Alex Uzdavines

...es with gods and current interactions with nonbelief.

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Ummara Waheed Khan, Raza Ahmed, Irum Shahzadi and Mohmmad Maroof Shah

Email | mmshah@ciit.net.pk

...ant genotypes, and their interactions, the detail of which is not fully explored. Current article described this issue in detail. The information synthesized would be important to select and manipulate appropriate factor(s) for successful wheat tissue culture and regeneration that in turn
would help its improvement.

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Jonas Johansson Wensman1*a, Karl-Johan Leuchowius2,3 a, Jiting Yan1, Anna-Lena Berg4, Liv Bode5, Hanns Ludwig5, Sandor Belak6, Ulf Landegren2, Ola Soderberg2, Mikael Berg6

...rus-host protein-protein interactions. BDV P (phosphoprotein) and N (nucleoprotein) have previously been reported to interact with several host proteins, thereby interfering with various signaling pathways. In this study, we focused on some of these interactions (BDV P-HMGB1, BDV N/P-Cdc2). First, we used rat glioma cell cultures persistently infected with a laboratory strain of BDV (C6BV ) to establish the assay. Next, in s...

 Zar Muhammad and Mohammad Tariq Jan

...ion, mineral N and their interactions significantly affected maize yield and yield components over two years average data. Compost application produced more maize ears m-2 (13%), grains ear-1 (28%), 1000 grains weight (14%), biological yield (56%), grain yield (65%) and harvest index (5%) over control. Among varying composition composts, higher grains ear-1(274), 1000 grains weight (270.7g), biological yield (16151 kg ha-1) and grain yield (4803 kg ha-1) were ...

 Mukhtiar Ahmed, Jana Pickova, Taufiq Ahmad, Muhammad Liaquat, Abid Farid, Muhammad Jahangir

.... Oxidation affects many interactions among food constituents, leading to both desirable and undesirable products. Food lipids are the foods components that are most susceptible to oxidation, therefore oxidation reactions are one of the major sources of deterioration that occurs during manufacturing, storage, distribution and final preparation of foods. Lipid oxidation products are omnipresent in foods, although much variation exists in their kind and levels p...

Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

...on of complex biological interactions of 226 mammary gland genes to uncover underlying regulatory networks. Data were collected from various databases after having an exhaustive literature study. Network, functional and pathway analysis of the mammary gland genes were performed to find mastitis resistant genes, which helped us to identify prime genes of mammary gland that are more resistant to mastitis, and analysis of those resistant genes helped to find the ...

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

...re ant S. invicta on the interactions between the ghost ant T. melanocephalum and the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the field. The results showed that fire ant invasion significantly suppressed honeydew exploitation by ghost ant. Fire ant suppression markedly increased the ghost ant foraging activity both on plants and the ground. Ant diversity in fire ant-infested plots was significantly reduced compared with in fire ...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

... Genotype by environment interactions (GEI) were significant for all the characters except for thousand kernel weight. The influences of yield components on grain yield were explained by the cluster analysis of environments. Clustering of five test environments based on Shifted Multiplicative Model (SHMM) exposed the major role of grains spike-1 and harvest index in production of grain yield. Though the rate and distribution of rainfall during the cropping sea...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...cete-fungal/actinomycete interactions exist in nature and opens a new area of research in biocontrol of plant diseases. The mechanisms of action of these biocontrol agents against target pathogens are antibiosis, mycoparasitism, competition for space and nutrient, production of certain toxins and secondary metabolites, solublization and sequestration of immobilized plant nutrients, plant growth prowth promoting properties and induced resistance. Multiple

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
...ompatible plant nematode interactions by identifying the genes during the transition from preparasitic to parasitic stage in ear cockle nematode and molya disease of wheat. Currently attempts are being made to utilize RNAi technology to identify the genes targets for the management of root knot and cyst nematodes. In this paper some of the success stories of the technology developed by the scientists at IARI are discussed.
 

 

Koksal Karadas1* and Ibrahim Hakki Kadırhanogullari2
...beekeepers in describing interactions of significant independent variables.
...
İbrahim Aytekin1,*, Ecevit Eyduran2, Koksal Karadas3, Rifat Akşahan4 and İsmail Keskin1
...21 and 45 where order of interactions was three. Except for CD, other predictors were entered into MARS model. MARS showed very high predictive capability (R2=0.9717, R2ADJ=0.9643, SDRATIO= 0.168 and r=0.986) for the data evaluated in the investigation. Also, GCV value of the MARS prediction equation was found as 409.83. In conclusion, it could be suggested that a very reliable prediction equation with the predictive...
Tasleem Akhtar*, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Sheraz Ahmedand Imran Bodlah
...ty depends on population interactions of these pollinators. A field experiment was conducted at PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Research Farm, Koont, Gujar Khan during 2015 to compare the diversity and abundance of different insect pollinators on canola (Brassica napus L. Var. Chakwal Sarsoon) crops along with managed Apis mellifera. Thirty five insect species belonging to twenty families under five orders were recorded on canola. Among the hyme...

Imran Khan*, Zahir Shah, Wiqar Ahmad, Farmanullah Khan and Muhammad Sharif 

...ble water by 25-30%. All interactions remained non-significant. These results concluded that integrated nutrient management improved the soil OM, micro-nutrients content and physical properties of soil. The deep tillage in poorly fertile soils negatively affect micro-nutrients status. Positive influence of DT on physical properties and micronutrients status as well, seems to have been superseded by high OM content in ST soil due to amendments incorporation wit...

 Gulzar S. Sanghera and Wassem Hussain*

HETEROSIS IN RELATION TO COMBINING ABILITY PER SE PERFORMANCE IN TEMPERATE RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
...esters and line x tester interactions for all the traits studied. The specific combining ability (SCA) effects along with per se performance revealed that some of the crosses have shown desirable SCA effects, having superior per se performance for most of the traits thus indicating the selection of these crosses. Based on standard check varieties (SR-1 and Jhelum) assessment of heterosis for effective restored cross combinations showed a significant heterosis ...

 Said Salman*, Shah Jehan Khan* and Javed Khan**

HETEROSIS AND HETROBELTIOSIS PERFORMANCE OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN BREAD WHEAT CROSSES UNDER DROUGHT STRESS CONDITIONS
...osis and heterobeltiosis interactions were noted in Pari-73 x Hashim-08 for 1000-grain weight (29% and 22%), grains per spike (19% and 11%) and spike length (33% and 22%). Promising results were obtained with respect to shorter plant height, maximum spike -1 length, more spikelets and grains spike and achieved all results important for drought resistant cultivars.

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Salar Khan Yousafzai*, Shah Masaud Khan*, Khalil ur Rehman**, Junaid Khan*, Sher Aslam Khan*, Ijaz Hussain* and Ishrat Naz***

RESPONSE OF TOMATO CULTIVARS TO DIFFERENT ORGANIC FERTILIZERS UNDER AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF MINGORA, SWAT
...d varieties, while their interactions had a varied response. The analyzed data showed that poultry manure -1 -1 gave maximum yield (24.65 tha ), followed by FYM (24.38 tha ) and mushroom -1 compost (24.11 tha ) while minimum was recorded in plots where no organic fertilizer was used. The results revealed that cultivar, Rio Grand showed maximum number of plant survival percentage (98.33%), days to flowering -1 -1 (40.73), number of flowers plant (6.23), number ...

 Abdul Razaq*, Muhammad Jamal Khan*, Tahir Sarwar* and Mohammad Jamal Khan**

EFFECT OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION, SOWING METHODS AND MULCHING ON WHEAT YIELD AND NITROGEN UPTAKE
...20% deficit. None of the interactions were found significant.

...

 Nasarullah*, Raiz uddin*, Fakhar Uddin* and Muhammad Jamal*

INTERPRETING WHEAT GENOTYPES FOR GRAIN YIELD UNDER DIFFERENT REGIMES OF KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
... genotype by environment interactions for days to heading, days to maturity, plant height (cm), spike length (cm), spikelets spike , 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Flag leaf area (cm displayed non-significant differences across environments and its interaction with genotypes. Mean values across the environments range between 147.17 to 174.00, 190.83 to 202.83, 23.32 to 54.13,78.40 to 115.17, 9.72 to 13.08, 16.33 to 23.80 for days to heading, maturity, flag...

Shamsher Ali1*, Sarmad Khan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Naveed ullah4, Muhammad Rashid3 and Wiqar Ahmad1 

... plant heights. From the interactions it is clear that under normal soil conditions, emergence percentage of Pirsabak-2004 variety was maximum (100 %), under moderate soil salinity, emergence percentage of Siren variety was maximum (27 %), while under high salinity, emergence percentage of Atta Habib variety was maximum (30 %). Under highly saline soil, the maximum plant growth i.e 1.03 cm, 1.80 cm and 3.77cm after 1st, 2nd and 3rd week of emergence were recor...
Bin Wang1, 2, Qianji Ning1,*, Qian Wang2, Wei Peng2, Tong Hao2,*and Jinsheng Sun2,*
...tains 35 proteins and 32 interactions. By analyzing the subcellular annotation of the molting interaction network, the subcellular localization of 12 proteins was obtained. Half of these proteins located on the cell membrane, indicating the close relationship between molting process and the changes of membrane. The results of this work provide a theoretical basis of the further elucidation of the molting mechanism for E. sinensis.
...

 Maleeha Manzoor1,2*, Ruijuan Ma2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabssum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1

Microalgal-bacterial consortium: a cost-effective approach of wastewater treatment in Pakistan
...ctice, involving various interactions among
the micro and macro fauna and flora of treatment plant. The use of algal-bacterial consortia for wastewater
treatments has proved more effective in biomass production, nutrient cycling and bioremediation of organic
pollutants, heavy metals and many other contaminants. The biodegradation approach of involving consortium might
attain self-sustaining level and may prove technically cheaper an...
Seth Robertson
...xpert facility in social interactions and especially the ability to interpret and utilize indirect communication with ease and alacrity. In this paper, I introduce and discuss the concept of nunchi with a focus on two main senses in which it is used: as a skill and as a burden. Then, I discuss the relation of nunchi to well-being and flourishing, both in specifically Korean cultural contexts and in social contexts more generally. Finally, I argue that because ...

 Tung-Yi Kho

...everyday, mundane social interactions. Because of the general nature of their occurrence, they are not typically associated by the Chinese with well-being or the good life, appearing instead to be unselfconscious practices that are deeply rooted in the Chinese consciousness. The Relationist mode of well-being stands in contrast to the Modernist variant in both its nature and objectives, prompting us to ask: what makes the good life in China and beyond?

...

Mehboob Arslan* and Xin Yang 

... in the cascade of viral interactions, its modulation is essential to decide the final outcome of viral infection. Here, we concisely present how viruses alter the metabolic pathways for their own survival.  

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Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Imran Khan1, Muhammad Afzal1, Azhar Abbas Khan2, Syed Muhammad Ali Zahid1, Muhammad Saqib1, Asad Abdullah1, Saba Kousar1 and Maryam Riaz1 

...mental factors and their interactions. The leaf injury caused by H. armigera was higher (38.5 cm2 and 30.5cm2) on non-transgenic genotype at high and low moisture levels of plants respectively. Similarly, the relative growth and consumption rate of H. armigera was higher on non-transgenic genotype compared to transgenic. Overall the performance of H. armigera feeding was greater on high-watered leaves compared to water stress leaves. The results showed that th...
Mustafa Koyun1*and Şenol Çelik2
... third and fourth-degree interactions were tried. In order to determine the most suitable model, it was taken into consideration that the cross-validity coefficient (GCV), square of error squared mean (RMSE) and Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) statistics were the minimum, the determination coefficient (R2) and Adj R2 values were maximum. In order to estimate the parasitic distribution of the host fish according to the total weight, the ...

Zulfiqar Ali Abbasi1*, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro1, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro1, Naimatullah Leghari2, Muhammad Ibrahim Keerio3, Ahmed Naqi Shah1 and Musrat Begum Abro1 

...ry, varieties, and their interactions on sunflower growth and yield components. The highest seed yield (kg ha-1) and oil content (%) were reported for seed primed with 0.2% ZnSO4, followed by seeds primed with 1.0% Urea. In case of planting geometry, the maximum seed yield (kg ha-1) and oil content (%) were noticed under planting geometry of 85 x 20 cm, followed by 75 x 25 cm. The variety HO-1 proved better in overall performance. The interaction of seed primi...
Shaista Abbas1,Imtiaz Rabbani1, Hafsa Zaneb2, M. Shahbaz Yousaf1, Saima Ashraf2, Abid Hussain Shahzad3, M. Afzal Rashid4 and Habib Rehman1,*
...icant treatment into day interactions during postpartum period. Serum urea, total proteins, albumin, globulin, albumin to globulin ratio, triiodothyronine, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase remained unchanged amongst the groups during the transition period. In conclusion, dietary yeast supplementation has resulted in better DMI and has a potential to improve the ability of Beetal goats to counteract the metabolic stress imposed by the tra...
Xiuqing Hao1, Zhe Hong2, Huili Gao1, Fumin Tian1, Hongke Zhang3, Yu Zhou3, Yuming Guo3, Guang Yang1,* and Bingyao Chen1,*
...ity, and seabird-fishery interactions in the oceans are still relatively rare in China. From November 2013 to January 2014, we utilized line-transect method to investigate the bird community and fishery vessel in Beihai and Shatian, northern Beibu Gulf, China, for obtaining the baseline knowledge. The best model generated the seabirds’ density of 11.47 (95% confidence interval 6.90-19.05) individuals/km2 and 1.94 (1.27 - 2.95) individuals/km
Neelam Pery*, Nayab Batool Rizvi, Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq
...cavity while maintaining interactions with the ATP binding residues. The designed inhibitors show some selectivity for JAK 1 and 3 over JAK2 offering a better safety profile against the harmful effects of JAK2 inhibition.

...

Ghani Akbar1, Muhammad Munir Ahmad1, Abdul Ghafoor1, Matiullah Khan1, Zafar Islam1 

IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES POTENTIAL UNDER SURFACE IRRIGATED FARMS IN PAKISTAN
...sed understanding of the interactions of field sizes and irrigation
efficiencies, which may support irrigators’ decision making for enhancing irrigation performance at no significant
cost to infrastructure, machinery or labour. 

...
Ming-Yan Shi2, Xu-Liang Yan1, Ping-Ping Han1, Yu-Jie Tang1 and Hui-Xia Li1*
...miRNAs, and demonstrated interactions between miRNAs and target genes, which improve our understanding of the important role that miRNAs play in SMSC adipogenic differentiation.
...

Zakeer Ahmed Khan Abbasi* and Allah Nawaz 

... (constraints) and their interactions to help in addressing the native agricultural issues emerging from global climate change. The statistical analysis of the field data supports the assumptions about positive association between climate change awareness and climate change adaptations (R2=44.6, B=.875 and P-value=.000) and negative interaction between climate change awareness and climate change adaptation issues (R2=.318, B=-.707 and P-value=.000). Further, t...

Tahseen Ullah* and Noor ul Amin

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts
...culture medium and their interactions. The plants crude extracts were having significant effects on the bacterial growth in bacteria growth medium while bacterial strains and concentrations have also significant affected the bacteria growth and zone of inhibitions by different concentration. However, the various concentration and bacterial strains were having significant effect on bacteria growth at 0.05 level of Probability. The interaction effect of plant ba...
Ryan Septa Kurnia1* and Radiana Dhewayani Antarianto2
 

...our understanding of the interactions between microbiota and invading pathogens. Commensal bacteria as microbiome can potentially influence mechanism of disease either hindering or promoting the viral infection and sometimes aggravate the disease. In this review, we discuss the histology of respiration epithelium and mucous layers, various microbiome that contribute to the interaction between the host and microbes against infection on the mucus layer in top of...

Ch. Muhammad Rafiq1, Qasim Raza1*, Awais Riaz1, Misbah Hanif2, Wajiha Saeed2, Shawaiz Iqbal1, Tahir Hussain Awan1, Syed Sultan Ali1 and Muhammad Sabar1

...of drought, SA and their interactions were observed on seed germination. Interestingly, varying SA concentrations imparted more pronounced effects under higher osmotic stress levels. Day-wise germination data indicated that the SA treatments alleviated inhibitory effects of different osmotic stress levels after 2–4 days of stress applications. Under medium to high osmotic stress levels, mean germination time, germination index and seed vigour index (SVI)...

Md. Mukthar Mia1 and Mahamudul Hasan2

...preading through contact interactions, environmental pollutants, and the host reservoir, like a stray dog, could be feasible. Distressingly, such a pathogen is currently endemic in Asian nations, including India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and China. Thus, the literature review encompassed comprehensive knowledge concerning contemporary disease occurrence with causes and transmission imperative for management practice. Besides, the study converged on afresh advance...
Eman A. Ahmed1, Osama Y. Shalaby2, Emad F. Dwidar2, Samah A. Mokbel1, Ahmed K. El-Attar1 
...iv>to detect phytoplasma interactions with experimentally host plant. Dienes’ stain was also
used for detection of natural infection of phytoplasma. The phloem of infected tissues
showed scattered area stained bright blue. Different techniques for transmission of
phytoplasma to healthy tomatoes and periwinkles in an insect-proof greenhouse were
tested, including mechanical inoculation, wedge grafting, paras...

Salama M. El-Saghir1, 2

...0%), through synergistic interactions, can occur upon its mixed infection with PVX or PVM.
Therefore, PVS indexing in potato should be put into action along with other potato viruses in Egypt.
...

Reena Ambreen1, Sadaf Sarfraz1*, Fouzia Qamar2 and Shomaila Skinadar1 

...stand the dye-surfactant interactions resulting in the removal of dyes/colored substances.

...
Muhammad Javed Iqbal1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Khalid Abbas1 and Muhammad Shahid2
...energy. In addition, the interactions of protein and energy significantly (p < 0.05) affected the digestibility of crude proteins, lipids, gross energy however, no significant (p > 0.05) effect was observed in digestibility of dry matter and ash. The increasing dietary P / E ratio significantly increased the digestibility of Na, Ca, P, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe. The diet with P / E ratio of 86.67 mg / kcal showed higher digestibility of dry matter (69.38±...
Xueli Jiang1,2, Jie Gao3, Muhammad Zahid Sharif1,2, Xuewen Zhang4 and Fanglin Liu1,*
...heir complex, non-linear interactions, it is difficult to assess honey bee health risks from exposure to real-world floral nectar with complex phenolic mixture. In the study, we investigate the bee losses of Apis mellifera in the flowering period of the Mexican sunflower Tithonia diversifolia in southwestern China, and use data mining approach to model the relationships between nectar phenolics and bee losses. The results show that bee losses are...

Imran Ali Chandio1, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro1*, Qamaruddin Jogi1, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro2 and Siraj Ahmed Channa3

... to Hysun-39. As regards interactions, enhanced seed yield (kg ha-1) and oil content (%) were registered in the interaction of N10 = 125 kg N ha­­­­­-1: three splits (⅓ broadcast at sowing time + fertigation- ⅓ at 1st and ⅓ at 3rd irrigation) × HO-1. It was concluded from the results that nitrogen dose should be divided into three splits and applied at sowing time through broadcasting and fertigated at 1st and 2nd irrigation, re...

Zhang Dong-jie1, He Xin-miao1,2, Wang Wen-tao1,2 and Liu Di1,2*

...hment protein receptors) interactions in the vesicular transport pathway were identified as under selection (P=0.0029). This study describes the genomic framework of the Min pig and identifies signatures of selection. These results provide a useful genomic background for further studies of the genetic mechanisms associated with important economic traits in the Min pig.

...
El-Kholy, K.H.1*, Tag El-Din H.1, Seham N.E. Seleem1, A.M. El-Shhat2
...o treatment × time interactions for the absolute and relative weights of duckling, liver and yolk sac, leg length, relative leg length, and yolk free body weight. However, such interactions were significant for hatchability and Tona Score. The highest values of leg length and duckling body weight/duckling length ratio produced from eggs dipped in nutritive solution were recorded at 17 and 31 d of embryonic ages, respec...

Muhammad Idrees1, Bashir Ahmad2, Muhammad Waqas1, Syed Muhammad Mukarram Shah3 and Saad Ahmad Khan4

...ocking score and binding interactions, ten small molecules were selected for each protein as novel inhibitors. These selected novel inhibitors have significant interaction with the active site of the protein and a strong possibility to act as an additional starting opinion in the development of new and potential inhibitors. The result indicates that novel inhibitors could be a promising lead compound and be effective in treating sensitive as well as multi drug...

Laiba Shafique1*, Mahroze Fatima2, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah3, Muhammad Afzal4, Huma Naz5, Saif ur Rehman1 and Qingyou Liu1*

...mic acid and vitamin D3 (interactions) were synergistically bone mineralization of phosphorus, sodium, copper and also showed positive result for the activity of amylase, protease and lipase. Finally, formic acid and vitamin D3improves bone mineralization and digestive enzymes activity in the C. idella.

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Mona M. Osman1, Kamelia M. Osman2, Manal Abu Elmakarem Mohamed1, Mahmoud E. Hashad2, Jeeser Alves Almeida3, Alaa Saad4, Octavio Luiz Franco5,6, Heba N. Deif 2* 

...in and florfenicol. Some interactions demonstrated significance (p <0.05), such as hemolysis/ tulathromycin (-0.607), tylosin/streptomycin (0.519), lincomycin/ florfenicol (0.808), lincomycin/ oxytetracycline (0.47) and oxytetracycline/H2S (0.76). Our study distinctly elucidates that although H2S production and hemolysis are not relevant (0.26) yet, H2S and antibiotic resistance for oxytetracycline was relevant (0.76). On the other hand, the irrelevance bet...

Anis Suraya Mohamad Abir1, Sakinah Yusof1, Abd Rahaman Yasmin1,2, Abdul Rahman Omar1,3, Kok Lian Ho4, Wen Siang Tan1,5, Abdul Razak Mariatulqabtiah1,6* 

...iability. Studies on the interactions between chicken bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (chBM-DCs) and FWPV and its recombinant viruses are limited compared to other avian viral infectious diseases. Therefore, this study characterised the response of chBM-DCs to infection with the wild-type (WT) FP9 strain of FWPV compared to a recombinant FWPV carrying the H5 gene of avian influenza virus (rFWPV-H5) using morphological and immunophenotypical observations. T...

Mohamed El-Henfnawy*, Essam A. El-Gendy, Ahamed M. El-Kaiaty, Mostafa Helal 

... significant G × S interactions for body weights at 4 and 10 weeks of age. The line effects on body weight traits were significant and consistent except for 2-wk body weight. Also, significant sex effects were shown for body weights at all ages. The effect of sex on biweekly body weight gains and growth rates was significant for the traits from 0 to 4, 6 to 8, and 12 to 14 weeks of age. The line effect was significant for 0-2 and 2-4 growth rates, and 0-...

Aamir Ibrahim1, Bingyao Chen1, Hassan Ali2, Imran Ali3, Yang Cao1 and Guang Yang1*

... their natural or social interactions and anthropogenic activities. Dead bodies of five calves were collected from two different subpopulations in the Punjab river section, two from the Chashma-Taunsa and three from the Taunsa-Guddu barrage. Illegal hunting of Indus river dolphin and utilization of blubber in upstream areas of Punjab is still in practice. Anthropogenic threats are needed to be evaluated for long-term conservation of this endangered species to ...

Abdul Majid1*, Farah Naz1, Nasrullah Laghari1, Sanaullah Abbasi1, Sham Lal2 and Safdar Ujjan3

...s. Such protein membrane interactions would facilitate the membrane perturbation. Here, we confirmed the supporting evidence that lysozyme could perturb the lipid bilayer and conforming the sheet structure. Overall, this research suggests that lysozyme could be a tool for designing the novel drug delivery vehicles along its already published potential application.

...

Syed Wajahat Husain Jaafry1* and Amber Fatima2

...s, cues, and rhizosphere interactions). Numerous studies have been conducted to find how plants respond to different neighbors at various points of genetic affiliation. Contrasting results and lack of molecular evidence in species recognition studies have made this topic more curious and complex. Some plant species compete more vibrantly for below-ground resources when an encounter with neighboring unrelated conspecifics as compared to related conspecifics (ki...

Shahbaz Ahmed1, Mubeen Ahmad1, Muhammad Razaq1* and Farhan Mahmood Shah1,2*

... can also modify trophic interactions in that plant environment. Aphids are important pests of wheat crop causing direct or indirect injury to the crop. The pest is routinely managed through use of insecticides. Insecticides due to their toxic effects are mostly not desired for use on food crops. Thus, alternative approaches such as biological and cultural control are more desirable. This research explores irrigation stress impacts on wheat aphids, predators, ...

Shailendra Sharma, Smriti Shrestha, Naresh Pandey and Laxman Khanal*

...ch disrupts their social interactions. Therefore, identifying the factors affecting social behavior is important for managing animals in captivity. This study investigated whether visitors’ number and disturbance affect the grooming frequency and duration of the langurs (Semnopithecus sp.) housed in Central Zoo, Kathmandu, Nepal. Further, it tested if the effects were biased to the age and sex of the animals. Behavioral data were collected through the fo...

Nagina Zeb* and Noor ul Amin

...IBA treatments and their interactions significantly affected all the growing and rooting parameters. Cuttings planted on July 16 revealed minimum days to sprouting (12.52), more number of sprouts (5.79), high sprout length (44.80 cm), more number of leaves (123), more number of roots (4.73), and plant survival percentage (61.78 %) as compared to the cuttings planted on August, 30 in both the years. Regarding cutting types, semi hard wood cuttings took minimum ...

Yêyinou Laura Estelle Loko1*, Joelle Toffa1, Azize Orobiyi1, Gbèblonoudo Anicet Dassou2, Rolande Okpeicha1, Dieudonné Gavoedo1 and Alexandre Dansi2

...ysical character and its interactions with the others characters influenced soybean grains susceptibility to C. maculatus. Soybean seed thickness showed the higher direct positive effect on soybean susceptibility to C. maculatus indicating that breeding should be done based on this trait to improve soybean seed resistance.

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Farzana Bashir2, Aysha Saleem1, Khalid Iqbal Khichi2, Rubina Nelofer3* and Rauf Ahmad Khan2
...column height) and their interactions were tested by means the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence limits. The antibacterial susceptibility was optimized for flow rate, bacterial count and column height. High regression coefficient between the variable and response (R2=99.4%) showed good evaluation of experimental data by polynomial regression model. The optimum conditions suggested by the model for the variables such as flow rate, bacterial load ...

Emtiaz Ibrahim Ghoniem, Gaber Mamdouh Abdelgalil, Amira Farouk Gad* and El-Sayed Hassan Eshra

 
... of CuSO4 on biochemical interactions of land snail, Theba pisana. Our findings will contribute to understand the biochemical defects of CuSO4.
...

I. K. A. Ibrahim1, M. A. EL-Saedy2, S. F. A. Awd-Allah3 and Z. A. Handoo4,

...ignificant
...

Rukhsana Anwar1*, Ammara Abd-Us-Sattar1, Afifa Noor2, Kanwal Ashiq1,3 and Shah Jahan4 

...etermine pharmacokinetic interactions. Cimetidine, rifampicin, dexamethasone, and tamoxifen were selected as CYP450 modulators. In a sub-acute in vivo study, 200 mg/kg BW of both extracts were orally administered once daily for 19 days to different groups of rats. CYP modulators were administered to respective groups for last 5 consecutive days. Real-time PCR analysis of hepatic CYP450 subtypes, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 was carried out. Moreover, phase II dr...

Tae-Kyung Eom1, Jae-Kang Lee1, Dong-Ho Lee1, Ho-Kyoung Bae1, Hyeongyu Ko1, Kyu-Jung Kim1, Sung-Cheol Jung2, Jong-Hwan Lim2 and Shin-Jae Rhim1*

...community inter-specific interactions and food resources for water deer inhabiting the Seoraksan and Jirisan National Parks.

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Shabana Memon1*, Aamir Ali Abro1, Muhammad Iqbal Jakhro2, Aqsa Farid3, Maliha Habib4, Maqbool Ahmed5, Liaquat Ali Bhutto6, Saba Ambreen Memon7 and Muhammad Farooq8*

...notypes, treatments, and interactions. The results demonstrated a stronger osmotic impact when using -0.5 MPa PEG. At the seedling stage, the genotype SDW-3 had higher decreases in a number of growth indices, such as shoot length (-11.3), root length (-72.6), and shoot fresh weight (-4.4), with an increase in PEG (-0.5 MPa) level. According to the results of the current study, all six wheat genotypes’ seed incubation shoot, root length, and shoot fresh w...

Tasew Getu1*, Wassu Mohammed2, Awol Seid3, Tesfamariam Mekete4 and Bekele Kassa

...micompost (VC) and their interactions for management of the MI and RS disease complex under field conditions. The experiment was laid out in a split-split plot design with three replications. The findings indicated that the treatments and their interactions significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected the development of MI, RS, and impacted potato yield. The cultivar Gudenie had the lowest mean value (2.2) of MI reproduction factor ...
Tabark F Ahmed, Nibras Z. Yahya*
 
...ly. The pharmacodynamics-interactions within double combinations of ascorbic acid (AA) with ciprofloxacin (CIP) and erythromycin (ERY) against E. coli O157 isolate by micro dilution checkerboard assay showed that the combination of ascorbic acid with ciprofloxacin exhibited synergistic antibacterial effects through fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index < 1) against tested isolate, while the combination of ascorbic acid with erythromycin exhibited a...

Ramanathan Baluchamy* and Gnanamani Radhakrishnan

...sent study, examined the interactions between soil fertility and millipedes occurrence in Alagar hills Reserve forest. Millipedes as detritivores significantly affect nutrient cycling through the redistribution of organic material and consequently, the release of biochemical elements such as N, P, K and calcium and reduce the level of carbon content and C/N ratio of the soil. Our field microcosm study included population density and estimation biochemical comp...
Burarah Arooj1, Zeeshan Mutahir1, Moazzam Ali1, Mohsina Akhter2, Malik Siddique Mahmood1, Arslan Hamid3 and Mahjabeen Saleem1*
...ation indicated that the interactions of amino acids Asn 204, Glu 277, Leu 278, Asp 312, Glu 314, Gln 372, Tyr 374, Trp 463, Trp 467 from GH18 catalytic domain with (NAG)2 molecule are involved in the enzyme catalytic mechanism. This is the first time a thermostable chitinase from Paenibacillus sp. Y412MC10 has been cloned, expressed heterologously, and purified.

...
Qiangsheng Wu1, Yumei Yin2, Hui Gao1, Baoding Chen3, Jianjun Yu2, Jian Zhang4, Donglai Zhu5, Fang Liu6, Guohong Ge7 and Ya-Mei Dang8*
...sed genes. The potential interactions and mechanisms of these genes in promoting hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed through bioinformatics analysis. The results showed that the functions of these 1495 differently expressed genes enriched in cell cycle, oxidation-reduction and drug metabolic process. Additionally, the top 10 core genes of these differently expressed genes were mainly participated in cell cycle and strongly correlated with worse prognosis of...

Shafi Muhammad1, Bibi Nazia Murtaza2, Aftab Ahmad1, Muhammad Shafiq3, Nurul Kabir4 and Hamid Ali1*

...ed gene network revealed interactions between IL-17A and various other genes, especially chemokines. IHC analysis revealed significant changes in the architecture of liver especially an abnormal expression of alpha (α)-SMA and the activation and transmigration of Kupffer cells towards the septa.

...

Getulio A. Barcenas Jr.1* and Luisa Marie I. Barcenas2 

...results suggest that the interactions of plant growth regulators applied on the cotyledon and two-leaf stages were significantly different. In conclusion, the application of GA3 enhanced the maleness of flowers for pollination purposes, and ethrel or paclobutrazol improved pistillate flowers for enhanced fruit production. 

...

Salim Saifullah1*, Tasmina Kanwal2 and Khadija Rehman2

...osols and their chemical interactions can exert a significant influence on the formation and characteristics of clouds, thereby affecting climate patterns at both regional and global scales. Understanding the complex relationships between various factors are of the utmost priority in formulating productive policies and strategies for mitigating air pollution and the detrimental impacts of climate change. The objective of this review is to examine the complex i...

Faiza Naeem1, Muhammad Farooq Sabar1, Muhammad Usman Ghani2,*, Qurat Ul Ain1 and Qurat-ul-Ain Zafar1

...f genes based on protein interactions and centrality-lethality hypothesis representing that knockdown of influential node and edge leads toward the development of the disease. This ranking allows identification of the influential protein for the targeted drug discovery and therapies. An extensive study of published articles was conducted to enlist asthma-associated genes reported significant (P-value < 0.05) in the Pakistani population. Pathway Connector (h...

Jinwen Liu, Hong Li, Jinhua Zhang, Jianping Li and Xiujuan Yan*

...iated processes. How the interactions between the aboveground and belowground herbivores communities affect plant development remains unclear? In this study, Holotrichia diomphalia Bates, the belowground herbivore grub that feed on the roots, and Rhopalosiphum maidis, the aboveground herbivore aphid that feed on the leaf were chosen as research objects. Four groups were set based on field investigation, including aphid with grub (A & G), aphid (A), grub (G...
Omaima Khamiss
...s to better know complex interactions between baculoviruses infecting the pest in question (Spodoptera littoralis) in relation to stability or mechanism of infection in the same host multiple nucleopolyhedroviruses (MNPVs) Spli MNPV, and granulovirus SpliGV. Mixed infection of the tow viruses was carried out in vivo and in vitro, showing clearly that the mixture with Spli GV enhance the effect of Spli NPV when it was introduced 24hr prior to NPV or simu...

Shakir Ullah1* and Lubna Shakir

...location, age, and their interactions had a significant influence on the phytochemical composition of E. helioscopia. The plant location had the highest effect on the marginal means of compounds (81.517) while the age influenced a variation by a marginal effect mean of 3.863. Some conjugated and non-conjugated compounds were common in all plant parts and ages whereas others either developed or diminished at certain ages. The conjugated compound (UV+, with blue...

Alif Rahman Rohim Puarada*, Safika, Agustin Indrawati

..., and shaping ecological interactions. The escalating global significance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes within diverse microbiota components has garnered increasing attention due to its profound consequences. Recent investigations have revealed the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among wild bird species in remote habitats, suggesting the potential for these avian populations to serve as reservoirs and sources for emergent AMR profiles. Reco...

Kalsoom Abdulrazaq1*, Bisma Arif1, Rimsha Mehboob2, Asma Mehboob3 

...nimals. Zoonoses involve interactions among a minimum of three species: an infectious agent and two host organisms, which can either be humans or animals. They can spread directly through contact with diseased animals, such as rabies, and through bites, or indirectly through exposure to contaminated surroundings and contaminated food. Vectors, such as mosquitoes or ticks, play a role in the transmission of diseases like West Nile fever and Lyme disease, respec...

Feri Eko Hermanto1, Yuli Frita Nuningtyas1, Filoza Marwi1, Fajar Shodiq Permata2, Agus Susilo1, Muhammad Halim Natsir1*

...e complex web of protein interactions within mucosal immunity and explore the immunomodulatory potential of bioactive compounds found in these herbs. Biological networks were constructed for gut health and mucosal immunity, focusing on common proteins to identify promising targets. Our analysis pinpoints Interleukin-6 (IL-6) as the central protein governing gut health and mucosal immunity. Further exploration reveals that several bioactives, primarily from Tea...

HIRA MUBEEN1, 2*, AMMARA NASEEM1, AMMARA MASOOD2, SHAHID RAZA3 & NAUREEN NAEEM3

...for studying DNA-protein interactions. These findings promote the importance of CRE and TF inactivation of transcriptional networks for enhanced gene expression studies in plants.

...
Fahad Shahzad1, Muhammad Tahir1, Abdul Hafeez2, Muhammad Shuaib2*, Muhammad Shahkar Uzair2, Abdul Jabbar3, Abubakar Sufyan4, Muhammad Aamir Khan5, Muhammad Ayaz5, Hameed Ullah5 and Hammad Ullah5
...gain value among all the interactions. The highest crude protein was noted for protein level (P19.5) and maximum crude protein was obtained with enzyme treatment. Protein level (P19.5) and treatment having enzyme gave the highest AME. It was noticed that the lowest level of protein gave the highest FCR while the enzyme effect showed decreased FCR. The highest live weight, carcass weight, and carcass yield were recorded with the treatment having the highest lev...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

April

Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 2, pp. 503-1000

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