Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
...control the thinking and behavior of others. Yet, as Colin Gunton points out, human beings, thus faced with an enormous diversity of options in virtually every area of human life, end up making important decisions simply on the basis of momentary personal preference. In this article, I first review the classical philosophical understanding of the relation between the One and Many in which the One is conceived as ontologically prior to the Many as their necessa...

Rabbi Paul Shrell-Fox

...r religious practice and behavior. In as much as Judaism places a great emphasis on communal deeds rather than cultural creed, the rabbis still feel comfortable functioning in communities, school settings and informal educational roles. We therefore may expect little existential angst; this was found to be only partially true. Some have found other expressions of their talents, while others anxiously await the opportunity to find alternate means of financial s...

Jonas Johansson Wensman1*a, Karl-Johan Leuchowius2,3 a, Jiting Yan1, Anna-Lena Berg4, Liv Bode5, Hanns Ludwig5, Sandor Belak6, Ulf Landegren2, Ola Soderberg2, Mikael Berg6

...causing neurological and behavioral disorders in a wide range of mammalian animals, possibly including humans. Viral persistence in the brain has been frequently observed, however, the exact mechanisms behind BDV’s ability to establish persistence despite a prominent immune response are not known. Here we have used in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA), a selective tool for studying virus-host protein-protein interactions. BDV P (phosphoprotein)...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed and Dilnawaz Ahmed Gardezi

...ysis and their flowering behavior sugarcane under local conditions. Two year data revealed that genotype HSF-242 showed maximum mean values for, internodes length, brix percentage and reducing sugar while S-08-FSD-19 showed maximum values for number of tillers and stem girth, whereas S-05-FSD-307 revealed maximum values for plant height and number of nodes. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences for plant height, number of tillers, leaf a...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...-floral nectar. A direct behavioral assay was conducted to investigate the dietary preference and effects of different diets on the fecundity, sex ratio and longevity of B. hebetor. Three different diets [Honey syrup, sugar syrup, date syrup and a control (water)] were used with different solution percentage (25, 50, 75 and 90%). It was observed that honey fed wasp pair produces significantly more number of eggs, adults and also lived significantly long...
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
... for the study of animal behavior. The present study analyzed the daily travel distance, home range and group characteristics of scaly-sided merganser Mergus squamatus in Yihuang and Wuyuan counties, Jiangxi Province, China, from December 2012 to March 2013 and December 2015 to March 2016. Results showed that the daily travel distance of scaly-sided merganser was 3100 ± 1313 m; the daily home range was 122,460 ± 42,019 m2; and t...

Habib Ullah Khan1*, Saleem Ullah1, Hamid Ullah Shah1, Muhammad Arif2

Yi-qiang Ouyang1, Zhen-xin Liang1, Shi-wen Huang2, Ying Zhang3, Shao-shi Luo1, Jin-ning Liang1, Jia-fu Li1, Yu He4 and Song-chao Guo1,*

S. Subharani, S. S. Thorat, N. Abem, L. Amit Kumar and T. K. Singh 

A database on parasitoid of insect pests of crops in Manipur, India
... of activity, parasitoid behavior and its biology etc. Image of the parasitoid species are also provided for helping in easy identification of the species. Keywords: Database, insect-pest, parasitoids, Manipur
 

...
Zhensheng Liu1,2, Hui Gao1,2, Jiapeng Dong1, Mingming Zhang3 and Liwei Teng1,2,*
...ding and moving. Feeding behavior differed significantly by sex but moving behavior did not. Activity synchronization indices of same-sex groups were higher than for mixed-groups and were highest for male groups. The activity budget hypothesis of sexual segregation was supported by blue sheep behavior in the Helan Mountains.
...
Mehmet Avci1, Recep Aydin1,* and Jale Metin Kiyici2
...wth, feed conversion and behavioral characteristics of Brown Swiss calves. The calves in treatment group were supplied with mixed ration of chopped roughage (5-7 cm) and concentrate calf starter feed and the calves in control group were supplied with natural roughage and concentrate feed separately. The calves were supplied with milk at about 8% of their birth weights and weaned at 49th day. Mixed chopped and separate natural supply of roughage and ...
Wu Yi-qun* and Xu Xiu
... and rhythm of wintering behaviors of Great Bustard (Otis tarda) was studied with instantaneous-scanning method in the intersection area of the Yellow River, the Wei River and the Luo River located at the middle reaches of Yellow River basin of China. The results showed that standing accounts for 32.75 % of wintering behaviors for Great Bustard, followed by the feeding behavior (27....
Yijin He1, Song Ma2, Bo Liu1,*, Ting Xue1, Qunlan Zhou1, Wu Jin1 and  Kui Chen2,*
...se to chemical sensation behavior of taste receptors. The receptors when compared with T. rubripes, there was 99.2% identity in two kinds ORF sequences, with only 7 bases different, and there were 5 amino acids different between speculated fusion proteins. Under bioinformatics analysis, the T2R1 gene without introns was consistent with the structural domains characteristics of this family genes. The translation protein of T2R1 gene display...

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

... nature and evolutionary behavior of these viruses in the country.

...
Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Rashid A. khan2, Muhammad Rafay3, Tanveer Hussain3, Tahira Ruby4,Fariha Rehman5, Sangam Khalil3 and Sohail Akhtar6
...d to get data on nesting behavior (nest height and diameter), birds plumage variations, courtship behavior, eggs measurements (clutch size, eggs length, breadth and weight), incubation and hatching. The hatching of the chicks was observed to be an asynchronous one i.e., chicks did not hatch at the same time but at an interval of a day (20-25 h). Role of parents during weaning period i.e. feeding and parental care of n...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...graphy presented inverse behavior to that of breed with tick burden and tick infestation. On the other hand, geo-location was only factor exhibiting non-significant ly associated (P>0.05) association with both dependent variables. The study concluded that Rhepicephalus was the most prevalent among the Ixodid genera whereas presumed risk factors were strongly associated with tick infestation and tick burden.
...
Tahira Perveen1,*, Shaista Emad1, Saara Ahmad2, Zehra Batool1, Sarwat Yousuf1, Sheeza Sheikh1, Sara Qadeer1 and Saida Haider1
...ive- and anxiolytic-like behaviors. These effects were found to be comparable to that of the clinically used synthetic drug, fluoxetine.
...
Tariq Mahmood*1, Syed Wasif Ahmed Shah1, Muhammad Rais1, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...enomenon in reproductive behavior of birds that plays an important role during their different life stages. Nest composition and location are important factors in studying utility of plant material by avifauna. The current study investigated nesting use of tree species by avifauna at Pabbi Range Forest Kharian (32.811°N and 73.865°E), District Gujrat, from September 2013 to June 2015. Data were collected from five selected sampling sites by searching a...

Phong Huy Pham*

...: justify;">The foraging behavior of Delta esuriens is observed on a female wasp. To paralyze the prey, a total of two stings in its abdomen segments are used by D. esuriens. The first sting aims at the sixth segment and the second at the seventh segment. The total time of catching the prey is about four minutes. A green worm, one of mainly insect pests on sesban, is one of the preferred prey of D. esuriens. 

...
Francisco J. Ayala
...gy for (1) goal oriented behavior; (2) self-regulating systems; and (3) the function of organs and limbs. On the other hand, the natural history of evolution does not require a Creator or a planning agent external to the organisms themselves. There is no scientific evidence of any vital force or immanent energy directing the evolutionary process toward the production of specified kinds of organisms. Even if a scientific account of natural history is open to th...
...arch was to evaluate the behavioral adjustments of African lion Panthera leo in different sized enclosures. A group of African lionswas observed at Lahore Zoo having one solitary lion, one breeding pair and a pair of siblings that was correlated with group of the same composition at Safari zoo Lahore. The frequency of different behavior patterns displayed by these lions was studied at both study sites for three hours ...

Rahila Nizami1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Intzar Hussain3 and Khalid Rashid

...and how their leadership behaviors affect the performance. Further research is required to provide more comparable evaluations in health sector leadership in diverse cohorts and the presented study provides the baseline to improve this feature in healthcare professionals. 

...

 Akhtar A. Siddiqui and Allah W. Rind*

EXTENSION FIELD WORKERS’ PERCEPTION OF COTTON INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME IN SINDH PROVINCE
...s' knowledge, skills and behavioral change in attitude towards agro-ecological sound IPM practices through FFS training. 

...

 Muhammad Asif Jamil*, Nowshad Khan*, FarhatUllah Khan* and Muhammad Zakria*

EFFECTIVENESS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION TO THE FARMING COMMUNITY OF DISTRICT BHIMBER, AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR
... bringing changes in the behavior of the respondents and solving the problems of farm related issues. It was found that 38% of the aware respondents yield was 50% greater than unaware farmers. It was also concluded that 80% of the respondents had increased the production of wheat while 80.67% had increased the production of maize and 68% had increased the production of millet after getting benefits from the extension services provided by the agriculture depart...

 Mubbashira Nazir*, Saira Batool*, Sultan Ali Tariq**, Abid Hussain** and Ya Sakina**

INTERDECADAL GROWTH VARIABILITY AND DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS OF FRUIT CROPS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...province showed positive behavior for major fruits (citrus, mango and guava) in almost all the decades, except for mango in 1970s and guava in 2000s. The decline in production of mango in 1970s was due to negative growth in both area and yield. While, a slowdown growth in the area and decrease in yield were reasons of decline in production of guava in 2000s. Growth in production of minor fruits showed a cyclical trend i.e., increased and decreased in alternate...
María Magdalena Crosby-Galván1, Bernardino Espinoza-Velasco1 and Mónica Ramirez-Mella2,*
...e to evaluate the intake behavior, productive performance and nutritional status of animals fed with different forms of processed residue of chihua pumpkin.
...
Zahida Parveen1, Safdar Sidra1*, Bushra Nisar Khan2
... preferences and general behavior of these peafowls under captive conditions. Three different diets, based upon the availability of food items, were selected and fed to the birds over duration of one week each. During the fourth week, all three diets were combined and offered to the peafowls. The feed was pre-weighed and the leftover feed was collected and weighed the next day before offering the new feed. According to previous reports at site, the peafowls we...
Syeda Madiha, Zehra Batool, Saiqa Tabassum, Laraib Liaquat, Sadia Sadir, Tahira Perveen and Saida Haider*

 

...uated by different motor behavioral parameters (pole test, Kondziela’s inverted screen test, inclined plane test, open field test, beam walking test and footprint test). Biochemical and neurochemical alterations were also monitored. Pre-treatment with curcumin reversed the motor impairments, biochemical and neurochemical alterations which were produced by rotenone. Furthermore, curcumin treatment restored the dopaminergic and cholinergic functions. We co...
Huma Naz1,*, Sajid Abdullah2, Sidra Naz3, Sidra Abbas2, Wardah Hassan2, Shakeela Perveen2, Moazama Batool1, Laiba Shafique2
...ing acute toxicity test, behavioral changes and catalase activity in liver, kidney, gills, brain and muscle of the fish were also studied. The mean 96 h LC50 and lethal value for C. mrigala was determined as 47.56±0.04 and 93.89±0.07 mgL-1, respectively. The selected concentration of Fe+Ni+Pb+Zn concentrations showed strong and direct relationship with, fin movement followed by mucous secretion, hyperactivity and swim...
Thomas W. Clark
... that mediate choice and behavior. Where the soul once presided, there are, it turns out, only neurons in fantastically complex structures which somehow maintain the coherent psychological and behavioral pattern – character, beliefs, desires – that constitutes each of us as a person. The feeling of being a singular self that owns these characteristics is real enough, but there’s no indivisible thing to whic...
Muhammad Shahid Saeed1, Adeela Shahid2, Samia Jawed3, Muhammad Akram4, Irshad Hussain Qureshi5 
...raction between genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. There are many drugs available for asthma and magnesium sulphate is given intravenously as an important adjunct therapy during the acute severe attack of asthma
Objective: This study was panned to determine the effect of intravenous MgSO4 on pulmonary function test in acute severe attack of asthma.
Methodology: A double blind placebo control study wa...
Fouzia Hadi Ali1, Farhat Naz2, Aban Abid Qazi3
 
...ological and attitudinal behaviors of the healthcare practitioners that could ultimately enhance their WP.
...
Maryam Javed*, Farwa Saghir, Naveera Aziz, Maham Saeed, Asif Nadeem and Wasim Shehzad
...ies. It is an antisocial behavior having strong genetic relation. Current study focused mainly on the screening of genetic marker V158M located in COMT gene for its relation to physical aggression in the four domestic bovine species of Pakistan, which are normally less aggressive. Selected animal species were cattle (Bos indicus), buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Selected marker V158M is present...
Zain ul Abidin1, Aisha Khatoon2, Abdul Whab Manzoor1,*, Nida Arooj1, Sajjad Ali1 and Muhammad Numan1
...s of cow and mule. Clear behavioral changes along with paralysis of tail and hind legs were noticed in the mice of both groups between 11-15 days post inoculation while all the mice were found dead between 15-18 days post inoculation in mouse inoculation test (MIT). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed for both samples gave a product of 443-bp amplifying the highly conserved “N”-region gene of virus confirming the rabi...

 Sobia Faisal1*,Qurat-ul-Ain Ahmad2, Maleeha Manzoor3, Madiha Manzoor4, Faisal Rifaq5

Socio-psychological factors related to tuberculosis diagnostic test seeking behavior in Pakistan
...ining the health seeking behavior of tuberculosis (TB) patients globally,
however, the need to understand why these factors affect the health seeking
behavior of TB patients in the light of behavioral theories in still unmet. This study
evaluates the role of social and psychological factors affecting TB diagnostic test
seeking behavior

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Arif1, Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi3, Muhammad Munir4 and Imran Khan

...haracteristics and yield behavior at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I. Khan (Pakistan) during 2013 and 2014. The genotypes of bottle gourd were Hazarvi, Anmol, Amber, King, Advanta-205, Surbhi, Royal, Nobel, Sharmic and Louki (local check variety). The experiment was laid-out in randomized complete block design having ten treatments (including 9 exotics plus 1 local genotype) and three replications. The results showed that there were significant v...
Jair Millán-Orozco1,*, Jersson Millán-Orozco2 and Luz María Tejada-Ugarte3
...d to analyze the grazing behavior of Saint Croix sheep at 18º N in Mexico. The present study was carried out using ten adult ewes, 32.8±5.1 kg, stocked on a Taiwan grass (Pennisetum purpurem) pasture maintained at a sward surface height of 30 cm. Observations were conducted during daylight hours (06:00-18:00) from May to April of the next year for three consecutive days every month of the following year. The highest (P<0.05) grazin...
Rahat Afza, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed and Muhammad Asam Riaz*
...hrough physiological and behavioral effects. It is crucial to understand the effects of insecticides on the coccinellids. The current research was aimed at determining the intra-guild predation (IGP) of different life stages combinations of Coccinella septempunctata and Coccinella transversalis in the presence and absence of prey and the impact of sublethal concentrations of insecticides on intra-guild predation (IGP) and aphid consumption by coc...
Zhi YiJin1, Shao MingQin1,*, Cui Peng2 and Chen Bin1
...Ducks’ predominant behaviors were resting (36.56%), swimming (21.75%), foraging (20.88%), and maintenance (15.58%), indicating that during the winter, Mandarin Ducks spend most of their time accumulating energy. Mandarin Ducks reduced their energy consumption by increasing time spent on resting behavior. Females spent more time resting than the males, and less time on maintenance and vigilance. No significant differenc...
Juan Augusto Hernández-Rivera1, Jaime Molina-Ochoa2,*, Luis Jorge García-Márquez1, Omar Francisco Prado-Rebolledo1, Rafael Julio Macedo-Barragán1, Arturo César García-Casillas1 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah3
...is susceptible to suffer behavioral, physiological and reproductive damages due heat stress. Breeding searching for tolerant heat stress genes and their incorporation in crossbreeding programs has gained interest in dairy cattlemen concerned by the global warming and greenhouse effect in the environment. This review shows and update of the crossbreeding in dairy cattle in both hemispheres. Here, is reviewed the effect of heat stress on dairy cattle; the mechan...
James Maffie
...ving together individual behavioral extremes (such as fasting and feasting) into a well-middled, individual life fabric; and second, by weaving themselves together with other human and nonhuman agents into a single, well-middled, community life fabric by means of initiating and participating in relationships of mutuality and reciprocity. Humans lived well and lived wisely when they crafted their lives as well-skilled weavers.
...
Guo-hai Wang1, Zai-xi Yang1, Pan Chen1, Wei-ning Tan2 and Chang-hu Lu1,*
... foraging and dispersing behavior of local bird species to examine their role in dispersing seeds of Kmeria septentrionalis, an endangered tree species in a karst habitat in southwest China. Twenty-seven bird species were recorded feeding on its seeds, and fourteen bird species were confirmed as seeds dispersers. The chestnut bulbul (Hemixos castanonotus), striated yuhina (Yuhina castaniceps), scarlet minivet (Pericrocotus flammeus)...

Aziz Ur Rahman* and Syed Mehar Ali Shah 

...y indicated differential behavior of the rice RILs for different traits across different environments. Rice RILs AUP-3, AUP-30 and AUP-29 excelled in performance for yield and yield attributes across locations while AUP-3, AUP-29, AUP-30 and AUP-29 displayed adaptation to specific environments of Peshawar, Swat, Mansehra and Charsadda, respectively. 

...
Lichao Feng1,2, Shaoqing Zhang4, Dianyuan Chen2, Sina Adl3 and Donghui Wu1,4*
...d resources and foraging behaviors stimulated and restrained the acquisition of supplemental nutrients as a strategy for reproduction. To evaluate their food choices, wireworm were exposed to different types of plants associated with their farmland habitat, as follows: mixed pollen and nectar of flowers (Erigeron annuus, Trifolium repens, Heteropappus hispidus, Potentilla chinensis, Hibiscus trionum), or leaves of g...

Essossinam Ali* 

...ers’ risk aversion behavior on inputs use focusing on fertilizer, drought tolerant seeds (DTS) and labor allocation. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from 704 farm households in three regions (Central, Kara and Savannah) in subsistence agriculture in Northern Togo. Tobit and linear regression models were used to analyze the effect of farmers’ risk aversion on fertilizer and DTS uses, and labour allocation, respectively. The r...
Rabia Khalid1, Saleema Bashir Shams1, Bibi Nazia Murtaza1,*, Gaitee Joshua1, Saira Mushtaq1, Hassan Al-Talhi2 and Abdulaziz Al-Amri2
...l activity and sedentary behaviors with the tendencies of metabolic syndrome were evaluated. The experimental and laboratory values for BMI, total cholesterol (TC), total triglycerides (TG), high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were used to demonstrate the incidence of metabolic syndrome. Overall, 39.025% of bank employees and 22.53% of randomly selected control individuals have metabolic syndrome. Amo...
Muhammad Naveed Sheas1, Haris Rasool2, Muhammad Nouman Rafique2, Muhammad Rizwan Tariq1*, Abid Muhammad1, Khubaib Ali1
...ch affects the thoughts, behavior and feelings of wellbeing. Honey and curcumin, traditional folk medicines, are thought to steadfast the defense mechanisms of body against oxidative stress which is a key factor in elevating depression. This study is designed to reveal the efficacy of honey and curcumin against depression in rat model. 24 male wister rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. After the trial, blood biochemistry was done in which antioxidant enz...
Arif Jan*, Abdul Rab, Haroon, Rooh Ullah, Tauheed Ullah and Ikram Ullah
...productive potential and behavior of S. plagiostomus which will be handy towards its culture.
...
Qihang Liu1,2, Yueli Jiang1, Jin Miao1, Zhongjun Gong1, Tong Li1, Yun Duan1 and Yuqing Wu1*
...regulated locusts visual behavior to enhance phototactic effect. These results can be exploited to control pests using light stimulation where orange light time regulates the visual response to intensify bio-response effect.
...
Aqsa Pervaiz1*, Rukhshanda Afridi1, Zahra Pervaiz1, Rabia Masood1 and Hira Pervaiz2
...amine the morphological, behavioral changes and histopathological changes in the liver of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus after acute exposure to methylmercury. The toxicity of methylmercury of Nile tilapia was studied in a static renewal bioassay for 48 hours and 96 hours (96 hours L.C-50 0.22 mg/L). The study was conducted on 40 fish that weredivided into 4 groups A, B, C and D. Group A was considered as control group.Group B, C and D were exposed...

Shazia Akhtar1, Abdul Samad1*, Afshan Gohar1, Muhammad Munir Shahid2, Muhammad Ishtiaq1, Arslan Sarwer1, Adnan Khan1 and Karam Ahad1 

...described the knowledge, behavior, agricultural practices and pesticides toxicity symptoms among the field workers. Over all 72 orchards from 26 Union Councils were covered. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 and sample collection points were presented on map by using software Arc GIS. The response of interviewers was high which indicates their intentions to facilitate the present study. It was found that 12 varieties of peachs are being grown in the selected ...
Bhandari Jyoti1,2, Yasen Shali3, Zhang Zehua4, Yao Xiaoho5, Deng Jiang3, Zhang Yaling5, Wang Cuiling5, Li Yang5, Lei Xueping5, Wang Wenfeng5, Mohammad Farooque Hassan6 and Li Can1,*
...is concluded that insect behavior and environmental conditions co-influence the population density and spatial distribution pattern of this pest.
...
Gasem Mohammad Abu-Taweel
...offsprings’ social behavior, neuromuscular coordination, motor activity, blood parameters and liver structure alterations. On the first day of pregnancy, 30 pregnant mice were equally divided into three groups. Tap water was provided to the control group (Group I). Group II and Group III animals were orally received 5 and 10 ppm of HgCl2.The treatment started the first day of pregnancy and continued to the day 15 after birth thearafter the dam...
Guoan Yin1,2, Lei Wang1, Xiaoyu Zhao1, LangchaoYu1, Liwei Guan1 and 
Dapeng Huang1,2*
...ironment can affect sows behavioral pattern by creating their physiology and psychology imbalances, and postpartum behavioral pattern of sows is related closely with piglet mortality. However, few studies have focused on effects of pregnancy and lactation environments on Postures of primiparous sows during lactation. This study has investigated the postures of lactating primiparous sows raised in the crates or free...
Jiao Qin,Qian-Qian Su and Quan-Sheng Liu* 
...r, the physiological and behavioral mechanisms of cabergoline as a sterilant in practice remain little known. This study determined the effects of different doses of cabergoline on the inter- and intra-sexual social behavior and reproduction physiology in adult female lesser rice-field rats, Rattus losea. Results showed that the ovary weight of female rats treated with cabergoline significantly increased at day 24, bu...
Asim Faraz*
... to the latter group. In behavioral preference the first in order was kari (Capparis spinosa), dhaman (Cenchrus ciliaris) and kikar (Acacia nilotica) among bushes, grasses and trees, respectively for male and female calves in EMS.
...

Grigory Antonovich Nozdrin1*, Regina Gabdrahmanovna Utkina2, Anastasia Aleksandrovna Lelyak2 and Yana Viktorovna Novik1 

...l condition of the fowl, behavior, physical activity, water, and feed consumption were monitored. At the end of the experiment, autopsy and morphometry of internal organs were assessed. No toxic effect of the experimental sample (Vetom 20.76) was observed during the experiment. The fowl in the experimental groups had positive dynamics on the weight gain, growth, and development even at the dosage of the preparation of 5,000 µl/kg. During the ge...

 Muhammad Rafay1,*, Ghafoor Ahmad1, Tahira Ruby2, Muhammad Abdullah3, Fahad Rasheed4, Muhammad Abid1, Sohail Akhtar5, Zulfiqar Ahmad6 and Riaz Hussain7

...g activities and feeding behavior of jungle babbler Turdoides striata from February to September, 2014. The cup shaped nests were made of dry grass and roots by a group of individuals of jungle babbler on Albizzia species having an average clutch size of 4 eggs. Average peripheral and core diameter, depth of nest was 13, 9 and 7 cm, respectively. Breeding completed in 36 days including incubation, nestling, post nestling and fledgling stages of 1...

Muhammad Safdar Hussain1*, Muhammad Farrakh Nawaz2, Muhammad Ayyoub Tanvir2 and Noor-E-Hira

...as to explore the growth behavior of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (recommended for waterlogged areas) and Tamarix aphylla (recommended for arid regions) under water stress. Therefore, a pot experiment was carried out with three treatments: Well-watered, 25% and 50 % drought to achieve said objective. It was found that drought negatively affected plant growth. The mean heights of E. camaldulensis and T. aphylla were maximum (38.16 and 34.7 cm, respectively) at cont...
Ali Uzun* and Bilgenur Yasa
...ake surface and grouping behavior of the species (p>0.05). Temperature and security are the primary effective factors for these subjects (p<0.01). Behaviors related to security developed simultaneously and became normal in a short time after threats disappeared. However, persistent temperature, although it varied from time to time, played an important role during the study (p<0.05).
...
Aamir Mushtaq1,2, Rukhsana Anwar1 and Mobasher Ahmad1,2,* 
...ic activity was found by behavioral and biochemical studies for which male albino mice were grouped into seven groups. Mice were subjected to elevated plus maze, hole board and light dark paradigm on (day 7th and 8th), for behavioral studies after which their brain were removed by decapitation for biochemical assessment. Results indicated the existence of total phenols (170.14 ± 1.16 mg of GAE/g ...
Xiuqing Hao1, Zhe Hong2, Huili Gao1, Fumin Tian1, Hongke Zhang3, Yu Zhou3, Yuming Guo3, Guang Yang1,* and Bingyao Chen1,*
...ry resources and forging behavior of seabirds. The MaxEnt model with the area under receiver operating curve (AUC) value of 0.957 for training data and 0.935 for test data showed reliable and accurate prediction. The distance to coast (64.7% contribution) and bathymetry (30.7% contribution) were the major variables. The model predicted extensive suitable coastal habitat of seabirds in northern Beibu Gulf. The present study provided valuable baseline informatio...
Tehreem Usman1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2*, Khalid Abbas1, Laiba Shafique3 and Qaisra Siddique1

Muhammad Ali1*, Norsida Man2, Farrah Melissa Muharam2 and Siti Zobidah Omar

... the factors influencing behavioral intention of farmers to use ICTs for agricultural risk management. The past research reveals that many researchers had tried to determine factors affecting behavioural intentions of the respondents and TPB has been applied as technology acceptance model in various contexts. However, predicting behavioral intentions to use ICTs for agricultural risk management has not been evaluated from th...

Ayesha Zafar1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Sarfraz2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Sher Muhammad3 and Ghulam Murtaza

...mbalance. The fertilizer behavior in salt stress conditions is quite different as compared to the normal soils. Linseed is an important oil seed crop. Its 50 % yield reduction occurs at ECe 5.9 dSm-1 and ESP value of 25-30. A field experiment was conducted on saline sodic soils to determine fertilizer requirement of linseed. The selected field was saline sodic in nature with pH value 8.57, medium in extractable K and scarce in P and organic matter. The selecte...

Nasrullah1*, Ahmad Nawaz Khoso1, Jamila Soomro2, Ilahi Bakhash Marghazani1, Masood-ul-Haq Kakar1, Abdul Hameed Baloch1, Sarfaraz Ahmed Brohi1 and Muhammad Asif Arain1* 

... investigate the feeding behavior and performance of sheep and goat. The animals were fed on Maize, Sorghum, and Millet. For this purpose, a total of 90 animals (n=45 sheep) and (n=45 goats) were randomly assigned into six groups (n=15) each under 2x3 factorial arrangement. All groups of both species were fed maize, millet and sorghum randomly. Results indicated that goat spent more time to eat than sheep while sheep rumination time were noted significantly (P...

Zulfiqar Ali Soomro1* 

NOISE CONTROL FILTRATION OF LATERAL AND YAW DYNAMICS FOR RAILWAY VEHICLE WHEELSET ON TRACK
...el of error. Further the behavior of lateral and yaw dynamic analysis is observed by implementation of fuzzy
inference system through applicable member functions.

...

Muhammad Naeem1*, Sahib Khan2, Nasir Ahmad3

A DISTRIBUTED GENETIC ALGORITM AND A-PRIORI ALGORITHM FOR THE HUB AND FACILITY LOCATION PROBLEMS
...tand the purchase
behavior of buyers. It has many other applications. In this study, we combine a-priori with a genetic algorithm (GA)
to solve two classical NP-hard location problems namely the Un-capacitated Single Allocation Problem (USAHLP)
and Un-capacitated Facility Location Problem (UFLP). A distributed model of the proposed algorithm has been
implemented. The performance of the algorithm has been evaluated with standard benc...

Razaullah1*, Iftikhar Hussain1 

A TWO-WAREHOUSE SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION WITH CROSS-ROUTE COSTS AND BUDGET, MAXIMUM FLOW AND CAPACITY CONSTRAINTS
...niques for modelling the behavior of manufacturing supply chains have been used
for long in order to allow better planning, minimize total cost and improve efficiency. In this paper, a systematic
approach is presented for the facility placement, optimal production planning and product transportation across
network arcs. An optimization formulation is developed for the determination of production size, locations of network
nodes and ...

Nabeel Maqsood1,2*, Afzal Khan1, Muhammad Khalid Alamgir2, Shaukat Ali Shah1, Muhammad Fahad3 

PTFE THIN FILM COATING ON 316L STAINLESS STEEL FOR CORROSION PROTECTION IN ACIDIC ENVIRONMENT
...ws poor corrosion
behavior in HCL. Hard coating is often required for protection of 316L SS from wear and corrosion. In this research
paper polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was coated on 316L SS by spin coating technique to modify their corrosion
resistance in acidic media containing Hydrochloric acid (HCL). The anticorrosion property of the 316L SS and PTFE
coating was studied in 40% HCL by electrochemical corrosion test and potentio...

Rafiullah Khan1, Waseem ur Rahman1, Misbah Ullah2, Kamran Afaq3, Muhammad Amjad1, Sakhi jan1 

AGE EFFECT ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIP JOINT BONE: AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
...so its
mechanical behavior is of prime importance. The mechanical properties of bone varies with age. In this paper, the
effect of age on various mechanical properties of hip joint bone was investigated experimentally. For this purpose
hip joint bone specimens of male bovine of different age groups were tested for fracture toughness, young modulus
and tensile strength in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the collagen&rsq...

Yasir Irfan Badrashia1, Qaisar Alia1, Mohammad Ashraf1, Muhammad Rashid1 

SEISMIC DESIGN CHARACTERIZATION OF RC SPECIAL MOMENT RESISTING FRAMES IN PAKISTAN-FIELD SURVEY TO LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS
...ficiencies on hysteretic behavior of exterior
beam-column connections. Building stock survey was conducted in five major cities of Pakistan for identification and
quantification of material and detailing disparities between design specifications and construction practices. The effect
of these disparities was studied using quasi-static cyclic testing on two exterior beam-column connections; EJ-1A
(code-compliant) with no deficiencies...

Farid Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Iqbal1 

DEVELOPMENT OF A TESTING RIG FOR VIBRATION AND WIND BASED ENERGY HARVESTERS
...frequency and sinusoidal behavior, usage of
these shakers is limited. The less known electro-hydraulic shakers are more robust, but due to their high forces and
high velocities, these are usually utilized to characterize heavy samples. Electromagnetic shakers are the most reliable
and accurate and are increasingly used for accelerometers calibration and aerospace applications. Unlike mechanical
shakers, electromagnetic shakers can p...

M. Rizwan Gul*

COMPARISON OF THE OF MECHANICAL AND WEAR BEHAVIOURS OF DIFFERNT TYPES OF POLYETHYLENES AND THE EFFECT OF RADIATION CROSS-LINKING ON THESE BEHAVIOURS
...ture resistance and wear behavior. Radiation cross-linking using high energy electron beam or g-radiation constitutes one of the most convenient methods. This study explores the difference in mechanical and wear behavior of different polyethylenes, and compares the effect of radiation cross-linking and radiation dose on these properties. Three different types of polyethylenes: low density (LDPE), high density (HDPE), and ult...

Waheed-ur-Rehman*, Amjad Naseer*, Rashid Rehan*, Mohammad Ashraf* and Muhammad Ibrar*

PERFORMANCE OF BRICK MASONRY CAVITY WALLS WITH DIFFERENT WALL TIES
...esents a study about the behavior of brick masonry cavity walls. Three types of cavity walls were tested, each having two wythes of 4½ inches thickness and 2 inches cavity between the two wythes. The first type did not have any ties, the second types had I-shaped ties while the last one had Z-shaped ties. A total of six specimens were fabricated and tested, two specimens for each of the three wall types. The specimens were then subje...

Usman Ghani*, Naeem Ijaz* and Daulat Khan**

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MEANDERING OPEN CHANNEL FLOWS
... understanding flow behavior and bed shear stresses during floods and for devising flood protection strategies. This study is based on three dimensional numerical simulation of overbank flows in meandering channels. Four different flow cases were considered. The cases vary from each other in the sense of bed slope and overbank flow depth. There were two overbank flow depths for each bed slope. In this study a rectangular main channel flanke...

Sikandar Khan*, Afzal Khan*, Muhammad Tahir Khan*, Muhammad Ali Kamran* and Abdul Shakoor*

DYNAMIC MODELING AND STARTING BEHAVIOR OF A SMALL HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE
...improving their starting behavior.
...

 Shahid Hussain Abro

ROLE OF MN ATOMS ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF LIGHT WEIGHT CHQ STEEL
... does not show such behavior. The presence of Mn atoms at the grain interface was confirmed by line scanning in the SEM and line scanning shows the peak of Mn present at the interface of two grains.

...

 Zawar Hussain Khan1*, T. Aaron Gulliver2, Khizar Azam3, Khurram Shehzad Khattak4

MACROSCOPIC MODEL ON DRIVER PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR AT CHANGES IN TRAFFIC
...sychological driver behavior. Physiological behavior is the time taken to observe and process local traffic conditions and then initiate actions while psychological behavior includes the attitude and awareness of a driver. Thus, the traffic constant encompasses the perception, awareness, attitude, and reaction of a driver. The proposed model is evaluated for changes in ...

 Shakil Rehman Sheikh1*, Zafar Ullah Koreshi1, Nouman Ghafoor1, Muhammad Shahid Khalil1, Muzzamil Ghaffar1

MITIGATING CO2 EMISSIONS OF ACADEMIC BUILDINGS IN PAKISTAN USING ENERGY CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES
...ting, and improvement in behavior pattern could also result in substantial energy savings. The maximum achievable savings can be as much as 50% of the energy cost of the school buildings. Additionally, once extrapolated over the entire school-going population of Pakistan the CO2 emission savings come out to be substantial, amounting to 3.07 M tonnes annually.
...

Uzma Arif1, Sadar Uddin Siddiqui2, Muhammad Fareed Khan1, Muhammad Arshad3 and Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi

...ify;">Seed deterioration behavior during storage of carrot seeds was assessed by subjecting them to controlled-ageing for different temperatures and incubation time during 2016 at Seed Preservation Laboratory, Bio-resources Conservation Institute, NARC, Islamabad. Forced seed ageing was carried out at 25, 30, 35 and 40°C for Day-one (D1) through day-six (D6) of incubation period. Observations were recorded for percent germination, shoot length (cm), root l...
He Wenyun, Zhi Yijin and Shao Mingqin*
...t selection and foraging behavior of Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) in water systems (Raohe River, Ganjiang River and Xiuhe River) of Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Province, China. We recorded 162 individuals and determined 141 by gender: the sex ratio was 1.07. There was no significant male bias (n = 141, p = 0.210). Habitat selection results indicated that Mandarin duck tended to choose habitat with vegetation cover (2.40 ± 0.84) on rive...
Tong Zhang1,2, Feng Xu1,*, Ming Ma1 and Peng Ding3
...et and diurnal rhythm of behavior of black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis) were studied at Altun Mountain National Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. The results showed that foraging was the main behavior of cranes in autumn, accounting for 69.07±1.64% of the diurnal time budget, followed by alert (19.38±0.87%), locomotion (5.97±0.49%), maintenance (2.88±0.60%) and other
Hari Prasad Sharma1*, Shova Adhikari1, Yogesh Rai1, Rajkumar Sijapati1, Sapana Chand1, Manisha Karki1, Rubina Thapa Magar1, Ashik Husain1Khadka Bahadur Khatri1, Melina Karki1, Samiksha Badu1, Sushila Bajracharya1, Somika Pathak1, Rachana Shah2 and Chiranjibi Prasad Pokheral2
...ir activities affect the behavior of animals in the zoo due to the structural design and the attractiveness of animals. The more attractive bird, ostrich Struthio camelus in Central Zoo of Nepal is suffering from visitors’ activities. Both male and female ostrich turn their heads many times towards visitors while they are resting and moving. The female ostrich was less affected by visitors’ presence while resting due to the structural design...
Muhammad Yaseen1*, Xu Shiwei2, Yu Wen2, Ejaz Ashraf1, Muhammad Luqman1, Muhammad Ameen3 and Sadia Hassan4
Farmers Behavior to Participate in Public Sector Agricultural Extension Services: Comparative Analysis of Pakistan and China
...er’s participation behavior concerning public sector agricultural extension services, by comparing the situations of two countries, Pakistan and China. The logistic regression model was used to study the influence of age, education, labor, farm area and villages on the household head’s participation in agricultural extension services/ activities organized by public sector department. For this purpose, a random sample of 160 households from four dis...

Zulnorain Sajid1*, Muhammad Ramzan2 and Noreen Akhtar1

Foraging Behavior and Pollination Ecology of Bumble Bee and Honey Bee in Pakistan; A Review
...tor due to their buzzing behavior, efficiency to forage at low temperature, vibration to burst the pollen sac, high speed to flower visitation at low temperature and solitary colony structure. In northern areas of Pakistan bumblebees are natural pollinators. The various products of honey bee especially honey, royal jelly and bee venom used for the treatment of various diseases like cardiac diseases, hypertension and many others problems. These are the main sou...
Asmat Ullah1,2, Shahid Iqbal1,2 and Furhan Iqbal2*
...e aspects of albino mice behavior in a gender specific manner. Seven week old female and male albino mice were used as experimental animals. Mice were orally supplemented either with 300 mg/ml solvent/Kg of body weight Bauhinia variegata’s leaf extract or with saline solution (0.9% NaCl) for 17 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Rota rod, Elevated plus maze, Light...
Amir Aziz1*, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-us-Sabah1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Sher Muhammad2
Effect of Rice and Wheat Straw and K-Silicate Application on Maize Growth
...ate the growth and yield behavior of maize crop in response to different source of Si (straw and potassium silicate), a pot experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan in 2017. Different treatments including T1= control, T2= wheat straw (deficient @ 200 mg kg-1 of soil), T3 = wheat straw (adequate @ 400 mg kg-1 of soil), T4= rice straw (deficient @ 200 mg kg-1 of soil), T5 =rice straw (adequate @ 400 mg kg-1 of soil), T...
Feng Xu1,2,3*, Weikang Yang1,2,3*, Ming Ma1,2,3 and David A. Blank4
...lance was defined as the behavior for increasing probability of detecting and recognizing a predator before being detected themselves. Group size, human disturbance, environment factors, body size of a prey and a predator, season, traits of species and numbers of others factors were thought to have significant impacts on vigilance. Here, in this study we considered only three of them: group size, disturbance, and predation vulnerability and their impact on the...
Abdul Hameed1*, Ihtsham ul Haq Padda2 and Abdul Salam3
Estimating Food Consumption Patterns in Pakistan by Using Ideal Demand System
... paper is to examine the behavior of national and regional food consumption and purchasing power to develop food security policies. This study estimates the demand for food in Pakistan through indirect expenditure and price utility functions, using integrated household economic survey 2015-16 data and the nonlinear quadratic almost ideal demand system. The paper finding shows that demand for most commodity items except for fruit, meat, sugar and other products...

Imran Ahmad Rana*, Muhammad Ali Yab and Ch. Abdul Rehman

Quality Engineering Tools Implementation a Comparison of Indian and Pakistani Business Organizations
...n both of countries like behaviors and quality roles were varied. Moreover, results obtained from regression analysis display that there are also differences between the critical success factors (CSFs) of six sigma implementation in Indian and Pakistani organizations. Elements like management commitment and six sigma deployment strategies were found significant in explaining variability of six sigma results in the region. Results show that the countries were f...

Mehreen Ijaz

Effect of Weave Type on Tensile Strength of Cotton Fabrics
...ermining the performance behavior of finished fabric. Weaving is one of the commonly used technique and different types of weaves have different effects on mechanical and physical properties of fabrics. The study was experimental in nature. It was aimed at investigating the effect of weave type on tensile strength of cotton fabrics manufactured with various interlacing patterns. Fabrics were manufactured by following three key structures of weaving such as pla...
Jiawei Zhang1,2, Thomas Quirke1, Shibao Wu2*, Shaoshan Li2 and Fidelma Butler1
... and human visitation on behavior and activity level of Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) in captivity. The study is based on activity time-budgets from a flock of over 20 birds at Fota Wildlife Park, Cork, Ireland, gathered during daytime observations over a six month period. The results show that penguins spent most of the daytime in stationary, terrestrial locomotion, preening and swimming modes of behavior, ...

Inam Ullah1,2, WU Qing-Ming1*, Ruqia Bibi2 and Najam Un Nisa2

Comparison of Nesting Site Preferences and Breeding Ecology of Red-Vented Bulbul, Baya Weaver, and Grey Bush Chat in Sheikh Badin National Park Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
...irds’ reproductive behavior. Nests play a pivotal role in various growth stages of birds, including breeding, defense, environmental factors, shelter, and conservation.  The relation between a bird and plant species is considered to be the central aspect of wildlife and biodiversity , which makes the nesting behavior a vital factor when investigating the life of birds. This study was conducted to know the trees us...
Shahid Hussain Abro1*, Mohammed N. Alghamdi2, Muhammad Sohail Hanif3, Hazim Moria2 andHamza Suharwardi1
 
 
... to examine the kinetics behavior of austenitic development at CHQ steel. On several quenching experiments the austenite formed at different temperatures and time 10s, 15s, 30s, and 60sec and 800°C 710°C, 740°C, 770°C respectively. Initial microstructure for both the steel is ferrite and pearlite. AC1 temp: is assumed to be 740°C and AC3 temperature 800°C has been examined methodically. The soaking time and holding...
Ming-Yue Zhang*, Bo Yuan, Xiao-Hui Zhang, James Ayalaand Rong Hou*
...nt role in improving the behavioral selectivity, health and welfare of captive giant pandas. The increase in specific behaviors and the reduction of abnormal behaviors are considered to be important indicators of the physical health of giant pandas, and the ideal result of environmental enrichment is to make captive giant pandas appear close to nature. To understand the effect of Pinus ...
Qin Liu1,2, Bin Wang1,3, Yu Xu1,4, Xiuyue Zhang1, Tao Zeng1* and Jianghong Ran1*

 

...uggested that it had the behavior of facultative cooperative breeding, which was rarely reported in Galliformes. In this study, we isolated 17 tetra-nucleotide microsatellite loci to test parentage and kinship for a wild population with 29 individuals from 10 different families (A-J). The 17 loci with the mean polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.566 and the combined probability of exclusion for the second parent (CPE2 = 99.98%) met the minimum standard ...
Muhammad Tahir Waseem1, Abdul Majid Khan1*, Abdul Ghaffar2, Ayesha Iqbal1 and Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,3
...cating that water intake behavior was also, more or less, same for these species. δ18O (range between -11.4‰ to -3.8‰) variability may indicate a climatic shift in precipitation source or amount rainfall through time. We suspect that grasslands expanded at the expense of forests towards the latest Miocene while environment became drier and warmer. These analyses also reveal that hipparionines shifted from C3 browsing t...
Riffat Sultana1*, Nuzhat Soomro2, Santosh Kumar3 and Ahmed Ali Samajo2
...">We describe the mating behavior of 4 species of Oxyinae: Oxya hyla hyla Serville, 1831, O. velox (Fabricius, 1787), O. fuscovittata (Marschall, 1836) and Oxyina bidentata Willemse. In trials carried out in laboratory we verified the following mating sequence: (1) sexual recognition by antennation; (2) courtship with male turning his abdomen towards the female performing mediolateral antennae vibration and jerking its body antero-p...
Muhammad Tariq Chaudhary1, Saleem Ashraf 2, Muhammad Yaseen3 and Muhammad Luqman3
 
 
...bring positive change in behavior of students to pave the way towards success.
...
Xinjian Wang1,2, Eryan Yang1,2 and Lizhi Zhou1,2*
...mportant presentation of behavioral strategy in response to habitat variations. We studied the behavior of Tundra Swan wintering in the wetland of Huangpi Lake from November 2012 to February 2013. Wintering individuals and water levels were surveyed every day. Instantaneous scan and focal animal sampling was conducted to collect the behavior data. Foraging behavior...
Zhi Wang1*, Wenhua Liu2 and FadaoTai3
...ime budgets in different behaviors remain unclear. Using artificial population of the animal bred in a simulated natural environment, activity patterns and time budgets were investigated. The results showed that the species was clearly nocturnal but varied greatly in the number of daily activity bouts showing bimodal patterns in winter, trimodal patterns in spring and summer, even tetramodal patterns in autumn. It is possible that they are the most active in a...
Shuang Yang1,2, Huiting Zhao3, Xuewen Zhang2, Kai Xu1, Lina Guo1, Yali Du1 and Yusuo Jiang1,*
...ctory cues influence the behavior of wax moth, where males attract females, making them an ideal candidate for pheromone studies. However, the molecular mechanism of chemoreception in G. mellonella pertaining to sex pheromone recognition has not been elucidated. In this study, transcriptome sequencing was conducted on the antennae of male and female greater wax moths to assess the differential expression patterns of chemosensory genes and better underst...
Asif Sadam*, Rahmat Ullah Khan and Sajid Mahmood
...were recorded in feeding behavior, such that, with increasing urbanization the proportion of omnivorous and granivorous species increased while the proportion of species feeding on invertebrates declined. It is concluded that exploitation of urban areas by some species depends on the combination of traits such as gregarious behavior, diet, sedentariness and specific nesting sites.
...
Kai Huang1,2, Wancai Xia1,2, Yi Fu3, Yaqiong Wan4, Hao Feng2, Ali Krzton5, Jiaqi Li4,* and Dayong Li1,2,*
...ggressive and submissive behaviors were used to investigate dominance hierarchies between female individuals in the same one-male unit (OMU), and the grooming reciprocity index was used to detect reciprocal relationships between these females within the OMU. The results showed that loose social hierarchies exist among the females in each OMU, and more dominant individuals have higher grooming incomes. These results are consistent with the aggressive-submissive...

Ahmed K. El-Attar1, Samah A. Mokbel1 and Om-Hashem M. EL-Banna2

... the data concerning the behavior of the virus. Phylogenetic
analysis revealed highest identity with the Hibiscus isolate of the AMV that help in the
molecular epidemiology of the virus. Particular attention should be given to the possibility of
continuous monitoring of isolates of AMV at the molecular level to implement appropriate
control measures.
...

Mohamed M. Mashaly1, Ayman H. El-Deeb2, Momtaz A. Shahein1, Hussein A. Hussein2

...ant difference in growth behavior could be found between its growth
on MDBK and Vero cells that it reaches its highest peak at 48hr for MDBK and 72hr for Vero cells.
The maximum destruction in cell monolayers was observed within 72hr to 96hr post-infection. With an
optimal condition for both cultures, the LSDV titers were 5.2 in MDBK after 48hr and 5.67 in Vero
after 72hr. This rise in virus titer was followed by...

Nadeem Anwar1, Muhammad Luqman2*, Shaoib Nasir3, Moazzam Sabir1, Hafiz Bashir Ahmad4 and Saleem Ashraf5

...harvesting and marketing behavior of citrus growers on their socio-economic development. This research was conducted in district Sargodha, the hub of citrus production. The findings of the study indicate regarding harvesting behavior of the farmers that they do not harvest the fruit by their own. Only a small number of the citrus growers harvest the fruit by their own. Majority of the farmers were found to be unsatisfied abo...

Khalid Mehmood1*, Abdul Rehman2 and Ammara Khan1

...mers’ conventional behavior, lack of awareness, lack of access to quality seed, and lack of promotion of improved crop varieties were found as the major challenges in adoption of improved groundnut varieties in Pakistan. It is suggested that concrete measures should be taken for availability of the reliable seed of improved crop varieties to the farmers. The extension department may encourage the conventional farmers to adopt the improved varieties of gr...
Syed Azmat Ali Shah1*, Asfandyar Ahmed2, Khan Shahzada3, Syed Muhammad Ali4, Akhtar Naeem Khan5 and Akhter Gul6
...ght: normal;">The behavior of solid brick masonry is presented under the application of lateral loads. Two frames made of reinforced concrete, bare frame and masonry infilled frame, were subjected to displacement controlled lateral loading. Experimental tests and numerical modeling were performed, and the results compared show a good relationship. The analysis results match very well with the experimental observations. For numerical modeling of the infi...
Zunaira Noreen* and Khawar Sultan
...d waste in changing bird behavior. Field observations in a variety of land uses (agriculture, forest, lake, urban and landfill) in summer 2018 using the point count method for bird census determined the baseline for 56 species (birds/10 min) indicating a significant change in native avian composition. PCA analysis showed four clusters based on the nature of habitat and species behavior. Agriculture land was found to be the h...
HuaBin Zhang1,2, YaSen Li1, Tao Pan1, Peng Yan1, En Li1, Hui Xue1 and XiaoBing Wu1,*
...zation, and reproductive behavior of the Chinese alligator.
...

Asim Faraz1*, Abdul Waheed1, Nasir Ali Tauqir2 and Muhammad Shahid Nabeel3 

...nounced effect on sexual behavior and may be used for detection of rutting and non-rutting males.

...
Liping Liu and Pengfei Liu*
...ference in mortality and behavior of male and female. Sexual dimorphism indicates divergence selective pressure between two sexes. We determined the sex and age through plumage coloration and measured 6 body measurements of each bird in 122 Brambling Fringilla montifringilla individuals in a wintering roost, which were captured randomly with mist nets. We found both the sex ratios of juveniles and adults were male-biased in this roost, which possible originate...

Huda Bilal1, Hasnain Raza2*, Kaynat Ahmed2, Iqra Tariq2, Qurat-ul-Ain2, Sana Sarfaraz1, Sanaullah1, Maryam Maqsood3 and Ali Raza3

...ng climatic factors like behavioral, morphological, phenological, reproductive, and genetic changes. After all these responses there are many species that are endangered and extinct. This review illustrates that climate change is a severe environmental concern that is affecting land (plants, soil, microbes, animals, and arthropods) and aquatic biodiversity (waterbodies, phytoplankton, coral reefs, and fishes) drastically.

...
Gong Xue-na1, Jia Ting2, Zhang Di2 and Zhu Wanlong1*
...showed physiological and behavioral adaptations to cope with seasonal environmental changing, such as temperature, photoperiod, and food etc. To investigate the physiological and behavioral adaptation strategies in Eothenomys miletus of different areas from Hengduan mountain regions in response to high-fat diet, E. miletus in Jianchuan (JC) and Xianggelila (XGLL) were fed a high-fat (HF) diet for 4 weeks and re...

Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho1*, Philip Akintunde Fatodu1 and Toyin Benedict Ajibade2

...lysed the record keeping behavior of youth farmers in Ekiti State. Specifically, it assessed the level of record keeping among farmers; examined their attitude towards record keeping; assessed the farmers’ knowledge of record keeping; determined their intentions towards keeping farm records; and identified the constraints to farm record keeping. A three-stage random sampling technique was used to select 178 youth farmers on whom a structured interview sc...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

December

Vol. 37, Iss. 4, Pages 1098-1499

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