Halide Nihal Açikgöz1*, Serdal Kenan Köse2 and Ali Açikgöz3

 

 

...ract blowflies. Eggs and larvae of the flies that oviposited on the liver were raised and identified. Six different indices were used to determine diversity (Shannon-Wiener [H’], Simpson Dominance [Sd], Simpson Diversity [S], Margalef Species Richness Indices, Pielou’s Evenness [EH], and Simpson Resiprocal Indices). Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Lucilia richardsi (Collin) (Dipt...

Ambreena Hafiz1, Tanzeela Riaz2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*

...ofile of 4th, 6th instar larvae and adult beetles of deltamethrin-resistant populations of T. granairum collected from wheat godowns of Gujranwala, Okara and D.G khan has been studied in current investigation. The toxicological data generated from deltamethrin-resistant populations was compared with deltamethrin-susceptible population that has not been exposed to any insecticide since thirteen years. From analysis of metabolic profile, it was found that solubl...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...todes did migrate to the larvae and caused some infection after 2, 3 and 4 days. Greatest invasion took place with the highest dose (80,000) with 8 IJ successfully finding and penetrating the larvae. A positive correlation was observed between dose and time and invasion of the host. It is concluded that application of EPN in cadavers may be appropriate in Pakistan because of the non-availability of industrially produced isol...

Marryam Bakhtawar1, Qamar Saeed1* and Naeem Iqbal2

...ival of lady bird beetle larvae on mustard aphid (76.6%) followed by on grain moth’s eggs (20%), immature mealybugs (6%) and the least survival on honey. These findings can lead to the discovery of new artificial diets for the C. undecimpunctata for the mass release in fields in order to biologically control a number of pests for an eco-friendly pest control system.

...

Muhammad Raheel1,*, Nazir Javed2, Sajid Aleem Khan2, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3 and Sohail Ahmed4

...d on Galleria mellonella larvae. The native species included Steinernema asiaticum and Heterorhabditis indica whereas exotic species were S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. G. mellonella larvae were exposed to 300 IJs of each species. After inoculation at different temperatures, the reproductive potential of EPNs increased with increasing temperature and was found to be the best at 25oC. No EPNs species could reproduce at 5oC....
Lingtong Ye1, Chao Cao1,2, Bin Tang1,2, Tuo Yao1, Ruixuan Wang1 and Jiangyong Wang1*
...l COI sequences from the larvae show greater than 99% sequence identity to those from adults, but some larvae share the same haplotypes as adults. These findings clearly indicate that the larvae collected from sea waters around an oyster farm belong to P. websteri, the same species as the adult worms collected from the oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis in that locality. Two po...
Farkhanda Manzoor1, Iram Amin2,*, Muhammad Shahid2,Samia Afzal2,Hania Ramzan1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah2 and Muhammad Idrees3
...ion of dengue virus from larvae of Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) by using PCR. During this study, larvae of A. aegypti and A. albopictus were collected from different localities of Lahore during May to September of 2012 to 2014. RNA extracted from each mosquito larvae pool was tested by nested PCR for detection of dengue virus. Out of total 50 p...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
...43%) adults (n=1050) and larvae (n=550). The samples were collected from four (Shuba Bazaar, Tarnab Farm, Wazir Bagh and Hayat Abad) dengue suspected locations of district Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. A semi-nested multiplex PCR was used to amplify the cDNA of the four dengue serotypes. Six out of 35 (17.14%) adult mosquito pools were found positive for dengue virus with type-2 (77.77 %) and type-3 (11.11 %) while a single (11.11%) pool of con...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...p; 6th instar larvae and adult beetles of phosphine-tolerant populations (previously exposed to phosphine for 15 years) of wheat grain pest, Trogoderma granarium collected from various storage facilities of Punjab, Pakistan viz., Mandi Bahauddin-I, Mandi Bahauddin-II, Gujrat, Gujranwala and Sargodha. The activities of all esterases tested were significantly increased in all field collected phosphine-tolerant populations when compared w...
Sehrish Rasool1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2, Sumra Ashraf1, Maryam Anwer1, Atif Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir1 and Hoor Shaina1
...of wasp eggs (4 eggs per larvae) on the hosts larvae and minimum number of adult wasps was recorded from the hosts G. mellonella 44 ±1.15 (se), and S. litura (39 ±0.57 (se) by placing the highest number of wasp eggs (20 eggs per larvae) on the hosts larvae. Likewise mean width of the head of adult wasp emerged from G. mello...

Neerja Agrawal, Mukesh Srivastava, Akhilesh Tripathi and Amrendra Singh

Survey and monitoring of pests, parasites and predators of pulse crops in central and eastern Uttar Pradesh
...y feeding on H. armigera larvae. In pigeonpea crop, mainly H. armigera, leaf webber Grapholita (Cydia) critica, Myllocerus spp, spotted pod borer Maruca testulalis, plume moth Exelastis atomosa, tur pod bug Clavigralla gibbosa, jassid Amrsca bigutulta, termite Odontotermes spp, green bug Nezara viridula, tur podfly Melanogromyza obtusa, blue butterfly Lampides boeticus, cow bug Tricentrus bicolor and Pentatomorpha bug were recorded while on lentil crop, black ...

Nilesh Suresh Gole and Bijan Kumar Das

Biology of Dichromia sagitta (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), a serious pest of Indian ipecac, Tylophora indica
...agitta on T. indica. The larvae were active almost throughout the year, fed voraciously on leaves and flowers causing extensive damage to T. indica during June and December. Eggs were laid singly or in batch of 2-3 on younger leaves (mostly on under surface) or on young shoot tips. Life cycle was completed in 41-46 days during January- February and 26-32 days during June-July. There were several overlapping generations in a year. Descriptions of different life...

S. Patra, V.W. Dhote, SK F. Alam, B.C. Das, M.L. Chatterjee and A. Samanta

Population dynamics of major insect pests and their natural enemies on cabbage under new alluvial zone of West Bengal
...uary with13.60 and 14.33 larvae /plant during 2011-12 and 2012-13 respectively. Cabbage aphid reached its peak on 9th February (14.17 aphids/inch2 leaf) and 16th February (11.03 aphids/inch2 leaf) of 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. Highest parasitized larvae of diamond back moth by Cotesia plutellae were found on 15th and 8th March with 10.42 and 10.50% larval parasitisation during both the seasons, respectively, whereas ...

Manidipa Chowdhury 

Incidence of saw fly, Athalia lugens proxima Klug. as influenced by level of irrigation and fertilizers on mustard
...saw fly population (0.26 larvae/plant) was recorded on the crop grown without irrigation and medium level of fertilizers (60:30:30 Kg NPK ha-1) while lowest population level (0.10 larvae/plant) was observed at highest level of irrigation (three) coupled with medium level of fertilizers (60:30:30 kg NPK ha-1) and two irrigations coupled with lowest level of fertilizers (40:20:20 Kg NPK ha-1).
 

&nbs...

Muzammil Sattar
...he F1 progeny larvae that developed from adults consuming (Nu lure 5ml) diet had the shortest larval and pupal periods and complete all developmental stages in shortest period of time. Insects reared on different concentrations of proteins. Insects rear on different diets compared on the basis of egg to adult survival, female (%) and pupal weight (g) with low and high protein concentrations.
...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,Waqas Wakil2 andMuhammad Hussnain Babar3

 

...a wide range of bollworm larvae in both agricultural and horticultural crpos. Flubendiamide is a new chemistry insecticide which also controls bollworm effectively and relatively safer for natural enemies and beneficial arthropods. Present investigations were carried out to determine their impact on larval mortality, pupal and adult emergence of 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera litura F. u...
Ayşe Gül Harlıoğlu*
...s, eyed embryo, yolk-sac larvae and absorbed yolk-sac larvae were investigated in rainbow trout(O. mykiss). The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found the highest followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the unfertilized eggs. On the other hand, PUFA was the highest followed by SFA and MUFA in the semen. The proportions of the some fatty acids, such as C14:0, C16:1n-7, C...
Asim Gulzar1,*, Ather Maqsood1, Munir Ahmed1, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Ali2 and Rahmatullah Qureshi3
...aluated on second instar larvae of H. armigera under laboratory studies for toxicity, sublethal and antifeedant effect. The result showed that ethanol based extract was the most effective to control the H. armigera followed by the ethyl acetate. The sublethal concentration of ethanol based extract of C. colocynthis increased larval and pupal duration as compared with control. The percent pupation, adult emergence and pupal weight de...

Imran Ali Rajput1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Imran Khatri1 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi2 

Saleh S. Alhewairini
... 62, 82 and 100% whereas larvae mortality was 72, 77 and 100% after 1, 24 and 48 h, respectively. Alive adult and larvae were completely paralyzed after 24 hours. There was significant difference between 2 treatments, 1 and 24 h, in both adult and larvae. The mortality of both adult and larvae was 100% after 48 hours of exposure to oxamyl. In the field, ...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2,* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...nd 6th instar larvae and adult beetles of phosphine-tolerant populations were evaluated with reference to phosphine-susceptible population as a control. The activities of NADPH-CPR, ethylmorphine-N demethylase, aniline 4-hydroxylase and soluble protein contents were significantly increased in all field collected phosphine-tolerant populations with reference to phosphine-susceptible population. Among developmental stages, the 4th instar

Bashir Ahmad1*, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Hayad Zada2, Shahid Sattar1, Toheed Iqbal3, Saddam Hussain1 and Muhammad Saeed4 

...pulation was 2.1 and 2.0 larvae and pupae per plant in the year 2012 and 2013 respectively. The population increased in September to highest number of larvae and pupae per plant (8.25 and 8.4) were recorded in the years 2012 and 2013 respectively. Then population declined from September to November 3.5 and 3.1 larvae and pupae was recorded per plant in both years as the lowest number. In t...
Ali Murad Rahoo,1,2,* Tariq Mukhtar,1,3 Shoukat Ibrahim Abro,4 Barkat Ali Bughio5 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo6
...>Galleria mellonella larvae. The production of infective juveniles (IJ) in G. mellonella was significantly affected by nematode species. Significantly higher numbers of IJ were produced by Heterorhabditid species than Steinernematid species in the cadaver. The production of IJ was the maximum in the case of H. bacteriophora which was not statistically different form H. indica. Minimum IJ were produced by S. feltiae. The IJ produ...

 Mohammad Siddique Munawar, Shazia Raja, Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure* and Muhammad Barkat**

... bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is a serious disease of honey bees worldwide that inflicts considerable economic losses to beekeepers. All work was undertaken in a commercial apiary that showed visual signs of AFB infection. Twenty four hives positive for AFB were identified from the apiary (4 colonies in each replicate). Half of the colonies were treated with shook swarm method while other half were left without any treatment. The treated colonies showed sign...
Jaime Molina-Ochoa1, 2, 6,*, Edelmira Galindo-Velasco2, Ana María Rosales-Gutiérrez2, Martín González-Ramírez3, Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez3, Wilberth Chan-Cupul3, Steven R. Skoda4, Muhammad Irfan Ullah5, Luis Jorge García-Márquez2 and  John E. Foster6
...s were cultivated in GWM larvae, and the emerging infective juveniles (IJs) were collected from White traps, and pooled in canted neck vented plastic flasks. The susceptibility of an important livestock arthropod, the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus Canestrinito JMO71 was determined. Ticks were manually collected from cross-bred beef cattle, and then the heterorhabditid nematodes assayed against these ticks using the Petri dish assay. Concentration...
Hina Safdar1,*, Nazir Javed1, Sajid Aleem Khan1 and Muhammad Arshad2
...plied at 1000 IJs/ml and larvae maintained at 25°C. Mortality was recorded upto four days. Both species of entomopathogenic nematodes proved effective against all larval instars. Maximum mortality was observed in 2nd and 5th larval instar. After the fourth day 100% mortality was observed in all larval instar. Mortality was increased with an increase in exposure time. Nematodes were harvested using White Traps. Multiplication of entomo...
Xia-Lin Zheng1, Pan Wang2, Jun-Yan Liu1, Yu-Jing Zhang1, Jun Li1 and Wen Lu1,*
...he 4th instar larvae, pupae and adults survived in January, in which their supercooling points were -12.79 ± 0.67 °C, -19.92 ± 0.66 °C and -21.23 ± 0.99 °C, respectively. Body water contents of these stages in B. macroscopa have no negative or positive correlation with the supercooling points. Supercooling points of these stages are lower than the air temperature during the winter, which suggested that these s...

 Habib Iqbal Javed, Ashiq Saleem, Javed Fateh, Mozammil Hussain, Naheed Akhtar and Shamim-ul-Sibtain Shah*

DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANT MAIZE GERMPLASM
...on with 15 newly hatched larvae per plant every time. Despite of double artificial infestation, 40.0-66.7% plants survived in the resistant germplasm but none survived in susceptible genotypes. Under natural infestation, 5 progenies had no damage while other showed 10.0-22.9% damage with intensity of 2-3 in resistant germplasm. The susceptible germplasm showed 30.0-66.6% infestation with intensity of 5-8. The dead hearts in resistant and susceptible germplasm ...

 Maria Rauf*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Javed Khan**, Abdul Rehman***, Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Asrar Ali**

BIOLOGY AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTATA LINN. ON SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM APHID UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS
...5.0 and 667.8 aphids per larvae. The results indicated that with increasing temperature, developmental duration decreases significantly. The pupal developmental duration was 14.0, 9.2 and 5.2 days, respectively which are significantly different from each other. The adult male and female longevity were 44.7, 37.7, 30.0 and 60.3, 58.9 and 43.7 days. Fecundity rate of females were 123.5, 251.5 and 293.2 eggs per female, respectively. This indicates that adult mal...

 Muhammad Tayyab Mudassar*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Muhammad Naeemullah**, Muhammad Shakeel*, Muhammad Ashfaque*, Asmat un Nisa* and Javed Khan*

ECONOMIC REARING OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (STEPHENS) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) IN INSECTARY
...umption of 100 C. carnea larvae was 3.617g of Sitotroga cerealella eggs and 1.793g of Phenacoccus solenopsis crawlers. Adult emergence rate was significantly higher when provided with S. cerealella eggs, which was more economical than that of P. solenopsis crawlers. For efficient and quality production of C. carnea in laboratory using available and inexpensive equipment to produce the healthy surplus of this predator for experiment and small holding field rele...

 Javed Khan*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Habib Iqbal Javed*, Tariq Mahmood*,
Awais Rasool*, Naheed Akhtar and Saleem Abid**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON WHEAT APHID SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
... second and third instar larvae were 3.2 ± 0.13, 4.0±0.21 and 4.8±0.25 days, respectively. The total larval developmental duration was 12.0 ±0.67 days with 85.05% survival rate of larvae. The larval predatory potential was 414.6±0.05 aphid per larvae. The total duration and survival rate from egg to adult emergence was 24.6± 0.06 days with 73% surv...

 Gul Zamin Khan*, Imtiaz Ali Khan**, Inamullah Khan* and Mian Inayatullah**

OUTDOOR BREEDING OF MOSQUITO SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA

 Riaz Hussain*, Muhammad Riaz**, Mushtaq A. Saleem*** and Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**

BIOCHEMICAL ABNORMALITIES INDUCED BY ABAMECTIN IN SIXTH INSTAR LARVAE OF THE RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)
...leoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae in the laboratory. The objective was to examine changes in production or activities of carboxylesterase (CE), total esterases (TE), alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, alkaline phosphatase (AkP), acidic phosphatase (AcP), total protein, soluble protein and free amino acids (FAA). The sixth instar larvae of T. castaneum were released and exposed for 48h without food on abamectin treated glass petri di...
Dachuan Cheng1,2, Md Mahbubul Hassan3, Zhenhua Ma1, 2, 3,*, Qibin Yang1 and Jian G. Qin3
...tjanus erythropterus larvae and juveniles from hatching to 36 day-post hatching (DPH). Mandible, ceratobranchial, cleithrum and gill arches were the initial skeletal structures appeared at 3 DPH that supported the vital life functions such as feeding and respiration. Ossification of premaxilla and maxilla and dentary started at 3.21 ± 0.25 mm (9 DPH), and completed at 5.91 ± 0.34 mm (18 DPH). The head skeleton formation completed at 22.35 &pl...
Rabia Faiz and Dilara A. Bukhari*
...st 3rd instar larvae of mosquito. Larval mortality was noted after 24 h and GCU B.t. 4 (400± 1.15) was found to be the most toxic against 3rd instar larvae of mosquitoes. Spores LC50 values of other isolates were 451± 0.90 (GCU B.t. 1), 511± 0.85 (GCU B.t. 2), 525± .013 (GCU B.t. 5), 582± 0.66 (GCU B.t. 3) and 850± 0...
Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2 and Saleh S. Alhewairini1,*
...hing. The percentages of larvae hatching from eggs of A. lycopersici were 73.42, 56.92, 25.41 and 17.97 under greenhouse conditions and 68, 53.14, 23.51 and 15.18 under laboratory conditions at 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000ppm of Huwa-San TR50 after one week of treatment compared with the control (well water), respectively. The application of Huwa-San TR50 showed a promising safety profile when compared to other acaricides, as it spared predatory mites at c...
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Ali Murad Jakhar3, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo3
...ecovery from cadavers of larvae that had been exposed to nematodes for longer periods.
...
Felicia NkechiEkeh*, Ifeanyi Oscar Ndimkaoha Aguzie, Joy Ihuoma Nzei, Chinenye Maria-Goretti Ohanu, Godwin Ikechukwu Ngwu and ChukwudiebubeUgolo
...ed fish infested with 20 larvae, 20 adults and eggs of D. maculatus. Groups A – C were exposed to 8, 12 and 15% ( w/w) of extract per kilogram of fish respectively. Observation for mortality and larval emergence was made every 3 days and cumulative taking at the end of 28 days. Mortality of adult D. maculatus was higher in 8, 12 and 15% (w/w) of P. guineense and 15% (w/w) of C. annum than control. Both extracts significantly e...
Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar1,*, Hummaira Iqbal1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Haseena Ghulam Muhammad1 and Muhammad Irfan1
...ted spiders were offered larvae of Drosophila melanogaster in different densities. C. citricola increased prey consumption as the prey density was increased. Insecticide treated C. citricola consumed less prey as compared to control. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the prey consumption of C. citricola were more drastic than bifenthrin. It was also recorded that at low prey density, predation by C. citricola was delayed as compared...
Farah Rauf Shakoori1,*, Anum Feroz1, Ayesha Gondal1,Sahar Akram2 and Tanzeela Riaz3
...nd 6th instar larvae of a stored product pest, Trogoderma granarium. The LC50 values of λ-cyhalothrin for 4th and 6th instar larvae of Lahore population was 15.93 and 13.76ppm respectively, while 19.07 and 16.21ppm were for the 4th and 6th instar larvae of Gujranwala population, respectively. The resistance rat...
Ambrina Hafiz1, Tanzeela Riaz2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1,*

 

...>, 6th instar larvae and adult beetles of deltamethrin-resistant populations’ viz., Gujranwala, Okara and D.G. Khan was significantly increased as compared to susceptible population of T. granarium (population never exposed to any kind of insecticide/fumigant since 2001). Different developmental stages possessed different levels of esterase activities. Based on the level of activities the adult beetles were more susceptible to de...
Wael S. El-Tohamy1,*, Russell R. Hopcroft2 and Nagwa E.M. Abdel Aziz3
...le River. Meroplanktonic larvae were the major component representing 39.4% of the total zooplankton abundance. Copepods and their larval stages contributed 36.2%. Rotifers ranked the third important group (12.6%). Protozoa contributed 10.6% of the total community. According to the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA), the variations in the species data were significantly (P< 0.05) related to salinity, temperature, phosphate concentration and phytoplankt...
Sukirno Sukirno1,2, Muhammad Tufail1,3,*, Khawaja Ghulam Rasool1Said El Salamouny1, 4, Koko Dwi Sutanto1 and Abdulrahman Saad Aldawood1
...sub>for the first instar larvae were 1.59 x 103 PIB and 4.91 x 107 PIB, respectively. Whereas, these values for the second instar larvae were 4.99 x 106 PIB and 1.06 x 108 PIB, correspondingly. The field experiment data indicated that the mortality of the first instar larvae was highest at day 0 of the sunlight exposure. In virus alone treatments...
Mudassar Javed1,Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Sufyan1, Sajjad Ali2 and Muhammad Afzal1
... number of lepidopterous larvae in plots treated with the synthetic insecticides was 1.87 and 2.12 larvae/plant in 2015 and 2016, respectively, compared with 6.5 larvae/plant in untreated control plots. For the botanicals, an average of 2.57 and 2.92 larvae/plant was recorded in 2015 and 2016 respectively, compared with 4.12 in untreated control plots. A...
Farah Rauf Shakoori1,*, Tanzeela Riaz2, Uzma Ramzan1, Anum Feroz1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,3,*
...nd 6th instar larvae of a stored grain pest, Trogoderma granarium. The LC50 values of esfenvalerate for 4th and 6th instar larvae of Phosphine and deltamethrin-susceptible population was 34.29 and 28.05ppm, respectively, while 39.30 and 32.67ppm were for the 4th and 6th instar larvae of Phosphine and deltamethrin-tole...
Nevran Eylem Akman Gündüz1,* and Özgür Özcan2
...ed. G. mellonella larvae were fed with a synthetic diet. The effects of GA3 on the hemolymph content of these larvae were tested through a diet incorporation assay. Different concentrations (2, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg/L) of GA3 were added to the synthetic diet and protein, lipid, carbohydrate and glycogen levels in the hemolymph were evaluated for the GA3 concentrations. T...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2, Sumaira Maqsood3, Ishita Ahuja4 and Atle M. Bones4
... collected from infected larvae fed on natural cotton crops. The NPV was isolated from the larvae and viral occlusion bodies (VOBs) were detected using a light microscope. The toxicity of native isolates against S. litura also studied by testing different concentrations (1 x 102 POB (Polyhedral occlusion bodies) mL-1- 1 x 1010 POB mL-1) from the occlusion bodies produced fro...
Dilara A. Bukhari1,*, Naureen Fatima1 and Abdul Rehman2

 

...to 3rd instar larvae of mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Among seven B.t. isolates, three isolates NF5 B.t. 7.2, NF1 B.t. 1.1 and NF2 B.t. 4.2 were found most toxic which were isolated from moist soil containing decaying cattle waste, dry waste animal dung and leaf litter soil, respectively. So, these isolates have a great potential to grow into a biopesticidal formulation for control of mosquitoes.
...
Ali Murad Rahoo1, Tariq Mukhtar2,*, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
... in G. mellonella larvae of different sizes. The size of G. mellonella had significant effect on the emergence of IJ. Significantly greater numbers of IJ both of H. bacteriophora and S. feltiae emerged from large sized G. mellonella than medium and small sized and the emergence was found to be positively correlated with the size of the host. It was also observed that emergence of IJ of H. bacteriophora was significantl...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...vely. The percentages of larvae hatching from eggs of O. afrasiaticus were 97.20, 94.62 and 85.53%; 94.70, 93.32 and 84.86%; 54.01, 57.93 and 46.21% after one week of exposure to QRD, HRD and RD of oxamyl only and with Injo200 or 1000ppm of Huwa-SanTR50, respectively. Adding 1000ppm of Huwa-SanTR50 to QRD, HRD and RD of oxamyl was found to significantly increase the toxicity of oxamyl to all developmental stages of O. afrasiaticus, whereas, the R...

 Tanzeela Riaz*†, Farah Rauf Shakoori, Syed Shahid Ali

Toxicity of phosphine against tolerant and susceptible populations of Trogoderma granarium collected from Punjab, Pakistan
...align: justify;"> instar larvae and adult beetle in phosphine resistant populations viz., Gujranwala, Mandi Bahauddin-I (M.B.Din-I), Mandi Bahauddin-II (M.B.Din-II),Gujrat and Sargodha and a susceptible population of T. granarium. The 4<...
Chao Zhao1,2, Juan Feng1, Haidong Xu1, Lihua Qiu1,2,*, Qibin Yang1, Zhenhua Ma1 and Jian G. Qin3
...f Penaeus monodon larvae and bacteria communities in the rearing tanks. The survival of P. monodon in the 36 h experimental period was not significantly affected by the water pretreatment (P > 0.05). However, the bacteria communities were significantly affected by water pretreatment (P < 0.05). Heterotrophic bacteria and vibro counts in the formalin treatment were significantly lower than UV treatment and untreated group (P...
Ghulam Ali1,3, Wopke van der Werf2 and Just M. Vlak1,
...ltNPV-Pak-BNG). Infected larvae with final polyhedrosis (disease resulting in dissolution of larval tissues and accumulation of viral occlusion bodies) exhibited reduced food intake and weight gain relative to uninfected larvae. The unexposed larvae and the larvae that were exposed but survived exhibited the same food consumption and weight gain. This st...
Muhammad Asad Saleem1,*, Mirza Abdul Qayyum1, Mudssar Ali1, Muhammad Amin2, Muhammad Tayyab1,3 and Sumaira Maqsood4
...n in size was found when larvae were treated with integrated effect of Bb and Nit. Depending on the lethal of treatment, development duration of RPW was disturbed. Integration of Bb and Nit delays the development and diet uptake in RPW which can be used for agent of control for this cryptic insect.
...
Rahat Afza, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed and Muhammad Asam Riaz*
...t in the absence of prey larvae of C. septempunctata exhibited more predation on C. transversalis while the predation of C. septempunctata on C. transversalis was relatively less in the presence of prey. The larvae of C. septempunctata were found stronger and competitive than larvae and adults of C. transversalis during IGP. Higher IGP of C. sep...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Saleem Haider1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Ashfaq1, Muhammad A. Aqueel2 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah2
...nsive range of bollworms larvae in both Agricultural and Horticultural crops. Spodoptera litura is a commercial pest of diverse field crops comprising cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). Current inspections were carried out to determine their impact on larval mortality, pupal and adult emergence by exposing three field strains of S. litura (Faisalabad, Chiniot and Sargodha), under laboratory conditions. Both NPV and Bt...
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
...rom G. mellonella larvae were 272,600 from T. molitor medium were 194,600 and in T. molitor small were 21,900. Whereas, emergence of the mean numbers of S. feltiae IJ emerging from G. mellonella were 136,000 from T. molitor medium were 51,200 and in T. molitor small were 12,940, respectively. G. mellonella was found to be more susceptible host than T. molitor. Likewise, S. feltiae proved to ...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...nificantly more eggs and larvae on comparatively susceptible cultivars as compared to comparatively resistant ones. As comparatively resistant okra varieties viz. Bhindi Punjab Selection, Arka Anamika and Bhindi Sabazpari suffered less damage and yielded more and are therefore, recommended for cultivation to avoid damage by Helicoverpa armigera
...
Song Jiang, Fa-Lin Zhou, Jian-Hua Huang, Qi-Bin Yang* and Li-Shi Yang
...Litopenaeus vannamei larvae, different amounts of Bacillus and Lactobacillus bacteria were added to the L. vannamei aquaculture water during seeding. Seven groups were established and the microecological preparations were added every 5 d. Bacillus concentrations in the Y1, Y2 and Y3 groups were 10 ppm, 15 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively, and the Lactobacillus concentrations in the R1, R2 and R3 groups were 20 ppm, 25 ppm and...

Aqsa Khan1, Sabyan Faris Honey2*, Babar Bajwa2, Nelofer Jamil1 and Muhammad Sohail Mazhar2

...aluated for codling moth larvae. Two diets containing wheat germ in their composition as major protein source and one diet without wheat germ were used. Addition of wheat germ in the diet composition for larvae resulted in significantly high percent survival (maximum value) (60± 4.56 and 56± 2.56) and significantly increased larval body weight of codling moth (0.58± 0.04 and 0.42± 0.03 gm). While ...
Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Yasir Iftikhar2, Samina Khalid3, Zahoor Hussain4, Jaime Molina-Ochoa5,6 and John E. Foster6
...against citrus leafminer larvae. Two laboratory bioassays, leaf dip bioassay (LDB) and topical bioassay (TB) were developed to check the efficacy of tested chemicals and essential oils. As seen from results, abamectin showed significant mortality (63.5%) of CLM larvae when topical bioassay was performed. Similarly, the percent mortality of CLM larvae was 53.8% after application of abamecti...
Fakhra Soomro1,*, Riffat Sultana2 and Muhammad Saeed Wagan2
...ssed through six instars larvae. Emergence of larval instars in both species was started from the month of July just after monsoon rainfall, whereas, S. savignyi immature emerges earlier than S. rubescens rubescens and increases their density rapidly in open grounds and rocky areas. Immature stages were found exclusively geophiles in nature and usually giving two generation in a year but occasionally third generation of diapauses eggs of S. sa...
Ailing Huang, Lingyu Meng, Wei Zhang, Junyan Liu, Guangyao Li, Huihua Tan, Wen Lu and Xialin Zheng*
...p>-6th instar larvae in Phauda flammans Walker (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) were tested using the leaf-dipping method. Meanwhile, effects of these pesticides on detoxifying and protective enzymes in P. flammans larvae were also measured. Results showed that the LC50 value of beta-cypermethrin, abamectin, chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam and bisultap against P. flammans ...
Shengjie Zhou1,2, Pengfei Wang1,2, Chao Zhao1,2, Mingjun Fu3, Jian G. Qin4, Lihua Qiu1, Zhenhua Ma1, 4,* and Maoshang Lin1
...i>Trachinotus ovatus larvae was cloned in the present study. The full length of L-FABP cDNA from golden pompano was 604 bp, including a 5’-untranslated region (UTR) of 154 bp, a 3’-UTR of 69 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 281 bp. L-FABP encoding a polypeptide of 126 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 14.06 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.73. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the highest tissue expressio...

Bina Khanzada1*, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Tajwar Sultana Syed1 and Nazir Ahmed2 

...ellus pupae, C. flavipes larvae, C. Infuscatellus larvae, C. flavipes moths, C. flavipes adults was higher when parasitoid was fed on marigold, Holly hock and sunflower; while in 2014, the coccoon development and exist holes were higher when parasitoid was fed on marigold flower than sunflower and Holly hock; while C. Infuscatellus pupae and moths were higher in sunflower and Holly hock diets. However, control diet resulted ...
Hayat Zada1, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1,*, Ijaz Ali2, Bashir Ahmad1, Abdul Waheed Khan2 and Shabeer Ahmad2
...ed from 30 overwintering larvae of each population of Matta, Madyan and Kalam regions. Out of 30 tested primers, 21 amplified 157 polymorphic bands in three populations. The mean gene frequency (f), genetic distance (I) and Shannon’s information index (h) for three populations were 1.336, 0.304 and 0.437, respectively. Nei’s unbiased measures of genetic identity and genetic distance revealed that higher genetic distance was observed among the isola...
Wang Zaigui1,*, Guo Panpan1, Ye Miao1, Sun Linghong1, Zhang Hongfu2 and Liu Chaoliang1,*
...th 1500 healthy silkworm larvae. There were two treatment groups: control group, without added Bacillus subtilis, and B.subtilis group, with B. subtilis at 2.0×1010 CFU/mL added to the feed. Experimental diets were fed in three phases: 3rd instar, 4thinstar and 5th instar. Furthermore, 3 replications were maintained and 250 silkworm larvae were reared in ea...
Lichao Feng1,2, Shaoqing Zhang4, Dianyuan Chen2, Sina Adl3 and Donghui Wu1,4*
...stribution of adults and larvae alternated between flower and corn growth stages in the field because food resources and foraging behaviors stimulated and restrained the acquisition of supplemental nutrients as a strategy for reproduction. To evaluate their food choices, wireworm were exposed to different types of plants associated with their farmland habitat, as follows: mixed pollen and nectar of flowers (Erigeron annuus, Trifolium repens, H...
Ghaleb Adwan*, Sami Bdir and Kamel Adwan
...tode cercariae. Digenean larvae were obtained from M. praemorsa snails that were collected from Palestine. Cercaria melanopsi palestinia I and III were identified as a xiphidiocercaria belonging to the microcotylae sub-group and as a microcercous cercaria, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the ITS2 region of the nuclear rDNA revealed that C. melanopsi palestinia I belongs to the family Lecithodendriidae Luhe, 1901, ...
Asad Abdullah, Muhammad Irfan Ullah*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Arshad and Muhammad Afzal
...of S. litura. The larvae of S. litura were offered leaves of cabbage, alfalfa, sesbania and, maize in comparison to artificial diet under laboratory conditions (32±05 oC; 65±05 RH). Thelarval suitability was found maximum on cabbage followed by sesbania, alfalfa and minimum on maize. The larval length and weight were found higher on cabbage followed by alfalfa and sesbania. Similarly, the pupal development was minimum in ...

Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Mian Anjum Murtaza2, Ejaz Ahraf3, Zahoor Hussain4, Syed Muhammad Ali Zahid1 and Maryam Riaz1 

...ue to the feeding of CLM larvae was observed higher 44.2% on Fairchild, 36.5% on seedless Kinnow, 36.3% on Feutrell’s early and 35.8% on Kinnow that showed great susceptibility to CLM. Smallest mines generated by CLM larvae were found on China Lemon and Succari showing the lowest damage percentage compared to other cultivars. Conclusively, the C. tangerines and C. mandarins were the most preferred cultivars by CLM
Muhammad Khalid Rafique1, Rashid Mahmood1,*, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1,Imran Bodlah2 andFarid AsifShaheen2
... queen cells vs. grafted larvae over the study interlude. The highest larval acceptance 80.85 ± 0.64 and 81.25 ± 2.05 was observed by addition of royal jelly in March and April and lowest 42.05 ± 0.69 and 48.21 ± 2.02. The shortest pre oviposition period by addition of royal jelly in March and highest was by addition of distilled water droplet during March and April. The length of queen cell was highest in royal jelly added treatmen...
S. Jalbani1, N.T. Narejo2,* and P. Khan2 
 

 

... fish (tilapia), tubifex larvae, chopped chicken viscera and dead small fish (tilapia) were used as live and prepared feed with control. It was observed that the experimental fish fed with chopped chicken viscera exhibited significantly better growth (129.10 ± 2.90 g weight gain) followed by chopped small fish (103.90 ± 1.10g) as prepared feed while live small fish resulted 3rd preference (81.89 ± 1.11 g). Significantly lower gr...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...oratory conditions. RPW (larvae and adult) showed high susceptibility to both acetamiprid and sulfoxaflor. In addition, both insecticides had significant effect on the mortality of RPW (larvae and adult) except the pupal stage under laboratory conditions. After direct spray application of the recommended dose, the adult mortality percentages were 66.67, 73.33 and 100% for acetamiprid and 23.33, 60 and 96.67% for sulfoxaflor ...
Mubasshir Sohail1,2,*, Raza Muhammad1 and Qadeer Ahmed Soomro1
...43±2.13%) was for larvae, which fed upon Oleander aphid, Aphis nerii. Less larval mortality (7.86±2.37%), larval period (164.57±8.16 h), maximum pupal weight (9.86±0.41 mg) and emergence (95.13±2.03%) was observed when C. carnea was provided with eggs of Sitotroga cerealella. Bervicornye brassicae was performed well than A. nerii but was found least successful as compared to eggs of S. ce...
Zelle Huma1*, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1 and Farman Ali2
...>Galleria mellonella larvae were reared in the laboratory. When  samples soil were collected from different regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa for nematodes collection G. mellonella larvae were left in sampling jar and were collected back after 2-3 days’ post application. Dead larvae were then put on the white trap and EPNs has then collected afterward. It is concluded on ...
Mustafa Koyun1*and Şenol Çelik2
...pictorum (glochidial larvae) and D. spathaceum (digenetic trematode) on the weight and sex of the host fish (Mastacembelus mastacembelus) by using some data mining algorithms. During this study, the fish weight (g) and length (mm) of 122 fish were measured. In addition, the distribution of M. heteranchorus and U. pictorum in each lamella of the gills and the distribution of D. spathaceum in the right and left eye lenses w...

Saleha Ashfaq1, Manzoor Hussain1, Nazish Bibi2, Jan Alam1, Muhammad Junaid2 and Sabi-Ur-Rehman3*

... effects on brine shrimp larvae with LD50 values of 116.72 µg/ml and 168.16 µg/ml respectively. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic parameters reported can be considered as quality standards of H. gilesii in herbal industry. 

...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2*Mubasher Ahmad Malik1, Mujahid Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir2,  Zubair Aslam4, Sumaira Maqsood5, Ishita Ahuja3 and Atle M. Bones3
...nd 4th instar larvae collected from three different geographical areas of Punjab (Pakistan). A difference in larval mortality, pupation, adult emergence and egg ecluson was observed. The higher but sub-lethal dose rate of NPV with Spinosad exhibited synergistic interaction, while the rest of the combinations were found additive in all the tested populations. The results confirmed the population of S. litura from Rahim Yar Khan Region least su...
Abdurakhim Kuchboev1, Mehmonjon Egamberdiev2, Rokhatoy Karimova1, Oybek Amirov1 and Mitsuhiko Asakawa3,*
.... Brachylaima sp. larvae were found in 3 (1.6%) of 95 Pseudonapaeus sogdiana. The total number of larvae per snail varied from 8 to 110 individuals. Alignment of the first four sequences of 28S rDNA was revealed a 99-100% similarity to D. dendriticum. Larvae from P. sogdiana snails were 98% similar to Brachylaima sp. In this study, it was confirmed that 2...
Babar Khan1,2 *, Nazir Javed1, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Nasir Ahmed Rajput1, Muhammad Atiq1, Abdul Jabbar1, Abdul Rehman3, Anam Moosa1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1*
... against last instar larvae of four lepidopteran insects, wax moth (Galleria mellonella), pink bollworm(Pectinophora gossypiella), eggplant fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) and armyworm (Spodoptera litura)at 27±2°C under laboratoryconditions. The results indicated that the larvae of G. mellonella and S. litura were better host as compared to P. gossypiella and...
Godwin Ikechukwu Ngwu1*, Maria Ifeyinwa Ngwu2, Fabian Chukwuemenam Okafor1, Aruh Ottah Anaga3 and Christopher Didigwu Nwani1
...n 4th instars larvae of both laboratory-reared and field-collected Aedes aegypti were carried out. The 4th instars larvae of laboratory-reared and the field-collected A. aegypti mosquitoes were exposed to 5000mg/L, 2000 mg/L, 1000 mg/L, 500 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 50 mg/L of the extract. The solvent for the extract, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was used as control. The results indicate concentration...

Hamza Rehman*, Nida Ahmad Khan, Asad Ali, Warda Batool and Kanwal Razzaq 

...mean mortality of khapra larvae on treated filter paper after 72 hours respectively. On treated wheat, thiamethoxam provided 82.61% while imidacloprid gave 78.18% mean mortality of khapra larvae at 2ppm after 72 hours. Mortality was dose and exposure dependent. Results demonstrated that thiamethoxam was more lethal as compared to imidacloprid for concern insects. 

...

Muhammad Ramzan, Unsar Naeem-Ullah*, Mahreen Hanif, Muhammad Nadeem, Mirza Abdul Qayyum, Muhammad Javaid 

... all over the world. The larvae feed on foliage and cause severe damage. Present study was carried out under laboratory conditions to elicit information about every stage like egg, larva, pupa and adult of Plutella xylostella on natural diet. The study revealed that incubation period of eggs varies from 3.2-4.3 hours. There are four larval instars of Plutella xylostella. The first, second, third and fourth instar larva survived for 3-5,3,1-4 and 2-3 days respe...
Celalettin Gözüaçik1,*, Mustafa Güllü2, Ayda Konuksal3, Reşat Değirmenci3 and Ercan Akerzurumlu3
... years, and 1567 and 862 larvae were collected in the two years, respectively. Larvae were kept inside boxes covered with nets in the laboratory at 25±1◦C and 65±5% r.h. Following pupation, adult moths and parasitoids were obtained and percentage of parasitized larvae was determined. At the end of the study, Bracon (Habrobracon) stabilis (Wesmael) (Brac...

Muhammad Farhan1, Ghulam Murtaza1, Muhammad Ramzan2, Muhammad Waqar Sabir3, Muhammad Arsalan Rafique2, Saif Ullah

...al of Chrysoperla carnea larvae on different nymphal instars of Myzus persicae was investigated in ambient laboratory conditions at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Chrysoperla carnea was found very active and consumed all stages of aphid. The predation rate of Chrysoperla carnea was increased with increase in larval instars (1st to 3rd). Third instar of Chrysoperla carnea was very voracious feeder and fed large number of aphid instars nymphs (1st, 2nd a...
Mehmet Mamay1* and Ayşin Bilgili2
...checked for damage, egg, larvae and pupae of CM during harvest. According to the results from the study, CM infestation rate was low in orchards where BSD infestation rate was high in pomegranate fruits. In terms of infestation rate in pomegranate fruits, a statistically strong negative relationship was determined between BSD and CM (R (BSD, CM) = -0,724;Y=46.312-0.467*X). In this study, BSD infestation rate explained the variance of CM infestation ...

 Muhammad Rafay1,*, Ghafoor Ahmad1, Tahira Ruby2, Muhammad Abdullah3, Fahad Rasheed4, Muhammad Abid1, Sohail Akhtar5, Zulfiqar Ahmad6 and Riaz Hussain7

...iding insects, flies and larvae to their young ones. Highly sensitive video camera was arranged to check their ecological behavior and breeding calls. Sentinel, breeding, roosting and bathing behaviours were studied along with vocalization. Statistical packages (mean values and standard deviation) were used to find out the potential results.
...
Sajjad Ali1,*, M. Irfan Ullah2, Asif Sajjad1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed2, M. Aslam Farooqi1, M. Shahid Rizwan3, Qaiser Shakeel4, Sohail Akhter1,Muhammad Raheel4 and Muhammad Arshad2
...ignificantly better when larvae were fed on gram. The relative growth rate (RGR) and relative consumption rate (RCR) values were the maximum (2.09 mg/mg/day and 10.14 mg/mg/day, respectively) in individuals fed on gram. Therefore, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) was the highest (70.65%) in gram feeding as compared to other host plants. The areas of fore and hind wings (0.98 cm2 and 0.79 cm2) and hind tibia length (0.82...
Muhammad Usman Asif1*, Sadam Hussain Soomro2, Raza Muhammad1, Sikandar Ali Soomro2
...st 3rd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera under laboratory conditions at their low, recommended and high doses by leaf dip method. The results concluded that significantly high toxicity was shown after treatment with Neomed 3 SC which caused 100 % to the insect at its recommended (200 ml) and high dose (400 ml) after 24 hours of application followed by Voliam Flexi 300 SC causing 66.66 % and 75% mortality on its recommended (80 ml) and hig...

Kajol, A. H. Bhat, Aasha and A. K. Chaubey

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Photorhabdus akhurstii associated with Heterorhabditis indica from Meerut, India
...H3 against G. mellonella larvae at 48 hours was 8 IJs/larva for 50% larval mortality whereas in Helicoverpa armigera it needed 13 IJs/larva, to kill 50% of the larvae.

...

M. Rufai1† , A. A.Wahab2 , Q. O. Adeshina1 , J. C. Umehokoh1 and O. O.Ologunro1

Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria
... twice using last instar larvae of the Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth) for presence of entomopathogenic nematodes. Four EPN isolates were recovered viz., Heterorhabditis indica, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema karii and Steinernema wesieri. Of a total of 110 soil samples examined, EPNs were found in 90.90% soil samples, they belonged to the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis. Steinernema spp. was found prevalent in both cultivated and und...

Syeda Farzana Bibi* and Siraj-ud-Din

Fluorescence Analysis, Extractive Values and Cytotoxic Screening of Crataeva adansonii DC Leaf and Bark through Brine Shrimp Larvae Assay
...c activity. Brine shrimp larvae assay was conducted for this purpose. Extractive values of leaf and bark parts were estimated using n-hexane, chloroform, ethanol, methanol, water, and ether as a solvent. 10g of plant powder was dissolved in 200 ml solvent during various extract preparations Fluorescence study was conducted after treating the powder drug with different reagents including ethanol, methanol, acetic acid, n-hexane, HCl, nitric ...
Anum Feroz1, Abdul Rauf Shakoori2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*
...nd 6th instar larvae of susceptible laboratory strain (Lab-S) and deltamethrin resistant population (GUW) of stored grain pest, Trogoderma granarium. After exposure to LC20 of bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos and their combinations of 3:1 and 1:3, the activities of total esterases, cholinesterase and carboxylesterase increased significantly in both the 4th and 6th instar larvae

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 52, Iss. 5, Pages 1631-2026

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