Sandeep Satapathy and Rupam Ghosh

...Gs which subsequently triggers virus specific immune response.


James Ayukepi Ayukekbong1,2

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Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...e innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immune dysfunction. Studies of the innate immune responses to HP-PRRSV infection are crucial to gaining insight into HP-PRRSV-induced pathogenesis and for the development of novel protective vaccines. In this review, we discuss the innate i...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth


...ncing, though on a much bigger scale. For instance, the metagenome of a lake would include all the fish, ducks, plants, fungi, bacteria and everything else that belongs to the lake. If we apply this approach to clinical samples we can identify the community of etiological pathogens, without any knowledge on the targets in advance. However, clinical specimens usually comprise an overwhelming amount of host nucleic acids, which by far exceeds the number of patho...

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

... an early age seems to trigger transition to heroin addiction under the influence of environmental risk factors.

Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...mechanisms involved in triggering the antiviral resistance in plants. Antiviral RNA silencing, R-gene mediated resistance and host factor related recessive resistance are categorized as most beneficial plant defense approaches used by plants. The review also briefly explains about introgression of durable resistance to generate virus resistant cultivars for economically important crops through molecular breeding techniques via utilizing advanced molecular mark...
Cansu Akbulut1,*, Tuğba Kotil2, Burcu Öztürk1 and Nazan Deniz Yön1
...O2 exposure trigger paraptotic type cell death in zebrafish ovary.
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...mic diarrhea (PED) was triggered by pathogenic coronavirus causing watery diarrhea and high mortality in piglets. This post-viral syndrome results in severe economic losses in the pig industry. However, limited information on the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus-infected pigs is available. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify transcriptomes with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) of piglets, Large White x Landrac...

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...le crops expansion has triggered pastures resource degradation and is threating the traditional pastoral system in HKH region. Integrated and collaborative approaches are needed for pasture resources management with efficient and sustainable livestock production in Northern Pakistan.

Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
... environmental factors trigger the disease in genetically sensitive individuals. Gluten, a protein fraction commonly found in wheat grains, associated with food related disorders and a number of autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that gluten containing diet would further exacerbate an already undergoing arbitrary immune reaction in SLE patients. Pristane was injected in female BALB/c mice to induce the disease. After five months, mice in various groups were ...
Ahmad Ali1,*, Sheikh Muhammad Azam2, Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Ghulam Mustafa1 and Mujahid Kaleem3
...ra and tiger is the biggest one. Data were collected by recording observations on breeding of Royal Bengal Tiger in captivity at Bahawalpur Zoo from June 2012 to July 2014 (two years) on prescribe sheets. Data from June, 2003 to December, 2011 (nine years) were collected from zoo management. In two years study Tiger breed once and produce four cubs (female) while in nine years it breed three times; first three cubs (one male and two female), two and one cu...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...recognize a virus they trigger the translation of inflammatory cytokine and chemokines leading to establishment of an antiviral state of the host. In this review, we discuss the recent understanding in host responses to avian viral infection and their impact in health and disease. 

Shengyan Su, Zaijie Dong*, Wenbin Zhu, Lanmei Wang and Jianjun Fu 
..., the 35% level had the biggest compensatory like growth. Body shape changed during the compensatory like growth process. This study shows that compensatory like growth of body weight during the cross-breeding can be detected and quantified.
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
... was 1.10 mm, while the biggest was 2.40 mm. In the conditions of the Western part of Romania Aphis nasturtii winter egg stage started in October. On the primary host the aphids gave birth parthenogenetically to three generations of fundatrigenous. In July, the winged form migrated to the secondary host, where successive generations have been born through parthenogenetic reproduction. Gynopara in October return to the primary host and give birth to wing...
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
...with control group, the biggest body weight, cocoon weigh, cocoon shell weight, pupal weight in infected group was 9.3%, 8.8%, 11.4% and 10.2%, respectively, lower than that of control group. Although the groups obtain a similar group oviposition, group good oviposition and group oviposition rate (P>0.05), the single oviposition, single good oviposition and single oviposition rate were significantly reduced by infected leaves. Furthermore, to elucidate the ...
Jarosław Pytlewski1, Ireneusz Antkowiak1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*
... AA homozygotes had the biggest weight after calving. In contrast GG homozygotes had the longest intercalving period. The results prove the existence of dependencies between genu PIT-1 gene polymorphism in locus c.1178G>A, reproductive potential and body weight of cows and calves. More favorable results were observed in AA homozygotes. It is possible to use these dependencies in genetic selection of farm animals. In order to confirm the obtained resu...

 Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Muhammad Yasin Mirza*, Muhammad Amjad*, Nazakat Nawaz*, Malik Shah Nawaz* and Doulat Baig*

...ers. Cluster II was the biggest and had 33 accessions followed by Cluster I having 11 accessions. For the development of high yielding varieties, best performing accessions of Clusters I and II could be used in hybridization programme by crossing with accessions of Clusters VII, VIII, IX and X followed by selection in segregating populations.

Hongqun Li1, Xiaoli Liu2,*, Zhenmin Lian3,RenheWang4, Yongbin Wang4, Yongyao Fu1 andDingyi Wang5 of 1.0 m, suggesting bigger cover of shrubs, cover of trees and cover of shrub at height of 1.0 m were the best predictors of nest success from a diverse predator community. In addition, brown-eared pheasants have a preference for rock-cavities. Therefore, based on nest-site selection of this eared pheasant, we strongly suggest that moderate logging activity and prohibition of local peoples’ firewood collection in the core areas may provide some optim...
Fouzia Hadi Ali1, Farhat Naz2, Aban Abid Qazi3
...ological capital (PPC) triggers WLB. Moreover, WLB also assists in enhancing vitality at work that in turn improves WP. Therefore, this study intends to examine the sequential mediation of WLB and vitality at work between the relationship of positive psychological capital and WP.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 80 hospitals in the province of Punjab. The stratified sampling design was employed to select a sample from the po...
Sana Rafique1, Hina Saqib1, Khushi Muhammad2, Nazia Akbar2, Abdul Rauf3, Muzafar Shah4,*

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1*, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Dakwang Nalong1, Rengkat Jonah1 and Olabode Mayowa

Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1*, Maryam Bisola Adebayo2, Bashiru Shafa Abubakar3, Ibrahim Abubakar Yusuf2 and Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi1  

Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Syed Burhan-ud-Din2, Muhammad Fahad Khan1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Naila Ilyas1

... in mungbean plants by triggering the SA pathway. Induced resistance was assessed by evaluating the appearance of symptoms and detection of virus titter through ELISA. Different concentrations of SA and BTH were exogenously applied to activate the inherent resistance of mungbean by the production of defense associated compounds. All treatments were supportive in suppressing plant infection as compared to infected control, but the most promising outcome of trea...
Yang Liu1, Jing-xin Mao2, Xiao-dong Wei2, Man Yi2, Xiao-long Zhang2, Ke Zheng3, Xian-xin Chen4, Guo-Ze Wang5 and Bing-bo Chen1,*
Muhammad Shahid Nadeem*, Maryam A. Al-Ghamdi and Jalaluddin Azam Khan
...e serious side-effects triggering a search for highly specific and more stable enzyme. In the present study the gene consisting of 972bp coding for 323 amino acids was PCR amplified from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM-465 was PCR amplified and recombinant plasmid pET22b-Asn was prepared. L-asparaginase was produced in BL21 (DE3) RIL codon plus strain of E. coli as heterologous protein under 0.3mM IPTG. The recombinant enzyme was purified by ...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1, Samia Afzal1,*, Zareen Fatima1 and Muhammad Idrees2
Ali Mujtab Shah1,2,3, Muhammad Naeem2, Muhammad Giasuddin Shah2, Muhammad Haaroon2, Quanhui Peng1 and Zhisheng Wang1,*
Muhammad Mansoor1, Khalid Usman2*, Shahid Hameed Khan Khalil3, Abdul Mateen Khattak4, Muhammad Ehsan Elahi1, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik2 and Amir Hamza2
...est fruit yield and the biggest fruit size; needs curing under controlled conditions. 
Shad Mahfuz1,2, Shuyuan Wang1, Mo Chen1, Fei Zao1, Dong Zhen1
Zhongjun Liu4 and Hui Song1,3*
QihangLiu1,2, YueliJiang2, Tong Li2, Jin Miao2, Zhongjun Gong2, Yun Duan2, and YuqingWu2*
...the most, violet light triggered the strongest response, and UV light resulted in a response of the longest duration. In terms of the impact on thoracic temperature, the different intensities of violet light caused the temperature to increase the most, followed by UV light and then orange light. Thus, the effect of the visual response on physiology (indicated by the change in thoracic temperature) was determined by the level of light intensity and wavelength. ...
Irfan Shahzad Sheikh, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa, Nadeem Rashid, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa, Mohammad Masood Tariq*, Majed Rafeeq, Abdul Samad, Tauseef M Asmat and Asad Ullah
Samia Afzal*,Sadia Zahid, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Idrees

Tingting Li, Shuangshuang Geng, Long Xie, Huiyan Xu, Aolin Luo, Pengwei Zhao, Huan Yang, XingWei Liang, YangQing Lu, XiaoGan Yang* and KeHuan Lu*

...and integrated into the PiggyBac eukaryotic expression vector, which was stably expressed in Sertoli cells, thus establishing a PB-GDNF-Sertoli cell line. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results showed that the GDNF gene expression in the PB-GDNF-Sertoli cell line was significantly increased compared with that in the control Sertoli cell line (p<0.01). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results showed that GDNF gene secreti...
Mian Adnan Kakakhel1, Faryal Gohar1, Zahid Anwar2, Raza Ullah1, Muhammad Attaullah3, Shahbaz Ahmad4, Aamir Khan5, Kalimullah5*

 Muhammad Amir*1, Syed Waqar Shah1, Michael J. Pont2

...ocols such as the Time-Triggered Protocol (TTP)
and FlexRay. Looking at the cost-effective nature of CAN and its widespread use, we started working on making
such SC architectures more flexible and fault-manageable on embedded level as demonstrated by our previous work
“Improving flexibility and fault-management in CAN-based “Shared-Clock” architectures”, published in ELSEVIER
Journal of M...

Syed Farasat Ali Shah*, Amjad Naseer**, Rashid Rehan**

...In Pakistan they pose a bigger threat as they are burnt, which results in emission of harmful gases in the atmosphere. Therefore, it is necessary to reuse these rubber wastes to reduce environmental pollution. Rubber wastes can be used in concrete as a partial replacement of aggregates resulting in lightweight concrete. Using rubber wastes in concrete enhances the impact resistance, thermal insulation and sound insulation at affordable strength. This paper rev...

Mazhar Abbas1*, Kishwar Jam1, Rashid Iqbal Khan1, Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye2, Tariq Rafique3 and Zahid Mahmood

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Obinna Oragwa Arthur2, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1, Sarah Joseph1, Geoffrey Chibueze1, Joshua Adetunji1, Joseph Ameh Okwori3, David Ochola Amanyi4, Otobo I. Ujah5 and Onyemocho Audu6

Seroprevalence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection among Slaughtered Ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Dorcas Yilger Gotom1, Noble Allison Chiehiura1, Julius Ocheme Okojokwu1, David Ochola Amanyi2, John Otumala Egbere1, Joshua Adetunji1, Otobo Innocent Ujah3 and Onyemocho Audu4

The Seroprevalence of Zika Virus Infection among HIV Positive and HIV Negative Pregnant Women in Jos, Nigeria
... the ZIKV antigen that triggered the antibodies response is in circulation, therefore, suggest the need for ZIKV surveillance and larger study on specific IgM antibodies in Nigeria.


Muhammad Amir1*, Syed Waqar Shah1, Salman Ilahi1 and Michael J. Pont2

Integrating TTC-SC5 and TTC-SC6 “Shared-Clock” Protocols
...ssues relating to Time-Triggered Cooperative (TTC) scheduling, Time Triggered bus-based CAN networks and the Single Point of Failure (SPF) hypothesis in star networks. In this paper, we present a mechanism for integrating the properties of both protocols in one. We present an amalgamation of protocols that result in a new protocol which addresses all the above stated issues on a single platform.

Hongqun Li1*, Xiaoli Liu2*, Zongxian Han1, Shabin Wu1 and Changlei Cao1
...ltitude, steeper slope, bigger tree heights and diameter, smaller shrub cover and lower herb height, and higher sheltering class. The overall classification model developed from these seven variables helped distinguish foraging sites from random ones at probability of 90.2%; while day-roosting sites tended to be found in the areas of higher altitude, smaller tree cover, lower shrub cover and height, lower herb height and sheltering class, far away from househo...
Muhammad Shafiq1,2,*,Rajwali Khan1, Ilyas Ali3, Sadeeq Ur Rahman4, Saif Ullah3Shah Jan Mohammad2, Mohammad Jan2 and Jinhu Huang2

Shishir Sharma* and Laxmi Prasad Joshi

Current Insights on Stemphylium Blight of Lentil with its Management Strategies
...temphylium Blight (SB) triggered by Stemphylium botryosum (Wallr.) (teleomorph- Pleospora herbarum), first identified in Bangladesh in 1986, is a significant challenge to all the major lentil-growing nations. It induces partial to complete foliar damage and results in about 3/5th to full failure of the lentil yield. The molecular study for the recognition and delineation of species is inevitable as high complexity is seen due to environmental concerns and cont...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture


Vol. 36, Iss. 4, Pages 1010-1324


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